The device-to-device (D2D) technology performs explicit communication between the terminal and the base station (BS) terminal, so there is no need to transmit data through the BS system. The establishment of a short-distance D2D communication link can greatly reduce the burden on the BS server. At present, D2D is one of the key technologies in 5G technology and has been studied in depth. D2D communication reuses the resources of cellular users to improve system key parameters like utilization and throughput. However, repeated use of the spectrum and coexistence of cellular users can cause co-channel interference. Aiming at the interference problem under the constraint of fair resource allocation and improving the system throughput, this paper proposes an effective resource optimization scheme based on the firework method. The main idea is to expand the weighted sum rate and convert the allocated resource expression into fireworks to determine the correlation matrix. The simulation results show that, compared with the existing scheme, this scheme improves system performance by reducing interference.

With the rapid popularization of mobile computing, users have higher expectations and requirements for the speed and capacity of wireless networks, which has led to a sharp increase in the demand for spectrum resources from mobile terminals [^{2} [

D2D communication includes two transmission modes: point-to-point and multicast [

D2D communication working in multiplexing mode allows terminal equipment to perform point-to-point direct communication by reusing the spectrum resources of Cellular User Equipment (CUE) in the system without forwarding through the base station server [

There are various studies on resource optimization of D2D communication. Lee et al. [

Zhang et al. [

Saraereh et al. [

In order to expand the system throughput and ensure the fairness of resource allocation for D2D users, this paper proposes a new resource allocation scheme based on fireworks, which allows a cellular user’s spectrum resources to be allocated to multiple D2D users and one D2D user. Users can reuse the spectrum resources of multiple cellular users at the same time and ensure fairness among D2D users. The optimization problem is transformed into solving the approximate optimal resource allocation matrix, and the problem is searched in the global scope through the improved pyrotechnic method.

The rest of this article is structured as follows. Section 2 introduces the system model and problem description. Section 3 introduces our proposed algorithm. Section 4 evaluates the proposed system and discusses the simulation results. Finally, in the smallest part, we came to a conclusion.

Consider a system model with

Taking into account the difference in the transmission content between the D2D user pairs, the transmission rate requirements are also different. Therefore, according to user transmission content, D2D user pairs are further divided into D2D user pairs with lower throughput requirements and target users. The throughput is

Let

D2D user pairs and all users using the same spectrum resources will be interfered by cellular users. Therefore, the SINR of

In

In order to ensure the fairness between D2D users and the quality of system throughput, the applicable constraints are,

Subjected to

The proposed algorithm is divided into the following subsections.

Since this work assumes that the allocation of spectrum resources to all cellular users is completed, the optimization result of this work is to find an approximately optimal D2D user-to-resource allocation matrix

Define the cellular user interference matrix

Define the interference matrix

From

From

The

The explosion process of fireworks can be regarded as the process of igniting fireworks in a local space around a specific point through the sparks produced by the explosion. This explosion usually produces sparks. The firework algorithm is an intelligent optimization algorithm proposed by Tan et al. [

Randomly generate

To satisfy the above-mentioned differentiated requirements of fireworks explosions, the explosion radius Ai and the number of sparks

Among them,

Among the

A mutation operator is introduced to maximize the diversity of the spark population, so as to mutate the firework with the probability

The mutation rule is to randomly change the

After the fireworks explode and mutate, the sparks produced may be outside the feasible range Ω. Therefore, some corrections to the generated sparks are required to ensure that it is a feasible solution. The revised rules can be explained through the following three processes:

The result obtained by multiplying the generated spark

According to the D2D user interference matrix

Check row by row whether the cumulative interference of the D2D user to the resource

Individuals generated in each iteration (including fireworks, sparks from pyrotechnic explosions, and sudden sparks) are added to the candidate set, and

In order to test the authenticity and fairness of the proposed scheme, this section gives the Monte Carlo simulation results based on MATLAB.

Parameter | Range |
---|---|

Minimum SINR threshold | 10 dB |

Bandwidth of RB | 180 kHz |

Cell radius | 500 m |

Transmit power of D2D | 10 dBm |

power density (noise) | –174 dBm/Hz |

CUE minimum SINR threshold | 10 dB |

Cellular link path loss/ km | 128.1 + 37.6 × log(d) |

Short distance path loss/ km | 148 + 40 × log(d) |

D2D pair distance | 20 m |

CUE transmit power | 23 dBm |

This work proposes a D2D resource management mechanism that deploys the idea of fireworks for D2D resource allocation in D2D networks. The main idea is to maximize the weighted sum rate and convert the resource allocation expression to fireworks to determine the correlation matrix. We consider certain constraints to reduce interference problems. The convergence rate of the improved pigeon swarm algorithm has been improved up to 87.5%. At the same time, the proposed resource management mechanism improves the spectrum utilization rate, reduces the interference problem in the system, and optimizes the system throughput with 82% efficiency. The interference of the overall system is reduced to 83%. As an extension of this work, mmWave is deployed in the proposed D2D algorithm and its effectiveness is evaluated through different important parameters. In addition, the algorithm does not consider resource allocation under multiple cells, so further research can be carried out on this basis.

The authors extend their appreciation to King Saud University for funding this work through Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP-2021/387), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.