Fusion 360 Step by Step | CAD, FEM & CAM for Beginners | Johannes Wild | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Fusion 360 Step by Step | CAD, FEM & CAM for Beginners

teacher avatar Johannes Wild, Engineer (M.Eng. & B.Sc.)

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

25 Lessons (3h 33m)
    • 1. Fusion 360 Course Trailer

    • 2. Learning content of the course and what to expect

    • 3. Fusion 360 and program download

    • 4. Preparation: First steps with the program and general settings

    • 5. Program environment and functions: First overview

    • 6. 2D sketching environment

    • 7. 3D object environment

    • 8. Design methodology

    • 9. Individual parts vs. assemblies (individual parts / assembly / joints)

    • 10. Views and visualizations

    • 11. Design project I: Simple snap hook

    • 12. Design project II: Cup with handle

    • 13. Design project III: Truck front part with driver's cab

    • 14. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 1: Crankcase)

    • 15. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 2: Oil pan & cylinder head)

    • 16. Design project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 3: pistons & connecting rods)

    • 17. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 4: Crankshaft & Assembly)

    • 18. Surface

    • 19. Sheet Metal

    • 20. Rendering in Fusion 360

    • 21. Animating in Fusion 360

    • 22. Introduction to FEM Simulation and simulation of a simple single part

    • 23. FEM simulation of an assembly

    • 24. Manufacturing (CAM) in Fusion 360

    • 25. Drawing in Fusion 360 & Credits

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Learn CAD Design, FEM Simulation, Animation, Manufacturing of Single Parts and Assemblies Step by Step with FUSION 360 | The hands-on Guide for Beginners | Designed by an Engineer.

FUSION 360 is available as a free license for hobby and private users!

Are you interested in CAD design and creating three-dimensional objects for 3D printing or other applications (model making, prototypes, design elements,...)? Are you looking for a hands-on and compact beginners course for the program Fusion 360 from Autodesk and want to take a professional course from an engineer?

Then you have come to the right place and this course is perfect for you! In this comprehensive training tutorial, you will learn all the basics you need to know when using Fusion 360 from Autodesk, in detail and step by step. Get started right now with the help of a clearly presented, step-by-step guided and professional CAD, CAM, & FEM course.

Fusion 360 combines and links several engineering disciplines such as CAD ("Computer Aided Design"), CAM ("Computer Aided Manufacturing") and FEM ("Finite Element Method), summarized: CAE ("Computer Aided Engineering") in one software. With Fusion 360 you can not only create parts or assemblies, but also perform simulations and animations, as well as programming for a CNC machine. The main focus of this course is on design with Fusion 360, i.e. the CAD/Design section of the program. But don鈥檛 worry, the other features of Fusion 360 will not be neglected and will be covered in detail!

The benefits for you at a glance:

Learn step by step basic explanations on how to use FUSION 360 with the guidance of an engineer (Master of Engineering) and experienced user

Learn hands-on with many great example projects (Please watch the course teaser)

Learn all sections of Fusion 360 (CAD/Design, FEM/Simulation, Rendering, Animation, Manufacturing/CAM, Technical Drawings)

Get a simple, straightforward & fast introduction to Fusion 360

Easy to follow explanations

Ideal for beginners, novices and absolute beginners.

Learn everything important quickly! Compact and to the point:
total running time approx. 3.5 h minutes


FAQ's about the course:

What can I learn in this course?

The training includes everything you need to know to design (CAD), animate, render, simulate (FEM) and manufacture (CAM & Technical Drawings) 3D parts on a PC. You will learn how to use Fusion 360 from Autodesk step-by-step and from scratch. Everything from creating a 2D sketch to using Fusion 360's features to creating a three-dimensional object is included. The software and its features are presented in detail and explained using some awesome projects (best to watch the teaser).

What do I need for the course and how long does it take?

The tutorial for Fusion 360 has a total duration of about 3.5 hours (divided into several individual lessons). Of course, you are free to choose which chapters you would like to view at which time, and you can also take a break at any time. Apart from a PC and the CAD software Fusion 360 (which, by the way, is available as a free download for private and hobby users), you do not need any other materials.

Is the tutorial only for beginners?

This course is generally designed for beginners and intermediate beginners without or a little bit of prior knowledge. No matter if only for information purposes about the technology of CAD design, simulation, manufacturing, etc. or for the application and implementation of your own ideas and projects. All procedures are explained in detail and are presented in a way that is easy to understand. This course is also ideal for moderately advanced users of Fusion 360 as well as all tinkerers, inventors, artists, students, young people, retirees, etc.

Who will show me the CAD basics in this course?

The Fusion 360 course is taught by an engineer (Master of Engineering).

Theory and practice are merged in this course!

Is Fusion 360 and CAD, FEM & CAM difficult to learn?

The application of these engineering disciplines is definitely a complex subject, as the use of the software has to be learned and a bit of spatial understanding is required. Without help, one can lose the overview. With this comprehensive and detailed tutorial, however, you have all the information combined in one format and thus will always keep track. The software is ideal for beginners and is very well-done, as well as easy to use. Everything necessary is explained to you step by step and as simply as possible. In this way, both an uncomplicated start and the further independent application succeed.

Will I also learn how to handle assemblies and create technical drawings?

Yes! In the course, individual parts and assemblies are designed and simulated. The creation of technical drawings is addressed in the course in a lesson, but it is not taught in detail here, that would go beyond the scope of this course. There may be a separate course on this in the future.

What can I even do with 3D objects, CAD and Fusion 360 in general?

You have the possibility to create numerous great objects, and to realize your own ideas and projects. You could even print them out with a 3D printer, for example, or have them manufactured by a company (by milling, turning,...). In this way, you could create prototypes of an invention, create 3D objects for model making, construct spare parts that are no longer available or other great objects and materialize them.


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Johannes Wild

Engineer (M.Eng. & B.Sc.)


Hello, I'm Johannes. As an engineer and 3D printing enthusiast, I want to spread fascinating technology by using a very practical and understandable way without a lot of technical jargon. Enroll to my courses and get to know a fascinating world!

See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Fusion 360 Course Trailer: Hi, are you interested in designing, simulating and manufacturing three-dimensional objects using Autodesk Fusion 360. Then you have come to the right place. I'm an engineer and would like to introduce to you Fusion 360 in a simple, easy to understand and hence on way. By the way, you can use Fusion 360 as a private user for free. This comprehensive and detailed course is especially for beginners and shows how Cat designs, animations, simulations, and production planning succeeds. In addition to theoretical explanations of how to use the software and its features, some amazing design projects are waiting for you. In this course, you will learn everything you need to know about Fusion 360 from scratch and row right now and get to know the world of Fusion 360 today. 2. Learning content of the course and what to expect: Hi there and welcome to the Fusion 360 course for beginners and intermediate. In this course, you will find an introduction to the basics of the multi-functional program Fusion 360 from Autodesk. And we'll learn in particular, cat Design, Animation, Simulation and manufacturing of components and much more in detail. I will share with you my knowledge as an engineer from study and professional practice so that you will get an optimal learning experience with theoretical basics on the one hand and practical examples on the other end. Therefore, after a theoretical introduction, this course includes many practical design examples to make the learning process as easy and efficient as possible for you. And with Fusion 360 from Autodesk, as with other CAD programs, you can not only design, rather, this program combines and integrates several engineering disciplines such as CAD, computer-aided design, CAD CAM, computer-aided manufacturing, and FEM, finite element method, summarized as a computer aided engineering in one platform. Thus, Fusion 360 can be used not only to create parts or assemblies, but also to perform simulations and animations, as well as to create programming for a CNC machine. The main focus of this course is on how to design with Fusion 360. That means the cat part of the program. However, the other features of fusion 360 will not be neglected, so don't worry. As mentioned earlier, the abbreviation cat stands for computer aided design. Cad software is used to create or edit three-dimensional objects, starting with simple individual parts, too complex parts, up to entire assemblies that can be virtually assembled. In this course, especially designed for beginners, you'll learn how the environment of Fusion 360 is structured and how to make the most of each feature for creating three-dimensional objects, you'll be able to follow each design, animation, and simulation project step-by-step and one by one, in order to get an easy start and become more familiar with the programs, multiple functions with each project. If you are also interested in 3D printing, you can even materialized the objects of the words by simply printing them out. Check out my course, 3D printing 101 for this. In short, this course will teach you the following in detail, quickly and confidently finding your way in Fusion 360, mastering all important functions of Fusion 360 quickly and with confidence. Learning the basics of cat design and the different ways of working. Creating 2D sketches and 3D objects infusions design area, creating parts and assemblies infusions design area, rendering and animating parts and assemblies. Simulating single parts and assemblies. That means apply loads and display stresses and strains. Fem simulations. Learn about the computer aided manufacturing process in Fusion 360 cam and prepare a simple part for moving operations. Get to know the drawing environment in Fusion 360 and create engineering drawings also using a practical example. It is best to stay in the order that the course provides as the lessons build on each other. If you do not understand functions or commands right away or miss the explanations for a function. To just stay tuned. The course is structured in such a way that all important and basic functions sufficiently explained. However, sometimes this is done in another chapter in order to make the course as clear and practical as possible and to be able to convey a very intuitive approach to Fusion 360, as well as to design itself. 3. Fusion 360 and program download: Fusion 360 from Autodesk offers a clear and simple user interface and is also available free of charge for non-commercial Hathi uses as a so-called personal license. This version has a somewhat limited range of functions, but it's perfectly adequate for private and hobby users. For all users who want to use Fusion 360 commercially, there's a paid full version starting at currently $60 permanent. After creating a user account with Autodesk, you can choose one of the two versions after comparing the range of functions. But as I said, if you're a private or hobby user, you can definitely choose the free version. Here you have to cut back in the era of generative design and simulation. Because for the use of these two functions, you need a paid license. But for homie and private uses, these functions are often not necessary at all. You will learn later what you can do with these two functions. However, as a home user, you can also just start with the free version and still upgrade later if you need to. You can download fusion 360 directly online after creating a user account. The structure of the design features is relatively identical for all common cat programs used by engineers and technicians in that they only work. Mostly other professional cat program licenses like Solid Works, Catia, Solid Edge or AutoCad and Autodesk Inventor are used, which caused one to several thousand dollars and are therefore usually only worthwhile for professional users and freelancers. With these programs, however, you can at least usually download a trial version for 30 days or even more. As a student, you could get a free student license for the duration of few studies. And now let's get started. Before we get to the basics of cat design, we will make general program settings and familiarize ourselves with the program interface and functions. 4. Preparation: First steps with the program and general settings: When we first started the program, we are asked to create or join a team. This is necessary and useful because fusion 360 is very good for working on files and projects across users. Click on Create team or join a team you belong to. When you create a new team, you can assign any name for the team. Optionally, you can then invite people to join the team to work together on projects. If you want to. We then enter the Fusion 360 programming environment. Let's first check a few general Braam settings to create the same starting situation. To do this, click on your user account icon in the upper right corner and then select Preferences. A window for the general settings opens. In the general section, you can set the program language. We of course, stain English. First of all, check whether set up a selected in the default modelling orientation field and whether fusion 360 is selected in the pan zoom Orbit shortcuts field. In addition, we want to make sure that capture design history. Parametric modelling is selected in the design section. Other important settings can be found under default units. Here you can set the default units for each part of the software. In our case, we want to use the metric system. So we check that in design, electronics, manufacturer and simulation and generative design, the unit millimeter is selected in each case. All other settings are optional and can be changed to your liking. If you wish, simply click your way through the individual settings. Otherwise, we accept values and could the settings. In the next chapter, we will take a first look at the program environment and functions of Fusion 360. 5. Program environment and functions: First overview: Let's first take a look at the environment and the menu bars, which are located in the upper enzyme areas. At the top left, there is the option to show and hide the data panel which opens on the left side. In this data panel, all projects for the respective team can be managed as well as libraries and examples can be called up. In the bar at the top, basic functions and notifications can also be assessed. The job status shows whether you're currently working online in the cloud or offline. That means whether the files you're working on are synchronized with the team. If you have one or not. With the highlighted selection tab of the main menu bar, it is possible to switch between the individual sub-functions of Fusion 360. In this first section, we will deal with the design sub-function. That means cat. There are five different menu tabs in the design. Solid surface, mesh, sheet metal and tools. Apart from tools, these menu tabs have an identical structure. They contain the sections, create, modify, assemble, construct, inspect, insert, and select, respectively. Depending on what you want to design, you have to choose one of the three sections. If you want to create the solid, you remain in the solid section. If you only want to create a surface, you use to surface section. And if you want to create a sheet metal part, you switch to the sheet metal tab. In this course, we will mainly deal with the solid section, which covers all the important design features of a PEC course. We will leave out the two section as we will learn about the features of this tap in other positions. Finally, we will discuss the differences and peculiarities of surface and sheet metal. As we said. As we said, the three tabs have a relatively identical structure. Let's take a closer look. The create section of the tabs contains all the functions that allow you to create something. And the Modify area, on the other hand, are all the functions with which you can change an object that has already been created. The assemble area contains all the functions for assembling individual parts. And the construct area contains all the tools for construction, such as planes, axis, or auxiliary points. The inspect area contains tools for analyzing curves or the mass properties of a part, for example, the last areas, Insert and select, are relatively self-explanatory. Don't be afraid of the multitude of elements and features in the progress of the course, we will get to know the individual elements step-by-step and in detail by means of a practical way of working. Therefore, only the short summary. If we look at the drawing area, we can find the browser of the design project in the left area. Here we find specific settings for the document unit, which we can edit by clicking on the small pencil icon. Furthermore, all views, as well as the region, the layers and the x's are provided here. However, the main function of this structure DRI or browser, is to list the created components, bodies, construction elements, and so on. In order to be able to activate or deactivate or edit them. We will get to know how this works later on. It is also very good if you get used to name the individual components, joints, and perhaps even sketches in order to find your way around more easily later, simply double-click on the element and enter a new name. In the upper-right area, there is the orbit cubed. Here, you can select views of the current design and rotate the drawing environment, including the object. Rotation of the drawing environment is also possible by holding down the Shift key and moving the mouse at the same time. Moving as possible with the mouth will pressed and the mouse movement with a right-click on the mouse, we can call up the Quick Selection menu, with which were a t of commands can be executed quickly. Move back and forth between the menus without clicking. In the lower area, there is the possibility of noting comments on the design at the bottom left and then the middle area, there is a quick selection bar. It can also be used to make a few basic operations, especially for visualization. Finally, the bar at the very bottom is the timeline in which the individual processing steps are listed and can be easily followed chronologically. We will see what this means later on. Where are we good? Now we can easily navigate in the program environment and can start with the next chapter. 6. 2D sketching environment: Each 3D component must first be started as a 2D sketch. This is where we define the blueprint of the object. Imagine that you are taking a look at the top of a simple three-dimensional object. For example, what do you see when you look at the cylinder from above at a perfect right angle to the axis, correct? A two-dimensional circle, nothing else. And it is exactly from this 2D shape that cylinder, analogous to all other elements, is created on the program. In the first step, we have to draw this circle for creating the object. The three-dimensional shape is then obtained by further command steps. For the 2D sketch. For example, the top surface of an object, side surface, or the section of the part can be used. This requires somewhat spatial imagination. Before we make the first 2D sketch, you can, if you want to uncheck layout grid, that means Design Grid for the 3D environment in the lower menu bar. Then the grid is suppressed and you get a waitlist will layout, which in my opinion, displays the design objects in a more peristaltic way. However, this setting is a matter of taste and does not necessarily have to be made. Let us now try to design our first component. To do this, as already mentioned, we must first create a two-dimensional sketch. At the beginning of a sketch in the design area and in the Create drop-down menu, select Create Sketch, and then select the plane of the three-dimensional space on which we want to draw the 2D sketch. Alternatively, you can also select the sketching plane in the browser on the left side. In our example with the cylinder, we want to look at the circular surface or top surface from above. So we should select the x y plane. That means the plane that is formed by the x and y-axis, which plane you choose is basically only important for the alignment of the views. The breadcrumb then opens the selected sketching layer. As you will notice, the menu bar sketch automatically opens in the upper area with which you can create 2D geometry elements and modify them, as well as create the so-called constraints or dependencies, which are also often called Connections, links, or conditions in other programs. In addition, the familiar menu items inspect, insert, and select, as well as the option to exit the 2D sketching plane are shown. Furthermore, the sketch palette on the right side with helpful options for the view settings for the sketching environment. For creating the geometry of a 2D sketch, a verity of basic drawing elements are available by selecting a line. For example, geometry can be formed from line shaped elements. Let's try this out. Just click on any point, for example, on the center of the coordinate system and start drawing by clicking and dragging with your mouth. The drawing should correspond, for example, to the cross-section of the desired 3D object. Or in the case of simple objects, to the upper surface or side area of the object, enter the desired dimensions using your keyboard. You can switch between dimensions and angle using the Tab key. You can also draw freely and use the displayed values as a guide or add or change the dimensions and angles later. If the options sketch grid and Snap are activated in the sketch palette, you can select the grid points of the drawing environment using your mouse as if, as if they were magnetic. The small icons that appear of the constraints for each element. We'll take a closer look at these in a moment. Besides a line, you can also create a circle and ellipse a spline, an arc, an oblong who'll, or a rectangle. Let's just try that too, one after another. In the Create menu, you will also find a point, various arcs and other elements, as well as the possibility to create dimensions. It is best to dry out all the elements at least once. To do this, simply pause briefly and start by yourself in the sketching environment of the cat program, it is best to use this approach throughout the course. This is the most effective way to learn. One more tip for geometry elements such as rectangle or a circle. When drawing, you will notice that the rectangle, for example, always start from a corner. However, if you want the rectangle to start from the center. You can make the often very helpful setting center rectangle or three-point rectangle in the sketch palette on the feature options. This setting option is also available for other elements such as circle or you can, if desired, also create a tangential circle. Take a look at the sketch palette from time to time when using the other elements as well. For each element, there are different functions. Before we conclude this chapter, Let's get acquainted with the world of constraints. As promised. You can use these in the 2D sketching environment and use them to create constraints between individual geometric elements. This is sometimes, but not always, necessary or helpful. We will now take a closer look at the most important constraints. Let's start with the horizontal and vertical constraints. Let's assume we try to draw a rectangle freehand and we get a polygon whose lines unfortunately do not represent a rectangle. By selecting the horizontal constraint, we can get to perfectly horizontal lines by clicking on the top and bottom lines. In an identical way, we apply the vertical condition to the lateral lines and end up with a rectangle. As we can see, these conditions are displayed as small symbols next to the respective line and are also already suggested when creating a sketch. However, in the sketch palette, you can hide these conditions as well as areas, points, and dimensions. With the relation concentric, you can set to circuit structures concentric to each other. Let's draw our large circle and the slightly smaller one. We want to get two concentric circles, means two circles where the centers are identical. We achieve this by selecting the appropriate dependency and the two circles, the two constraints, perpendicular and parallel, are relatively self-explanatory. Nevertheless, let's look at a small example with two lines each. For the function perpendicular, we draw the following two lines. By selecting the condition and selecting the lines. We get two lines that are perpendicular to each other. For parallel, we draw two more lines and by selecting the condition, we get to perfectly parallel lines. We use the constraints coincident, that means congruent and midpoint. Whenever we want to connect two points or connect a point of one element with the mid-point of another element. To illustrate, let's draw a rectangle and two lines. We want to connect the first line to a corner point of the rectangle and the second line to the midpoint of one of the lines of the rectangle. By the way, you can also apply several constraints. For example, we could also apply the condition horizontally to align. Let's have a look at the condition tangent as the name and the small picture already indicate. We can use it to set the line tangential to the circle. For example. Let's try it out. First, draw the circle, then align, and then apply the condition. Just try the two remaining constraints, fixed and fixed and equal for yourself. You can't go wrong. And the name is relatively self-explanatory. The fixed constraint simply fixes an element in place and equal and shoes that the same dimensioning exists between elements. To finish these first 2D sketching exercises, please draw another circle in a new file, which you can then provide with fishes dimensions using the sketch dimension function. For example, select the diameter of 50 millimeter. Simply draw the circle and select the sketch dimension in two. There are two ways to do this, both of which lead to the goal. You can draw a circle with the dimensions already correct by entering the values using your keyboard while drawing. Use the Tab key to switch between the individual fields for entering the dimensions. Alternatively, you can draw any circle and then change the dimensions. You do this with the function sketch dimension and double-click on the dimension, then enter the desired value and confirm with Enter. You can also dimension the distance between two lines. To do this, simply click first on the first line and then on the second line whose distance you want to dimension. You can then exit sketch mode with the green check mark in the top menu bar. To create a three-dimensional object, it is important that the sketch is completely enclosed and has no gaps. This is indicated by the light blue area that first the surface of the sketch in 3D mode, it means that the sketch has continuous boundary lines without gaps, and thus represents an enclosed surface. After finishing the sketch, move the design environment with your mouse or by using the coordinate cube in the upper-right corner. By the way, you can double-click your mouse wheel to fit an object into the current view, which is very helpful if you ever find yourself very far away in ritual space and can't see any object anymore. In the next chapter, we will create a three-dimensional object from the 2D sketch we made. Very good, you're making good progress. Soon. We will RA gets the first real design project. In this chapter. 7. 3D object environment: First we'll design project. In this chapter, we would like to create a 3D object from the previously sketched to the surface. To do this, we will use the functions from the create section. To create the cylinder. We will use probably the most needed function from this menu. We used the command extrude or extrusion. This function represents a so-called extrusion command. In other cat programs, you will therefore often find the name linear extrusion or similar. Now, simply select the function and the surface. And after selecting the blue arrow that appears, move your mouse within the possible range of motion and create a 3D object in this way. Alternatively, you can also enter the desired dimension and confirm the Venter. Before we take a look at the other commands from Create, we will use the cylinder to first get to know the most important commands from the Modify section. Use this section whenever we want to modify an object. For example, we can use the function flood to around one or more edges. Simply select the function and select one or more edges. Again. And arrow appears, which we use in the same way as for the Extrude command. In the, in the additional window that appears, we can change other options if necessary. In an analogous way to this, we can create the chamfer with chamfer with the very versatile press pull command, we can make a variety of changes to an object in a very quick way. For example, depending on the selected face or edge, we can make affiliate or simply changed the diameter or dimension of the object. Another important command is shell. With the help of this command, you can easily hollow out an object. That means create a thin-walled 3D object. Select the command and the top surface of the cylinder and enter wall thickness or use the arrow. Pretty simple, isn't it? Now that we know the most important commands from this section, Let's get back to create. In addition to extrude, there are the important commands, revolve, sweep, loft, whole, and thread here. The explanations and example images of the software are very clear, helpful, and give us the first hint of what these commands can do. We will look at how to use these functions in more detail in the next chapter. At this is related to the way we work when designing. By the way, in Fusion 360, it is also possible to shorten the process from 2D sketch to 3D object by combining both steps for some elements. For example, we can directly build a cuboid, a cylinder as fear and other elements with the respective command. Just select the command, sketch the base profile on a plane and the 3D environment and extrude the elements. And now on to the next chapter. 8. Design methodology: As already briefly mentioned in the previous chapter, there are different approaches to design of 3D objects. One possible approach to devote a sign is, for example, to design as the actual machining. That means moving or turning off a starting material. The so-called semi-finished product would proceed. In the cat program, you first create the raw material, in this case, for example, a cuboid material, and then work on it successively in further steps using cutouts, holds, fillets, and other design features so that you get the final component. That is why this method of design is called subtractive. You reduce the initial material through individual processing steps until you get the desired object. But there are also other approaches, such as the additive method. With this approach, the cat model or even the real object, as is the case with 3D printing, for example, is built up element by element instead of by removing material. We will take a look at how this works in detail in a moment. We'll first start with the classic subtractive approach. In the next steps, we want to add a whole and our cutout in rectangular form to a simple cube. I have already prepared the cube. For example, the dimension is 50 millimeter in all directions. To create the whole, we can use the function hole from the section create, simply select the command and the surface on which you would actually place the drill in reality. In the options will know that appears. You can then select the type of hole, the dimension of the whole, and the specific cold parameters. For example, we select a simple so-called blind hole with a diameter of ten millimeter and a length 20 millimeter. We could also create threads here, but more about that later. For the cut-out, we first need to create a 2D sketch of the geometry. To do this, click on Create Sketch and select, for example, the upper surface of the cuboid. Since we want to bring the cutout into the cubit from top to bottom. Please. A rectangle on the surface in the area of the cube with a click and enter dimension of 10 millimeter each confirmed with Enter. Then we define the position of the rectangle on the surface using this sketch dimensioning function. Since we are in two-dimensional space, that means sketching on a parallel of the x, y plane, we need an x and y dimension to finally define the sketch. That means the rectangles, position and geometry completely enter the desired dimensions. For example, five millimeter each from the left and upper edge of the rectangle. Now the rectangle is completely defined. As you may have noticed, the profile has turned back. This indicates that all degrees of freedom are fully constrained. That means the position of the profile in the plane is fully defined by dimensions and, or constraints and cannot move by itself in later editing steps. I complete dimensioning in the fully defined sketch is very important for good results. Always pay attention to it. After we have finished the sketch, we can create the cut-out using the extrude function. For example, the cut-out should go completely through the part. However, material can also be added with the extrude command instead of removing it. So you can use extrude for both subtractive and additive approaches of working. To illustrate the difference between the two ways of working, let's design our first very simple useful part, a coat hook to hang on a door. First with an additive working method, and then with a subtractive working method. By the way, in which working method you choose doesn't matter in the end, both lead to the same result. The only difference here is in terms of effort and time required. For the additive working method, we simply draw the cross-section of the part. In this case, we can even do it in one step. Of course, we could also divide the hook into its five rectangular bodies. Line them up buddy by body, which would be more like the actual additive way. But that would be very cumbersome. So in 2D mode, we first draw the cross-section of the hook on a plane of the coordinate system. Start by selecting a new sketch and the plane. By the way, you can also right-click on the desired plane in the browser and then select Create Sketch. We then draw the first line as shown. Complete the profile with the following lines and dimensions. Just draw along. Then complete the cross-section profile with more lines as follows. Then you can leave the 2D sketching our environment and thus switch to 3D mode. Select the Extrude command and create a three-dimensional body from the 2D cross-section by dragging in the direction of the displayed arrow. Enter dimension of 15 millimeter with your keyboard. That's it. Now we would like to use the subtractive design method for the same hook for understanding the difference. To do this, we draw a rectangle with the dimensions 33 millimeter and 29 millimeter in 2D sketch mode in a new document. And create a cube root with a thickness of 15 millimeter using the extrude command. With us, virtually first create the starting material, the so-called semi-finished product, from which the hook would be stamped out in reality, for example, or cut out by laser or watershed. In this case, however, the hook would probably be cut out of a sheet metal part and created with the help of appending machine, which will make more sense. Then we draw the cutouts into the solid material. To do this, we first create a 2D sketch on the APA. Alternatively, of course, the lower surface. First sketch the left half of the cut-out for the geometry of the hook. And then draw the write-off. We need to draw a negative of the hook into the solid material. Make sure that surfaces are created by closing those profiles on the edges of the rectangle with lines. And then you can use the extrude function to cut out the two faces from the solid. Two approaches for an identical solution. One quite simple, the other a bit more complex. Now let's look at a few more possible ways of working. In addition to hold an extrude. There are a few more functions in the create section that we would like to look at briefly in this chapter. First, there is the command revolve. You can use this whenever you want to design a part with the rotation axis. For example, a part that would be machined mechanically by turning. To do this, simply draw a cross-section on one of the planes, for example, the Excel or y set plane. Why these planes? Because we want set to be our axis of rotation. Or you could also use the x y plane and then use y as the axis of rotation. Let's take a closer look. Feel free to draw along. For example, we'll create the following basic profile of a boat. We have to draw 1.5 of the cross-section of the 3D body. After finishing the sketch and selecting the command revolve, we first have to define our rotation axis. In our case, the set axis. As you can see, the program creates a solid with the help of entering a number of decrease, you can define the range of rotation. Of course, such a bold could also be created using the extrude command in an additive manner with multiple sketches. Just think for a moment how that would work in this case too, you see the solution. However, the rotational way is usually a lot faster and more elegant for rotational part like this. This is what I meant when I mentioned that there are several ways of working, even for the same part. Depending on the part, there are fast, slow, simple, or a cumbersome ways, but usually all lead to the desired result. In reality, by the way, bolts are not produced by turning, but to wrote in mass production. The thread is produced by rolling between two cylindrical mattresses. The sweep command is always useful when you want to create the part that follows a slightly more complex path. Let's take a look at how to understand this. For the sweep command, you always need a 2D sketched cross-section profile and the path. This simply means drawing a line or arc or spline. For example, let's create a spline by selecting the command in a 2D sketch and draw several points at will. But make sure that the endpoint or start point is the coordinate center. The more points, the more detailed the contour will be. For the cross-section profile, we now need to change the plane. To do this, we close the sketch and start a new sketch on the y side plane. For example, we draw a circle or a rectangle and select the endpoint of the previously drawn profile from the XY plane, that is the coordinate center. Then we finish the sketch. We can run the sweep command in 3D mode and must first select the profile and then the path in the menu bar on the right switch between the two selection options. Then the program creates the solid. The last important command from this section and for this chapter is loft. With loft, you can have two surfaces connected to each other in 3D space. Let's try it out. We draw a profile in the XY plane, for example, a rectangle or any other shape. Then we first create a new plane parallel to the x-y plane with an offset to it. This is easily done by right-clicking on the XY plane and selecting offset plane. We then track the blue arrow or enter a dimension with the keyboard. On this new plane, we draw the second surface for our project in the next step, for example, a slightly larger rectangle. The centers should be congruent. Then we finish the sketch and select the loft command and the two sketch surfaces. The program then joins the two surfaces to form a 3D solid with the settings. We could control this process in more detail. Where regard. So much for the approach and methodology in CAD design. We can check off this chapter and move on to the next one. In the following, we will take a closer look at the difference between single part and an assembly. 9. Individual parts vs. assemblies (individual parts / assembly / joints): As in the real world, you can also assemble several components in the cat environment to get an assembly to design a complex machine or other complex part, you first design the individual components of this complex item and then assemble these individual parts virtually infusion. To do this, you use links, connections, or relationships. In Fusion 360, you use joints. But more about that later. In Fusion 360, you create all components directly in one environment and then connect them in the same document to form an assembly. Each part has its own origin and its own folder and will appear separately in the browser. Other CAD programs are a bit different and there are extra file formats for assemblies and parts. And you create each part in its own file. When you have finished designing the first part. For example, such as simple turn part, you simply create a new component with the button, new component from the menu bar, or a right-click on the folder of the part and the selection of new component and select the parent body. That means the already existing part as reference. This part then becomes transparent and you can start creating the new component. The new component then appears in the browser and can be named. By the way, each component has its own coordinate system. For example, we start the sketch on the side plane of the new component and use the first component as a reference for our new part. We could, for example, draw such a profile for a new turn part, which we then create using the revolve command. It is quite convenient that we can take a look at the first component for reference and can thus draw the dimensions for the new pod relatively easily with an exact fit. By the way, the sketch for the new part is now also placed in the folder of the new component. Of course. Now let's take a look at the assembly of these two individual parts. We have drawn the second component in such a way that it would already be an exact fit with the first component. Linkage has not taken place yet. We can move the second component really. So we have to link the two individual parts in the next step. Here, we need the menu assemble and the command joins. In other CAD programs, the assembly of individual parts is usually structured somewhat differently. Constraints are usually created, for example, with a distance condition or for example, a concentric condition between two parts to get an assembly. In Fusion 360, however, a slightly different approach is taken. Here. You create joins that instead define the desired range of motion. However, you can also rigidly link a single-part. Let's look at how to do it in our simple example, the Assemble menu. We first select the join command. Then we have to perform two steps. On the one hand, we have to define the positions of the joint origins. For example, select the points on the surfaces that we want to link. And on the other hand, we have to define the range of motion or join type. Let's try a few possibilities. For example, because select these two joint origin points on these surfaces and create a rigid link with Richard. By the way, when selecting the join type, a short animation of the possible range of motion is played, which I personally find very useful and beneficial. A really great feature that makes this program so sophisticated. On the other hand, we could allow a rotation around the set axis with revolute. With slider, we can allow a movement along the set axis. And with cylindrical, we can allow a movement along the set axis as well as a rotation around this axis. With pin, we can allow a rotation around one axis and linear movement along another axis. But as you will see, this does not make much sense in this example. The same is true for Planner. With Planner, that component can move linearly in a plane and rotate around an axis. Very interesting is ball, which creates a spherical joint. In the Rotate fueled. The respective axis surface can be selected for the movement. And if we jump back to the position tap, further settings can be made, such as an offset or mirroring the orientation of the component with flip. If we now select, for example, the movement type cylindrical, we see that we can only move the component in the defined degrees of freedom. The condition also appears in the charts folder in the browser and can be deleted, suppressed, or otherwise edited by right-clicking on it. By the way, if absolutely no motionless desired, just select the choice type rigid. Perfect. In this lesson, we learned how to create multiple parts in Fusion 360 and link them together, assemble them virtually. In the next lesson, we'll take a look at different views and visualizations. Then we will finally get to more advanced and create design projects. 10. Views and visualizations: In this lesson, we will briefly look at the possible mus and displays in Fusion 360, which can often be very helpful. The basic views can be found on the left and the browser at named views. In this folder, we can choose between top, front, right at home. If you want to look at the specific surface, we can select one in the menu bar in the lower area with the function, look at. This surface will then be displayed vertically from above with the function Zoom window. Also from this path, we can enlarge a defined area. To do this, we simply extend a small window in the desired area. The selection menu display setting is also located in the spar with which we can change the visualization of our components. This can be done with, we'll style for the component or environment, for the design environment. With object visibility, we can generally define which elements, such as planes and axis should be displayed or not. With multiple views, you can display several views in parallel, which can sometimes also be very helpful. Finally, we will get to know a few useful visualizations from the inspect menu. First of all, the most important one is the section view. Using the section analysis command, we can view the cross-section of a component or assembly. Just think of it as cutting a cake and looking inside. After selecting the function, we need to select the plane in which we want to cut the part. Alternatively, we can select the surface. For example, we select the y set plane. Apart will then be cut in this plane. We can now either confirm or move the cut surface using the blue arrow or by entering dimension after confirming the section view appears in the menu folder analysis on the left in the browser, where we can edit, hide, or deleted with a right-click. At Inspect, you will also find analysis functions such as the zebra analysis. With the help of this command, you can check transitions between surfaces by means of black and white stripes projected onto the surface. And for example, examined the surface of an aircraft wing for its surface continuity or smoothness when designing a plane, this is of importance for the flow resistance, for example. The end of this chapter, we will take a closer look at the timeline of the program mentioned at the very beginning. It is located at the very bottom of the window. Here, a chronological order of the individual design steps is shown. And we can find all executed features such as Sketch, extrusion and so on, depending on the respective design. The great thing about this is that with this timeline, the design process can be easily retrace. The individual steps can even be displayed with the help of a short animation. To do this, simply place the cursor at start of the design and or simply click on Play. You can also click between the steps to jump to an earliest stage of the design by right-clicking on the individual design steps. You can also edit the respective steps. For example, change 2D profile or adjoined. If you click on the small gear wheel symbol at the bottom right. You can also activate the component color swatch option, which provides us with even more clarity for more complex design objects by giving B individual components a colored marker and thus assigning the design steps in the timeline. Awesome. Now that we have learned all the relevant and important basics and the general handling of the cat sex, gender Fusion 360. We will move onto designs and components and assemblies. In the first project, we'll dive into design for learning how to make a very simple carabiner hook. This is followed by a cup, which is a bit more difficult to realize. Then simplified model of a truck with a passenger compartment. And finally, a simplified model of a four cylinder car engine, which is a bit more complex. But don't worry, we will approach it step-by-step. By working in this hands on wave, we will get to know more new functions and commands and reinforce the understanding of the basics. Learning by doing, stay with me, it will get exciting. 11. Design project I: Simple snap hook: For the carabiner, we start in a new design project with Create Sketch and the selection of a plane. For example, the x-y plane. Let's first consider how the carabiner is best designed. If you look at the snap book a little more closely, we notice that we can place a circular shape in each of the left and right areas. And that the struts of the snap book, we present tangential connections between these circles. Let's design the carabiner in this way. First of all, we will draw the initial circle with a starting point on the horizontal red line, which in this case is the x axis. For example. For example, we choose a diameter of 50 millimeter. Then create another circle with a diameter of 20 millimeters and a little further to the right. We then dimension the distance between the two circles as 70 millimeters. To completely define the previous sketch, which you will see by the black coloring, we need our reference in the direction of the x-axis and y-axis relative to the origin. We define the position of our sketch in x-direction, for example, by another dimension of 35-millimeter from the center of the first circle to the origin. The Y position is simply set with our horizontally constrained. You can either define a sketch by dimensions only or choose a combination of dimensions and constraints, as we did in this example. For the constraint, we choose the center of each of the two circles and then the origin. Now the sketch got black and is fully defined. That means it cannot be moved within the plane. Then we draw horizontal and vertical auxiliary lines through the centers of the two circles to make it easier to apply the dimensions and the tangent lines. Draw the lines and right-click on them to the normal construction line. The next step, we connect the intersection points of the vertical guides with the circus by two lines. Together, closed shape, we only need the outer control. Therefore, we use the trim tool. Use the tool to remove all superfluids line segments as follows. Now we could extrude the surface, but then we would have to make another cut out to get to the final shape of the carabiner. But we can also apply a fast solution right away and draw the cross-section of the snap book in one step. To do this, add two additional circles of 35 and 10 millimeter diameter to the inner area of the carabiner. And analogous to the previous steps, draw two lines from the intersections of the circles with the auxiliary lines once more. Then by using the trim feature a second time, remove all superfluids line segments. As you can see, we eliminated one editing step and can now extrude the finished basic shape of the carabiner right away. However, in order to completely define the sketch beforehand, we simply specify the angles between the tangential connection lines and the vertical auxiliary line. In this case, simply accept the value that is displayed. Alternatively, we could have specified the length of the connection lines or define the auxiliary lines completely beforehand. To turn the 2D surface into a 3D body, we switch to 3D mode with Finish Sketch and use the extrude function. To do this, only select the outer surface for extrusion and enter a value of 10 millimeter. You can either extrude in one direction only symmetrically or independently in two directions. You choose this option at direction. If you want to have a tapered shape, you could also specify a taper angle, but we do not need that here. To create a cut-out for the opening of the snap hook, we start a 2D sketch once again. This time on the top or bottom side of the snap. Ok. We draw a line at 160 degrees from the base of the inner tangential connection line to the outer connection line of the carabiner. The dimension results from the specification of the angle and the endpoints. You can switch between dimension and angle. Input. The Tab key, then draw a second parallel line and dimension a two millimeter distance. If the parallelism is not created automatically, pay attention to the small constraint characters. You have to create it yourself. Then connect the two parallel lines with further lines to create a parallelogram and finish the sketch. With extrude, the cut-out is created. Simply drag the arrow until there is no more material, or alternatively specified, the thickness of the carabiner as the cut-out dimension. Of course, we could have already integrated this step into the first sketch, as you may have just noticed. Finally, we ran a few edges using the Philip command from the Modify section. 20 millimeter for the back top edge, and one millimeter for the edges of the opening, as well as the sides. Select multiple edges by holding down the CTRL or Shift key for the side edges can simply selected to side faces. Perfect. Before we move on to the next design project, let's save the file. If you want a different file format, for example, for 3D printing or another cat program, we can create this file using Export and selecting the file format and location. For example, we can choose the fusion and inventor formats, as well as commonly known STL and step file formats. 12. Design project II: Cup with handle: Before we get to the two somewhat more exciting projects, we would like to design a cup, including a handle. Next, pay attention to the specific combination of additive and subtractive design methods. In this project, we will first design the basic shape, that means the cup without the handle and then add the handle. Start with a circle geometry on a 2D sketch, for example, on the x-y plane. In a new project. The diameter of the circle could be 90 millimeter, for example. And to center should be at the origin of the coordinate system so that the sketch will be fully defined. Then switch to the 3D environment and create the cylinder from the sketch using the extrude function. We will use the dimension of 18 millimeter here. To hollow out the cup. We use the shelf function from the Modify section. We select the wall thickness of five millimeter. In this case, select the upper surface, enter the wall thickness and the shell is done by the way at direction in the options, we could still specify in which direction the material for the wall should go, IMRT outwards or symmetrically in both directions. By default, we use inside to not change the outer diameter. By the way, in the timeline at the bottom, we can see the design progress with the individual features. As we can see at this point, we started with a sketch, continued with an extrusion and then hollowed-out. When we select a feature in the model, we also see a little shaded reference to find it along in the timeline by right-clicking on a feature. We can also edit it with edit feature if we want to change something. The sketches can also be found in the browser. By now, we have the basic shape of the cup for the handle, we first need a parallel plane, the cup room, so that the handles it slightly lower than the cup room. In the menu construct, we select offset plane and click on the CAPM. Then we move the plane downwards by 15 millimeter. Then create a sketch on this plane. Right-click, create sketch, and draw a vertical line of 20 millimeter on this plane. The line should have a vertical constraint. If it does not already exist, simply added and said, both points coincident. That means congruent on the edge of the cup. Complete the profile with two horizontal, 13 millimeter lines and one vertical line to create a rectangle. Alternatively, draw a rectangle right away. Now you may be able to guess the shape of the handle. In this case, the element is added to the basic cylindrical element, that means the cup. In 3D mode, you can shape the profile of the handle three-dimensionally with extrude downwards, that means a negative set axis direction. Therefore, we choose a dimension of minus 50 millimeter. In the next step, we start a sketch once more, but select the side face of the handle as the drawing plane this time, right click on Create sketch plane. Draw a rectangle 20 millimeter wide and 40 millimeter high from a center point. And then the dimensions 15 millimeter and 25 millimeter to fully define the x and y position of the rectangle. If you don't know why a sketch is not yet completely defined, you can simply drag the sketch geometry, choosing select beforehand to see in which direction movements are possible. Then you can make the cut out in 3D mode to complete the handle. By the way, for the cut-out, we could have sketched on the exit plane of our cup instead of on the side surface of the handle. Then we would have simply selected symmetric for the direction in the extrusion options and symmetrically removed material from the inside out. There are so often many different ways. Finally, we round off some edges of the handle and the cup. You're welcome to try this according to your own preferences. Basically, it is only a matter of design or taste. In this case. As the penultimate design project, we will make the front end of a truck with a passenger sell or drivers cap. In the following chapter, this will be a bit more challenging, but for us, it will not be a problem. We will proceed step-by-step. Stick with it and please keep going. Now it's going to get more and more exciting. 13. Design project III: Truck front part with driver's cab: For the front part of the truck, we will start in new design project. First, let's think about how to build up the model. We need a trapezoidal section for the hood, a cuboid for the actual cap, and add on parts like vendors headlights, grill and bumper. Let us start with the section for the engine hood, for example. To do this, we start a sketch on the exit plane and draw a simple rectangle. The starting point should be the center point and the dimensions should be 140 millimeters in width and 90 millimeters in height. Then we create a parallel plane to the except plane with an 120 millimeter offset. We then sketch another rectangle which will be a bit smaller, 75 millimeter wide and 18 millimeter high. To be more specific. The distance of the center should be distance five millimeter to the coordinate origin, so that the two lower actions of the rectangles are congruent. With the loft function. We then have the two rectangles connected in 3D mode to form a solid. For the drivers cap, we draw a new sketch on the real plane of this solid with 140 millimeter wide and 170 millimeter high rectangle. We then extrude this rectangle by 120 millimeter. At this point, we have the two basic shapes for our object. For the two vendors, we draw a sketch on the y set plane in the next step, since we want to extrude them symmetrically, starting from the center. After we have started a sketch, we first draw a three-point arc with 50 millimeter radius and 72 million meter distance in horizontal direction relative to the origin. We said one of the two remaining points coincidence, thus congruent with the left corner and the other point with the lower line of the engine compartment. Then we need to horizontal lines, each 2.5 millimeter long, which start from the corner points. And another three-point arc, which we said concentrically to the first arc and let start or end at the 2.5 millimeter long lines. To be able to extrude the profile in 3D mode, we must first hide the previous body. Otherwise, we will not be able to select the profile because it is inside. We choose a dimension of 70 millimeter with symmetrical direction. If we want to create an independent body for the solid, we select new body at operation, otherwise, simply join, which will simply merge it with the previous body. And our case, we choose join because we want these vendors to be part of our basic body. In this chapter, we only want to create new bodies for each add-on part, such as the radiator grill, headlights, and bumper, but not components as we would do in a normal assembly. We have already briefly addressed the handling of components and their connection by using joins in an assembly in a previous chapter. And we will learn about this in more detail in the next chapter. It should be noted that in this context, body and component represent different concepts confused by body's components and assemblies. Let's make a short digression to Bali versus component. The difference between body and component is that each assembly is made of individual components and each component in turn is made of bodies. So it's a kind of hierarchical detailing. For example, in a car, the parts of the chassis, the doors, the wheels, and all other individual parts, down to the smallest boats are components. Each of these components of a main assembly can in turn be subdivided into multiple buddies are solids, but you don't necessarily have to do that. You can also build a single-part, a component from just one body, especially if it is very simple in its geometry. In this specific example, we will build our model from only one component. But since the component is somewhat more complex, we will build it from several solids bodies. This has the advantage that we can clearly delimit the individual buddies and for example, hide them or slightly changed the appearance of individual bodies. In the next design project, we will work more closely with several components. A brief summary, our body is a more detailed separation within a component, which in turn is a single part of an assembly. A body is primarily a part of a component, whereas a component can move freely within the parent assembly and is linked by joints within an assembly. Don't worry. If you don't understand it right away, you'll understand it even better as the course progresses through practical implementation. Back to our truck. In the next step, we want to hollow out our solid. We do that with a command shell and click on the lower surface and the input of five millimeter for defining the wall thickness. We would also like to remove the surfaces inside the wheel housings. To do this, we could, on the one hand start and extrusion as we know it. On the other hand, in this case, we can also simply right-click on the surface element and remove it with delete. We will then move on to the two part windshield. We want to build it from two simple rectangles. Take the dimensions from the following profiles, then finish the sketch and cut it out with extrusion. The edges of the windows are rounded with five millimeter. We proceed similarity for the side windows. For this however, we draw only a rectangle on one side and then simply cut through the entire width since the cabin is hollow. Anyway. The dimensions and position of the rectangle should be as follows. To implement at least the illusion of a door, we will learn a new function, the emboss command. For this command, we first need a sketch, so we will draw our rectangle for embossing the door on the side surface of the drivers cap. The starting point should be in the lower left corner of the window and the rectangle should be 90 millimeter high and as wide as the window. Then we select the command M boss, as well as the sketched profile and choose depots in the options. Because we don't want an elevation. A deepening and we enter one millimeter as depth. As you may have recognized, this step would also have been possible with Extrude. For the door handle, we will draw our rectangle on this surface again, this time with the following dimensions. Then we extrude the profile five millimeter and select new buddy and operation because we want to create a new body for this. To make it easier for us, we simply mirror these two features to the other side. To do this, we select the mirror command menu, Create, and in its options at type features. We then simply select the embossing and the door handle in the timeline below, and then switch in the mirror options to the item mirror plane and select the y set plane as the mirror plane. The mirror command usually saves a considerable amount of time for symmetrical parts in features. So try to use it as often as possible. By the way, this also applies to the 2D sketching environment. We continue with two fillets, 14, the two door handles with 1.5 millimeters, and the two upper edges of the side windows with five millimeters h. Now we draw the bumper. It should be placed at the front with the dimensions 140 millimeter and 15 millimeter. For this, we will use the constraint colinear for the upper horizontal line, which we link to the truck front end, for example, the left vertical line, which will link to the side of the truck to fully define this sketch. Then we can extrude the profile by eight millimeter. We create a new buddy, select new buddy for it, and round of four millimeter. For the headlights. We first draw one of the two required on the front surface and then mirror it to the other side. The profile should have, for example, the following dimensions. We then extrude it by 10 millimeter. In addition, we draw another two millimeter cut out with a two millimeter distance to the headlight body to improve the design. And they're connecting. To suggest a little more stability. For this connecting stroke, we need a circular geometry on the front side surface of the truck with six millimeter diameter and the distance of 83 millimeter and horizontally aligned to the origin. In addition, draw another circular geometry on the back of the headlight. Also six millimeter in diameter, which we simply dimension from the top inside edges with eight millimeter, 12 millimeter. Then we use the loft command and connect the two circle and surfaces to form a three-dimensional connecting stroke. Now, we can mirror the headlight and the strut to the other side. As a last detail of our truck front part. We would like to draw a girl for this, we start a new sketch on the front surface. Then we first draw a rectangle with 75 millimeter with an 80 millimeter height. The sideline and the upper line should be collinear to the lines of the front surface. In the next step on the other rectangle with four millimeter distance to the edge of the first rectangle, which borders our radiator cutouts. Then we draw a vertical line congruent with the center line. Next, we draw a line to the left and right of the center line at a distance of one millimeter from the center line. The start and end points should be on the second rectangle drawn. Now we would have to draw a lot of these lines because we want to extrude every other space between them to get the shape of the girl. But to make it a little bit easier, we use a new command, the pattern command or rectangular pattern in this case. To do this, we select the vertical line elements and enter a distance of one millimeter between the elements. Then we select for distance type spacing and for direction type for the x axis. Symmetric because we want to work in both directions and increase the number to 65. The program does the work for us. To create the solid body of the radiator grill, we have to extrude the area between the two large rectangles, as well as every second long, narrow rectangle two millimeter outwards, creating the following solid. Excellent. After we have rounded the surfaces of the drivers, cap it with two millimeter each. We take a quick look at the individual buddies and then we'll finish this lesson. Great, if you stayed with it. As we can see, we have now created several bodies which are located in the bodies folder in the browser. More precisely, one each for the door handles, the cabin, the headlights, the struts, the bumper, and the girl. We can hide, show these bodies as we wish or right-click to change the material or appearance per body. If we want, we can print the model as it is with a 3D printer. If you're interested in 3D printing, feel free to take a look at my course, 3D printing 101. If you prefer to design the bumper, grill and headlights as separate components and then assemble them later. Take a look at the next lesson. First, in the upcoming lesson, we'll take a step-by-step look at how to work with components in an assembly. We'll design a simplified model of a four-cylinder internal combustion engine. This is going to be pretty awesome. Let's get right to it. 14. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 1: Crankcase): In this chapter, as announced, we want to design a simplified model of an internal combustion engine with four cylinders. We want to build this model from several main components, as in reality, but will then neglect some details so that the parts do not become too complex. To start with. We need a crank case and all pine and a cylinder head with wealth cover. Diverse component will be the crank case as it is a good base to start from. To do this, we sketch on the x, y plane to create the shape for the crank case as the basic body, the first span a rectangle from the center point coordinate origin, and can immediately enter 500 millimeter as the width and 150 millimeter as the height as dimensions. As we can see, after entering the dimensions, the sketch profile becomes black. That means completely defined. Then we finish the sketch and in 3D mode, we create a plane parallel to the x-y plane with a distance of minus 250 millimeter, as we have already learned in one of the previous lessons. On this plane, we then draw another rectangle with identical width. That means 500 millimeter, but the height of 250 millimeter. The closing the sketch, we use the loft command to create a trapezoidal saw it. Now we take care of the holes for the pistons. That means the cylinders. We can make them in two ways, either with the whole command or a circular cutout with Extrude. Since the holes have to go completely through the cuboid, we simply use cutouts in this case. For this, we start a sketch on the upper surface. We want to create cylinders with 90 millimeter diameter and design a four-cylinder engine. Therefore, we need the following dimensions and geometries. What is the easiest way to draw these circles? First, we draw a circle with a diameter of 90 millimeter and define its position in x-axis direction with that dimension of seventy-three point seventy five millimeter from the center to the edge. To fully define the position of the circle, we need not only the diameter and the dimension to a fixed point in the x-direction, but also a position in the y direction. Since the center of the circle should be on the x-axis, we use a constraint instead of a dimension. Select the center of the circle as well as the origin, and select, as well as the origin and select the constraint horizontal. Then the profile gets black and thus completely defined. For the second circle, we use conditions again. First simply draw a circle and then set the condition equal. So the circular gets the same dimension without further dimensioning. Then again, the condition horizontal for the y position of the circuit and the dimension in X for the X position in the coordinate system. In this case, 191.25 millimeter to create an even distance of 117.5 millimeter between the cylinders. Since our geometry of the four circles is axis symmetric about the y axis, we can now create the other two circles very quickly and easily using the mirror command. For the command, we first have to create an axis around which we want to mirror because the y axis is not selectable. In this case, we do this by drawing a line congruent to the y-axis and linking it with coincident to the origin. We then convert this line into construction line by right-clicking and selecting normal construction. You can recognize this by the dashed line type. We will not fully define construction lines since they are not necessarily relevant. We only needed to find position in the x-direction, which we already have. Then select the mirror command in the create menu and select the two circles. Switch the selection to mirror line in the options, and then select the chest created construction line. Wallah, the other two circles are created in already fully defined. We close the 2D sketch and create the cutouts with Extrude by selecting the force circular areas. In the options, we can select two objects for extended type and then select the surface to which the cutouts should be made. In our case, we select the bottom surface operation must then be set to cut. By the way, we could have integrated the circular surfaces into the first sketch right away, and thus could have saved a step. Then we work on the lower part of the crank case in which the crankshaft relate to find its place. To do this, we create a trapezoidal cut out that spends symmetrically from the center of the housing. First, we draw a baseline. Instead it collinear with the Grand case bottom. The length is unimportant for now. Then we draw the trapezoid as shown and dimension the height with 100 millimeter. Then I mentioned the lower corner points with 25 millimeter to the wall. To be able to select the surface in 3D mode, we had the body for a moment. In 3D mode, use the extrude command once again and select the surface. Then showed the body. Afterwards, we select the option symmetric for direction and cut for operation. We also enter dimension of 230 millimetre. Since we have a length of 500 millimeter and want to leave 25 millimeter of wall thickness for each. So the calculation is 225 millimeter times 2 equals 450 plus 2 times 25 makes 500 millimeter. Confirm and you're done. We now need to add material again for the crankshaft mounts. We draw the following three rectangular profiles on the lower surface of the housing. We then extrude this in 3D mode by selecting two object, four extent, type, as well as join for operation in the extrusion options. This allows us to select the bottom face of the cylinder and extrude the three ribs to it. In the next step, we create a circular cutout for the bearing surfaces of the crankshaft. To do this, we draw a circle with a diameter of 70 millimeter and the distance of 125 millimeter from the corner point on the sidewall of the housing. The center of the circle should be congruent with the bottom line. We then extrude this completely through the entire housing using the cut object. And the penultimate step, we would like to create threaded holes for mounting the cylinder head and oil pan to our very primitive crank case. First, we create the holes for the cylinder head. We use the whole function in 3D mode. But in order to place the whole correctly, we first start a 2D sketch on the upper surface of the housing. We need ten holes for the cylinder head to create them quickly and easily. We use the pattern command from the create section. For this, we need rectangular pattern. First recreate the point with a distance of 20 millimeter from each of the lateral lines of the cylinder head surface. Then we select the point and the pattern commit. We will see two arrows, as well as input options for distance, a number of the arrangement or pattern popping up. If we simply drag the arrows are little and in the desired direction, we will see that a matrix with a points to be created opens up. Think of it like a spreadsheet. In y direction. We need two rows in x-direction, five lines, two times five equals ten points for the hood. The corner points should have a distance of 20 millimeter each to the edge. That means we need a distance of minus 460 millimeter for the pattern in x-direction and 110 millimetre in y direction. We could also set the distance type in the Options bar to spacing. Then we would measure from point-to-point. We then confirm with OK and get the desired pattern. And we select the whole command in 3D mode and create the holes by entering the specifications and selecting the points. At placement, we must select from sketch. First, we select the whole type, namely simple and then tapped. Since we want to create a threaded hole, we want a full thread and a so-called blind hole as a drill hole. In the lowest selection fields, we can then choose which dimension the threaded hole should have. For example, our holes should be 17 millimeter long and have a diameter of ten millimeter for a metric M ten thread, also a thread pitch of 1.5. We can also check the model box so that the thread is actually cut and displayed as real. However, this requires a little more computing power and may take a little longer. Confirm the enter and the threaded holes will be created. One more hint. As mentioned before, there are several construction methods which are sometimes faster, sometimes slower, but basically all lead to the goal. It is best to think along so that you can see other ways too. For the holes, for example, it is also possible to first create a hole in 3D mode and then use the pattern function of 3D mode and place the holes in the same way as the previously sketched points. Let's try this for the holes for mounting an oil pan. We select hole and then first the drilling surface, that means the bottom side of the housing. Then the whole type, as well as the specifications as before. However, here we want, for example, only M8 threaded holes and the dimension of 40 millimeter. Then we simply select two edges for the positioning of the whole and enter this desired dimension in x and y direction for the positioning of the first hole. In each case, 12.5 millimeter confirmed Enter and the host created. Then we select the whole induce the pattern command. The next step, we switch to directions in the Options, and then click on the x-axis to specify the first direction. The arrows appear, and we can proceed in the same way as in the Tuesday sketch before. In the x-direction, we want eight hose with total distance of 475 millimeters. And in the y direction, we want to hold with a distance of minus 225 millimeter. In total, 16 holes. In the last step for the crank case, in this lesson, we will use the third command to round corners. Select the command, select some desired edges, and enter a rounding radius of, for example, ten millimeter. The crank case is done. The next lesson, we'll continue with the cylinder head and oil pet. 15. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 2: Oil pan & cylinder head): The crank case is done and we would like to first design the cylinder head in this lesson. Since it's a complete cylinder head with camshaft and valves, would go beyond the scope of this beginners course in terms of time and technology, we will only build a very simple cylinder head dummy. We have to create a new component for the head because it is an independent single part of the engine. Therefore, we click on new component in the create menu and select the parent component, in this case, the crank case. If we have not already done so, then draw the basic profile on the x-y plane of the new component. Referring to the crank case. We draw our 500 millimeter wide and 150 millimeter high rectangle. In the next step, we use the full command to round off the edges. Already in this step, we simply select the command and two edges that should become a fluid. Then we specify the radius as ten millimeter and get around that profile. However, the dimensions of the rectangle may have been lost in the process and may need to be recreated. We finished the sketch and extrude the cylinder head by, for example, at 75 millimeter. Then we round the edges with a radius of ten millimeter as well. Now we have a dummy block that should represent our cylinder head. In order to keep it in place, we create a connection or as it is called in Fusion 360, adjoined. To do this, we select joint from the Assemble menu and select rigid from the small dropdown menu, as we simply want to achieve rigid positioning with no room for movement. Then we place the first region of the joint on the bottom surface of the cylinder head and the center point. And the second Origen of the joint on the top surface of the crank case at the center point. Make sure to select both the center point and the surface. It will turn slightly grayish. Also, make sure to select the correct orientation of the joint origin with respect to the axis. The cylinder head is positioned with a click on OK. Next, we will focus on the old pen. For the oil pan, we create another new component as this also is an independent single-part. As apparent part, we again use the crank case or the composite of current case and cylinder head in this case. This time we want to extrude the oil pans cross-section profile. To do this, we draw the following profile on the y set plane of the new component. By the way, you can also draw only 1.5 of the profile and then mirror the other one around that set X's. Once we have finished the sketch and made a symmetrical extrusion up to the end phases of the crank case. We need to hollow out the component to get the final oil pan. We select the shell command and click on the top three surfaces of the old pen and select a wall thickness of ten millimeter. In the penultimate step, read reinforce the outer two seats of the crank shaft. But adding back some material. We sketch the falling profile that on the inner side. So a fist of the open, an extruded 15 millimeter. All right. We repeat the same on the other side of the open. Then we add some edge surroundings. The side corners with ten millimeter and the bottom edges with 20 millimeter. As a last step, we need to mount the old pen to our crank case. To do this, we select the join command and the connection type rigid. Since in reality the components would also be rigid, meaning bolted together. For example, we select the points of these two surfaces and orientations as shown as joint origins. Okay. 16. Design project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 3: pistons & connecting rods): In this section, we are interested in building the connecting rods, pistons and piston pins. To do this, we had the cylinder head and the oil pan for the time being so that we can work with better version. We can do this by simply right-clicking on the components and selecting Show Hide. We start with the creation of the pistons. To do this, we select the bottom of the crank case and start a new component by right-clicking on the case in the browser. Then we start a sketch on the inner bottom surface of the crank case and draw a circle of 85 millimeter diameter concentric to the first cylinder and then finish the sketch. Now we have to extrude the circle area. We choose, for example, 70 millimeter. In the next step, we hollow out the piston and give it a wall thickness of five millimeter. Then we start a sketch on the y side plane of the piston to make a cut out for the piston pin, which later connects piston and connecting rod. For example, we choose a diameter of 30 millimeter and dimension the circle with 35-millimeter to the lower edge, so that is centered. We also link the center point with a horizontal constraint to the center point of the piston. The piston, or simply move the little in 3D space beforehand to make it easier to draw. Then we extrude the cut out in 3D mode, creating an opening. Finally, we round off the upper and lower edges of the piston with two millimeter. We will dispense with piston rings and further detailing for reasons of complexity and time. Instead, we will continue with the connecting rod and the piston pin and will then simply copy the other required components for the other cylinders, since they are identical. For the connecting rod, we once again create a new component. Sketch the following cross-sectional profile of the connecting rod on the y set plane of this new component. We will first start with the two eyes. The upper connecting rod, I should have a diameter of 30 millimeter inside and 40 millimeter outside. For the lower connecting rod, I sketch circles with 50 millimeter inside and 80 millimeter outside. Then we set the two centers vertically to each other and dimension the distance as 165 millimeters. Then we draw two vertical lines, 65 millimeter long, each of which should have a horizontal distance of 10 millimeter from the center of the upper connecting rod iron. We complete the profile with two tangential arcs, each of which should have a radius of 115 millimeter. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00, 00 00, 00. This is done. We can finish the sketch and extrude the connecting rod by 20 millimeter. To ensure that the transitions are not too extreme, we can round off the transitions in the area of the connecting rod at the bottom and top with 20 millimeter. Also around the edges of the two surfaces with one millimeter each. This connecting rod is also a significantly simplified model. Normally, a connecting rod looks like the following one in this picture. In the lower area, it is divided into two parts. The geometry is more functional and there would also be some bearing shells which would sit in the lower eye. Let's then draw the piston pin first before linking the connecting rod to the piston. To do this, we create a new component and draw a circle of 30 millimeter diameter on its y set plane, which we then extrude 77.5 millimeter symmetrically and hollow out to a wall thickness of three millimeter. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00, 00, 00 00. Then we first mount the connecting rod to the piston pin by selecting the following points as joint origins and selecting the join type revolute. And then we mount the package of pin and connecting rod into the piston. We do this with the help of a lateral joint origin on the pin and in the middle of the pin opening on the piston. A little patience is required here until the two correct joint origins are selected or found. Especially pay attention to the correct alignment of the axis at the joint origins. In the penultimate step of this lesson, we copy the already connected group of piston, connecting rod and piston pin three more times. To do this, we select three components in the browser after naming them and copy them with CTRL, C, CTRL, we, we paste them into the design environment. We do not need the window that opens, therefore, just closing. The components have been inserted concurrently. That means we must first bring them to view by simply moving each component with the mouse. After sorting the components, create the same joints for the copied components as in the first set of pistons, connecting rods, pins. In the last step of this chapter, we'll link the persons in the cylinder so that they can only perform a linear movement in the cylinder. To do this, we, for example, select the center of the upper piston surface and the center of the cylinder has joined the regions and join type slider. We proceed in the same way with the other three persons. By the way, by right-clicking on a joint and selecting Edit Joint Limits. We could also define a maximum and minimum for the movement range. That means limits in which the piston may move. But since this is set by the connection to the crankshaft and connecting road anyway, we don't need it here. Gradually it's getting quite full of joints and their display can be a bit of a distraction. So I'm just highlighting them at the moment and only putting them back in when I need them. Now, we're almost done with our very simple four-cylinder internal combustion engine. In the next lesson, we will draw the crankshaft. Let's go. 17. Design Project IV: 4-cylinder engine (Part 4: Crankshaft & Assembly): Before we start with the crankshaft in this lesson, first hide all components that are not needed. Only the crankshaft housing should remain. Then we will start a new component for the crankshaft. In the end, the crankshaft should look something like this picture. Of course, we will do the crankshaft in a somewhat simplified way. We start a new sketch in the side view on the y set plane of the new component. Then we draw the first crankshaft journal, simple circle of 65 millimeter diameter, and set a concentric constraint. In 3D mode, we extrude this circular surface and select a distance of 20 millimeter and one direction and confirm with OK. Since our crankshaft is to be symmetrical, we will draw only 1.5 of it for the time being, and we'll simply mirror it later. On the y side plane. We will build up the crankshaft section by section using extrusions. You can also think about how you could construct the crankshaft using the revolve command. That means as a rotational part and whether this is possible at all. We start the sketch on the previously created shaft journal for the next section, the first crankshaft part. For this, we create two circles, one with 70 millimeter in, one with 160 millimeters diameter at a distance of 45 millimeter from each other, including a vertical constraint between the two centers. The center of the upper cervical should also be 40 millimeter vertical from the center of the shaft journal and sit in line with it. That means be vertically constrained. Then we draw two connecting lines and dimension them vertically with 60 millimeter length n by means of parallel dimension with 30 millimeter to be up a circle center. In the last step, we use the trim function to cut away all superfluids, lines and sections. Then we extrude this crank shaft part by 22 millimeters. In the next step, we draw the shaft journal for the connecting rod on this part. For this, we draw a 50 millimeter circle, which should sit concentric to the upper curve of the crankshaft. We need a dimension of 16 millimeter for the extrusion. Now we could draw a part by part and Chef channel by Chef channel on top of each other as a 2D sketch and extrude them, just as we have done up to this point. However, it is much easier now to use the existing half. Again. Chef channel of the first connecting rod. This body represents 1 eighth of the entire crankshaft. In the following, we will skillfully use the mirror function to save us some work. So far, the second crankshaft hot and adjacent shaft channel sections. We simply mirrored the first body by selecting it. In the Options window, you may need to select bodies as the type selection and choose the side surface of the half crankshaft journal as the mirror plane. At operation. In the options. We can leave, join for this step because we want to get only one buddy and the new part is already aligned correctly. That means the second eighth of the crankshaft is done. For the next second eight. We mirrored the previously created crankshaft part in this step, once again, select the body, select mirror plane, in this case, the side of the shaft channel that rests in the crank case. Now however, we have to make a small change in operation since we want to create a new body for the time being. So select new buddy, Hawaiian, new buddy. Because as we can now see, this quarter of the crank shaft has to be rotated 180 degrees around, in this case, the x axis, so that it is in opposition to the other quarter. Otherwise, all pistons would run in the same way. But only two of the four pistons may always be in the same position. For this reason, we have created the new buddy because otherwise we would not be able to rotate this quarter of the shaft in independently of the other four rotation, we simply use the command move, copy from the menu modifier. Then we simply have to select and erosion for the move or in our case, the rotation. To do this, we had the first body of the crankshaft to better select the center of the crankshaft journal of the second body as the origin. We need the center of the shaft journal of the main bearing. Now we could move the body by means of the arrows, or in our case, rotated with the small knob. We need 180 degrees. So half a turn. Confirm with OK. We see that the shaft journals for the connecting rods are now correctly positioned. Before we continue, we will extend the shaft journal of the crank shaft, which is a bit too short due to the mirroring. This can be easily done without a 2D sketch using extrude or press pool. Simply select the command, select the surface and pull the error. For example, 30 millimeter long. Now we want to join the two existing parts of the half crankshaft again to reunite the two bodies. For this, we use the function combined from the menu, modify, select, buddy and command in the options add operation, select, join and press. Okay. This approach has saved us quite a bit of work. To continue an exponential speed, we double our half finished crankshaft one last time. This time, we can again leave, join instead of new body as the connection type. Since the alignment is correct, with one click, the crankshaft is finally almost finished. What is still missing? First, a few floods, which we would like to make as follows. Ten millimeter at the edges of the transitions in the lower areas of the parts. And five millimeter at the edges of the transitions in the upper areas. We could have also integrated these flips into that 2D sketches. And then three millimeter foods for the edges on the sides faces and Chef journals. To do this, simply select all side faces. In addition, the choice to the crankshaft housing is still missing. To create it, we simply select the first joint origin centered on the shaft journal with which we started. And select the secondary region centered on middle crankshaft journal. As Join Type, we select revenue. Perfect. Finally, all components for our simplified engine model are done. At the end of the chapter. We would of course like to link all the connecting rods, the crankshaft, and let our engine run in virtual mode. Final sprint. For a better overview, we will only show the connecting rods of the individual to Linda's one after the other and link them to the crankshaft. Before we do this, we will have the crank case. The Creation is rather unspectacular center. The first joined the region in the lower i of the connecting rod and sent to the secondary region on the shaft channel of the crankshaft. The join type in this case is cylindrical. Then a warning appears because we have selected the join type revolute for the piston and a lateral movement will therefore not be possible. However, we do not need the sphere and the warning can therefore be ignored. In reality, however, a slide sideways plays is necessary, but by far not as much lateral play as we would have in our model. We proceed analogously for the other connecting rods. When everything is connected, we can first show all parts and make the crank case transparent with the right-click on its body and the selection of opacity control. According to taste. For example, 30%. We can do the same for the oil pan and sudden the head if we want to. At the end of the chapter, we want to run our engine will generally, if we have placed all the joints correctly, this should be no problem. To do this, we search for the joint between the crankshaft and the crankshaft housing and right-click on it. We then select animate model and buckle up, please. The engine runs. Respect. If you got this far, you can really be proud of yourself. By the way, you can end the animation of the choice simply by pressing the Escape key. Before we move on to the next sections of Fusion 360, we will first have a look at the surface and sheet metals menu tabs from the design section in the following chapters. 18. Surface: In the design project, we have exclusively worked in the solid tab. This is probably the tab you will use most often. In a surface tab, you can only work with surfaces. The difference to solid is basically only the thickness of the construction elements. In fact, however, we are dealing with actual surfaces. In principle, the procedure for creating such surfaces is analogous to a solid section. That means when you start a 2D sketch on a desired plane, you will find the identical tools in a 2D environment, as in the solid tab. If you now draw a line and the rectangle, for example, you can then create a surface in 3D mode using the extrude function, which is familiar to us. As you will notice, the element has no depth, thickness because as mentioned, it is only a surface element. You will find many familiar functions in the create section, as well as in the Modify section. There are also a few new commands here and there, such as stitch and onstage. Using stitch, you can very quickly turn a closed surface shape into a solid body. That means you could model a complex surface and the surface area and then transform it into a solid body using the stitch or onstage command. Let's try this on a spherical surface. To do this, draw a half of a circle on any plane and rotate it 360 degrees in the surface area. As we can see in the section view, we have only created a spherical surface. However, we can turn this into a solid body by using the stretch command and selecting the surface, all surfaces. For a more complex part. If we activate the section view again, we see this through the hatching, which indicates a solid body. The command and Stitch would work analogously in reverse application with extent or stretch. On the other hand, you could extend individual surfaces. Since I personally do not need the surface modeling very often, this short introduction should suffice. The only thing you have to remember is that for surfaces, you should always use the tab surface and that it can be used relatively analogous, tap solid with regard to functions and commands. You can use the surface modelling methodology. For example, if you want to recreate a complex shape from surfaces, that means if you want to create only the shell of a part, because the part would be difficult to build up as a solid body and afterwards turn it into a solid part. In other words, surface takes on meaning only for solids with complex structures. Because you can then use many small individual surface elements to better model very complex shapes. 19. Sheet Metal: Let's turn to designing sheet metal. This is of great importance. If you want to design sheet metal. The commands and functions in this tab are designed for this purpose. Of course, you could also use solid to design sheet metal. But you will see in a moment why you should rather work with sheet metal for this purpose, a firsthand. It makes it much easier to deal with bends, flanges, flat patterns, and other sheet metal specific elements and features. If you want to design a bent sheet metal element such as this element, you will need a cut piece of sheet metal and basic form, which you would then bend or machine into shape and real life. This basic shape, also called flat pattern, can easily be created in Fusion 360 in this section, after simply designing the already bent sheet metal, this means that you design the desired finished sheet metal body and then simply have the software generate the unfolding. That means that geometry for the production. Let's look at this using the previous example. The procedure for the design is very similar, but a bit different compared to working in the solid section of the program. Let's go. For the base element. We create a sheet by starting a new sketch on a plane. We then draw, for example, a rectangular profile for the space element. At this point, we would normally use the extrude command, but we won't do that here in sheet metal. This is one of the biggest differences in sheet metal design. Instead, we're building our sheet metal body using the flange command. To do this, select the command and the sketch profile. You just have to click on it. The thickness is already pre-selected. We will see why it is and how you can change the thickness in a moment. On the left in the browser, you can see that the symbol has now changed to sheet metal and the rule element has been added. This contains the material and all important sheet metal and specific parameters for sheet metal constructions, such as the K factor or bending conditions. If necessary, you can switch to a different material here. To edit the sheet metal rules, you need to look for this element and the Modify section. You can now change all relevant values with a click on the small pencil icon, but it is recommended to only adjust the sheet thickness and to ask your sheet supplier for the parameters or to leave them with the default values. What's next? In order to complete the sheet metal example, we use the flange command for the further steps. In the following, we always select edges or sketches. Since our sheet metal is relatively simple, we simply select the lateral edge of the basic element and pull it up by grabbing the displayed arrow. As you can see, the program now immediately creates the material with the correct bend in the Options window on the right side, you can change all important parameters. For example, that bending angle or the bending position. That's also construct the other missing elements of our exemplary sheet. Instead of edges. We can also say sketched profile with clench. If you want to add a smaller element of a desired length for a line is already sufficient for this purpose. By the way, you can also use matching commands from the other sections, such as combined from the solid tip to reunite the sheet metal sections into one buddy. Further processing, such as creating a hole or chamfers or H fillets, would in turn proceed as usual. In the sheet metal area, there are three more important functions that we would like to take a look at. The first is the band command, the second is the unfold command, and the third is to create flat pattern command. The band command can be used to create append. This is as simple as it sounds. For example, if you want to bend an element of the sheet body at a specific line, simply draw a band line where you want to bend the body in a 2D sketch on the face of the element. Then select the band command From create in sheet metal, as well as the surface to be bent and the band line. Now you can bend the sheet metal along this line in the desired orientation. In order to create and flat pattern from our sheet metal for the manufacturing documents, we can on the one hand use the unfold command from the Modify section. To do this. First select the sheet metal section that should remain stationary. That means around which part of the sheet metal should be unfolded. For example, this one. In the Options bar, select, unfold all bands, to select all bands, or individually select any bends you want to unfold. For the actual production documents, however, you should use the Create flat pattern command from the create section. To do this, you again select a stationary section and are then transferred to the flat pattern workspace. If everything fits, click on Finish and you will see that generated flat pattern and the browser on the left. You can then export the flat pattern for production or create a technical drawing from it. That's it for the design section and cut design. Great job so far. Be sure to keep going to learn to take full advantage of Fusion 360. In the next section, we will first look at Render and animation before moving on to simulation. And the other sections. 20. Rendering in Fusion 360: In this part of the course, we will deal with the two sections, render and animation. You will need these two sections whenever you want to present your individual parts or assemblies in the form of photos or in the form of a video. These sections are good for a product presentation, for a website, for a meeting, or simply for showing to family and friends. It is so to speak, and integrated photo and firms to do for your designs. In this lesson, we will start with the render environment, which you can select from the main menu. At the top-left, we will use one of our design projects. For example, the cup with a handle. As you can see, the breadcrumb environment is once more very identical to what we already know. On the left is the browser and at the top, the render tab with the individual functions or commands. New is the rendering gallery in the lower area where we can access the rendered graphics. By the way, rendering simply means that a graphic or image is generated from the geometric information of the cat component. Of course, you could also just take a screenshot if you are in a hurry. However, are rendered graphic will be quite different in resolution and realism, but we'll also take more time to create. Let's just try it step-by-step. First, of course, you can hide all the elements you don't want by clicking on the little icons in the browser. But this is not necessary in our case because we only have a single part. In the second step, we can change the appearance of our object. We can use this to apply a certain texture or materials to our entire design object, which has two individual surfaces. A verity of materials are available to choose from. For example, we could simply have the cup represented in bronze. Simply select the material or another appearance and then drag it onto the body or surface while holding down the mouse button. Perfect, by the way, the final result will first be shown when everything is rendered. With the Scene Settings button, we can then edit our scenery, the background, and the environment. Here you can select a predefined setting from the environment library. For example, a warm light and change specific settings, such as the position of the shadow or the background color, or adjust the camera perspective in settings. It is best to dry out many different settings by yourself so that you can find something that suits you best. With the command decal, we could put an image, for example, a label on our cup. Simply select a suitable image from your own collection. Select a surface on which it should be placed on. And then use the options or the arrows and cursors to adjust its size and position. With the command in canvas render, we can create a quick view of the rendering in the program environment. And with capture image, we can create a screenshot. However, the actual rendering started with the random command. Simply click on the teapot and entered the desired settings. Before that, you need to save the project. You can choose between several preset resolutions or specify your own at customer. The higher the resolution and render quality, the longer it will take at random with, we can simply choose local so that our own PC provides the computing power. Then simply start the rendering and wait. The file and progress will be shown at the bottom of the rendering gallery. By clicking on it, you can open the rendered graphic and safe or deleted. As you can see, the position also plays a big role. That means how you rotate and move the design object is how it will eventually be rendered. That's it for rendering. There's not much more to talk about for this part of the software. We will continue with the animation environment and then move on to a more exciting topic. 21. Animating in Fusion 360 : We use the model of our four-cylinder engine to discuss the possibilities of the animation part of the program. As you can see, the environment is structured as we are already familiar with it. The only difference being that the animation timeline is located in the lower area. We first tide the cylinder head and the old pen for a better appearance. We would now like to create the kind of video in which the pistons move up and down. And it is zoomed into a few different positions. Unfortunately, we can't make it as easy as in the design environment. And just animate the joint of the crankshaft. Because joints are unfortunately not shown to us in animation, but only components. That's also the reason why we only want to animate the pistons. If you want to capture the whole engine running in a video, the easiest way is to animate the crankshaft joint in the design environment as we had already done. And then to create the screen casting video from it. That means a screen recording with external software. Otherwise, the animation is very complex, as you will see in a moment. Back to animation. For the animation, we have to give each individual component a movement. By the way, we are trained independent and the direction of the movement. To make a movement, we use the command transform components from the section transform. The first step is to hide all other components so that only the crank case and piston remain displayed. Before we start, we must then set the cursor in the timeline to a duration, for example, to two seconds, because that is how long the first scene should list. If we zoom into the model after setting a duration, we will notice that the recording feature will be created automatically. This always happens when we have selected a time duration and make movement in the program environment or a component shift or another action to the scene. This feature already reflects, for example, assuming in we can play it with a click on play. If you don't want this, use the view button. This will suppress the recording function. But first, to the initial movement of the pistons. For the first movement, we select the command transform components and two of the pistons, each at the same height. We either trace the movement with our mouse or enter a value with a keyboard, in this case, plus 80 millimeter in set direction for the first two pistons as they should move upwards. This movement takes two seconds, since we are at two seconds in the timeline for the movement of the other two persons. We must now remain at this 2 second mark and the timeline for the time being, since all components must move at the same time, we select the other two pistons and enter minus 18 millimeters in the set a direction at transform components as they should move downwards. If we then press Play, we can watch the first scene. For the second scene, we need the exact opposite movements. That means for the first two pistons minus 80 millimeter, and for the other two plus 18 millimeter. To do this, we first set the timeline to four seconds, since this movement should again last two seconds exactly following the first movement. We have to repeat the whole thing for as long as the video is supposed to last. Quite complex, isn't it? In these four seconds, we would like to finally add a Zoom or a change in view. For this, we stay with her for a second on the timeline and simply execute the Zoom or view movement we want to have done is to short animation. Click on Publish. We could save our video with the desired settings. 22. Introduction to FEM Simulation and simulation of a simple single part: We would like to use the carabiner created in one of the previous design projects as a sample to get to know the simulation environment of Fusion 360. With simulation, we can simulate loads and we'll get values such as resulting stresses or displacements. As a result. That means in simple terms, for example, the bending of the component under an applied load. To do this, we open the file and then switch to the simulation menu infusions selection option at the top left. The first window that appears is new study. A Rican select which simulation we want to run. For example, we can choose to simulate static stress, thermal stress, or nonlinear static stress. In this beginner's course, we will only focus on what is probably the most common application, static loading. Therefore, we select this one. With a click on Create study, we start a new so-called load study. This study is then displayed with all relevant options and settings on the left and the browser under the folders of the object. In the simulation area, there is only the setup menu tap, and in the upper menu bar where we make all the settings we need for the simulation. If you want to have different loading situations calculated. For example, if you want to simulate two different forces. We can also create several studies. For this, we would simply click on New study. We now proceed in five steps for the simulation of a component. This procedure is relatively identical for each study, only the content of us. Before we start with a load study, we first consider whether it makes sense for us to simplify our components somewhat. This makes sense if we had a geometrically very complex component or a large assembly with many components that will not contribute to the computation. The more complex the analysis, the longer the computation time. In our case, however, we can leave the geometry as it is. The second step is to check if the correct material is assigned to our part. To do this, we use the materials menu. Clicking on study materials opens a window that shows us the respective materials for all components. In this case, we have only one material because it is a single part. Depending on what we selected as the material during the design process, we will see the material displayed at name still selected by default. It study materials. We can now select the material of the part for this study. Currently it is set to same as model. So the actual material of the object will be used for our load study. That means deal. If we want to select a different material for, say, different loading study, we simply select it from the drop-down menu. Alternatively, we could also change the material and the design environment, but this will be more cumbersome for multiple studies. For this simple snap book, we select aluminum, the material for the analysis. Since still would have a far too high Young's modulus for the snap hook to open. That means it will offer too much resistance to deformation. With a click on properties, we can also display the preset material properties such as density, Young's modulus and so on. The third step before we can start solving the computation is to select constraints and contacts for the simulation. Contacts are only needed for an assembly with several components. Because with contacts, we define the load transfer between the individual components. That means the connection between the components. But we will look at that in more detail in the second simulation example. At this point, we only need to define constraints. Constraints simply represent bounding conditions in the simulation section, it means at which points are surfaces, our component is fixed in space or how, or where it is mounted. Imagine it in a very practical way. You would take the carabiner in one hand and press its back against the palm of your hand. Therefore, we select the back surface of the carabiner as a support. For this, we create a constraint with the command structural constraints. We can choose between fixed pin frictionless and the one. For the carabiner, we choose fixed as the simplest constraint and assume as a simplification that it applies in all directions. So the carabiner does not move a bit in the palm of the hand. Then in the fourth step, we need a load. Of course, we consider how the carbene is actually loaded. Prison geometry. The front element of the carabiner is loaded by pushing so as to widen the opening of the Caribbean. For example, to insert a rope. For example, one will press with the index and middle finger against the upper edge of the carabiner. That means just before the opening. For the simulation of this load, we select the command loads or structural loads. And as type force. We could also apply a pressure, a moment, or other load depending on the situation. Then we select the front upper rounding of the carabiner just before the opening and enter a value of 100 Newton as force. For example, this corresponds to a load of about 10 kilogram. By the way, a man can apply up to 500 newtons of force. That means approximately 50 kilogram. Let's assume a perpendicular direction of force on the surface. But we could also change the direction of the force vector if needed. Then we have almost everything complete. In the last fifth step, we have to have a mesh generated before we can start the computation and get the results displayed. With the FEM method. The computation is performed using a mesh with nodes which is placed over the solid body. We do this by right-clicking on mesh in the browser and selecting generate mesh on the left side. The generated mesh will then be displayed to us. You can actually skip this step because the software will automatically generate the mesh during a calculation. Anyway. Afterwards, we can start the computation and we'll get the results by pressing the button at the top. By the way, with the pre-check, we could check beforehand if all relevant data for the computation have been defined. That means constraints and loads have been set. Then we can have this calculation solved on the Cloud or locally. Use the Cloud in case local does not work. When the computation is successfully completed, the results are displayed to us. After the computation, we are first given general information about the load study in the result details window, the minimum safety factor is displayed, as well as recommendations on how we can improve the safety factor on weekend. And if it is too low or too high, a safety factor of less than one means that the material will fail under the load. And the safety factor of more than one means that the material will safely withstand the load. If the safety factor is much too high, we can speak of over-engineering and may save unnecessary material by making the component thinner, for example. This factor is also shown graphically when we close the Job Status window. The color gradient displayed on the component indicates which safety factor is present, in which area the safety factor is lowest in the area of the lower curvature of the component. This was to be expected with this application of load, the stress and the component will also be highest at this area. If the snap hook breaks when it is opened, it will first break somewhere in this area. To display the stresses or displacements, we open the small drop down menu and the color scale area below load case. We can display stress, strain, displacement and reaction forces, as well as make other options and change units. If we look at the phone Misses stresses, we see that there is probably about 189 megapascal of stress in the inner curvature of the carabiner. When showing the displacement, we see that we could open the carabiner by approximately 2.2 millimeter in the y-direction with the applied force. On the one hand, this is graphically exaggerated, and on the other hand, it is of course, too little to open the carabiner. We would therefore have to apply more force and if necessary, reinforce our carabiner and a lower area if the safety factor we're no longer sufficient. Perfect. That was the first part of simulation. With this knowledge, we can already simulate a simple component with a defined load situation. In the second part, we'll take a look at simulating our engine model. Stay tuned and proceed. It will be exciting. 23. FEM simulation of an assembly: In this chapter, we want to deepen our knowledge and skills in simulation by means doing an assembly simulation. There are a few small differences to consider in comparison to individual parts. We will choose the four-cylinder engine to get to know them. For this, we start a new static stress study to the engine. Before we start, we will first simplify the model for our purposes, we want to simulate the forces acting on a piston. And for this, we consider only one person with a single piston pin connecting rod and the crank shaft. Therefore, we will remove all other components. I have already prepared this. You can do it easily with the command, simplify from the menu bar. To do this, we select command and then select one or more redundant components in the browser. And after right-clicking, select the Remove command. Finally, we close the area with finished simplified. The simulation of an assembly runs a relatively identically to the simulation of single parts. That means we first have to think about simplifying the model again, which we have already done. Then choose the right material. In our case, we'll leave the material for all components. Pings, deal. That's what we chose by default in the design. In the next step, we need to define the constraints and contacts. We had already covered what constraints are and how we define them in the previous chapter. In this chapter, however, we also need contacts because we need to determine how the load that we later want to apply vertically from above to the piston surface is transferred via the components. So context is used to define the load transfer between the individual components. That means the connection between the components. There are two possibilities for this. We can have automatic contacts generated by the program itself, or we can use manual contacts. That means generate all contacts by ourselves. In general, it has proven to use automatic contacts first and to subsequently check them manually and if necessary, modify them. Once we have created automatic contacts, we can see the created connections by clicking on Manage Contacts. In our case, we need connections between piston and piston pin, between piston pin and connecting rod, and between connecting rod and crank shaft. If we click on the small pencil icon of a created contact, we can edit it. We can select the contact type in the general settings. There are six basic contact types available. Automatic contacts has the type bonded selected by default, which corresponds to a fixed or bonded connection state. In our case, we will leave all contact tat said two bonded to perform a simplified analysis on our anyway, simplified model. However, we will briefly look a little more closely at how we will select the correct content-type for a more detailed computation. To do this, it is important to know the motion sequences of a model. In our case, for example, we know that the connecting rod is mounted rotationally in the two connecting rod eyes, which means that rotary motion must be possible here. It is also important to know the individual contact types. You can choose between bonded separation, sliding, rough, and offset bonded. Bonded, as already mentioned, reflects a fixed connection. It is like being glued together with ofs appended. It is nearly the same with the difference that you can set an offset between two components for preventing the bodies from touching each other. Separation allows bodies to move away from each other during loading, sliding allows components to not move away from each other, but the surfaces can move tangentially to or from each other. That means slide on each other. Rough ultimately allows full or even partial movement apart from each other, and in reality approximates a joint with very high static friction. In our model, however, we only use automatic contacts with the type of bonded in this beginner's course. What are we still missing for our calculation? Exactly constraints. That means the fixation in space, as well as the load that is applied. As constraints, we select all crank shaft surfaces with which the crank shaft is mounted in the crank case. We fix them in all directions and select this type fixed. That means we simulate in this case that the crankshaft does not move normally, it would rotate. However, we only want to simulate a static and not a dynamic case. Finally, we define a load perpendicular to the piston surface. For example, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0. We could generate the mesh, but with a quick console, the program will do it automatically. After the model has been successfully solved, we can once more display the desired results, such as stress, strain or the safety factor. In our case, we can see how the connecting rod would deform on the load. Of course, this is very exaggerated. By the way, with the help of the scale on the right side, we can also limit the display range and thus, for example, only display the areas of very high stress. Very good. That should be enough to get us started in the world of FEM simulation with Fusion 360, you have learned how to perform a load study on a single part and on an assembly. More advanced case studies and other applications are beyond the scope of this beginners course. Look forward to continuation in the advanced course. But don't worry, the course doesn't end here. In fact, in the next lesson, we'll get into another exciting feature of fusion 360 will now look at the manufacturer section, which allows you to optimally plan the protection of parts. 24. Manufacturing (CAM) in Fusion 360: Welcome back. In this penultimate lesson of the course, we will deal with Cam. Cam is the abbreviation for computer aided manufacturing and describes the computer aided planning of the production of a component which is manufactured, for example, with the help of a CNC machine. One of the main function of the manufacturer area is to create toolpath for tools. We can then export these, for example, as a cheat code and sent them to the tool, for example, the C and C. Let's have a look at it in this lesson with an example. To do this, we will first build a very simple part and then take a look at the menu bars and functions of the manufacturer area. Make the very simple example part using the following dimensions. And as shown below. Then we switch to the manufacturer area and first take a look at the menu bar. In the upper area, there are the menu tabs, milling, turning, additive, inspection, fabrication, and utilities. In the areas moving to additive, you will always find the command or function setup, as well as important commands for the respective manufacturing type. In the following, we will deal with production planning for our example. To do this, we need to switch to the milling tab since we want to move a pocket into the component. First we have to create a setup. That means make general specifications well as select our semi-finished product. That means the initial material. In the setup area, we first select our machine. Here as an example, a three-axis machine, then the operation type, we need milling. Another important setting is the placement and orientation of the work piece coordinate system. Wcs orient the coordinate system so that it makes sense for the particular operation or machine. For mulling, for example, the set axis should point upwards and the x and y axis define the milling plain. In our case, the orientation is already color correct. For the origin, we choose a point at the edge of the part. Then we switch to the stock area in the setup command menu and enter some data about our semi-finished material. Here, depending on the selected mode, we can make specifications for the size of the semi-finished part. For example, we can use fixed size box to enter, define dimensions, and specify where the model should be located within the semi-finished material. Since we do not want to edit the outer surfaces of our material and assume that we have already cut the correct dimensions we select from solid and the part. Our virtual cat model for the milling is now identical to the outer dimensions of our semi-finished material. We can then exit the setup menu. We select the suitable command in the 2D area in order to determine the working path of the milling tool for the creation of the 2D pocket. As we can see, there are a wide variety of commands here. And it's best to take a closer look at them one by one. In our case, we need the 2D pocket command with which you will create the path of the moon tool for the pocket. A menu opens in which we have to make a few settings. First, we select the suitable moving tool in the tool area. You can either choose one and the Fusion 360 library or create your own. In this case, I'll select the 50 millimeter flat end mill as an example. Then in the lower section, cutting data, the most suitable process parameters are suggested to us depending on the material and the type of machining. For example, we want to mill aluminum. The cut ahead displayed in transparent hovers over our workpiece coordinate system origin. In addition, parameters for the tool settings have also been applied. If desired. This can of course also been modified individually. Then we have to determine which cavity we want to fill out at geometry. In the next step, heights. We have to define the heights in which the tool is to move for the operations clearance, retract, and feed during manufacturing of the part. Depending on the milling machine, usually just these values. In our case, we can leave the default values in the next two sections. Further, special settings can be made. Each field shows a short explanation when you hover over it, or when you select an option. Search for further important settings for your individual project as required. If you don't have any background knowledge in milling, turning, or CNC machining. You should leave the manufacturer area alone for the time being anyway. But first enroll in the basic course for these manufacturing technologies. In our case, we'll leave the other settings as they are. Then we can display the tool and it's working path by first selecting the created 2D pocket operation in the browser with a right-click and the selection of Simulate, which you can also find in the top menu. We can also view an animation of the manufacturing process. We're really good. We could machine the first component. For this. We only have to create the G-code, that means the code for an emission. We do this with the command post-process in the top menu bar. In this window, we first select the correct configuration for production type and machine and assign a name. Then we can specify a location and create the cheat code for machining. The other options of the manufacturer area will not be discussed in more detail in this beginner's course. This would not be useful without adequate background knowledge of the individual manufacturing technologies and types and would go beyond the scope of the course. However, it should be mentioned that operations for turning and 3D printing, as well as for five axis CNC machines can also be created here. Fusion 360 offers numerous and very helpful functions for these purposes. For the very exciting topic of 3D printing, I recommend that you take a closer look at my course, 3D printing 101, in which you will learn in detail and step-by-step all the necessary hard and software for 3D printing. If we don't manufacture a part in-house. Fusion 360 also gives us the option of creating technical drawings that we can then pass on to a manufacturing company. We'll see how that works in the next and also final chapter. Before we finished. 25. Drawing in Fusion 360 & Credits: Welcome back to the last chapter of this fusion 360 cause. As mentioned in the previous chapter, if you don't want to or can't manufacture apart by ourself, for example, because we don't have the machines to do so. We can create technical drawing for a manufacturing company. To do this, we first add to ten millimeter holds to our simple model, which are supposed to go through the component. In order to create a technical drawing from this cat model, we switch to the tab drawing from design in the main, in the main menu. First we select the general drawing settings. That means we may use a template or we start with an empty template. It is also important to set the units and the paper size. The program then takes us to the technical drawing environment. And the first step, we have to place the basic view of the component on the drawing. To do this, we select the orientation of the view. For example, the top view, that means top and scale the drawing view as desired. For example, slightly larger. We placed the first view by simply clicking anywhere on the sheet. A technical drawing is created in the form of a three-sided view depending on the folding method. In simple terms, this means that the component is shown from above, from the side and if necessary from the front or back, in order to be able to place all the necessary dimensions and other annotations. In addition, an isometric view is usually added to help with spatial imagination to place a new view, in this case, a derived or protective view on the sheet. We use the protected view command and create a second view by clicking on the component from which we want to derive a view. Depending on where we move our mouse cursor, the reference to you is generated. For example, if you move up or down, the view from the front or back of the component is displayed. And the same applies to the sides. If you move diagonally, we are shown an isometric view. In the top-left menu. We can also create a section view, section you a detailed view, detailed view or break the view, break view. The main dimensioning function is located at the top in the middle area and is called dimension. As usual. Using this function, we can create dimensions for our pod. It is almost the same as creating a 2D sketch, except that in this case, we provide our finished part with dimensions that are already defined and serve as information only for manufacturing. With the elements of geometry, we can furthermore, I'll draw some geometric information, such as a central line or in this case, symmetry lines and circles centers. For the symmetry line, we simply select two parallel lines of the component. And for the circle centers, we simply select the desired holds or circles. By the way, by clicking on the dimensions. We can also edit them or add more data, such as the quantity. Perfect. Now, all information that a company would need for manufacturing is on the drawing. All lengths and widths, as well as the positions of the holes and deepening our dimensions. If special characters are required to specify form and position tolerances, surface finishes our texts. These can be found in the upper right area of the menu bar. By the way, additional sheets can be added in the PAR in the lower area, depending on the space required for drawing. After the title block has been filled with title, drawing number, material and other information. The drawing can be saved, for example, as PDF and printed. Excellent, you've done it. The beginners course ends with this chapter. Now it is your turn to deepen what you have learned and above all, to apply it. You should now have a firm understanding of the most important functions and features of Fusion 360. And you can approach new projects, cat designs, simulations, and everything that goes with them on your own. Congratulations. You have learned all the relevant operations and features in this course. This enables you to design, simulate, render, animate a manufacturer, or have manufactured your own cat files in a quick and easy way. Together, we have accomplished quite a bit in this course. Be proud of yourself if you have made it to this lesson. And as mentioned at the beginning of the course, take a look at 3D printing as well. It's really great and useful to be able to materialize your own designs. This way, you can create parts in home and have a solution at hand for all sorts of no longer available but urgently needed spare parts or anything else. The best way to learn is to use my course 3D printing, 1, 0, 1, and Row today. If you, if you enjoyed this fusion 360 course, it would mean a lot to me and other interested persons if you leave a rating and the short feedback to the course, as well as recommend the course. Thank you very, very much.