From Maker to Manager: 10 Strategies for Advancing Your Career | Ray Harkins | Skillshare

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From Maker to Manager: 10 Strategies for Advancing Your Career

teacher avatar Ray Harkins, Senior manufacturing professional

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 57m)
    • 1. 01 Introduction

    • 2. 02 Become a Lifelong Learning

    • 3. 03 Upgrade Your Communication Skills

    • 4. 04 Master Time Management

    • 5. 05 Practice Sales and Negotiation Skills

    • 6. 06 Earn Certifications

    • 7. 07 Strength Your Data Analysis Skills, Part 1

    • 8. 08 Strengthen Your Data Analysis Skills, Part 2

    • 9. 09 Learn Busines Finance

    • 10. 10 Use Problem Solving Frameworks

    • 11. 11 Become an Effective Goal Setter

    • 12. 12 Improve Your Collaboration and Team Building Skills

    • 13. 13 Servant Leadership

    • 14. 14 Conclusion

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About This Class

There's a monumental paradox about moving from a maker to a manager:

The skills necessary to become a successful engineer (programmer, technician or "maker" of any kind) ARE NOT the same skills necessary to become a successful engineering manager. As a make you're evaluated on what you accomplish. But as a manager, you're evaluated on the accomplishments of an entire team. Effective management is about creating a productive environment, equipping your team, and making decisions that allow other become successful.

And this difference is skills sets has become a stumbling block for countless makers aspiring to move into a managerial role. They either find themselves getting repeatedly passed up for promotions, or if they move into a leadership role, they’re ineffective and end up getting demoted.

In this course "From Maker to Manager: 10 Strategies to Advance Your Career", you will learn about each of the 10 key areas you needed to succeed in management. You will learn key concepts and strategies from the following areas:

  • Data Analysis

  • Team Building and Collaboration

  • Sales and Negotiation

  • Written and Verbal Communication

  • Time Management

  • Business Finance

  • Goal Setting

  • Problem-solving Methodologies

  • And Much More!

No class (including this one) is long enough to teach you everything you need to know about each of these areas. In fact, you could spend a career mastering any one of these areas. But what you will learn in this class "From Maker to Manager" is 1) the importance of each area to management profession, 2) major concepts from each area, and 3) clear direction on how to continue advancing your managerial skillset.

If you want to advance your career past your maker role and onto a leadership role, this class is a fabulous starting point. Sign up today!

Meet Your Teacher

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Ray Harkins

Senior manufacturing professional


Ray Harkins is a senior manufacturing professional with 25 years experience in manufacturing engineering, quality management, and business analysis.  During his career, he has toured hundreds of manufacturing facilities and worked with leading industry professionals throughout North America and Japan.  He is a senior member of the American Society of Quality, and holds their Quality Engineering, Quality Auditing and Calibration Technician certifications.  Ray has written extensively for national trade publications on the topics of quality engineering and career management.

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1. 01 Introduction: Hello, welcome to the Manufacturing Academy. My name is rate Hopkins, and this is the introductory video to the skill share class titled From maker to manager, ten strategies for advancing your career. Thank you so much for joining me. It's a great pleasure for me to make this class as i can bring together 20 plus years of managerial experience in grad school and all that I've learned into this one course that I believe if you're looking to make a move, a promotion up into management, I believe this will be a key for helping you get there. Now, most successful engineers and analysts and programmers and makers of all types will at some point in their career encounter a crossroads where they can continue engineering and analyzing and programming or they can manage those who do. Now, either course of makes sense, you know, after all, the skills and the network and the knowledge that you've developed as a maker, as an analyst or a programmer will continue very likely to serve you well into the future. And then on the other side, is who better understands what it's like to be a maker than someone who's already done the job. So both paths really makes sense. But here's the paradox, is that the skills necessary to be a successful engineer, for instance, are not the same as the skills necessary to become a successful engineering manager. So as an engineer, you're evaluated basically on what you accomplish. But as an engineering manager or manager of any type, you're evaluated on the accomplishments of an entire team. So effective management really entails creating an environment and equipping your team and making decisions that allow this larger group of people to be successful. And it's in managerial skill set that a lot of aspiring makers have failed when trying to move into the managerial role. Either they continually get passed up for promotions when those those spots become available, or if they do move into management, they end up being ineffective and maybe even getting demoted. So some of you might be familiar with this term called micro manager. Those are people that have the title of manager, but they failed to acquire these managerial skills. So instead of leading a team and promoting the efforts of a group of people, they fall back on those old maker skills and end up looking over the shoulders of everybody else. So in this class, I'm going to teach you ten key strategies that will carry you far into your career management. And these are business finance and collaboration and salesmanship and data analysis. And these are learning strategy. So no class, certainly not. This class is long enough to teach you all that you need to know in these various areas. But what I am going to offer you as key insights into each of these ten areas and offer you a path forward so that you can learn on your own. Now at the end of this class, I'm going to attach a note sheet, all the notes, all the bullet points from what I've talked about, organized by each of these ten areas. And I'm also going to include links and links to websites and books and articles and things of other ideas that it couldn't get him his class. And I'm going to I'm just going to attach that all at the end and offer that to you so you can click on the links, you can read the notes. I want that to be a huge help to. So I sincerely hope and believe that this class would be a benefit to you. But even if you decide to not take this class, I want to offer you one career tip for free, no obligation. And it's referred to as the 150% rule. So this rule states that if you want to move into your manager's position, you have to demonstrate 100% ability to do your job and 50% of the ability to do your manager's job. Now that sounds strange to some people, but I think it's largely because we have this academic model in our head where everything you need to be successful in the seventh grade, you learn in the sixth grade. So by the time you successfully complete the sixth grade, you're ready for the seventh grade. It would be ridiculous to think, my gosh, I need to know half of what a seventh grader needs to in order to get in there. But this isn't the academic model. I mean, what executive would promote someone into a managerial position who has no idea what that entails, that just would be a disaster actually. So undoubtedly one of the best strategies for career advancement is to actively prepare for the position that you desire. And this class, I'm offering you the strategies. I'm offering you the keys and the ideas that you're going to need to move from the maker to the manager. So I strongly encourage you to take the class. I think it'll be a huge help to you. The risk is negligible. And if I can be of any help to you, please message me with your questions or comments through Skill Share. I'd be glad to get back to you. I always enjoy hearing from students, so I'd love to see in the class, good luck in your career best wishes to you and sign up and we'll be able to interact even more. 2. 02 Become a Lifelong Learning: The first and most important skill and attitude that you really need to possess to move from the maker mentality to the management or leader mentality is to become a lifelong learner. Now I've heard plenty people say that I tried to learn something new every day and it's acute adage and I know what they're getting at, but when I'm talking about isn't watching the History Channel or, or scrolling through YouTube videos. But it's really an ongoing, self-motivated journey of acquiring new, particularly in-demand skills. Lifelong learners develop and employ strategies and plans to acquire new career skills. Now this may involve returning to university to acquire a new degree, maybe a Master's degree or something, but it certainly doesn't have to. So at one time, people believed that you could frontload your education through a trade school or university. And then to be successful, you just did the ongoing experience on the job to gain new skills. Those days are over. And that is not a recipe for being successful as a manager. And really even in most careers, I don't know too many careers left that you can only depend on what you learn on the job to be genuinely successful. There aren't many of those left. And there's really two sides to this. Lifelong learning as a strategy for success in your career. And one is on the demand side will say, I, there are very, very few careers left that don't require this ongoing learning. And the biggest reason is because of technology, whether you work in a bank or a hospital or a manufacturing facility or, or a university. All of those and every other one I can think of has been affected and is continuing to be affected by the shifts in technology. The world is changing very rapidly around us. On the other side of the coin, maybe the supply side. We're living in the information age. The fact that you're watching this video on a learning platform that didn't even exist a handful of years ago is evidence that information is widely available. The entire world's libraries of information are at your fingertips. There are no more barriers to acquiring new skills and new ideas and new methods. So I have sat across the table interviewing many candidates for supervisory positions, engineers, technicians, salespersons. And I'm always interested in finding out what are you doing to learn new skills to reinvest into your career? And the reason I'm interested in that is because I have found one. It's very obvious that lifelong learners know more, they no more information. They know more about the skills and the methods and the tools that are gonna help them be successful at their job. But secondly, an often overlooked is that they're better at learning themselves. Learning like any skill, like playing the violin, it's a skill you can get better at it through practice. Learning is a skill in itself. So when I'm talking to someone in an interview, and I recognize that whether they would describe themselves as a lifelong learner or not, but maybe, maybe not. But if I see evidence of this through certifications and seminars and the trade journals that they're reading and and the software programs that they're picking up on the weekend. If I see this evidence that they have a higher skill at learning, I know that if I hire them, they're going to be better at learning the new skills that are specific to this company and this organization and this industry. There's simply better at learning. So that's going to make the so-called learning curve. It's going to be easier. They're going to pick up the skills. They're going to retain information. They're gonna make connections that someone who is less adapted at learning is going to have trouble doing that. So, so lifelong learning is a, is a fabulous skill and it is also directed at something. So how should you direct your learning efforts as a maker to move into that managerial role? And I've identified three areas that I think will be helpful to you. The first is learning about your organization and your industry. Who are your competitors, who are your customers, who are your suppliers? What are the technologies? What are the trade journals in your industry telling you? And here's a really easy tip to practice this to, to pick up this little skill. Let's say you're an engineer and you know that a customer is coming in. Well, it would be so easy the day before the customer comes in to look at their website, look at who is their leadership, what is the news? What is there? What are their products? What are, what's going on at their organization? Having this information in your head will help you better prepare for that meeting with that customer. Maybe it's something simple over lunch. Hey, I read on your website that you opened up a new facility in Mississippi or wherever you're expanding into France or something like this. At the very minimum, it's a good conversation piece, but, but more so it helps you understand what organization are they working from? What might be some of their goals, what are their strategies? What is their leadership saying? So it's a great way to practice this lifelong learning technique. A second area, often overlooked area, is learning transferable skills. Transferable skills means that they can go from one company to another to another and they're still useful. Some examples would be a counting. Every company has accounting. So learning accounting will, will help you be more mobile, more adept at talking to a wider range of people, more useful at a wide range of organizations, data analysis and visualization, communication skills, coding software application, XML, SQL. These are transferable skills. That will make you a better problem solver. It will their universal, it'll allow you to, maybe your move into management isn't at your organization, but at another one, maybe your move involves changing organizations. Well, having those transferable skills will make you more marketable to that new organization. And then the last area that I would recommend for you, moving from Maker to manager is learning business methods and trends. So an example of a business method for, for example, would be understanding and using financial ratios. So these are our tools that will help you to see the strengths and weaknesses of a business. And using these financial ratios to an interpreting these financial ratios to see those strengths and weaknesses is a very useful managerial, very useful business skill. Let me share with you, for instance, Asset Turnover Ratio or receivables, turnover ratio or sales to networking capital. These are all financial ratios that can tell you how efficiently a company is utilizing its assets to turn them into revenue. Now, if you don't understand ratios, you're not going to understand one much of what I just said there, but you're also not going to, you're not gonna have that tool in your skill set. Another area is these trends, the business trends, what's coming at you, what you can anticipate will open up a world to you in terms of solving problems, marketing, analytics, economics, understanding trends in these big fields will help you see new potential solutions to your problems. You know, not long ago, simple example, not long ago. If a company needed a new piece of software, well then they just went out and bought it. Well, now, Software as a Service has become the predominant trend for lots of good reasons really. But if you are constrained to an antiquated model of purchasing software, well, you're not going to see the potential solution out on the horizon. So I want to share a quote with Yemen to leave you with this by Arno Rubik, the gentleman who invented the Rubik's Cube. He said, learning is not the acquisition of knowledge. It's building the capacity to find new possibilities in novel circumstances. Building the capacity to find new possibilities in novel circumstances. Building the capacity is the process of lifelong learning and, and coming up, solving problems, coming up with innovative solutions, encountering new circumstances. These are all things that will make you a successful manager and a successful leader. So really all of his class even is built on this first foundation of becoming a lifelong learner. It will prepare you for circumstances that you don't yet know you're going to encounter. So I can't encourage you enough to become a lifelong learner. And actually as a side benefit, you may grow to enjoy learning and really hunger and seek out these new, this new information, new skills, new methods you'll genuinely desire. Begin to develop a desire for these, for this learning process. So anyway, that's the foundation for so much of the rest. And I'm going to talk about and again, check out those notes. I'm going to provide you with all sorts of resources, all of the things I mentioned, the magazines and so many other websites and opportunities for you to check those out, become a lifelong learner. It will be a key to your success as a manager. Thank you. 3. 03 Upgrade Your Communication Skills: Now I want to start this section on written and verbal communication by referring to Daniel Kahneman's book, Thinking Fast and Slow, if you haven't read it, it's a fabulous book. But in it I'll just give you the premises that he talks about two systems of thinking. And he refers to system one, which is fast and automatic and unconscious and acts instantly. And an example would be like driving a car or riding a bike. You know, doing things that you have done many, many times before. You're not thinking about riding a bike, you're just writing it so your brain is telling your feet to move and balance and it's automatic, it's unconscious. System two is slow and effortful and very conscious. You have to be fully present if you are solving a math problem or calculus or something that you're not really familiar with. If you're learning to drive a car or learning to ride a bike, you're actively processing the data and adjusting and working through this well. And the reason I bring this system one, system two up is that even in his book, he says that we spend the great majority of our time of our brain processing power system one, well, writing an article for a magazine or a business email or, or preparing a presentation that you're gonna do it in a board meeting or staff meeting requires System two, thinking. And these articles and emails and presentation serve as meat vehicles, so to speak, for conveying ideas and being a effective writer and a good writer is a means of clearly thinking. It requires clear thinking, writing, and organizing your thoughts into a speech. It, it, it's a means of organizing your thoughts, but it requires thinking itself. Now peeled Surprise Winner David Metcalfe, he wrote a number of fabulous books, won the Pulitzer Prize twice. He and she said, writing is thinking to write well is to think clearly. That's why it's so hard. So when you are writing an article or you're giving a presentation, your audience assumes that you are an expert in your field or that you have something to say. And in fact, it's kind of a circular motion is that people read articles because they're written by experts. But the more you convey an idea, clearly the, the effective presenters gain audiences. So this idea of clearly thinking and having an audience that you can influence with your ideas. Kind of sounds like management, right? It's kind of like leading wear when you're a maker. There's a lot of thinking obviously involved with app, but there's not as much influence as you move from the maker to the manager. Like we said in our early in the session. It's a lot about influence, it's about the results of the team. So being a thought leader, being an influencer becomes very important. And one of the best ways to get there is to tune in your writing and your presenting skills. So there's a ton of practical tips out there. And you can find those readily and, but they're all founded in being a clear thinker, you'll never realize like, how, where your gaps are in your knowledge until you try to do a presentation or you try to write an article, or try to teach a class like this one. So there's lots of practical tips out there. I strongly encourage you to look into that, you know, write how to write and present and things, but I want to share a few that I think will get you started. So in terms of writing or presenting, there's, there's actually a lot of overlap there and in preparing a presentation, but in writing, it's all about readability. You have to convey an idea. But if you want to retain your audience, in other words, you start an article and then I give up and says too hard to read. There might be great ideas in there, but you lost your audience, so you want it to be readable. So one way to improve the readability of your articles or your emails or your board meeting presentations is to literally read it out loud. So you type an email and how it sounds in your brain is not actually how it sounds when you read it out loud. So by literally reading aloud your email, your ears will recognize things that your brain didn't. In other words, little choppy words or unnecessary words or not, a clear path all the way through. You know, you'll identify a lot of problems simply by reading things out loud. There, there's an old expression that say, it says, good writers are good readers by reading other people's work, by reading trade journal articles or just other speeches and, and other magazine articles and things like this. Other people's emails. You're reading for content, but subconsciously you're kind of recognizing whether this is a good writer or not. What I would encourage you to do to improve your writing. And again, feed into those skills you need to be as a manager when you're reading an article. Don't just read for content. Now start reading for analyzing the construction. How, what word choices do they use? How did they step through this logically? How long are the sentences and, you know, and find points where it doesn't retain your attention and, you know, things like that. So that's the idea in reading is to not just garner information, but garner better writing skills. Same thing with, with presenting when you're listening to someone on a YouTube video, or maybe you go to a university graduation. You're listening to a commencement speaker, you're listening to the prime minister of your nation. Listen for content, but listen for presentation skills. Examine body language, eye contact, how he or she emphasizes certain words. These are the tips and tricks that sit on top of all of that clear thinking when you're doing a presentation, the worst thing you could ever do is you present a PowerPoint slide full of words and you're just reading. Don't ever do that. You'll, you will lose your audience. You'll waste people's time. You know, they can read themselves. They don't need you to read for them. So in your presenting, your presenting ideas, you know, maybe some bullet points, but it's you that's doing the presenting. So I encourage you on the presenting side of things to project your voice, make eye contact, be human in engage the audience, and that way you can retain them. And as a result, get your ideas across. I like to recommend this book to, I'm going to show you this book On Writing. Well by Williams Windsor. It's probably in its seventh or eighth edition. I think this is the seventh edition. Million copies sold. This book is the one book I can recommend over and over again on learning to write well, he gives so many practical tips on eliminating unnecessary words and following a logical sequence. And he's got so many, who was a college professor for many, many years. I think he passed away in the past few years here. But such tremendous insight. And of course, it's very readable. So not only he's giving you the practical tips, but it's also very readable itself. So anyway, I just want to convey that that the, the a well-written article, a well-written email, a well-presented topic, is the evidence of clear thinking. If you want to be a manager and influencer, if you want to help steer your corporation in a particular direction, you have to be an effective verbal and written communicator. It's not just good enough to have a bunch of ideas in your head, you have to be able to spread those ideas through speaking, through writing, to influence and persuade a group. 4. 04 Master Time Management: Now no discussion about management would be complete without talking about time management. Successful and effective managers are excellent at utilizing their time. But more than just utilizing their time, is there effectively utilizing all of the resources given to them, the people, the equipment, the finances. As a steward of these various resources they're making, the very most of them are. They're utilizing them as effectively as possible. And certainly time is the most valuable resource manager or, or any person has. So if you look out into the marketplace, you'll find all sorts of articles and resources and books about time management. And I'm sure, and I know that there's a lot of great tricks and tips and methods out there. But more than individual methods, I want to talk more about a mindset or a concepts related to time management that I think will serve as excellent frameworks for those individual tips and tricks. So the two concepts that I want to talk about are opportunity costs and time blocking. Let's start with opportunity costs and i want to share a story that will illustrate what opportunity costs is all about. So imagine a young adult, the young lady, for instance, who inherits a piece of land, one acre of land. And it had always been her dream to open a mini golf course. And so she takes the land, which was free and invest a $100 thousand in buying the little putters and the golf balls and building all the holes in the windmills and all those things you see at mini golf courses. So she builds out this whole mini golf course and then opens. And in her first year, she earns a $150 thousand. The question is, Was she successful? So she got a free piece of land, invested a $100 thousand, and earned a $150 thousand her first year, I think most people would agree, yes, she was successful. That seems like an obvious answer. But let me add one nuance to the story. That one acre piece of land was in downtown Tokyo, or it was in downtown Manhattan, New York City. These are the most expensive real estate in the world. Some articles estimate that a, that an acre in downtown Manhattan would be worth like several billion dollars. Same with Tokyo. The real estate is so expensive, it would be worth billions and billions of yen or dollar or whatever you're spending. So now knowing that you have an acre of land that you could sell for $10 billion, the interest alone, if you put it in the bank, would be worth. Millions of dollars. Now, did she make a good use of that resource? Well, maybe not. And so the point is, even though she did something productive, was it the most productive that she could have done with that land? And if finances are metrics here, then then the answer's no, she could have been far more successful, far more generated, far more wealth with that piece of land than by opening a golf course. And that's the message of time management and opportunity costs, which is, it's not, are you doing productive things? It's, are you doing the most productive things? Because whatever you're doing shouldn't be compared, compared to 0. In other words, I could be sitting here staring at my phone. I could be taking a nap on the job. But instead I'm doing, I'm doing this. Well, it isn't to compare it to 0. It's, what could you be doing is the comparison. So opportunity cost is always comparing what you are doing to what you could be doing. And there's a common, there's a common fault amongst everybody wear. They often confuse, I've done it, often confuse urgent items with important items. And there's even this expression about, you know, fighting fires. You're not talking about fighting literal fires. It just means that you're always taking care of the urgent thing that's in front of you. And the problem with that is by the time you get done with all the urgent things, often there's no time left to do the important things. Now, former US President back in the fifties, Dwight Eisenhower and said, what is important is seldom urgent. What is urgent is seldom important. And time management and management experts later came along and formed what's called the Eisenhower matrix. And I will include this in my notes so you can see it. But if you could imagine graphically, if you had a maybe a little matrix where on the vertical axis is the measure of importance and the horizontal axis is the measure of urgency. So then any activity you could put, you could evaluate, okay, how important is this, how urgent is this? And kind of find its position on your matrix. Now, this is a concept here. I'm not suggesting you actually do that. Okay, time to send an email. Where does it fit on my matrix now, I'm not suggesting it. I'm always saying let that be a mental framework for you. So when you have two or three, or ten or 50 things in front of you that you need to do that you'd like to do. Asking yourself how important is this? Is as equally important as asking how urgent is this? So when you're prioritizing, what should I do next? If you're always looking at only the urgency scale, you'll never, you know, some of those are also important, but, but you'll never actually get to the non-urgent, but really important things. Examples, doing some follow-up phone calls with your customers. How was your service? How can we help you better? Did you get your product on time? These are important, but they're not urgent. Sending a personalize, thank you email to a colleague that helps you talking, spending some time with the new employer and fighting a colleague out to lunch to get to know them better. Maybe someone in a completely different department from you and you know, you can probably learn something from them or about the organization or who knows. But, but those things get shoved to the bottom. They're all important. But they often get shoved at the bottom because they're not urgent. So in the discussion of time management in your prioritization, don't make urgency the only metric, also consider the importance of things. So in the second concept that I referred to as time blocking, so individuals and companies fall into all sorts of habits and sometimes those habits are mindlessly executed. And a lot of those habits revolve around time management, like we meet every Monday morning or meetings are always one hour long. You schedule meetings for one hour, maybe half an hour, or often meetings will start it either like 09:00 AM or like 130 PM because those are comfortable margins after most people get in or most people finished lunch. So, you know, these, these techniques and habits and culture, you know, they, they involve blocking time into basically like one hour or half hour blocks. And I want to challenge you in your thinking about that and maybe you've never thought about that. Like gosh, we do everything on one hour blocks, okay, to start thinking about. And I want to challenge you in this way and say, what could you do in ten minutes? You could do a lot of things. You can read a trade journal article, you could send that thank you email or make that follow-up phone call. You can watch this lecture. This is probably going to end up being about ten minutes long. You can do a lot in ten minutes that you don't need a half an hour for. And in our culture or organizational cultures because of this one hour or half hour time blocking, you tend to forget that, hey, I have ten minutes, I can get a lot done. And these lost pockets of time add up to quite a bit over a month or over a year. So I would encourage you to start thinking about ten minute blocks. Start thinking about what can I do from 810 to 820 or from 01:00 PM to 110, What can I get done there? And again, successful managers make the most of all the resources and trusted to them, time being the most valuable resource. So check out the notes. I'll include that Eisenhower matrix and all the notes from this class and a few other tricks and some of those tips and tricks that we've talked about, but, but successful managers and you, if you want to be one, you have to make the absolute most of your time. Let these concepts settle in and guide you as you're making your choices and prioritizing what needs them. 5. 05 Practice Sales and Negotiation Skills: Now one of the most important set of skills that you could possibly have as a manager is the ability to sell and ability to negotiate. And some people might be thinking, gosh, I'm not going into sales, I'm not going in the marketing or advertising. I can skip over this lecture. But I want to assure you, regardless of your field, sales and negotiation, are going to be part of it. If you're going to be successful. If you are working as a in the healthcare industry and you want to expand your department, you need to sell that idea to your executive staff, to your board of directors. If you're a programmer and you're moving into management, well, you're going to have to sell the idea of a new product line to the people that work for you. Two, again, two other managers, other stakeholders in your, in your organization. If you're a manufacturing manager, you have to sell the idea that you need more staff or different equipment. So you have to be able to sell and negotiate even if you're not in sales. Because all of these areas and soon anymore, they're all rooted in sales. So everybody has experienced a salesperson that they don't like. In fact, that the entire industry kind of has a bad reputation. They're pushy or and they're trying to sell you something they don't need or they're dishonest or they have a questionable character. You're trying to, you know, they're working in some angle, so to speak. Well, if you've ever experienced one of these bad salespersons, Well, you've already taken your first lesson in sales and what not to do. So really the key in selling an idea or a product or a service is to find a good fit and mistake. A lot of sales persons make is by starting with selling their product when they don't even know what my needs are, what I already have or don't. This is the whole problem with telemarketing. They call you up and they want to try to sell you life insurance or are a car warranty or siding for your house? They don't even know if you own a house or a car, you know. So don't when you're selling an idea, don't start with the product that you start by understanding what the needs are. If you're going to be a sales person, someone who sells ideas, you have to understand your audience. You have to invest the energy to know what do they have, what don't they have? What do they need? What direction are they going? Invest energy into understanding your audience. And again, if you're not in sales, I'm talking about understanding the people that work for you, the people that work in other departments, understanding the needs of the top executives of your company by understanding what they need, you'll be able to better find a good fit with your idea or your product or your service into their needs. And the second lesson. And again, salespeople have, as you know, car salesmen and think that this had this reputation for being dishonest. Well, don't do that again, lesson number one, you learned, be honest. If you can find a fit between. Your product and the customers needs fantastic share it. And now the product or the service, service kind of sells itself. But if there's not a good fit there don't keep wasting your energy. Move on. Don't waste that other person's energy there. Move on. If you give a good presentation, if you invest the time and energy to learn their needs and you find out mutually that it's not a good fit. Well then you've you've left a good impression on them and maybe it's sometime in the future they'll call you back and want to talk to you, but, but don't waste that your time or that other person's time. And the next, the next is not to focus on price. Now that sounds very easy. It's so important to focus on the total cost. As a manager, you may be trying to persuade your organization to use a more expensive product, a premium product or service. Or instead of doing it ourselves, we're going to outsource this and focusing on price makes it look like it's more expensive. Where you have to train yourself in sales to focus on total cost, to focus on return on investment, to focus on solving problems, and having actual money values on the cost of those problems. So that when you present an idea, it not only fits like we were saying before, but you're actually showing a return on investment. You're actually showing, if we pay this today, we'll save that tomorrow. So you have to understand the numbers and the issues involved with the product that you're selling. And even if it's an internal idea. And then I just wanna make a comment to, on negotiation. And by the way, I'm going to put a lot of notes and links to things in the notes for this class. But I'm negotiations. I think the thing that holds people back the most is a, an internal fear of hurting people's feelings. If I ask for a higher price, ask for additional benefits, then I'm going to hurt their feelings or I'm just gonna get the door's going to get slammed in my face. And really you have to get past those internal fears. Yes, there's some tactics and there's some strategies. But getting past your own initial fears of hurting the feelings or losing a deal is the first step to being a good negotiator. And here, here's another couple tips for being too, for effective negotiation is simply being kind, being likable, being friendly. It, a negotiation isn't designed where one person wins and the other person loses. Often it's a case where I win on the items that I'm interested in and you win on the items that your interested in. So, so negotiation is somewhat of a tactic, just like sales of understanding the needs, understanding what's important and working with that person so that both parties wins. I've read studies before, I don't have them at the top of my head of the value of negotiations, for instance, when you're, when you're negotiating your salary, you're possibly just started a new company and they make you an offer. It's so common that people then freeze up and they say, yes, I'll take it because they need a job and they're afraid of if they asked for 10% more dancers, No. And it's amazing that some of the studies I've read is, is how simply asking or building a little bit of a case, negotiating, a little bit, getting passes in, in initial fears. How much more that will earn you over your lifetime. Not only you start higher, but then subsequent percentage pay increases are multiplied on that initial increase, you're getting more and more as you go down the line. So getting past your fear is probably the biggest step two, negotiating. So I'm going to include some tips and tricks in this note section, but I want to assure you that persuading others, negotiating, selling ideas, influencing other people, convincing them that this is a good idea, is a key skill set for a manager. Maybe not so much as a maker. But when you move into management again, it's back to that. You're being evaluated on how well a team does, not just on how well you do personally. So building the sales and negotiation skills is a key part of succeeding as a manager. 6. 06 Earn Certifications: Now the sex area I'm going to talk about might not seem like it fits in with the other areas of skills to develop, but I'm going to show you that it actually does. And that has to do with earning certifications. So almost any field from welding to quality to engineering to inventory analysis, my gosh, it goes on and on and you'll have professional organizations. And often those organizations offer certifications. So certifications are different than certificates. Certificate might be something you get if you attend a training seminar, for instance, It's, you've participated, you've attended. Certifications are different. Certifications usually imply that you have a certain amount of work experience specific to the body of knowledge that the certification covers, and that you've successfully passed a test designed by this organization that covers all the relevant areas in that body of knowledge. If you're a welder, the different welding technical organizations design these certifications so that you're going to take a test and you have to weld these grades of steel with these different welding types. And and if you can do all of that, they will issue you a certification. There's usually a third component to that has to do with ongoing education. So not only did you earn your certification, but you're continuing to stay up-to-date on the field. So that's usually what a certification is. Now, the important thing here about a certification is that I can tell you, Hey, I'm a great engineer. I'm a great inventory on a great welder or whatever you are. Okay. But a certification is a widely recognized technical organization that has designed these test and certification requirements. That they are saying that I'm good at welding or I'm good at engineering, or I'm good at this. So it gives you that third person. So if you put on your resume, I'm a I'm a great inventory analyst. Or you might put certified inventory analysed by this trade organization. Those are really two different things. So as a hiring manager, when I see a certification by a recognized group, technical organization, engineering organization or whatever, now I know something, I don't know what they're telling me, but I know that this other organization that I know and respect says that that person has achieved a certain level. Okay. So there's a difference between the certificate and the certification. Now, I was talking to a colleague recently and very insightful guy. And we were talking about a popular certification called the PMP, project management professional. It's a very widely respected certification by the Project Management Institute. And a lot of folks from a lot of different fields seek this out and and the certification has to do with. Work experience, of course, which is in managing projects. But also there's a pretty tough exam that goes along with this thing. So you have to pass this five hour exam or something like this in order to achieve this certification. So we were talking about this specific certification and he was talking about this colleague of his that he says this this other gentleman, absolutely a fabulous project manager. He would trust him with anything. And but this guy's never earned his Project Management Professional Certification. And I thought that was interesting. Again, I believe him I he's this this other gentleman's probably outstanding at what he does, but he doesn't have this credential. So the challenge then would be to convince someone else, a potential employer, or the executive team or whatever you're trying to, you're trying to move into management. How do you convince that person or you're in management and you're trying to move to a different area or discipline or higher level, how do you convince somebody that maybe doesn't know your skills or doesn't understand who you are. Having a certification. Helps you deliver that message, helps you show that. In our conversation I said, well, gosh, if this guy, maybe this, this other guy should seek out that certification. Not so much to learn how to be a project manager, but to gain that marketing edge. So I know he's a good project manager, you know, is a good project manager. But having that third party, that well-respected industry trade group say he's a good project manager, is a very valuable thing. So it makes you more marketable when you're out looking for a job or talking to your boss about a promotion or talking to your executive team. It makes you more marketable, but really it's a two-way street. So the marketing side is, is an obvious one, especially if you have a tremendous amount of technical skill. However, I've taken enough certification exams, I can promise you in preparing for those exams, you will learn some things. You will organize your thoughts in a different way. You'll gain new bits and pieces here. Maybe you don't use them today, but maybe they would be valuable to you somewhere down the road. And again, this well-respected third-party trade group or industry group has decided that this body of knowledge is important. So if you're missing a piece of the knowledge, even if you're not using it today, it may be valuable to you somehow somewhere down the road. So earning a certification, we'll certainly kind of create an environment. Preparing for that big test will create the environment where you will likely learn new things. Obviously, if you don't have a lot of skills in those areas like project management or engineering or whatever. Then studying for the test, you might gain a huge amount of knowledge. But, but then the other side, of course, is that marketing engine and this is what I want to share with you. You may be working in the type of company, maybe a smaller company, maybe a family owned company, maybe accompany that's having financial problems. And your moved from the maker role, from the technical role to the manager role may not happen at your organization. You may have to move companies to move from the maker to the manager. And a certification is a great vehicle for helping you make that transition. Not only learning the material, but you're gaining a marketing edge. So I would highly encourage you look into your whatever you do for a living, whatever your thing is, look into the trade groups, look into those industry associations and find out do they offer certifications. And let me add one more comment to the quality of the certification is tied directly to the quality of the organization. If I start the ray harkens certifying flying to the moon certification, I'll issue you a handsome certificate. It'll be great, but but it's only as good as the name behind it to so find reputable, preferably longstanding, someone that's been around for 304050 years. And find out who those trade groups are, what their certifications are, and how you qualify for them, and what tests you have to take. And I promise you that will give you an edge whenever you're out into the marketplace. Whether it even if you stay at your company, certainly if you move to your company, suddenly you're in competition with everybody else in the pool of people that want that same job. So what's going to give you the extra edge? A certification may be your answers. So think about that moving from Maker to manager genuinely. And they've helped me and helped thousands of other people seek those out, figure out what the experts in your field are saying is important to know and earn that certification. 7. 07 Strength Your Data Analysis Skills, Part 1: Now the next area I'm going to talk about is the need to gain data analysis skills. It's so common to be sitting in a meeting or having a conversation with another manager or another engineer or an analyst. And the conversation evolves into the discussion of a problem. And then that problem turns into potential solutions. And then potential solutions turn into a particular preferred solution and then delegating and then proceeding. And I've been in so many of those conversations where there was no data brought into the conversation. We're having a problem on afternoon shift. We're having a problem with this product line. We're having a problem with this piece of equipment. But, but the problem is then just assumed in people's minds and then they go on to start solving the problem, whichever, without ever talking about how much, how many, how often with really specific data. And I think part of the reason is culture. I think sometimes the leaders steer those types of discussions in certain ways at certain companies. But another thing is I think data analysis for a lot of people tends to be intimidating. It has a lot of its own terminology and software programs and ways of talking and their statistics and math. And I think if you haven't gravitated toward those fields, or even if you are kinda technically sharp, if you've never studied it, it can feel overwhelming. So sometimes I think people avoid, they know this is a problem, but they, but they fail to quantify the problem because they're intimidated by the field of data analysis. So the problem is, regardless of your field, if you're in marketing or sales, or engineering, or production or whatever you're in, you have to be able to assess the situation in terms of the data. If you don't, you're going to be, there's going to be hit and miss on a lot of different things. So, you know, a lot of people, even if they recognize that they're not really sure where to start, okay? Okay, data's important. Summarizing, analyzing, visualizing this data's important. Where do I start? So one of the, arguably the most powerful and comprehensive data analysis programs in the world is probably already on your computer. It's called Microsoft Excel. And if you ask people, Hey, do you know how to use Excel? To use Excel? Most people say yes, of course, Oh, I've been using it for years. Most people's experience with Excel truthfully is in organizing data, which is very important and formatting data, making it look cute, borders, colors, column headers, you know, making it look worthy to put into a report or presentation of some kind. And it's a tremendous doing that. It's graded organizing. It does act like a database. It's great at visualizing. It acts as a formatting and acts like a visualization tool. So that's good. But then there's this whole other side, a huge side, which is the data analysis. And I can't encourage you enough to build your data analysis skills like any of these areas that we've been talking about. Everyone's going to have their strengths and weaknesses. But you can't have no data analysis skills. Expect to be a successful manager, you have to be able to grasp at a certain level data analysis. Now, there's always going to be experts in the field. There's always gonna be people that you can rely on and go to that are going to be sharper with programming and databases and spreadsheets and analytics of all different types. That's fine. And we need those people desperately. But to be a successful manager, you have to be able to analyze the problem in front of you in terms of data. So I want to break this down for you and, and build a framework. Show you a framework. It's not my framework, but show you a framework that might help you jump in to this analytic side of Microsoft Excel. So data analysis is really broken up into four main areas, descriptive, diagnostic, predictive, and prescriptive. So descriptive is the question, what happened? Diagnostic is, why did that happen? Predictive is what will likely happen in the future, and prescriptive is what should we do? What should we do? So each one of these areas, diagnostic, pardon me, descriptive, diagnostic, predictive, and prescriptive tools available in Excel. And there's tools for all of those areas tend to get harder as you move along, okay? And it's not just the Excel tools, there's also statistical concepts and other ideas that Excel is using. And those get more difficult too, but these are achievable. These are doers, so doable. So let me just walk through each of these four areas and direct your attention to some tools in Excel that you can get started using. So in the descriptive area, what happened? Most people are familiar with the term average or mean or arithmetic average. And this tells you the middle, you know, like what was r? What was our efficiency last month. Okay. Well, the average of all the efficiency of all the machines together is this, you know, people are very custom because that's what they learned in school to do the aperture, the average, the mean, that's good. But there's other tools, statistical tools like standard deviation and variance and standard error and skew and kurtosis that do more than just described the middle point of your population. But they describe the shape and size of your population. Average is really just the middle. What was the average test score in calculus class? And it was an 83. That's the middle value. But what about the population where it was the high side? Where was the low side? How are they distributed? Those are deeper descriptive analytic questions. So those things that I just mentioned are statistical tools, the skew, the kurtosis, the variance, the standard error, and standard deviation. Those are probably ones that you really should master. And Excel has all of those built into formulas, but also offers an add on in most versions of Excel. You're going to find an add on called the Analysis ToolPak. I think it's called the Data Analysis ToolPak. And you have to add it on a lot of times the version of Excel is that you're not going to have it on there. If you look on the Data tab all the way to the right, if there's nothing there, then you don't have an additive in yet. But to add in the Analysis ToolPak, there's a whole set of tools that are really geared toward these types of, these areas of analysis I'm talking about. It's going to be essential. It's for you already have it just added. Okay. And look into the directions. I'll I'll try to include some in the notes, but had been on in, in that analysis tool pack, you'll find a descriptive tool called des, descriptive statistics. And all of what I've just described and more is in there. So add on that analysis tool pack and start getting familiar with the tools. Starting with probably the easiest, which is the descriptive statistics. Okay, then let's move on. Go one more layer deep here. So we went from descriptive to diagnostic. So now we're asking the question, why did it happen? So people make a lot of statements like, our revenues are down from this year to last year, or our efficiency is going up or whatever, you can make these general statements, these general trends. But the question is, why is our sales going up? So Diagnostic Analytics breaks down, helps you to drill down into this body of data to identify causes and drivers for those changes in performance. Imagine that you have a large spreadsheet that has all of your individual sales for the year and you have customers and volume quantity and part number and dates. And you know, you have all this data that you could imagine in a spreadsheet and there's hundreds and hundreds, thousands, millions of lines. Who knows? So using, looking at that by itself would be very difficult. And there are some tools most people use like filtering and sorting that help you do that. But again, I want to direct your attention to somebody called Pivot Tables. Pivottables are a little tough to get used to. But once you do, you'll wonder how you ever got along without these things. So a pivot table can capture all that data and allow you to choose how you break it down. So in our sales example, our sales for last year were down. Well, you can look at your sales by each month. You can look at your sales by every customer. You can look at your sales by every part number. You can look at your sales by by every month and part number, or every month and customer or et cetera. So you can drill down and begin to find the patterns instead of just saying our sales are down. Maybe some segments of your sales are actually up, but the ones that are going down are greater. Well, you can separate those two and find out, OK, where's our winners? Wares are losers. You know, maybe your sales were great for the first seven months of the year, but it was the last five months that brought the whole thing now. So using a pivot table in Excel gives you this total flexibility to break down your data and re summarize it in unique ways that are important to you. So check it out. Their little difficult when you first get started. But it's a fabulous tool. You're going to love it once you start using it. 8. 08 Strengthen Your Data Analysis Skills, Part 2: Okay, so the next area we're going to next level MT is predictive analysis or predictive analytics. So in the simplest form, you're, you're asking the question, OK, here is all my data, my historical data. Maybe it's that same sales data, month over month, year over year. And you can look at it graphically and see that there's a general trend up or down or whatever. But you want to know where will it go with? It continues as pattern where we'll be in six months or six years or whatever you're trying to do. Maybe you're looking at US price, stock price, you know, for some publicly traded company. And you can look at the data and you'll see a lot of volatility, but you have this general trend word up. So a fantastic starting point in predictive analytics is something called linear regression analysis. So what linear regression analysis does is it takes this, this, this data, in our case, over time and finds the best fitting line through the center of that data. It's a trend line. So first of all, it's a line, so it's a straight line, not a curve. So it's a straight line and it minimizes the distance. I'm simplifying here for if you're familiar with statistics, please bear with me. It's minimizes the distance to that technically, I think it's the squared distance between each data point and the line. So it finds this best fitting line that you could project into the future a little bit and say, OK, given the current trend, where will it be in the future? So that's called linear regression analysis. Back to that Analysis ToolPak in Excel, you will find not yet, so you'll have descriptive statistics, but then you'll also have a tab called regression. And that's where you start down that road of using historical data to somewhat project the future. This is a deep topic to, I don't want to, I'm trying to give you an introduction to it. There's a lot of nuances to this. You know, another area, especially when we're talking about data over time, like sales or performance or something like that. Another area to look into something called time series analysis, because here's what happens, even just thinking about retail sales. Everybody goes to the store and buys things and thinks about this. So, So it would be a little tough to look at sales, retail store sales, maybe the Apple iPhone or maybe some Nike tennis shoes or something. And look at the sales per month and really do a linear regression on it because there are other factors like seasonality. So of course, cell phone sales are gonna go up shortly before Christmas time because parents buy their kids cell phones or because because certain things happen at certain times of the year, summer is probably sporting goods, winner skis and hats and gloves. You know, if you were a mitten and hat manufacturer and you went from January, February, and in the northern hemisphere, by the way, you know, January, February, March, you think, my gosh, you're losing and losing. No, no, no, you're not. It's just seasonal, Of course it's going down. People are buying less hats, ok? So in time series analysis, you have to correct for certain things and you need to separate out the components of your progress forward into a base. A trend and seasonality. And then on top of that there's some randomness to so being able to identify and correct for those components, it's a fabulous set of tools. And even once you do that, then you can apply some other things like linear regression analysis. You can apply those to him. So I don't want to overburden here, but just keep those things in mind with time series analysis. Keep there's a base, a trend, seasonality, and randomness. Those are the four factors you might say in time series analysis. So anyway, all of those are helped you two, those are both areas of regression analysis in time series analysis, areas of what will likely happen next. Now just to add one more layer to this, if you're already familiar with linear regression, is multiple regression, which takes multiple independent variables into a single dependent variable. Maybe it's not just time, like our revenue example. Maybe it's not just time, but maybe it's business sector too. So you can use your historical data to predict the future based on both time and business sector. So they go and then of course, non-linear regression, which throws away the, the line assumption and makes it into a exponential or whatever, some sort of curve. Okay, so, so anyway, back to Excel. Take a look at that Excel, add on the Data Analysis ToolPak, you'll find a regression section. And also a great place to look at is in your graphical section where you can do like bar graphs. Take a look at the scatterplot, especially if you have two variables and excellent and exit a. Why? Look at your scatter plot, you can apply a trend line. That's basically what I was talking about linear regression, but it doesn't graphically and does it quick to write, apply trend line and then you can even add the equation to it. That equation helps you to predict the future, so to speak, based on the independent variable. Ok, so anyway, keep all that stuff in mind again, that'll be in the notes. Okay, last area is prescriptive analytics. What should we do? And that again, another layer of difficulty here. And if you've never seen a tool Excel Solver, it's amazing. It's so versatile, so flexible, and allows you to set up a problem where you want to minimize or maximize something. So maybe you want to maximize profits, okay? You need to utilize sorting certain resources to do that. You have certain inventories of raw materials, you have certain machine hours that are available. You have certain people that are available to run those machines. So you have resources. You want to maximize or minimize something like maximize profits are minimized scrap or something like that. So you have a, you have a objective function and then you have constraints because you have those resources, but there's limits to those resources do so using this objective function and these resources, and they have limits, these are constrained. You can set up a problem in Excel Solver to maximize your profits or minimize your scrap yard or whatever your objective function is. And it will do all the heavy lifting for you. It will run the calculations for you. Your job is to set up a problem. It does all the iterative, iterative calculations to find the best solution available. So again, that's tough, but it's well worth your effort if you want to explore that. So bottom line, you've got to you have to describe and diagnose and predict and prescribe your decisions based on the data. Not just your gut feeling, not just what you did last year, not what you think in your head, but you gotta bring you to strengthen your data analysis skills if you're going to be a successful and effective manager. 9. 09 Learn Busines Finance: The next area that you need to master up to at least a particular level to be an effective manager is Business Finance. Regardless of your technical background, the higher and higher you move within an organization, the more you need to understand about the finances of that organization. So accounting is often referred to as the language of business. And before I studied corporate finance and accounting and topics like this, I often felt lost. I didn't speak the language. I remember sitting in a board meeting, work managers and executives and board members were reviewing the financials for the organization. And I just didn't know the terminology and I didn't understand what all these numbers meant. By the time I'm making one or two connections, the meeting moves on, we gotta go to the next page. So not understanding that the terminology and the goals of Business Finance left me in a position I felt lost, you know, is working as an engineer. I remember coming up with these, what I thought were brilliant ideas. And I would convey these ideas for a new processor, new piece of equipment to my manager. And I felt like they often got back Bernard kind of put on the maybe someday list and it caused me frustration. And what I didn't realize until later was that I wasn't conveying my dia to my manager in the terms that were aligned with his goals and objectives. I was just saying what a great idea this was, but I wasn't taken some, I didn't have the knowledge to put that in terms of business finance, return on investment and initial investment in terms that that he is concerned about could have been her, but it was a him at the time. So in reality, looking back, he was probably too busy to do that leg work himself. And that's why these projects, Scott, that Bernard, so business finance is not only one of the most critical skills that you'll need to become an effective manager. But it's also one that you're least likely to encounter naturally in your role as a maker. And a lot of organizations finances are handled by the finance people. So unless you are bringing to you, unless your studying finance and learning these topics, then you're probably not going to just pick this up on your own because you're not exposed to it a whole lot. And as a result, you're gonna get left out of those key business decision making processes. So business finance also has this deceiving nature. So not only are you not probably going to get a lot of opportunities to learn it on the job as a maker. But it has a deceiving nature in that a lot of intelligent engineers and programmers and technicians think they understand finance because they borrowed money for a car, they've bought a house, they've invested in the stock market. But realistically, those things have almost nothing to do with business finance. So non financial managers really need to understand three major areas of business finance in order to be successful. And those are going to be. Financial accounting, Managerial Accounting, and return on investment analysis. So financial accounting is the branch of accounting that involves summarizing and reporting a company's business transactions through four main financial statements. And these are called the balance sheet, the income statement, the cashflow statement, and the statement of owner's equity. Too uninformed reader and investor. These documents describe an organization's financial structure and performance and they're largely used by outsiders or the company. If you were investigating, accompany and maybe looked at their website and their financial information, you're likely going to come across these financial documents that I'm talking about. The second area is managerial accounting. So these are the task and the calculations and reports and metrics that focus on internal decision-making. These are the things that managers use to steer the company forward. So Managerial Accounting includes many areas, but one of the main areas would be product and service costing. In order to decide how much to sell a product for, you have to understand how much it costs. So things like direct and indirect labor, fixed and variable overhead. These are components of a product's cost. So you have to understand what each of those mean and how to measure them in order to determine the adding those all up together equals a product's costs. So understanding the components of a product or services costs not only helps you establish a baseline, so then you know what to sell it for. But it also helps you identify areas of improvement. If you're not measuring indirect material, it could get way out of line. You'll never know it because it's kind of hiding underneath some of the other things. So so knowing what these things are, tracking them and taking action on them helps you to become an effective manager. There's many other areas of managerial accounting, but the one big one that you hear about a lot is called a budgeting. This is how much money to allocate to your organizations, various processes and managerial accounting offers many fabulous tools for making those determinations. So then the third area of business finance it's so important understand is called return on investment analysis. So this is the process of estimating the value a major investment will return to an organization and its shareholders. And this is an area that I'm particularly passionate about. So there's many back of the napkin. Return on investments. Measurements is things like payback period and, and things like this. The payback period basically says, you know, I'm going to invest a $100 thousand on a piece of equipment, and I know that it will save me $20 thousand per year. Therefore, a 100 thousand divided by 20 thousand is a payback period of five years. So. Basically it says that in five years I'm going to get back the money I invested initially. So if you're just talking amongst friends, I again, I call it back of the napkin to call it very informal. Well, that's fine. But if you're actually making business decisions, that your employees, that you're other managers, that your shareholders are going to be influenced by. You need something more than a, than a really informal method. So the gold standard for return on investment models is called the net present value method. It's widely recognized by the experts as being the best ROI model to use for these major investments, equipment and new buildings and new product lines and things like that. So it's so critical to have a robust model for analyzing these costs. And regardless of how great your model is though, it's garbage in, garbage out. So you have to start with a great model. Net present value is the model that you want to use and you have to make sure all your inputs are there. So you have to make sure that you're accounting for all your various investments in ongoing expenses, like maintenance and inventory, indirect labor. And there are so many costs that go into the return that an investment will have on your organization. That's why you need to understand product costing, all those, all those various cost. Because if you don't understand those, when you go to purchase a new piece of equipment or go to build a new building or make another major investment. You're, you're not going to know to put those costs into your ROI model. So anyway again, net present value model. It's so important also to make sure all of the inputs are there. And then lastly to is, you don't want to use single point estimates either. So many, I looked at so many return on investment models that deliver one value. Realistically, you're looking out 3-4-5 years, you're probably not going to be exactly in your estimate. It's always great to, again present your manager, present the board, the executive team, with a typical expected case, but also kind of a low and a high case based on maybe the revenues aren't going to be as high as you think they are. Maybe the ramp app's going to be a little longer. So you want to, you want to be able to offer maybe three scenarios, low, medium, and high when you're presenting an ROI model. So I don't want to dig too deep into the details, but again, it's a topic that I'm passionate about and I enjoyed tremendously. So those are the big areas of business finance and those are some of the key launch points that you're going to want to get into and study more. And again, back to those classmates that I am going to include at the end of the end of this Udemy series here, I'm going to add all sorts of resources, other classes you can take, other, all these major concepts and ideas. I'm going to have those Ullman notes, study those and use that as a launch point into expanding your skill set. 10. 10 Use Problem Solving Frameworks: Now next I want to talk about developing skills using problem-solving methodologies, you know, as a manager and I've been a manager for 20, almost 25 years now. Essentially what I do is I solve problems, their engineering problems or design problems or people problems or customer problems or whatever. But I spend a lot of time, you as a manager will spend a lot of time solving problems. So it's helpful to have some problem-solving methodologies or frameworks established near thinking. So that when you encounter a new problem, even though you've never encountered the facts and situation before, you'll have some method, some techniques to analyze and break down the problem and find solutions and ultimately solve the problem. So I want to review three fairly well-known problem-solving methodologies that I think regardless of what industry you're coming out of or what your discipline is in terms of your hard skills, what you're good at. I think these three you will find tremendous application for. I think there'll be helpful to you. So the first one is referred to as six sigma. And this has deep history in manufacturing companies like Motorola and General Electric and things like this probably discovered back in the middle eighties. And Six Sigma refers to a sigma is a Greek letter that is a measure of variation used commonly in statistics. But Six Sigma is a methodology, it's a management philosophy, it's a problem-solving method. And it is as a model, commonly called DMAIC, which stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. So Six Sigma commonly uses this model of problem-solving in it. And at each step, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve Control. At each step there's a variety of tools, but the overarching idea is that sigma being a measure of variation, is a hint at the overarching goal of the Six Sigma methodology, which is to reduce variation. Wherever you see variation, you're going to see more problems if you're in computer programming and you see variation in programmers. Some solutions are going to be better than others. You could see variation methods in retail and restaurants, in banks and service industries where the method varies too widely, you end up having problems, dissatisfaction complaints in manufacturing obviously as the product itself, venture making or the processing conditions in a machine very, you're gonna have problems. So starting with a well-designed product, process or service and then minimizing variation is really the goal of Six Sigma. And a lot of the tools that they use are analytical in nature like. The scatter plot and the histogram and the control chart and correlation analysis. And some of these tend to be analytical in nature. But, but there's others like 5-Why Analysis and the and the cause and effect diagram, for instance, that are more qualitative in nature. So between the hard tools that quantitative tools and the qualitative tools following this, define, define the problem, analyze the problem improved. Following this framework of thinking, the outcome is reduced variation in whatever you're looking at, reduced variation, and as a result, fewer defects, fewer problems, fewer complaints. So excellent framework or methodology for solving problems. The next one and sometimes even here these together, I'll talk about this a little bit. It's called lean manufacturing. So lean manufacturing came out of the Toyota Production System. And what they do in Lean is they've identified major categories of waste. So you could have things like wasted transportation or wasted motion if you're at a workstation or, or wait times or product defects or all of these different types of wastes. And depending on who you talk to, there's either eight or nine types of wastes. My favorite is unused talent, wasted potential of the people on your team or in your organization. So there's all these wastes out there over processing and whatnot, where if you eliminated those wastes, you would you would eliminate the costs associated with them and the lost opportunity like that talent, one unused talent, you would eliminate the cost of the defective product in the motion of the, the, the loss potential of unused talents and things like this. So, so by eliminating the waste, you're improving your profitability. You're improving your operation. And similar to Six Sigma, there's a handful of tools they tend to focus on to, for example, would be like a continuous flow. In manufacturing, it's common to have work in process inventory. And the so-called continuous flow is that a single piece starts and finishes and goes out the door and the inventory in between all those processes is minimized. Another example of one of the approaches taken in lean manufacturing is called five s. And this, these five words, they're Japanese words but they've translated into English like, sort, and, and scrub and these things. But it's basically a way of organizing your workplace in that your first eliminating the junk, eliminating the things that don't belong there, then you're finding right, homes for the things that do belong there. Then you're cleaning this and and then you're doing some preventive steps to make sure those things stay in place. And as 5S becomes part of your culture, the idea is when you have organized workplaces and workstations and offices that you're wasting less motion, reaching for things, going to confine things, sorting through the unnecessary things you know, the things that you used most often, our position most closely to you, the things that you're using least often are positioned far away from you. So. This is a concept that is want to be clear. It's called lean manufacturing that came out of Toyota, the people that manufacture cars. But I want to assure you that the applications for lean manufacturing and six sigma, which, which largely came, originated in manufacturing, has applications throughout every industry. Health care for insurance, for instance, hospitals and doctors offices in surgery centers have made tremendous advances in their customer service, in their patient care and in other, even I've seen in pharmacies and things, it's tremendous improvement. They're systems. And you wouldn't normally think of that as a traditional avenue for lean manufacturing or Six Sigma. So anyway, two fabulous methodologies. And as I mentioned, a lot of times they're used together because eliminating waste is a fabulous first step in my way of thinking. But then what remains, you know, optimizing it. So, so you're eliminating the cost and variation together and you're improving your process. So commonly, you'll, you'll see those gather. The third area that I want to introduce you to that seems like it's come on the scene here in the last few years, kind of strong, although it's been around for many, it's called design thinking. And for the folks that are in manufacturing and engineering, I always encourage people to take a deeper look at this. Now, design thinking is not the same as designing. That's something different here we're talking about a way to solve problems here. So design thinking seeks solutions that are at the intersection of business viability, technological feasibility, and human desirability. So it has to be something that you can make money on. It has to be something that's possible, and it has to be something that people want. And at the intersection of those three, if you imagine a Venn diagram and these overlapping circles of ideas at the center of that lies the very best solutions. So it realistically, the business viability is part and the technological feasibility part have been long developed by the MBA's and the finance people or by the computer programmers and materials scientists, you know. So you still have to find the solutions. But the part, and this is a little bit in my opinion, but the part of the design solution that's probably been the most neglected is the human desirability. So the, the, the practitioners of design thinking, I've come up with a wide range of tools that emphasise empathy. Putting yourself in the shoes of the other person. Active listening, observation at really understanding not just how to solve this problem, but what problem should we be solving? And I'll tell you anybody that works anywhere can learn something from the design thinking folks in terms of prototyping, they've developed some fabulous ideas around prototyping from low fidelity. So fidelity meaning shrewdness to the proximity to the finish product. In other words, low fidelity sketches and things made out of cardboard and styrofoam just to help people visualize the solution. And then higher and higher and higher fidelity solutions. And at each step along the way, getting that feedback, putting it into the hands of the user, asking those open-ended questions. It's a fabulous design methodology, problem-solving methodology. And in fact, it, it continues to something called a minimum viable products. So if you're looking just that prototyping piece alone, my gosh, everybody can learn from that. So getting your head first, you're a problem solver. Whether you're in the sciences, whether you're in manufacturing, whether you're an Engineering, the services, industries, it doesn't matter you're a problem solver. The better you are at problem solving. The bigger problems, the more complex problems that you can solve, the more effective the more successful you're going to be and the greater benefits you are going to be to the world around you. If you want to be a manager, then you are saying you want to be a problem solver by getting established universal problem-solving methodologies into your thinking, you will become better at what you do. So again, check out the notes. I'll include all sorts of stuff in their Six Sigma Lean manufacturing, design thinking. Those are the three big problems solving methodologies that absolutely extend beyond where they originated from. 11. 11 Become an Effective Goal Setter: The next area I'm going to talk about is becoming an effective goal setter. In order to be an effective goal center, you have to be a goal setter just to start with. So whether you're talking about your business, your career, your personal life, you have to be the type of person who sets and seeks to achieve goals. If you're going to be successful, of course, if you're going to be effective, management is no different. You have to be, have goals and seek to achieve them. Now, no matter what you're doing in any of those areas of your life, for instance, you're always doing two things at the same time. So as a manager, you're gonna be working on the thing in front of you, the thing that's due next week, the thing that is important to your business, et cetera. But simultaneously you're doing something related to where you're going. So you have to think about where am I today, but where am I going? And tactically speaking, the things that you do every day, some of them should be related to the things that need them today, and some of them should be related to where you're going. And again, whether we're talking about your business, your department, your career, your personal life. The thinking is the same way. So goals are a great framework for thinking about where I'm at today and where am I going, both in sports like American soccer or football as it's wildly called, there's goals right there at the end of the field. There's certain dimensions. The field is a certain length and the ball either goes or doesn't go into the goal. Those are very fixed, rigid goals. So if you're playing soccer in Paraguay, it's more or less the same as soccer in Italy. There might be some slight rule variations, but you get what I'm saying. There's there's fixed goals. Well, and your personal life or your career, the goals aren't fixed. First, you decide where the goals are, and then at some point along your path that you decide you want to move the goal or change the goal. Well, that's your option. So goals can be very rigid, like in soccer, American football, or any sport really. Or they can be very flexible and not really have any fixed position. So the goals in your life probably or your career or your department or business probably have to be somewhere in between where they have some flexibility. But if they have two months flexibility, you're gonna be exerting energy in one direction. Later you decide is unnecessary. Now I have to go in this direction. So it's not that you have to have rigid goals, but if you don't work on the same thing long enough, you're not going to achieve anything worthwhile. That's why we have goals in the first place. If we could do anything we wanted to do in 20 minutes, we would never need to set goals. We could just do it and be successful and be done. But if you want to do something that's worthwhile, it probably is gonna take a little bit more time. You know, if you haven't read the book, Good to Great by Jim Collins, he has some fabulous ideas about business growth and sustain growth and things like this. One of his concepts is called the fly wheel. So these fly wheels are large, heavy wheels that are rotating and they're going in the same direction and fly wheels on, enlarge the pieces of equipment, generate the energy required to stamp steel or something like this. So the idea with a flywheel is that you're doing the same thing over and over again, over and over, building up momentum, storing up energy. And then you can accomplish something very successful. So whether it's your training, your academic training, your professional training, whether it's something you're trying to achieve in your career or at your business. It's repeating the same process over and over again. That's going to make you successful. If you're turning this direction, turning that direction with these fixed goals, then you're just not going to build up that momentum that you need. So, so anyway, having some goals, having some flexibility in them, but having some stability is really the key. Now one of the frameworks that you hear often about setting goals, which I think is a good way to think about him as they call them smart goals S, ART. This is an acronym for some of the attributes for a good goal. So good goals are specific as specific, what exactly do you want to accomplish? And I would add, why do you want to accomplish it as well? Having a specific goal helps you to know how will I, how will I know when I've been successful, maybe you have the goal of earning your master's degree. Well, that's very specific. So there's this thing called master's degree. That's how, you know, it's it's very specific. The next is measurable. How much, how long, how many, you know, again, how will you know this has been accomplished? Maybe you want to lose weight. Well, how much weight it has to be measurable. If you just use the bathroom, you'll lose weight, but, but that's probably not what you really wanna do. So having a, having a specific lose weight, but then how much quantity? Now again, you'll note the extent that you have to go to be successful, so measurable. The next is achievable. You have to be realistic and asked to be attainable. You know, you don't want to be setting goals that are ambitious, but realistically you have other you have other priorities and you have other challenges in life or business, et cetera. And you can't, you know, again, back to the master's degree and earned a master's degree by next week. Well, that's probably not attainable or, you know, error if you haven't, maybe you haven't graduated from high school. Well, maybe your goal should be to graduate from high school, then graduate from college, then, you know, so maybe you're not quite ready for yet, so it has to be achievable. And then next are so specific, measurable, achievable, relevant. It has to be something that you want to achieve. It has to be something that lines up with your inner passions. You should have the want to, to continue driving toward that. The geeky guy, you know, your purpose in it aligns with your purpose and the direction you want it to go. And then the last the tea is time-based, so you have to set some limits on this. I want to do this by the end of the year or in three years or something like this. Or again, there's never any sort of pressure, you know, internal pressure. I mean that in a good way to keep moving forward. So anyway, smart, specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-based. Those are the attributes when you're setting goals, you should kind of think, you know, am I, Am I meeting all of these attributes of a good goal? And then I'm just going to add one more comment, two more comments, maybe in goal setting in the first, the first comment is writing them down. So use this smart framework to set your goals. But then I would say write them down. So if you have a journal, if you have somewhere, you keep notes or ideas, or you have a business plan, or you have a career plan, write these things down. I, I read an informal study once it said that you will increase the probability of completing your goals by 42% just by writing them down, that one simple act writing it down, maybe hanging up in your refrigerator or your office so you can see it, keep it in your mind, keep it generating. Because again, you're doing this today, but you're also doing things for tomorrow. There's always two things you're doing simultaneously. By keeping your goals in mind. You're keeping, reminding yourself, hey, don't forget to work on your future, on your goals. And then the last thing I would add is to share them with others. You know, there's so many reasons for doing that. Having a community around you finding incursion it with other people having accountability. How's that going? How's the program going? How's your master's degree go and how's your business going? You know, when you share your goals, you're sharing this message. These are important to me. If you said I have a goal to do blank. If I'm if I'm listening to you, I'm thinking, oh, this must be important, right? So it's going to remind me, I'll ask you, how's that project going? How's that master's degree go and how does the new product that you that book you're writing? How's it going? You know, it, it keeps you accountable, but, but you can seek encouragement and strength from those around you. So write it down, share it anyway, hope this has been helped to you check out the notes. I included all the details. They're setting goals. Key part. Key part to being an effective and successful manager in your business. In your, if it's your own business, your side get your career, your personal life, you gotta be a goal setter. 12. 12 Improve Your Collaboration and Team Building Skills: Now in this course I've talked about things like Data Analysis and Business Finance and other things that you might term as hard skills that you typically learn in college or you take a course to study. And I want to introduce you to a nother phrase called soft skills. Things like active listening and empathy, putting yourself in someone else's shoes, communication and collaboration. And these so-called soft skills in learning how to manage yourself or your own emotions, or how to work with other people and interact with them effectively. And I want to emphasize this because often makers have this false idea that if they're the best engineer at the company, well then when the engineering manager position comes up naturally, they're going to move into that spot and too often they're disappointed. As I mentioned earlier, the skills required to be a good engineer are not the same skills as those required to be a good engineering manager. Same with computer science or nursing or any other field, is that too often people are focused on the core discipline that they do. And they don't realize that there's a whole other set of skills required to be an effective manager. And in this family, soft skills, communication, active listening, engaging with other people. These are the skills on which more often than not, you're going to be evaluated on. I read a survey not that long ago where they were interviewing hiring managers. And I believe it was something like 7677% of hiring managers say that they play soft skills, as important as hard skills when making an evaluation on who to choose from. And then something like 16% said they're even more important. It's more important that you know how to engage and interact with others than it even is the core, the hard skills that you think the job is actually about. And this becomes magnified when you're talking about a promotion. How well you handle yourselves, how well you interact with others is often used as the yardstick in determining who gets promoted and who gets passed up for the promotion. So soft skills are critically important as you're moving into this idea of moving into Manager's roles, listening to the concerns of your subordinates, of your superiors. And when I mean listening, I mean active listening. Listening and waiting to get to say something. But listening as a means of seeking to understand the other person's position. If you don't know the environment in which you're working, well, then you're gonna have some ill fitting solutions. So understanding the concerns and the constraints and the, and the worries of those around you is a key part of being an effective manager. Confronting difficult situations. You're a manager or a leader. You have to be able to interact with others when it's not comfortable. Some people love sharing good news, hey, we're getting a bonus is year and they love, you know. Everybody is off on Friday or they love sharing good news. But when it comes to bad news, like talking with someone on a behavior that they need to correct or talking to them about how they handled a particular problem in the wrong way. Those can be difficult conversations have in a lot of people don't wanna do that. If you're going to be a leader, if you're going to be a manager, you have to be able to have those conversations. Another area of soft skills and things that have to do as a manager is teaching others concepts and procedures and maybe to your subordinates or maybe to other departments, new audiences that you haven't interact with a lot. These are the types of things that effective managers have to do. But effective makers can sometimes skip over. So it's so critical that you, that you head down this pathway of improving your soft skills. Now some people have this wrong idea that, you know, friendly people or good communicators or collaborators. It's built into your genetics. That is not true. Maybe there's a truth there, but soft skills are skills like hard skills that you can learn and develop and hone over time. So let me share with you a couple tactics that you can use to improve your soft skills, your team-building skills, your collaborative skills. One simple way that you can practice the next time you see somebody is simply to encourage somebody, compliment them. Point out, hey, you did a really nice job there. Thank you. Or when someone's leading a meeting, maybe after the meeting while everyone's still there. Hey, thank you for leading us meeting. I really learned a lot. Thank you for sharing those ideas, encouraging, complementing people. You build trust, you connect with them. Ways that you couldn't, possibly if you keep your mouth shut. Another obvious, like any other topic is getting involved reading about these soft skills, like, like, again, like finance, you can learn soft skills. I many, many books, many, many articles, websites dedicated to team building and collaboration to I'll just throw out to you and I'll put these and notes. Dave Ramsey on trade leadership fabulous book, John Maxwell, 21 laws, sorry, the 21 irrefutable laws of leadership. Fabulous, tremendous insights. Learn these skills by reading books like that or articles or, or YouTube videos. We'll learn just like you would learn any or any sort of hard skill. And a third thing that I could share with you is to put yourself in situations that require soft skills. Put yourself in situations outside your sphere of influence. Okay, you're a great computer programmer, fabulous. Go volunteer for committee. The committee that puts on the company picnic. Outside of your sphere of influence. Now you can't rely on your hard skills, like you know the right answer. Get outside your sphere of influence into something where there's people and other stuff. And even if it's not a true company, volunteer at your local food bank or the scout troop, or get yourself outside your comfort zone, force yourself to interact with people, get things done, learn who these people are. You will rapidly, I promise you rapidly develop your skill sets by doing that. And then lastly is simply by asking for feedback. I think everybody kind of knows people at their company that are either highly effective OR highly influential or just people that are widely respected. Find one of those people and periodically ask them, hey, can you help me out here? I'm looking for ways to improve my team-building, my communication, my collaboration skills. I know it sounds like an awkward question, but what do you see? What I'm doing wrong? What can I do to improve my ability to work with other people? Number one, humbling yourself to ask for help will go a tremendous way into gaining that person's respect. And then obviously if you, if you see it, others see it, that this person is learn some things and maybe it's not obvious how did they influence people that way or how come they're team is so loyal, maybe it's not obvious to you as simply asking the question, you may gain tremendous insight. So anyway, it's going to require work just like learning finance, just like learning the computer programming or the engineering that you learned. Learning soft skills require that same type of work diving in getting the new material, learning it, reading it, observing it, and then putting it into practice, making some mistakes, learning from your mistakes, continuing to move on. And again, you may, it may be the single piece that you're missing to move from that maker to manager role. It's so critical. And I just don't want you to be the person who thinks, Man, I'm on the best engineer in the department, on the best analysts to the apartment and you're the one that gets passed up. And you take it personally and you feel hurt. Gain the soft skills you need, invest the energy to learn. Humble self asks those questions and the payoffs. I promise you will be tremendous, not just in your workplace, but being a better person, being a person who can engage and interact with other people in any circumstance is the reward itself. So I promise you dig in, it'll change your life. Thank you. 13. 13 Servant Leadership: Now before I close this class, I want to introduce an idea to, I know I said there'll be ten strategies, but I just wanted to give you one last thought to consider and I think it will underpin all of the other strategies that I've talked about up to this point. So a lot of people want to become a manager or a leader or an executive because they'll earn more money. They get to call the shots. They have a huge amount of influence if they want report by Tuesday, they say needed by Tuesday and they'll have it. And I want to suggest to you that that is the wrong reason to aspire to become a leader. And I want to introduce a topic to you called servant leadership. A servant leadership thinks about the other people and how will they be affected by the decisions that you make? Jesus said, whoever is the greatest among you must become like the youngest and whoever leads like the one serving. See what happens as you move up in an organization. The more and more people are affected by the decisions that you make. If you make decisions that are self-serving to increase your bonus or get a nicer car or just because you're having a bad day and you can snap your fingers and people will jump. Well, that's the wrong reason to want to be a leader. That's not the basis for making good decisions. When you're making a decision, you have to consider who will be affected by this decision when and again, as you move further and further up in the company, the more and more people are affected by that. So the more thinking and thought and consideration you have to give in to the decisions that you make. When you become a servant leader year, you become a better person. You know, there's an expression that people don't leave bad companies, but they leave bad bosses. Whether you're a servant leader or a self-serving leader, you're going to have the same title. You're gonna make the same money. You're gonna be in charge. But how will this look from the people that work for you or are influenced by your decision, decided to be the type of leader that wants to be a servant to those around them. Not only will you become a very effective manager, a very effective leader, but you'll actually positively influenced the lives of those around you. And in fact, you'll become a better person for it. So have the right motivation for moving into this leadership position. It's a great privilege to be given responsibility and budget and people to work for you. But take that responsibility as an opportunity to be a help and to be a servant to those around you. 14. 14 Conclusion: Well, this is the end of the spill share class titled From maker to manager, ten strategies for advancing your career. Congratulations on finishing the course. Thank you so much for sticking with it through the end here. And I genuinely, genuinely appreciate every student that is willing to take a chance with me and go down this learning journey, some piece of their learning journey with me. So thank you so much. I count each one of you as a blessing that you would sign up for my class. And I genuinely hope that the information and the strategies and the ideas that I'm offered, offering here have been a help to you. So I want to leave you with three things. Number one, attached to the end of this class, I've included a multi-page Word document that contains all the notes, all my bullet points from this class as you can read, you can download that's yours to keep. And in there I've included a ton of other stuff that I just couldn't fit into this class. And, and that includes the links to websites and books and articles that I genuinely believe there's going to be a helps you. So check out those links and the other notes and the other bullet points that I've included. And those will very nicely supplement what the various strategies I've been talking about here. Number two is that the project for this class is a self-assessment and I have the video for that in the project section of this class. So what do you do now? Now it's time to figure out where are you at on each of these ten key areas. It's a self-assessment. It's a chance to think about some of the ideas I've shared with you. Think about where you're at in your career, in your competency level, in each of those areas, maybe you need a little help and data analysis, but you're good on the communication side or something like this if it's nice to assess where you're at in your opinion. So what I've included is a self-assessment worksheets where you can simply rank your self on a scale of one to ten for each of those areas. And there is a graphical output and then there's an action item plan. I strongly encourage you to participate in that project. Even I'd love to see you upload your completed self-assessment and action plan shaped to the project. But even if you don't take some time to think through your career goals, think through these ten areas and build some action items, some goals that'll help get you from where you are today to where you want to be. You want to be in that managerial role, that leadership role. You're going to need a plan to get there. So I hope both that self-assessment tool is useful for you and met all the information that you learn in this class will feed into that objective of getting to that managerial position. And then lastly, if you know me from any of my other skill share classes, you know, that I genuinely enjoy hearing from skill share students if I can be of any help to you. If you have a question or comment or maybe I missed something, you have an improvement idea, please message me through Skill Share. I'd love to hear from him. I tried to get back to everybody within 24 to 48 hours. I will try my best to get back to you. And again, I don't want to take one student for granted. And I would thank you and I'd love to hear from you, so if I can be of any assistance to you, please reach out to me through Skill Share. So thank you. Thank you again for taking this class, for making her manager genuinely hope it's a help to you and God bless you and best wishes in your career.