Fundamentals of English Grammar | Beginner to Intermediate | Keehwan Kim | Skillshare

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Fundamentals of English Grammar | Beginner to Intermediate

teacher avatar Keehwan Kim, Language teaching professional

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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

136 Lessons (7h 13m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      2:10
    • 2. Syllabus Guide

      2:00
    • 3. 1.1 Pronouns

      3:23
    • 4. 1.1 Be-verb (Basics)

      3:22
    • 5. 1.1 Be-verb (Contractions)

      2:49
    • 6. 1.1 Be-verb (Negative statement)

      2:36
    • 7. 1.2 Be-verb (Yes or no questions)

      3:02
    • 8. 1.2 Be-verb (Wh-word questions)

      2:38
    • 9. 1.3 Adjectives (Overview)

      3:11
    • 10. 1.3 Adjectives (Suffixes)

      3:12
    • 11. 1.3 Adjectives (ed and ing)

      2:25
    • 12. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Overview)

      2:48
    • 13. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Adjectival)

      3:15
    • 14. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Adverbial)

      2:18
    • 15. 1.4 Linking verbs

      2:48
    • 16. 2.1 Possessive adjectives & pronouns

      3:05
    • 17. 2.1 Possessive nouns New

      3:50
    • 18. 2.2 Countable nouns

      2:37
    • 19. 2.2 Uncountable nouns

      3:05
    • 20. 2.2 Counting uncountable nouns

      2:10
    • 21. 3.1 Verbs

      5:15
    • 22. 3.1 Present simple (Changing verbs)

      2:49
    • 23. 3.1 Present simple (Usage 1)

      2:33
    • 24. 3.1 Present simple (Usage 2)

      3:03
    • 25. 3.1 Present simple (Usage 3)

      2:03
    • 26. 3.2 Present simple (Frequency advbers)

      2:54
    • 27. 3.2 Present simple (every and time)

      3:56
    • 28. 3.2 Present simple (Negative sentence)

      2:55
    • 29. 3.3 Present simple (Yes or no questions)

      2:17
    • 30. 3.3 Present simple (wh-word questions)

      2:55
    • 31. 4.1 Indefinite articles

      3:22
    • 32. 4.1 Definite articles

      3:20
    • 33. 4.2 Definite articles 1

      2:41
    • 34. 4.2 Definite articles 2

      4:11
    • 35. 5.1 Quantifiers (some and any)

      3:48
    • 36. 5.1 Quantifiers (no and a lot of))

      3:12
    • 37. 5.1 Quantifiers (enough and plenty of)

      3:16
    • 38. 5.2 Quantifiers (Countable nouns)

      2:52
    • 39. 5.2 Quantifiers (Unountable nouns)

      3:16
    • 40. 5.3 Quantifiers (both, either, neither)

      5:24
    • 41. 5.3 Quantifiers (all and every)

      4:13
    • 42. 5.3 Quantifiers (of the)

      3:12
    • 43. 5.4 Determiners (more, less, fewer)

      3:24
    • 44. 5.4 Demonstratives (this, that, these, those)

      2:39
    • 45. 6.1 Adverbs of Manner

      3:11
    • 46. 6.1 Adverbs of Manner (Adjectives)

      3:25
    • 47. 6.1 Adverbs of Manner (Verbs)

      3:33
    • 48. 6.1 Adverbs of Manner (Adverbs)

      1:44
    • 49. 6.2 Comparatives (single-syllable)

      3:31
    • 50. 6.2 Comparatives (two-syllable)

      3:01
    • 51. 6.2 Comparatives (three-syllable)

      2:57
    • 52. 6.3 Comparatives (adverbs 1)

      2:54
    • 53. 6.3 Comparatives (adverbs 2)

      3:13
    • 54. 6.3 Comparatives (adverbs 3)

      3:22
    • 55. 6.4 Superlatives (single-syllable)

      3:02
    • 56. 6.4 Superlatives (two-syllable)

      2:49
    • 57. 6.4 Superlatives (three-syllable)

      2:30
    • 58. 7.1 Object complements

      1:58
    • 59. 7.1 Direct and indirect objects (for)

      3:05
    • 60. 7.1 Direct and indirect objects (to)

      2:39
    • 61. 7.2 Gerunds

      3:23
    • 62. 7.2 Infinitive phrase (noun)

      2:50
    • 63. 7.2 Infinitive phrase (adjectives and adverbs)

      3:08
    • 64. 7.3 Verb patterns (Infinitive and Gerund)

      3:40
    • 65. 7.3 Verb patterns (Infinitive or Gerund)

      2:39
    • 66. 7.3 Verb patterns (Object + Infinitive)

      2:46
    • 67. 7.4 Causative Verbs 1

      3:18
    • 68. 7.4 Causative Verbs 2

      1:59
    • 69. 8.1 Present continuous (Positive sentence)

      3:57
    • 70. 8.1 Present continuous (Negative sentence)

      1:56
    • 71. 8.1 Present continuous (Questions)

      2:51
    • 72. 8.2 Present continuous (Usage 1)

      3:01
    • 73. 8.2 Present continuous (Usage 2)

      3:29
    • 74. 8.2 Dynamic and stative verbs

      3:44
    • 75. 9.1 Past simple (Be-verb)

      3:17
    • 76. 9.1 Past simple (Positive statements & regular verbs)

      2:56
    • 77. 9.2 Past simple (ed pronunciation)

      5:11
    • 78. 9.2 Past simple (Negative statements & irregular verbs)

      3:18
    • 79. 9.2 Past simple (Questions)

      2:44
    • 80. 9.3 Past habits (Used to)

      3:56
    • 81. 9.3 Be used to & Get used to

      3:36
    • 82. 9.4 There is & are

      3:18
    • 83. 9.4 There was & were

      3:13
    • 84. 10.1 Present perfect (Positive & negative sentences)

      2:58
    • 85. 10.1 Present perfect (Questions)

      2:59
    • 86. 10.2 Present perfect (Use 1)

      2:04
    • 87. 10.2 Present perfect (Use 2)

      4:41
    • 88. 10.2 Present perfect (Use 3)

      3:17
    • 89. 10.3 Present perfect (Use 4)

      3:34
    • 90. 10.3 Have been & gone

      2:53
    • 91. 10.3 Present perfect continuous

      4:02
    • 92. 11.1 Past continuous 1

      2:46
    • 93. 11.1 Past continuous 2

      2:08
    • 94. 11.2 Past perfect

      3:04
    • 95. 11.2 Past perfect continuous

      2:56
    • 96. 11.3 Will vs be going to

      3:00
    • 97. 11.3 Future continuous (Form)

      2:26
    • 98. 11.3 Future continuous (Use)

      3:06
    • 99. 11.4 Future perfect

      4:01
    • 100. 11.4 Future perfect continuous

      3:17
    • 101. 12.1 Modals (Overview)

      4:45
    • 102. 12.1 Modals of ability (can & could)

      2:33
    • 103. 12.1 Modals of ability (be able to)

      2:16
    • 104. 12.2 Modals of probability

      3:08
    • 105. 12.2 Modals of request

      3:00
    • 106. 12.3 Modals of permission

      3:05
    • 107. 12.3 Modals of prohibition

      2:36
    • 108. 12.4 Modals of deduction (present)

      3:21
    • 109. 12.4 Modals of deduction (past)

      4:03
    • 110. 12.5 Modals of obligation

      3:13
    • 111. 12.5 Modals of no obligation

      2:30
    • 112. 12.5 Modals of moral obligation

      2:27
    • 113. 12.6 Modals of advice and suggestion

      4:30
    • 114. 12.6 Modals of prediction

      3:24
    • 115. 12.7 Modal verbs (would)

      3:52
    • 116. 12.7 Modal verbs of past

      4:07
    • 117. 13.1 Active vs Passive 1

      4:27
    • 118. 13.1 Active vs Passive 2

      3:26
    • 119. 13.2 Simple sentences

      3:12
    • 120. 13.2 Compound sentences

      3:43
    • 121. 13.3 Adverbial clause 1

      3:46
    • 122. 13.3 Adverbial clause 2

      3:17
    • 123. 13.4 Adverbial clause 3

      3:45
    • 124. 13.4 Adverbial clause 4

      3:15
    • 125. 13.5 Adverbial clause 5

      5:10
    • 126. 14.1 Relative clause 1

      5:07
    • 127. 14.1 Relative clause 2

      3:09
    • 128. 14.2 Relative clause 3

      2:05
    • 129. 14.2 Relative clause 4

      2:29
    • 130. 14.3 Noun clause

      3:03
    • 131. 15.1 Zero conditional

      3:09
    • 132. 15.2 First conditional

      3:09
    • 133. 15.2 Second conditional

      2:44
    • 134. 15.2 Third conditional

      2:32
    • 135. 15.3 Mixed conditional

      4:07
    • 136. 15.3 Other conditionals

      3:55
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About This Class

Hi, welcome to my course on 'Fundamentals of English Grammar'!

The aim of this course is to help you develop your English grammar knowledge so that you're able to use the language accurately and appropriately.

The range of grammar concepts covered in this course begin from beginner to intermediate. There are 15 units in this course and each units covers a particular aspect of English grammar.

Our course is designed to make learning grammar easy, and as fun as possible, and to do that, we aim to do the following.

  1. Create lessons that are easily digestible. Our lessons range from 2 to 5 minutes and we stick to a very narrow range of topic so that we keep a simple focus, which makes learning grammar simple.

  2. Worksheet to check your understanding. There are 54 exercise worksheet which you can use to check your understanding of each grammar concept you learn.

Please feel free to take a look at some of the sample lessons to find our what our course is like.

Meet Your Teacher

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Keehwan Kim

Language teaching professional

Teacher

Hi everyone!

My name's Keehwan Kim and welcome to my teacher profile page.

I have been a language teaching professional since 2005, and I have been working as a language learning content producer, working for the likes of BBC Learning English as a content producer.

I love everything about teaching and learning languages. I think best analogy of language learning is of trying to go up an escalator that's coming down. You have to work hard to make forward progress, and if you stop trying, it's easy to lose all that progress you have made.

Many of us live in environments where interacting with the language you're learning is extremely difficult, but I hope my courses help you to engage with the language you're trying to learn and help yo... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Hi there. My name's key and I'm new instructor on this grammar course to tell you a little bit about myself. I've been a language teaching professional for over 10 years. I am cell to qualify and have an M A in applied linguistics. But enough about me. Let me tell you what this course is about. This course is purely about developing your grammatical knowledge, and it's ideal for someone between a beginner and intermediate level. If you're someone who conform basic English sentences but struggle to express your ideas clearly or find it hard to form long sentences with multiple phrases, then you're in the right place. Well, first, focus on the building blocks off the English language and help you understand how we use these words together. To form basic sentences would help you understand how words like adverbs of degree are used so that you can be more expressive when you use English. Once we've covered the basic building blocks will then move on and focus more on learning the sentence structure. We'll take a deep dive into learning about all the different tenses. We'll learn about verb patterns and focus on learning all the different ways off using modal verbs and at the end will help you to expand the sentences you create by learning about different types of clauses. Our lessons are designed to make learning from a easy on average. Our lessons are about three minutes long, and we've taken great care in designing our lessons so that you can maintain your focus and learn difficult concepts in a simple way. And accompanying our lessons are over 50 worksheets, which you can use to take your understanding off difficult concept learning in the courts. So I hope that's giving you a good idea as to what you can expect from this course, and I look forward to seeing the lesson by now. 2. Syllabus Guide: hi there. So before we get into the actual lessons, let's have a look at the syllabus. Together, this syllabus is available to download in the resource of section. So please take a look as you watch the video. Or if you like, you can take a look at the syllabus after watching this video, you don't really need a syllabus right now. Now, this course is divided into 15 units and each unit has various numbers off sub Eunice. The sub units are categorized so that what you learn in each sub unit is related. For example, in Unit One sub unit one which we can just call 1.1, we cover the basic sentence structure using the Beav up so you will learn how to form both positive and negative statements and also the contraction off the beef up. Then, in Unit 1.2, you will learn how to form questions using the B verb. So this way off grouping related lessons continues throughout the syllabus. Each video lesson is labelled so that you know which unit and sub unit the video belongs to . And at the end off each sub unit, you can download a practice worksheet so that you can check your understanding off what you learned within that sub unit at the end off the last video for each sub unit, you'll be instructed. Download a worksheet for further practice, so please download the worksheets from the Resources section for more. Practice off what you're learning. The work. She's contained simple exercises so that you can put into practice what you learned in each sub unit. And please use the answer key to check your own work. Okay, so that's it for this video, and the next video is the first lesson in our course. So I'll Susan again in that lesson, but by 3. 1.1 Pronouns: hello and welcome to the lecture on English pronouns. So first things first. What is a pronoun? A pronoun is a word we use instead off other now owns. So instead of saying my name, I would say I we can use you instead of saying the name of the person we're talking to. We use he or she to refer to a man or a woman. We use it to refer to objects and ideas. We use they to refer to a group of people in third person and we use we to refer to a group of people we belong in Now. These pronounce are what we call subjects pronouns. So they take up the position off the subject in a sentence to use pronouns as the object. We have another set of pronouns called object pronouns. So I is me. You is still you. He is him and she is hot. It is also still it. We is us and they becomes them. And as you can probably guess, the object pronouns are used as objects in the sentence. So we can say I like them And here we use I because it's the subject off the sentence and then because it is the object of the verb like we can also say they are with me and here we use they because it's the subject of the sentence. And here we use the pronoun me because it's the object off the proposition with and lastly we have we meet her, and here we use we because it's the subject off the sentence and heart instead of she because it is the object off the verb meat. So, as you can see in these examples, we use the subject pronouns as sentence subjects and object pronoun as the objects off verbs as well as propositions. An important aspect of pronouns we need to know is whether they are singular or plural and which person they refer to. So these are singular pronouns, and these are plural pro nails and the pronoun you can be both depending on the context that is used in. And these two pronouns I and we are the first person pronouns you is a second person pronoun, and the rest he she it and they are third person pronouns. Knowing these differences is important as we have to change verbs depending on the kind of pronoun there used with. So for third person singular pronouns And these are he she and it. We have to add an extra s at the end of verbs in the present tense so that there is a subject verb agreement and we will go into subject verb agreements in more detail later in the course. Okay, so that's it for this lecture on pronouns. But because these pronouns are so important will use them again and again in this course. So this won't be the last time we talk about pronouns in this course. Okay, so, Suzanne again in the next listen, but why? 4. 1.1 Be-verb (Basics): hello again. So this lesson is on the B verb, and we'll look at three different forms off the be verb and how they're used in sentences. The Beaver is may be the single most important verb in English and is because it's the most useful in the English language. We used to be verb to introduce ourselves, to say, our age, to talk about our jobs, to say where something is and the list goes on and on and on. The Beaver is not an action verb, but it functions as a link between the subject and its complement, often called the subject complement and a subject complement is basically something that tells us more information about the subject. Before we look at what complements our let's look at the three forms off the be verb and is an R we use, um, with the pronoun I we use is with third person singular pronouns. He she and it and we use our with plural pronouns we, they and you, which can be both singular and plural. So let's now form sentences using the pronouns and the B verb, but also with subject compliments so we can say I am a teacher. She is pretty and we are at school now. After the beaver, the subject complement can be in the form off a noun, an adjective or a proposition. All phrase In this first sentence, the subject complement is a noun, a teacher. But we can also say we are students. He is a mother, and in each sentence, the noun function as subject compliments, giving us more information about the subject. Secondly, we can have an adjective functioning as a subject complement, and the adjective in this sentence is pretty. But we can also say I am hot. We are tired, and the adjectives in these sentences function has subject compliments, giving us more information about the subject. Finally, the beaver can be followed by a prep positional phrase, and we're going to what a prep additional phrase is in another lecture. But it's a structure made up off a proposition and usually a noun, which in this case is at school to give you two more examples off sentences with proposition of phrases, we can say I am in the car. It is on the desk. So again, the proposition of phrases function as subject compliments so sentences using the BVA has a subject a B verb, that we have to use the correct form depending on the subject and the subject complement, which can be now owns adjectives and prep additional phrases. Okay, that's it for this lesson on the structure off sentences that use the P verbs in the present tense. And in the next lesson, we look at the contract ID forms off the be verb house using again bye for now. 5. 1.1 Be-verb (Contractions): Hello there. So in this lesson, we're going to focus on learning about the contract it form off the beef UB. In the previous lesson, we saw these three sentences. I am a teacher. She is pretty. We are at school now. Of course, these sentences are grammatically correct. But when we speak in everyday situations, we generally contract the subject and the B verb. So I am becomes I'm She is becomes she's, and we are becomes were we can follow the same pattern with other pronounce so we can say his is They're and you're as mentioned already in everyday speech. We use these contracted forms much more often, and the uncontracted form is more seen in formal settings and in writing. In terms of pronunciation. The contractions off is is pronounced differently for different pronouns, and you may have noticed this already. When is is contracted with he or she it produces a zed sound. So it's his his she's. She's, However, when it contracts with the pronoun, it is producers and s sound. So we say it's it's let's listen to all three forms together. His his she's she's it is is let's hear them in sentences. He's a teacher. He's a teacher. She's a friend. She's a friend. It's a bag. It's a bag. So as you could hear is the sound with the pronouns he and she and sound where the pronoun it. So be aware off this sound difference when you speak. Okay, so this was a short lesson. And today we learned how the be verb is contract ID with the subject. And we also looked at how the contract ID is is pronounced differently with different third person singular subjects. He she and it. Okay, so that's it for today. And I'll see you soon again in the next lesson. But why? 6. 1.1 Be-verb (Negative statement): Hello there and welcome back in this lesson, we're going to learn about the negative sentences using the beaver in the present tense and two ways to be verbs can contract in these sentences. So let's start by looking at three negative sentences using the beef up. I am not a teacher. She is not pretty. We are not at school. Making negative sentences is really easy in sentences with the B verb, as we simply add the word not after the be verb. So it's I am not. He is not, and we are not. That's it. To give you a few other example sentences. We can also say you are not tired. She is not in the office. They are not my friends. Okay, so that should be fairly easy to understand. In these sentences, we can still contract the subject and the B verb, just like in the previous lesson. So we can say I'm not a teacher. She's not pretty. We're not at school. However, there is another way we can contract the beef up in negative sentences instead of the beav up contracting with the subject it can contract with. Not so we can say she isn't pretty. We aren't at school now. The be verb am is an exception, as it cannot contract with not so we cannot say I armed a teacher that's not grammatically possible. However, as you can see is not, can become, isn't and are not can become aunt. There is no difference, meaning to the sentences where we contract the be verb and the subject in terms of pronunciation. With aren't it's pronounced with a long vowel sound. So it's aren't aunt. We aren't at school, we aren't at school. Okay, so today we learned to form negative sentences using the B verb, and we also looked at how the beaver up contracts in negative statements in two different ways. That's it for this lesson. And in the next lesson, we'll learn to form. Yes, no questions using the beef up. But why 7. 1.2 Be-verb (Yes or no questions): hello again. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to form yes or no questions using the beaver in the present tense . Let's first revisit these statements from an earlier lesson. I am a teacher. She is pretty. We are at school. When we make positive or negative statements, we begin with the subject. Then we use the beef up, and then we have the subject compliments, but to form yes or no questions. We simply switch the position off the subject and the B verb. So I am a teacher. Becomes a my A teacher. She is pretty becomes issue pretty, and we are at school becomes Are we at school? Remember to say these questions with a rising tone at the end. Now these questions are called yes or no questions, because to answer these questions, we can simply say yes or no. However, we often answer these questions by including the subject and the beaver. So rather than just saying yes, we can say yes, you are No, she isn't. And yes, we are a few important points to note. First in terms off Yes, answers. We cannot contract the Beav up with the subject so we can't say yes. Your or yes, were we have to use the uncontracted form. Yes, you are. And yes, we are. However, in terms of no answers, we can use the contract it form so we can say no, she isn't. And we can also say No, she's not. There is no difference in meaning. We can, of course, also used the uncontracted form So we can say no. She is not, though, as mentioned before, it's more common to use the contract it form in everyday speech. Okay, so let's look at few other examples off. Yes or no questions as well as their responses. Are you a student? Yes, I am. Is he in the room? No, he's not. Are they hungry? No, they aren't. So, as you can see, we can use these questions to ask who someone is where someone is and how someone is so this yes or no question form Using the beaver is very, very useful. Okay, so in this lesson, we learn to form yes or no questions using the B verb. And we also learned different ways off answering these questions. In the next lesson, we'll learn to form wh word questions using the beef up. So I was Susan again in the next lesson. But by 8. 1.2 Be-verb (Wh-word questions): Hello again. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to form wh word questions using the B verb to help us along. Let's bring back the yes or no questions from the previous lesson. Um, I a teacher. Is she pretty? Are we at school? Okay, So to form wh word questions, we simply add any one of these wh was in front of these questions. But because we use wh words to ask for information, we would need to remove the subject compliments as they clash with the wh words. So we can ask who are my how we see and where are we. However, with the wh word why we can leave the subject complement as the wh word Why asks for a reason which is different from the subject. Complement. So all these questions contain a wh word a b verb and a subject. Let's look at a few other examples. What is your name? How old are you? When is your birthday? So as you can see, each question contains a wh word a beaver and a subject And the questions reform Using this structure are some of the most common questions we ask when we meet people for the first time. One point to note is that we often contract the wh word in the singular be verb is so we can say What's your name? When's your birthday? And although we can contract how and is and say house, we would need more than one syllable after house because of rules of pronunciation. So although we wouldn't say how she it is common to ask questions like How's your job? Or how's everything? Because in these questions, after house, we have at least two syllables. Okay, so in this lesson we learned how to form wh word questions using the B verb. And we also learned the useful rule on how the be verb is contracts with wh words in the next lesson will begin to learn about adjectives. So our Susan again in that lesson, But by 9. 1.3 Adjectives (Overview): hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about adjectives and focus mainly on where they are positioned in a sentence. Now adjectives are words that describe or give more information about now. Owns adjectives, words like fast, Big, Pretty and easy. But there are, of course, many more adjectives. And we saw this sentence earlier that used an adjective. She is pretty as shown in this sentence. We can use an adjective as the subject complement in a sentence that uses a B verb. Here are a couple of more examples that use an adjective as a subject complement. A cheetah is fast. An elephant is big. So in ALS, these sentences, the adjectives are the subject compliments and they give more information about the subject . Another common way of using adjectives is to use them in front of now owns. They are modifying. Here's an example Sentence. A pretty girl is in the car. So in this sentence we use the adjective pretty in front of the now go. Here are two other examples off adjectives being used in front of downs. They are modifying the fast cheetah is scary. The big elephant is in the zoo. So again, in these sentences, the adjectives are positioned in front of the noun they're modifying. However, there are certain adjectives which can't be positioned in front of announced their modifying. And the two common adjectives off this kind are asleep and awake. With these adjectives, we can't say asleep man or awake woman. They have to come after a verb such as the beef up so we can say the man is asleep. The woman is awake. Finally, another common position of adjectives is as object compliments, which we will learn more about later in the course. And in these sentences, the adjective is position after the noun they're modifying. So we can say he makes me happy. I found him asleep. So in these sentences, the adjectives happy and asleep modified, announce before them as we learn more about object compliments. Later, in the course, we will learn about the verbs we can use with object compliments. Okay, so in this lesson, we focused on learning about how adjectives can be positioned in sentences, and we also learned about adjectives which cannot be positioned in front of the now owns their modifying. In the next lesson, we will learn about common adjective suffixes. So our Susan again in that lesson. But why 10. 1.3 Adjectives (Suffixes): hello there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about some common adjective suffixes and how we add them to announce and verbs to form adjectives. Now, many adjectives are just adjectives, meaning that they're not formed from other words, and these include happy and sad and hot and cold. However, we can often form adjectives by changing the world ending, and these changes can be made to announce and verbs. For example, we can sometimes add these suffixes to announce to form adjectives. First, we have the suffix I see, and we can make hero too heroic romance to romantic and economy to economic. Next suffix is a L, and politics is political, Comedy is comical and norm is normal. After that, we have a few l full and beauty is beautiful, The light is delightful and wonder becomes wonderful. Lastly, we have oh us and we can make danger into dangerous fame into famous and humor into humorous. These are some of the more common examples off suffixes, which can be added to announce to form adjectives, but there are many more, and we have an extensive list in a reference document which you can find in the Resources section. We can also attach various suffixes, two verbs to form adjectives so we have able and we can add able to do to make doable. Read becomes readable and adore becomes adorable. After that, we have the Suffolk's If and talk becomes talkative. Include is inclusive and invent is inventive. Next we have less, and end is endless. Motion is motionless and aim is aimless. Finally, we can also add full two verbs, so use is useful. Hope is hopeful and play is playful again. These are some of the more common examples off adjectives, which can be formed by adding a suffix toe a verb. But do take a look at the document in the resource of section for an extensive list off suffixes and how they're at it, announced verbs to form different adjectives. Okay, so in this lesson we looked at how we add some fixes to verbs announced to form adjectives . In the next lesson will look other uses off E. D and I N g adjectives see soon in that lesson, but by 11. 1.3 Adjectives (ed and ing): hello again. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about adjectives that end in E. D. And I N G. Now e. D and I N G adjectives are formed from verbs. For example. We conform, bored and boring from the verb to ball, which means to make someone feel un interested in something. And we conform, interested and interesting from the verb to interest, which means to make someone want to know more about something. These adjectives can be positioned in a sentence in the same way as other adjectives. So let's look at how these words are used now. First, imagine that you are in a classroom. This is a history class, and you have this teacher who is known to make students fall asleep because his lessons are not fun to describe this teacher. We can say the teacher is boring and to describe the students in the teacher's class. We can say the students are bored, but we can also say a boring teacher and board students. So what's the difference in meaning between bored and boring adjectives that end in I N. G. Become the reason for someone's feeling and the E d adjectives describe someone's feeling. So in this context, the teacher is the reason for the students feelings off. Being bored to give you more examples, we can say the movie is exciting. The audience are excited. A marathon is tiring. The runners are tired. So in these examples, the i n g adjectives are the reason. And the E. D adjectives describe the feeling. And because et adjectives are used to describe feelings, we generally use E D adjectives with people. Okay, so in this lesson, we learn how to use E. D and I N g adjectives. E d adjectives describe the feeling, and the i N G adjectives are the reasons for that feeling. In the next lesson, we'll learn about proposition or phrases so all season again in their lesson. But why? 12. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Overview): hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about prep positional phrases, and this will be a general overview lesson. So we'll focus on the structure and some of their key uses. The first question is, what is a prep additional phrase? Ah, prep positional phrase is made up off a proposition and its object, which is usually a noun. A proposition is a word like in on at and with. But of course there are many others as well. Proposition of phrases have many different uses, but their use is mainly related to the concept off place and time. In an example of this is in this sentence from an earlier lesson. We are at school in this sentence. That prep positional phrase is at school is made up off the proposition at and its objects school and it tells us where we are. So this proposition all phrase is related to the concept off place. Here are few other examples off prep positional phrases used in this way. They are in the office. She is on the train, So both in the office and on the train, which are made up of a proposition and its object described the place, the location where they are and where she is. The other common concepts off a prep additional phrase is time, and here's an example sentence. The meeting is at 2 p.m. So in this sentence, the prep positional phrase at two PM describes the time off the meeting, so it's related to the concept of time. Here are two more examples off prep positional phrases used in this way The party is on Sunday evening. The dates is before the movie. So in each sentence of prep additional phrases on Sunday evening and before the movie tells us when the parties and when the date is so they're uses are related to the concept of time . Proposition or phrases, however, do have many other functions as shown by these examples. But in this lesson we focused on the two most common concepts off professional phrases. Place and time in the next lesson will look at how proposition of phrases function as adjectives, so our Susan again in the next lesson. But by 13. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Adjectival): Hello and welcome back. Now the two key functions off prep positional phrases are to function as an adjective and to function as an adverb. In this lesson, we're going to focus on the adjectival function. Let's first look at an example sentence. The man in the car is my brother. The man in the car is my brother in the sentence. The prep additional phrase is in the car, and it relates to the concept off place as it tells us where the man is. But another way off. Looking at the use off proposition is what it modifies, and in this sentence, it's telling us more information about the noun the man. Therefore, the prep additional phrase in the car functions like an adjective. It modifies the noun. It gives more information about the noun. When a proposition all phrase functions as an adjective, it is generally position next to the Now it is describing, Let's look at some example sentences. I like movies with a scary story. We are at the park with the playground. In the first example, we have the prep positional phrase with a scary story, and it gives more information about movies so the prep additional phrase functions as an adjective. One important point to note is that in the prep additional phrase, you can have other adjectives describing the objects off the proposition, and the adjective in this case is scary. In the second sentence, the prep positional phrase with the playground gives more information about the noun, the part so again it functions as an adjective. And another important point to note is that a proposition of phrase can modify any now and in the sentence. It modifies the object in the first proposition of phrase, which is the park. The prep position with doesn't relate to the concept off place all time, but it relates to the meaning off, having something so in the sentence with IHS similar to the meaning off have. Let's look at two more example sentences. We are at the bar in the city. The students on the bus are late in the first sentence. The prep additional phrase in the city gives more information about the noun, the bar and in the second sentence, the prep positional phrase on the bus gives more information about the now the students. So both of these prep additional phrases in the city and on the bus function as adjectives . Okay, so in this lesson we looked at how prep positional phrases can function as adjectives and how their position next to the now they're modifying in the next lesson will look at how prep positional phrases are used as adverbs. So I'll see you soon again in that lesson, but by 14. 1.4 Prepositional phrase (Adverbial): hello there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how prep positional phrases are used. Like adverbs, adverbs are generally used to modify verbs, and we're going to focus on prep positional phrases that modify, as in gives more information about how the verb is used. Let's first look at an example sentence. I play football with my friends. I play football with my friends in the sentence. The proposition of phrase is with my friends, and it tells us who we played football with. So it gives us more information about the verb play, which means that it functions as an adverb. When a prep positional phrase functions as an adjective, it's generally position next to the noun it is describing. But when it functions as an adverb, it can be positioned after the objects, as in this example, but it can also be positioned next to the vote. It is modifying, like in this example. I sleep on the sofa, I sleep on the sofa, so the proposition of phrase on the sofa tells us where I sleep. So it gives more information about the verb sleep and its position next to the Bab. Okay, so let's look at a few other example sentences. I work at night. I bought a present for my dad. I went to school. So in all three sentences, the prep additional phrases at night for my dad and to school gives more information about the verbs They tell us when I work, who I bought the present for and where I went. So they all function as adverbs. Okay, so this lesson was a rather short lesson. But today we learned how proposition or phrases are used as adverbs and how they can be positioned after the object, but also next to the verbs that describing in the next lesson will learn about linking verbs. So our season again in that lesson, but by 15. 1.4 Linking verbs: hello again. So this lesson is all about linking verbs. So let's find out what they are. We have already mentioned what a linking verb is when we learned about be verbs and the beaver is a linking for because it links the subject and the subject complement. A linking verb does not perform in action. Here's a sentence from an earlier lesson. I am a teacher. I am a teacher. In the sentence, the be verb AM links the subject. I and the subject complement a teacher, which describes the subject So the beaver is a linking verb. Two other common linking verbs are to become and to seem. And here are example, sentences that use thes verbs. He became a doctor. He seems angry in both sentences. The verbs linked the subject complement to the subject. He and do not perform any action, so they are linking verbs. However, some verbs can be both regular action verbs and also linking verbs. And many of these verbs are related to the five senses, such as to feel to look, to taste, to smell and to sound. But there are also other verbs, such as to turn and to remain which can be linking verbs. Here are a few example sentences that use these verbs as linking verbs. She looks angry. He remained calm. The food tastes terrible. So in these sentences, the verbs looks remained, and tastes are linking verbs as they linked the subject compliments, which described the subject to the subjects. However, as mentioned already, these verbs can also be action verbs. So we can say she looked in the car. He remained in the house. I tasted the cake. So in these sentences, the verbs don't link the prep additional phrases and the object to the subjects. But they describe the action carried out by the subject. Okay, so in this lesson we learn more about linking verbs and how they link the subject to the subject compliments. And we also learned about verbs, which can be both linking verbs and also regular action verbs. In the next lesson, we'll learn about possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. So our season again in that lesson, but by 16. 2.1 Possessive adjectives & pronouns: hello again. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. Now let's look at what they are right away. As the titles will suggest. Possessive adjectives function like adjectives. So as we learned earlier, adjectives can be positioned in front of now owns. And that's how we use possessive adjectives we can use these words in front of now owns to say to whom that now belongs to. So a key point to note is that possessive adjectives cannot be used on their own. They have to be used with now owns. He is an example sentence using a possessive adjective. He is my brother. He's my brother. So in this sentence we use my in front of the noun brother to show that this person is my brother. Here are a couple of other example sentences. Our school is far away. I have her bag. So in both examples, the possessive adjectives our and her are used with downs, school and bag to show who school and whose bank they are Okay now, possessive pronouns, on the other hand, function as now owns, so they can be the sentence subject or object. Their basic meaning combines the meaning off the possessive adjective and a noun. Let's look at a couple of example sentences. Mine is the red car. I like yours in the first sentence. Mine basically means my car, and we can guess the meaning of car because off the subject complement, which is the red car in the sentence, mine acts as the sentence subject. On the other hand, it's hard to know what yours is referring to in the second sentence. But whatever it is, it's a possessive pronoun, and it acts as the object of the verb like Let's look a few other example sentences. I have hers. Where's yours? This car is his. So we can guess the meaning of the pronoun in the third sentence based on the context clues but most importantly, the possessive pronouns actors now owns. And they are either an object, a subject and even a subject complement in the last sentence. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use possessive adjectives with downs, and we also learn how possessive pronouns mean a possessive adjective plus a noun, and they can function like any other noun in a sentence. In the next lesson, we'll learn how to make noun into possessive forms. See you then. Bye bye. 17. 2.1 Possessive nouns New: Hello there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to form. General now owns into possessive forms