Fundamentals of Music Theory: Notes, Scales and Chords | Joe Ghalbouni | Skillshare

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Fundamentals of Music Theory: Notes, Scales and Chords

teacher avatar Joe Ghalbouni, I aim to teach in a fun and useful way!

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Lessons in This Class

5 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Welcome

    • 2. Course Outline

    • 3. Notes

    • 4. Scales

    • 5. Chords

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About This Class

Did you know that reading notes is very easy? Did you know that by learning a few fundamental rules of music theory, you too can compose your own songs? 

If you want a concise and straight to the point course of music theory, look no more! Whatever your musical level is, this class is for you. Together we will learn in depth about these 3 following sections:

  1. Notes
  2. Scales
  3. Chords

which constitute the fundamentals. From there, you will grasp some basic concepts that will allow you to go further in your musical journey.

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Joe Ghalbouni

I aim to teach in a fun and useful way!


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1. Welcome: hi and welcome to fundamentals of music theory. If you're a beginner in music and you're very curious about how to read notes that this course is for you, if you also have some knowledge of music and would like to go forward, this course is for you. If you're also an expert in music, I would like to review all the things that you already know to make sure you're maintaining a perfect knowledge that this course is also for you. I advised discourse for any person who's interested into music. I've been in the music industry myself for more than 15 years, and it was a pleasure preparing this course as it helped me even strengthen mawr. My knowledge. Now this course is gonna be the basic toe, many more courses to come that they will be providing myself. So if you're interested in starting that musical journey with me, then do not hesitate to start this course 2. Course Outline: Hi. Welcome to fundamentals. Off music theory, notes, scales and court. I'm juggle Berkeley certified musician, and I'm gonna take you through the scores in order for you to understand all off these three fundamental points. So the outline that I'm gonna be using for this course is divided into three sections. The first section talking about notes. Why do we use notes? How do we write notes on a musical score? How do we define the duration off each note the pitch off each note, what are accidental and finally intervals, which is the number off tones that separate notes between one another. For the second part, who are going to talk about scales? How do we construct the scale? What's the scale? So we have the major scale, the minor scale relative skills, which is the relationship between scales, the seven modes that we used mostly to define the mood off a song and the pentatonic scale , which is very important scale, mostly for blue songs for rock songs. So there's a whole part of music that was derived from the pentatonic scale. And finally, for the final section, we're going to talk about courts. How do we composed courts like how? What are the notes required in order to compose a court? We have several type of courts major, minor seventh, which are used in jazz. A lot augmented, diminished, suspended courts, suspended courts giving a lot off suspense. Hence their names suspended. Also, we're gonna talk about the 6th 9th 7th 11th and 13th which are, I would not say, exclusively used to jazz, but very, very used in just music. So they're very important to know we're also gonna talk about inverted courts, which, in my opinion, are something amazing in music because it enables us to play a certain court progression and by simply switching one note in that cords. So switching the position off that note, it gives us something completely different. We're also going to talk about the slash compound course, and I'm going to go a bit more in detail about them later on. In the course when reached that part, 3. Notes: So let's start with notes. Why? Notes So notes are basically, first of all, universal way to read and compose music. So just as the alphabet, just as any other language, we need something universal that people agree on in order to read and composed music. So just like you read and write something in the English language or any other language, you need something universal for music. So notes are the way to go, and they're also a common notation for different instruments. So all the instruments can be played using notes off course except the drums or and every percussion which have their own notation. For now, we're talking about instruments such as the piano, the guitar, the heart, the violin, etcetera, which use notes. So these are the two reasons why notes are used and why it's important to know notes Now. Notes are written in what we call a musical score, which is composed off a staff of five lines, as you can see, and it's composed off what we call the click so the clay will situate where the notes are on the staff's who are going to see that a bit later on. But For now, keep in mind that the musical score is comprised off a staff and a clip. So this clay, the 1st 1 is called in French, the clever soul or the geeky, or what we call the travel key. So it defines all the frequencies in the travel region, and the second key is called the Base Key, or Clay Dhofar, or F G, which defines everything in the base region. So, for example, in the piano we use these two keys in order to write a partition for the guitar. We only need the travel key for the bass guitar. We only need the base key for many instruments. We can Onley use the travel key or clear the soul or geeky, and we do not need any other key. The piano is an exception, as I was saying, where we use both off them and the partition is written like this, as you can see on your screen, where you have one part which have the trouble key with a staff of five lines and another which has the base key with the staff off five lines. So basically in the lines that you have right here the far note. We will see notes in a moment. The far notice placed on the second line going from up till down. And the soul note is placed on the second line going from down to up in the case off the travel key. So the G notice here, the F note is here. Okay, So are going to see in a moment all the different notes and how they are placed on the stuff. Now a staff require what we call a time signature, meaning that in each bar, as you can see like this so steps are made off bars so you can have as many bars as you want. Depending on the song that you have each bar need to have a specific time. So if we're using, for example, of 4/4, it means that the bar has four beats. So four times, for example 1234 That's one bar 1234 That's another bar. So off course, these bars are played according to a specific temple for song. Okay, so you have a specific temple, for example. This is the temple that you have. Okay. And then you have 123 floor. 1234 So I just played two bars right here. Okay, so for many off the pop songs and the 4/4 or what we call the common time signature is used a lot. But you also have many different time signatures, such as the 2/2 meaning that have two beats the 3/4, meaning that I have something that was like this. 123123123 I also have the 2/4, which goes like this one to lawn to now for the 6/8. It's an example where we have 8/2 notes who are going to see nor duration also in a moment and where we are playing something that goes like this. 123123123123 So basically we have an emphasis on the first, then reduced impact on the two that follows it. Then another high impact on number four and two reduced one on five and six. So that's about time signatures. There's also something that we have here. Whenever we have a double bar, it means the end off the score. So a double bar means the end off the musical score that we have. So sometimes you might have what we call some repetitions in your musical score. So that's why there is what you call a repeat sign which is written by two points right in front, off a bar right here. So what does that mean? It means that if you're playing that note right here and you reach this bar that you have here, you play it once. And then once you reach this sign, it means you have to repeat. But where do Europe it from is from where the universe off the repeat sign is previously. So you reach this, you play this note, then you reach the dis repeat sign and you go right there and you re play it again. And then you can continue from there if there is any other bars left. Now, in the case where you have a number one and two that you can see right here, what that means is that after you play that note, you reach this bar right here, you play it, then you play this one. There's a repetition so you go there, you play this and you play this one again. Then there's another repetition. You play this note and you skip to the second, and that way you've played the repetition twice. But on the first time, the first bar was playing their petition in the second time, the second bar was played in the repetition. So that's how we use the repeat sign. You're going to see it a lot in scores. It's extremely used. Okay, now concerning the note duration. So how do we define the no duration? You have what we call the breath or double whole note, which means eight times. It means if I have, for example, 4/4 bar. I cannot write this simple one because the 4/4 bar can only contains four beats, so it can only contain the whole note. But if you have, for example, and 8/8 time signature, then you can use this now. This is not very, very used. Okay, so it's not. It's not something that we use a lot in in recent notations, because we do not use times where bars contain eight beats, but you can you can find it sometimes. So it's good to know. Now we have what we call the rest the rest time, meaning that I need to rest without playing anything. So if I see that sign, it means that I have to rest for eight notes. Okay, for eight beats for eight beats for eight single beats, I do not do anything. So, for example, if my temple is like this, do 34 It means that for eight beats, I need to stay silent. So 12345 678 and then I can continue if there are any notes after this science. So off course a breath, which is a double whole notes. So double times four is equivalent to two whole notes. Then we have the whole note, which means four beats a 1234 That's the duration off that note. So, for example, I hit the note and I wait for beats. So Juan 2341234 That's the duration off the north. Okay, the rest It is written, as you can see like this under the second line, counting from here to below. So it's below the second line and it's arrest off forbids. So meaning I do not do anything for four beats. So for the half note it means to beat. So one do. That's the duration off the half note. They have not displaced when there's arrest, as as you can see that symbol above the third line counting from up to down and finally here in the inauguration for that table, we have the court or not, which means the single beat. So the quarter note one. That's the equivalent off the quarter. Not so if you have, for example, not which is fully black. It's 1/4 note, which is fully white. It's 1/2 note or not, that doesn't have any tail, and that is fully white is a whole north and one that has two lines at their left. Another right is a breath or double whole note. And as you can see, the silence for the whole note is a small shaped like a small symbol like this, and it's the equivalent off arrest Now. We also have the eighth note, which is the half off a note. Okay, half a beat, so it's ah, it's when we need some things that are faster. This is the equivalent. Rest time with one small thing and the tail one small dot on the tail. The 16th note is half of the eight note, so it has to dots and the tail. 32nd notes. So three dots on the tail and 64th note four dots on the take. OK, so these are very used when we have things that go a bit fast in a song or, for example, in guitars like solos. Okay, so these are old imitations require in order to know the duration off the time. Now there's also one thing that we use is the dot in front off a note. So here we have used the two time note, but we can use anything that we want. And basically, when we put one dot, it means that I have that note. Plus, it's half so in that case, the half off a to note is one note. So whenever there's a point in front off a to note, it means that not plus its have. If there are two points, it means that note. Plus, it's have plus the half of the half as you can see. And if there are three points, it means that note plus have of it plus half off the half, plus half off the half of the half. Okay, that's about the inauguration, and you can have that point in front off anything here. Okay, So, for example, if I go back to the chart, if I say there's a point in front off the quarter note, it will mean 1/4 note, plus an eighth note. Okay, which is? It's half. If I have, for example, a double point in front of the quarter notes, it will mean that note, plus an eighth note plus half of the eighth note, which is 1/16 note duration. So that's about it for not duration. Now we know how we define time for notes. We have to define now the pitch where do notes stand on a musical stuff. So as I told you previously, when we have the treble key, we know that this not right here is supposed to be the Gino. That's why we call it the geeky or the trouble key. That's where the G is. It tells us where the G is so we can know all the other notes compared to Jeep. So that's how we write, for example, the sea. So you have all the section right here, darling Me, Fassel, Lucido. Now the reason why there's a t here, it's because the old notation off seeing music, Westie or tie if you want in English and in the American system, will you see the e f g ABC? So the A is the law. That's the first note on the sea is the door. The G is the sub. Okay, so C D E f g ABC for the American system. So the sea is written as an additional six line, and the season between the D is underneath the fifth line, counting from Uptil. Down here you have the e in between the line over the line here in between two lines. You have the F on the line. You have G in between the line you have a it's a dresser. That's how your progress with a different bitch. So from sea to deep, you go. You skip between the line from the to to eat. Skip here on the line than in between the line. It's strides through. Okay, now for the base key. We know that here it's supposed to be an f note. Okay, the F note. Fuck. So as you can see here, this is our far note. And then when you go between the line, you have the e. Here you have the G A B, and here we find a way. See that we previously had. So, as you can see right here like this, see, is the same as the one above. So if you have, for example, this chart that we previously had on that slide So if I have the f Okay, I have the G right here. Then I have the A than I have the B. Then I have the sea with the lime and then I continue. Okay, so there's six line in between the base key and the trouble game between the stuff for the base key and the stuff for the trouble key, which will allow me to hit that C note. So now I'm gonna be talking about accident is but first before defining these accidentally that they have here, I'm going to give you the whole table off them. So you have the sharp note the double sharp Note the flat note double flat note on the natural note. So what does each off them mean now? Should look at this one before we have a door and we have what we call the D. Those are old music notation. That's why, for example, the sharp off soul being called C Well, since there was a C for the shop off, not that decided to call this no t. But in music in modern music, we now call that see and this Seoul sharp or G sharp, salty as or Jaisha as simple as that. So, for example, right here when you go from door, Tina, don't Yes, So I simply have a sharp on the dough, meaning I have half tone between, though, and the sharp. And then when I add another half tone between those sharp Andre, I reach the rain out so between, though, and readers if you want a double sharp. So if I put a double sharp in front off, though, than I obtained very okay between Ray and Ray Sharp, there's 1/2 tone between a sharp and the me. There's 1/2 tone now between the me and the father. There is already 1/2 tone. There is no foods don't between the me and the far. And if you look at any keyboard or at any piano, it's where there is no black key between these two keys. So if you have two white kids near each other, you can know for sure that there either me or far or they can also be between siendo between siendo there's 1/2 no half tone and there is no sharps. Okay, so that's how you know how it works. So for the sharp note, I simply if I want to write a sharp note in front off something or a flat note or a double flat note, I simply write the note, and I put the accidental in front of it. OK, now for the natural accidental that I've showed you previously Here. How it goes Sometimes you might have, for example, to hit a sharp not every time. So if I hit, If I write a sharp right here on the line, for example, on the fifth line, it means that every time there's a note on the fifth line, I should plate with a sharp note But let's suppose there an exception for a certain bar or what we call also a measure. There's a certain exception for that bar or measure. Then I can, in that case, right that natural sign in front of it. OK, when I read this natural sign in front of it, it means, Okay, let's not play the sharp version of it. Let's play the natural version of it that does not contain the shop. Okay, so that's about the notation for accidental. Now we're gonna talk about intervals like, what's the tonic distance between different notes? So we're starting with a C right here, and then we have what we call the bike Minor second, which is distance between the sea and the note above with the flat. So it's also the same distance as saying between C and C sharp, so C N. C. Sharp C sharp is the same as having a D Flat, D flat and C sharp sonically are the same. They're the same pitch. Okay, so the difference between the North and its sharp, we said, is 1/2. So this when I have a distance between C and D flat, which is equivalent between C and C sharp. I have half the tone between c nd So notice the natural right here. When I have put the natural, it means that there is no flat anymore. I have the full tone between sea and its minor third, which we call the minor third, because it's very useful for constructing intervals. Or we can call it also be three. It's useful also for constructing court. So between sea and between the e flat, we have 1.5 don't. Now between C and E which is the naturally without any flat we have two tones and so you can take a look at this table off notes right here and you can guess how many tones there are between them. So as you can see here, for example, the augmented fourth on the diminished Fifth for the augmented fourth this sharp note that we have right here, which is a sharp f the sharp f that we have and the sharp and the flat B and the flight. So the sharp f that we have on the flat G that we have our ironically the same there's this . There are the same pitch So that's why there's the same distance between sea and sharp f then between sea and flat g. Okay, so they're they're the same Now we're going to tell me why. If they're the same, why did we write them in a different manner? Because you're going to see that when we construct intervals there a certain formula that we need to respect. And sometime that formula requires us to write the note with a flat rather than the note with a sharp which will have a different meaning. Because, for example, here, if we right as you can see augmented fourth augmented fourth mean that I have the fourth note compared to the tonic one here in that case, the tonic being the sea because tonic meanings, I'm starting from a certain notes. So the notes starting from tonic and taking the fourth note, I'm going to augment that forced Don't. I'm gonna sharp it. So that's what is going on. Mount it forth. But in that case, if I take the fifth note and I flat it, so that's why I have a diminished fifth. So I'm thinking the fifth note and flatten it here. I'm taking the fourth note on I'm Scharping. It so off course in frequencies they're going to be the same. But in construction, they are different. The mathematical calculations off them is different. So that's why I have them in that table right here. So in that musical score right here and then you have the distance between perfect fifth and the tonic tonic and augmented fifth, etcetera until the major seventh. Now, if you invert the positions like if you take for example, instead of putting the sea right ear, you put the sea right here than the distance between these two is going to be equal to this . So you simply have to take these Don't difference backwards. So he was gonna have 5.5 5 4.5 It's Terra until we reach the final one here, which is equal to that which will be half a note and so between a note and it's octave meaning between this C and this C right here we have six full tones or 12 semi tones. Okay, so that's this is between the note and itself at a higher pitch 4. Scales: So now that we have talked about notes, who are going to talk about scales? Scales are if you want the playground on which I'm going to be able to play and construct my different chords or play my different notes. So what am I allowed to play? If I play something outside of the scale, it will sound dissonant. It will sound wrong, like there's something you're playing off June like if, for example, you hear someone and you're saying while that person sings really bad there singing off June, it means that, for example, if the song is on a C major scale, that person ity is ating notes, which are not within the C major scale. Like, for example, if that person is eating an f sharp, it will sound off. You will find that Oh my God, that's not That's not it. That's not in it. There's something off about that way off singing. So it's the playground which were allowed to play with. Now keep in mind that a song can have several scales within it, but not at the same time. Like you could start with the C major, scaled and switch back to an a flat major scale. It's a draw, depending on the harmony within the music. Now, basically, in order to construct a major scale, there should be a certain rule that we have right here. Which means what's the difference between one note on the next? So, for example, if we start with a C note, there should be a whole tone between the sea and its neighbor. So the whole not between the sea and its neighbor will give me a denote. Now there should be a whole not between a D and it's me and it's neighbor, So I will have an E at as the third note a major third. Now, if I go from E to F, I should have 1/2 tone. Is there half tone between and f Yes, that's what we said earlier. There is no if the sharp or no F flat. Okay, so F flat is basically E, and the sharp is basically F, so there's 1/2 tone between them. Remember the piano example where we have no Blackie between them. So here I also need a whole tone between F and its neighbor and G between F and G. there's a whole tone, so that works perfectly. I need between G and its neighbor Ah, whole tone and between G and A. There's a whole town, so that works perfectly. I also need the whole tone between a and its neighbor and between A and B. There's a whole tone, so that works perfectly. And finally, I need the half tone between B and its neighbours between the seven and its neighbor and between B and C. As we said previously, there are no sharp nor flat, so there's a whole tone, and that works perfectly, and that's how you construct your C major scale. So if you want to play the C major scale on a piano, for example, or you have to do in simply hit all the white kids. All the white kids formed the C major scale, while the Black Keys, which are Sharps, do not belong to the C major scale. So if you have a song and you can play it on the C major scale, it will be actually easier to play. Okay, if you are not very familiar with the piano now, let's suppose I want to construct the G major scale. So I start with G, and I apply this rule above in order to know how to construct my major escape. Okay, so that's basically how it works. I have 1 to 2.5 3.5 for and have 5.5 6 Okay, that's how you construct your notes and you construct your scarce so that's for the major scale. And that applies for any tonic that you choose. You can choose any tonic that you want under apply this rule, and you're going to find the appropriate scale. And here it tells you the number off sharps that you have for each one off the major skills off the minor scale. The construction is a bit different. I start with a tonic, Then I use the second than they used to be three. So I need to use half a tone less for the third than I have a perfect for perfect fifth. But they have half a tone here and half a tone here, and finally my octave right here. So between a and B, there's a full tone between BNC 1/2 tone, then between C nd there's a full tone between the Andy of full time between here and there for half tone between F and G, full tone and finally between G and a full tone. So that's another rule that enables us to construct a minor scale. So in that way, you can construct any minor skill that you want once you think the tonic and you apply this rule above. Okay, so just look at the interval between them and just repeat it. And that way you can construct any scale that you want. So I would really advise you to start with a C major scale and with an a minor scale, write them down and then hide these two tables right here and try to do them yourself on a paper and see if you retrieve everything that is written in that table. If you do, then it means you've completely understood what's going on. Now. If we look at mom thing here, we have what we call relative scales, which means scales that are identical yet have a different names. So if we take, for example, the C major scale and the a minor scale, as we can see a minor scale, have the note A, B, C, D E F G, and the C major scale had the note c d E f g ABC, which are actually the same note, but in different order. So we can say that the C major and the A minor have what we call a relative relations. So they are relative scales. Okay, now, another thing that I'm gonna add is if we look at that table right here with the number off Sharps, we can say, for example, that between C Major and G major there's an only difference off a sharp note. So I'm going to go a bit like advance here and tell you that whenever you're composing a song, you can think that switching from a C major scale to a G major scale is actually easier, because there's only one difference in a note. However, switching, for example, from a C major to a B major is gonna be a bit more complicated, harmonically speaking, because there's a lot off accident is that we have to add okay, but it's not impossible, like using the appropriate harmonic transition. We can do that, so that's something a bit more advanced, but that will be very interesting for you to know about. And that's it for relative scale. So here you have the table that tells you it wrote if scale like, what's relative scale for between two, the major and the minor. So, for example, here, if we have a C sharp minor, its relative scale is an e major skate. Okay? Meaning this one has the same notes as this one. Now that we have constructed scales, we need to define modes off escape. So, for example, let's take the C major scale If we write the C major scale by starting with C note on the following notes, we have what we call the I own in Ionian moat. Okay, we have the Ionian mode. If we start from see now we start from D, keeping a C major scale, which now has this formula. We have the f g, ABC, so we're still within the c major scale. But we have switched the position. We are starting with the D. Okay, we're starting with the Diaz, the tonic, but keeping in the C major scale. So now we are in the Dorian mode. Now, if we start with the e we are in the fridge in mood in the FD led in G. The mix led in a the Aeolian and elder law Creon. So, for example, the Friesen mode is extremely used whenever you want to play flamenco music. So you're, for example, on the C major scale and you're hitting, for example, these notes while hitting an a minor chord who are going to see courts in a moment. So suppose you're eating, you're hitting an e minor court and then you're playing some section off notes. You're going to feel like there's a flaming commuted flamenco Spanish mood. Okay, so that's how these different modes can define the mood off a song. The alien song, for example, is extremely used in rock music. So let's suppose you're hitting an a minor chord, and then you're playing that succession off notes, so it will give you like a rock ish moat. Okay, so that's it for the seven months. They're basically annotation how you write the different notes. And if I want to find, for example, the Lydian mode off the G major scale, I simply have to apply this. So I'm going to use the fourth note in the G major scale and apply this succession in order to find the Lydian mode in the G major scale. Now the pentatonic scale basically the pentatonic scale with its name Panta, means five, So it's composed off five notes. It's composed of five notes like, for example, in the major pentatonic scale. I simply take 12356 that I have right here so I can see that the distance between C and D is a full tone between D and E full tone. And then I go from me to G. I do not play the F so there are one and they have tone because between you and if there's 1/2 tone and f n g, there's full tone and then I play between GM Day, which is a full tone. So if you want, you have 11 1.5 1 and that's how you construct a major pentatonic now, in order to construct the Dorian Pentatonic, which is basically the same notes that I have right here but starting with a different order. So here I'm starting with second note. As you can see right here, I'm constructing, said Dorian Pentatonic Nafi. If I want to construct the Dorian Pentatonic for the sea, then it means I have to start with the sea. And I need to go a full tone. I need to go another full toe. Another here. Ah, so So If I want, for example, to construct the Dorian Pentatonic for the C, I have to start with the sea. Then I go with the d with me, which means that I have full tone. But then instead, off going to an E right here. I need to go to an f. So I need to go 1.5 right here between the second and the note right here. So I go between two and four and then I go between four and five and b seven. So if I want to construct the Dorian pentatonic for see, I need to start with C and then the second before the 500 b seven. If I want to use the fridge in pentatonic. Foresee? I need to go. One b 34 B six B five. Now, if I want to keep in the c major scale, I can play all these five month atomic modes, and they're very useful. If your guitar player it means that gives you five positions on your whole neck on where you can play the pentatonic scale so extremely. It's extremely useful for solos, for example. But that's basically about it for the pentatonic scale. Okay, so you have the more at its major the mode to its story on the Moultrie fridge in moat for called the mix of median and mode five minor. So if you look at it like, why is it called Dorian Fridge in mixer Lydia and Minor. So here the sea starts with a C. So we're good here, The Dorian mode. It means that I'm starting with a D. And if you if you remember our previous chart that we have right here, if I start with D, I'm in the Dorian mode now here I'm starting with an E. So I'm in the free gin mode here. I'm starting here. I'm starting with and G here. I'm said here I'm starting with the G. So I'm in the mixer Lydian mode, and here I'm starting with a nay. So I'm in the minor mode or what we call also the Aeolian moat. Okay, so these are the five positions for the pentatonic scale. And if I want to keep the tonic as sea off course, these will change. And this is the mathematics of it. The difference between the notes, the intervals between the note in order to construct the but the tonic scales using the same tonic off course here, each one off them, in that case is a different scale. Here. It's the same skill, but just different positions, okay? 5. Chords: So now that we have talked about different scales, we're gonna talk about courts. So how do we construct court? Scores are basically try it. So they are made of three main notes, and these notes are basically the tonic, the third and the fifth. So what gives the harmony, or what decides if it's a major or minor is mainly the third. The fifth is always a perfect fifth, so it gives us an emphasis on the court. And power courts, for example, in electric guitar are simply a 1/5 and then eighth, so there are no major or minor in a power chord that we use in rock or in guitar. So if we want to give that major aspect we need to add, the third won't give the minor aspect we need to add the flatten third or the B three or the minor third. So for the major court with if we take, for example, see as the root or the tonic, we need to play C and the third and the fifth at the same time to have the court. So it's gonna be see and e n g c e n g together We're from the same major court. If you want the C minor chord, we need to flatten the third. So we need to have C E flat and G. Now we want to have 1/7 dominant. It means that I play the major court and I add flat seven right here, and that's gonna give me a C seven. Now if I want to have a C minor seven, I need to play a C minor and add the flat and seven. And if I want to have a major seven because Major seven and seven dominant are not the same , it means the thing to play a major court, and I need to add a major seven. So not the flat in seven but natural seven. And it would give me a major seven court. So, for example, if I take a look at tear, a major seven chord is allowed in the C major scale. Meanwhile, a B flat here that is present in the seventh dominant is not present in the C major scale. So if I play 1/7 dominant within a C major scale, it would sound off June. But if I play a major seven in the C major scale, it will sound perfect. So keep in mind that seventh chord are extremely used in jazz, and you can be playing, for example, a progression off course and just at the seventh in them. And they will sound completely different, in my opinion, even more beautiful. Now the augmented is what is used on the 5th 1 So when I sharpen the fifth, I haven't augmented. And when I flat in the fifth, I have a diminished okay, so you can try playing them. If you have a keyboard in front off your you can hear them if you go on the Internet and see how they are played and you will see what they sound like. I also have a diminished seventh, which is using a diminished court and flattening twice the seventh. And you also have the half diminished where we have a diminished court and we only flattened wants the seventh. Now for suspended course. There are courts, which are neither major nor minor. They're just court that are suspended like you're waiting. You don't know if it's going to be a minor or a major, and in order to do that. You simply replace the third by either of fourth when you have a spend it fourth or simply suspended, meaning that simply suspended means suspended fourth or a suspended second. Where you playing the second here? So if you're playing for example, on the sea, it means you have to play a D. And then you have to play a G to have your suspended two course, though these these are cords are, as I'm saying, that do not have any major or minor color. But they're very interesting to play in order to give suspense and in order to make somehow to make you prepare to go toe either a minor or a major. Now for the 6th 9th 7th 1/11 and 13th. So it's basically about either adding the six, as you can see right here, or by adding the ninth or adding the seventh with a flat or adding the 9 11 and 13. So you can take a look at this table and you see that each one of them has a name. So once once you see also that this so also pay attention and see that this table right here it's for a tonic. See? So if you want to apply this court, if you want to find the six scored for any other tonics. So, for example, you start with a G. You need to add its third, its fifth and six, and then you're gonna get G six. Okay, so the sixth off the G court. So these formulas right here that you have can be applied for any starting tonic. And that's how you know, on the appropriate transformation for each tonic. Like if I want a G major ninth, then I'm going to start with G. I need to add it. Third it 58 7 and it's nine. And that's how I get a G major ninth. OK, so we have given here the sea as a tonic just for the sake. Off an example. Okay, So as you can see, look how many chords exists or there's not only the major or the minor or not, even just the seventh. There's all of these that are used now. Thes transformation writer are is extremely useful for jazz music, like you're going to find a lot off them in jazz scores and just music in my opinions. One of the most brilliant type of music and its theory is very versatile. So studying jazz music is something that I loved doing. Okay, I love jazz. Jazz is just something very different. Solar. It's a whole another level. And if you come to study, Jazzy was certainly loved. Now regarding inverted courts, Now inverted courts are basically switching the place off the tonic. So let's take this example off A C major courts, you have the sea right here. You have the E and you have the G. So what would happen if I switch the position off one off them? Like, for example, instead off starting with the sea as the base note as the tonic. I'm going to start with the G. Now the court remains the same, but it's going to sound very different. And, for example, if I want to do a progression using the baselines, I could be playing, for example, G major court and then playing C major chord with the G being the tonic, and they're gonna sound totally different than if I go from a G major to a C major. If I go from a gym major to a C major inverted with G. Being the bass note, it's gonna sound completely different than if I go from G major to C major. So here again, this gives you a whole opportunity like a whole new world. In order to write your court progressions. I also have the second inversion where the fifth now is in the base. So here I had the 3rd 1 which is the G, which was the base. And here I can also have a second version where the fifth is the base. OK, so that also gives you a lot off opportunities to do many different things when you're composing your piece off music. Finally, I'm gonna talk about slash or compound courts, which is basically a notation off. What's the root court and what's its base? So, for example, if I have C slash E, it means that I have the first inversion off the C major court where I start with and e. I start with 1/3 as the base and I play the court. So it's an inversion. Now there's something I'm going to go a bit more in compound course, which is not present in that table is when we are playing too court together. Like, let's suppose, for example, that you're playing an a minor and you're playing an F major together, they're going to sound something very new. They're not gonna sound like something you've heard before. So having an F major and then a minor together will give me something very different. Like it's like a plus B equals C. That's something completely new. It's not the same as playing F major alone or us playing a minor alone F major. Plus a minor is also a type of compound cord, and we'll give you something completely different. And you you could also try playing, for example, a G major and E minor together. It will also give you something very beautiful. You could also try to play the inverted versions together. It will give you something really, really nice. So that's an example. Off a compound court. Now, a compound court can be happening also for minors, for seven, for nine, for 13 for anything you can have the court writer, and you can do the inversion like if I write, for example, a C seven. Okay, let's take a look at the C seven that we have right here. If I use the C seven and I tell you slash b flat, it means that the tonic has become the B flat. So it's another inversion. It's neither a first or second inversion. It's an inversion. Using the B seven note to be seven. Note becomes the base, so that also gives you the whole opportunities for own cords that are composed on more than three notes. More than to try it. And that's about it for compound course are going to find a lot of them. If you're reading courts on the Internet to play a music, you might read these notation. These notation keep in mind do not mean that you can play C or E. It means that you have to play the C major court. So also, one thing. If you don't have anything near the know what it means that it's a major. If you have a small am, it means that it's a minor. So if you're playing the C major chord, you need to pay attention that the first tonic should be the so There's an inversion and and that's how you play the court and thats it basically for that whole course. Okay, so now you have a whole knowledge off the basics off music theory. And from there you can start going forward in order to learn about harmony and about music composition. Thank you for watching the scores and please stay tuned for more to come.