Foundation to CNC Programming using GCODE | G-Code Tutor | Skillshare

Foundation to CNC Programming using GCODE

G-Code Tutor, Engineering Artist

Foundation to CNC Programming using GCODE

G-Code Tutor, Engineering Artist

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11 Lessons (41m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Health and safety

    • 3. Cartesian coordinate system

    • 4. G00 and G01

    • 5. G02 and G03

    • 6. External profile milling

    • 7. MCodes

    • 8. G20 AND G21

    • 9. Slot Milling

    • 10. G90 and G91


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About This Class

GCode is the basic fundamental language of CNC Machines.  It is a skill every machinist needs to have a full understanding of their machine.  Whether a hobbyist or an Aerospace machinist. It is often an area where machinist apprentices and DIY router enthusiasts get stuck on.

With my course, I will take you through the basics of understanding the G Code language to programming your first part in an easy to understand, step by step process.

Each G-CODE command is discussed in an easy to follow manner with example programs written around each lesson to make learning to program GCODE easy.

The course also covers 

  • Cycles
  • Understanding the cartesian coordinate system
  • Tooling
  • Cutter compensation
  • Climb milling vs conventional milling 
  • And many more 

With 5 full CNC programs explaining each section in a real-world environment. 

Say goodbye to expensive CAD software and program your CNC machine like the experts.

After completing this course you will be able to program any shape using GCODE, as well as knowing tips and tricks used by professional CNC machinists to get the results they need.

Meet Your Teacher

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G-Code Tutor

Engineering Artist


Hello, I'm Marc.

I have studied engineering and portrait art for over 26 years. A strange mixture indeed.

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1. Introduction: Hello. My name is Mark. Welcome to decode Shooter. Thank you for signing up for my course. This is a foundation course. Fergie code the same that new people to the world of CNC programming on also home deal way enthusiasts that use desktop routers in this course as our institution. UGK, it's an M codes. We then put it into a program so you can see how it works in the real world environment. I started my apprenticeship in 1991 at British Aerospace, which was considered at the time to be the best apprenticeship in England. I spent 12 months learning basic engineering before I moved on to learn in manual machine in on lathes and milling machines. On my third year of my apprenticeship, I started learning how to use CNC lathes. Then eventually that progressed up the CNC machining senses. Once I finish my apprenticeship, I still had a first for learning. So I enrolled in night school learning advanced CNC programming techniques on cat can. After that, I rolled in an RNC agency engineering course on carried on studying engineering all together for 10 years, 26 years worked as an aerospace CNC machinist making parts for Boeing and Airbus. I discovered I enjoyed teaching apprentices, So I've talked many apprentices over the years, and now I'm teaching you how to program Geico. 2. Health and safety: I won't talk a little bit. About half in safety. This is a bit of a finger boy. I've seen a lot of accidents happen. Workshop on most of it could been avoided, so it's important. It's important on the way. We tend to think I'll be careful. It's become you got to, like do some precautions in place because machine is a dangerous ball on is gonna hurt at some point if you die coughed yourself. So the first thing you need to remember is always wear safety glasses on. Always wear safety boots, no matter what. So if you can't get your safety glasses, stepbrother machine going in especially anyway, you should really wear protective grinding goggles. Not your standard safety glasses. When you're going whenever, let's swore. Come off the machine, make sure you protect it. I injuries happening every day in the machine shop, so it's just not worth the risk on. You know, you might think I won't happen. May. It's going to happen to you some point in your career. So it's best Teoh stop it from happening. I've had lumps metal, stick out my safety glasses machine. I've seen hurrying stuff, um, one of my instructors when he would teach me how it's growing, slit on both fingers into the blinding will. And that was my first time I've seen anyone used a bench grinder. So that was just the first day. Uh, I have seen people sweep swore off the top of a top of horizontal mill. Onda hand got dragged under the cutter and I took the handoff to a lot. I've seen old boys that roughing down aluminium, doing squared around no safety glasses where hot swap going way over their heads and they just close their eyes. Teoh Teoh, Avoid it. So maybe one of them guys cause, you know, level right side for long Now the other problem machine shops is a lot of times. It's quite common practice these days, unfortunately, disengaged. Look on the door. So when you're running the machine, you can still open a door. Now, a lot off companies do this so they can see when they're setting up. I don't have a company because they wanted me to set up without looking door Sorry just to rent a hotel on the propensity on they come after me going, you know, it's what we do here is how it works. A lot of that cat. I'm not putting myself at risk for you because if something happens to May, don't get another machinist in the next day on there. Okay, so it's best look after yourself. Even if you have to walk away from job to do that, there's always other jobs on. There's always other bosses that would be more concerned about your health, the notes on a professional machinist. Tetanus very seriously. It's It's just something you do every day. One guy, one form and said to me, I mentioned about something that was lethal on. Turned out to be a way Don't do health and safety year like it's in something option. You know, Andi, I did come from a There is a reason I'm so hot on health and safety is When I was 21 I had a Braxton involvement. Crane on 42 now, and I still have pain every day in my neck and back. Stop me from doing a lot of stuff. 21 years ago, I was lucky it didn't do any serious damage, but I'm still suffering every day because because of that a lot of things I can't do and nothing. They wanted it and it stops me. It's yeah, So you need. So I need to be number one Concerns. Look after yourself because these things are dangerous, but they don't need to be dangerous. If you take the right precautions, it's it's a safe industry. But you've got to take those precautions. Thank you. 3. Cartesian coordinate system: in this section. I'm going to go over the Cartesian coordinate system on how we use it to programs CNC machines on right to decode in the machine controls we detonated the data position. This is different for every machine on beyond the scope of this tutorial. When viewing engineering drawings, the X axis usually runs from left to right. While the white axis runs from top to bottom, it depends on the drawing. Few. You're probably already aware of the Cartesian coordinate system. It's the same system that we used to plot graphs at school. As you can see from this diagram, the Dayton position is a zero position in the sense of the graph. Everything to left on below the data position is in minus figure. Since we are working in Afridi Environment, we have one more access. That said, Axis. This access controls the up and down movement off the spindle or also the depth of cuts. Here's a real world example of the CNC machine. As you can see, the X axis controls the left and right movement while the Y axis moves a table in and out of the machine. Lizette Access is the up and down movement off the spindle. This is only a general rule. For example, are horizontal Miller machine. The axes will be in a different plane on the Leif. That's that access ones fruit, that center line on the spindle. Regarding the X axes, you don't need to double the dimensions. For example, if you're cutting a 10 millimeter diameter, the cutter will only move five millimeters from the center line, but you still program it 10 millimeters. The datum can exist anywhere. It doesn't have to be touching a job. For example, you can have a floating datum that it's Saturn made there that all the dimensions run from . You can also move the datum or set it to a different position, using a datum shift of inside the program. A good location for the said Datum is on the top face of the parts. This way, any said, minus movements we know are inside, cutting on any said. Plus, movements are clearly job. This makes it easy to look a program. It's a quick glance. I know exactly what the cutter is doing in this lesson. We weren't mother contagion coordinate system is how it works on the scene see machine and how we apply it when programming apart 4. G00 and G01: in this section, I'll give a quick overview off the G O commands on the G 01 The reason why you might often finds G o shortened to G O. Same is Geo. One shortened to G one is because machines never had a great deal with RAM to store programs. This way, we could store much larger programs on a small space available on the older machines. The G 00 command is a rapid to travel command. This is most commonly used whenever the cutter is not touching the job. In this example, we are moving the cutter 100 mil left. This is designated by the X minus commands. We do not need to specify Feed rate with Geo Command, as the machine already knows, has to travel at its fastest movement, detonated by the parameters off the machine. The G A 01 commands, however, does need to have a feed rate specified. Here we are doing the same movement where it all is cutting the job at a feed rate of 100 millimeters per minute. In this section, we learned the two most important key codes. We learn to G O for rapid travel and G 01 for linear move with the feed rate 5. G02 and G03: in this section, I would describe the differences between G 02 and G A. Free on how to cut arcs and Radius is using G code on a CNC machine. This drawing shows the approach to a 10 millimeter radius. I am using the center of it all as a data position, G O to always specifies a clockwise radius or arc West. Geo free is always anti clockwise. Two machine. A clockwise radius used g 02 Next, we specify the distance from Mark Otto to the Radius. In this case, it's 50 millimeters in the Y axis. This is followed by the radius off the ark on the feed rights after our Geo to line will then need to add a geo one. Move to move the cutter away from the radius. This finishes are cutting half off a narc. Using another value is perfect for a corner radius, but sometimes we need a little bit more control on a little bit more accuracy. Four lats. We used the I and J and K values this. There's a nights the center point of a radius. The K is not used unless we are cutting radius. Using the dead access specifying a point with I and J is all we normally need for two D cutting. In this example. We move our cutter to start points off the radius, which is 40 millimeters from my start position at a feed rate of 100 millimeters per minute . Next, we specify Arco qualities, movements using the G o T value Our boy on X values specified the end points of the ark. Our value specifies the center off the radius on our X axis and RJ value is the center of the radius upon our Y axis To complete a radius, we now move the cutter away from the end point of our arc. For list, we use a geo one command on move 50 millimeters along our ex access. We do not need to specify feed right on this line, as we have already declared it on the first line that was using a G A two clockwise commands for the geo free anti clockwise command. Everything is exactly the same. Please note for this course the I N J values I have used, I used absolutely so the dimensions of the center points off the arcs Come from the data musician. This is not the case in all CNC machines. In fact, a lot of CNC machines used the center points from the last known position, so it takes those dimensions incrementally. For example, if the center point of the radius is 10 millimeters from the cutter, you would say I 10 millimeters where it's in this example I have used that points from the dates in position. This is a relevant to teaching program, and there's just different techniques on different machine parameters that I have used and got used to. Please bear this in mind when applying the techniques in this course to own programming. In this section, we learned about G O to NGO free clockwise Arkan anti clockwise arc and also using I and J values to this next center points of the Radius. 6. External profile milling: in this section. I'm going to explain how we cut an external profile, a radius and use cutter compensation G 42. For this operation, we will be using one tool, a five mil square corn around her. Here is our part. It's 100 million mates. That square, with a 20 millimeter corner rages on one corner. Our data position is in the bottom left corner. Here is our first few lines of the program. We start off designating a program number in this case it 0001 on the same line we give our program and name. This is inside brackets. That means the machine doesn't read it, and it's purely an operator's note. We complete the line with the end of block sign, which is a semi colon. Every line in decode finishes with this semi colon moving down to our next line. We designate the tool number A T 01 says tall number one. The 2nd 1 is the offset number. So here we have a one off set. One. We complete this line with another brackets. Comment. This is so the operator knows what all told one is at an easy glance the G 21 commands puts the machine into the metric system. For Imperial, we use G 20 to settle a spindle speed. We use an s value. In this case, we use S 700. This stands for 700 revolutions per minute. Speeds and feeds may very dependent on your machine and the rigidity. Please consult your manual for proper speeds and face to use for your particular machine. The end free command Tens of spindle on in a clockwise direction. G 42 offsets to cutter by half the diameter. In this case, it offsets it to the left. G 41 commands would offset it to the right. The P 2.5 commands 1000 machine. How much to offset it by where we have a five millimeter cutter. We need to move it 2.5 mil sometimes. This is detonated by the letter X on, not pay. This drawing shows cutter compensation slightly more death. It is available to download as part of the course. Our next line is a rapid move specified by G O. This can also be written purely as G. In this case, we are moving to x zero Why minus 10. This gives us five millimeter clearance. From the end of the job, we start our approach from nearly datum. We know lower. I said access for the death of cuts. Remember, the datum is on the top of the material. So a two millimeter in the minus direction would mean a two millimeter cut. Hey, we have our first G one. Move G 01 is our feed rate move so we can control the speed off the cutter movement. In this particular case, we're moving 100 millimeters up in the white, access at a feed rates of 100 millimeters per minute. Again, the feed rate will change depending on many variables. For example, if you're using a carbide cutter on a five axis and maquina Miller machine, we could do this about six times faster. But on the home desktop router slower is better as to not break the cutter. Here we have our fresh geo to command. G 02 is a clockwise radius movement. We don't need to specify the Y axis. In his case, it's a straight line move with a radius at the end. Safe from here, we use G A two x one hundreds with a 20 millimeter radius, which is detonated within our value. We do not need a feed rate for this, as the feed rate was already designated on the Geo one line above using G 01 we now travel along the Y Axis 20 position, which lines up with the data they forget. We're using cutter compensation, so the cutter is actually 2.5 mil to the left off the job. We don't need to aggio one again on this line, as it's already active from the line above a simple X nor point. Nor will take his back to the data position where we first started cutting with his head movement of minus four millimeters. This lowers the router another two millimeters into the job, ready for our next pass off the components. From here, it's the same four lines that we have just cut the profile just with the cutter two millimeters deeper. So the next four lines is exactly the same as the previous four lines movement. We don't take the cutter an extra two mil deeper, ready for the next pass using Zet minus six point builds here we machine the profile again using the same lines of code is above. Now we return to our start position at X NorthPoint North the data position using a G O commands we can wrap hit the cutter 20 millimeters above the job. This gives us plenty of clearance when we're rapid into the home position a G 28 command. It's an automatic travel to the machine reference point. We can also designate x zero y zero to take it back to the tool change position on the machine home position. The M 05 command is a spindle stop command. And finally we had an M 00 command. This stops the machine so we're ready to do a manual tool, change or end of program, and that brings us the end of this section. In this section we covered sets the total number setting the metric system, using the G 21 command, setting the spindle speed and turning it on women and free commands using cutting compensation with the G 42 commands discussing the linear rapid travel movements using the G O commands on the feed rate movements with G 01 We also covered cutting clockwise arcs, using the G O to movement on how to safely left to cut off the job on rapid back to the home position. 7. MCodes: in this part, or go over the different kinds of em codes on their uses. Before I go over each M code in detail. Here's a list of the encodes we would be covering. This sheet is available for download after this section of the course m 00 This issues to tell the machine to stop running the program. This command will also stop the cutter on, then couldn't. Hello. It's normally good practice to still at M I five m 09 in each program where you wish this to happen, m 01 optional stop. This allows the operator to decide if he wishes the machine to stop at a certain point in the program or not. It is usually used at the end of each block or after a tool change to inspect the condition of the cutter M O Free and M O for GMO free tens of spindle on in a clockwise direction. While am I full reverses a spindle direction, this is normally inserted in the program. After we give a spindles beat en five stops, the spindle M 6000 machines doing automated tool change inmate this tons of couldnt on sometimes there's different M codes for different types of cool ins. For example, fruit Spindle, Coghlan's Floods, Coghlan's Miss Collins in general M eight tends a main Pulitzer on to turn the Cool it off . We use M 09 at the end of the program. We let the machine No, it's finished by using the M 30 commands. It's also rewards program back to the start, ready for the next components. Here is the list of all the M codes that we used join this course. This sheet is also available for download in this section. We learned all the M codes that I used during this course. 8. G20 AND G21: In this lesson, we're going to discuss how to switch to machine between Metric and Imperial Systems, which is represented in G code by G 20 and G 21 G 20. This is the imperial coordinate system that switches machine to use inches or thousands of an inch, which in engineering we referred to as a foul. G 21 switches machines the metric corn, a system where all dimensions are in millimeters, which is usually referred to as mill. This book of program demonstrates where G 21 or in fact G 20 would be used within a program . We normally put it just after the tolling information on before any movements take place so we can set the coordinates system before the machine moves. It can also be switched in mid program if needed, but it's very rarely used. This part's may look familiar. This is the parts converted into the imperial coordinate system. As you can see on the phone line, we use G 20 raveling G 21 I've converted all the dimensions into inches. This is the same part again, but this time using the metric system as she conceal in the headline we have a G 21 coat. This is what this nights, the metric system, the G code doesn't have to live on a line on its own, as it is in this program. It can be combined with any number of G codes, for example, setting between absolutes or imperial or sometimes designating the datum shift. We nobody use a line full of different decodes at the beginning. Off the program to tell a machine is working environment quite often and engineering. We need to convert between metric and imperial or imperial to metric, especially in the aerospace industry, as a lot of older planes that still bathed in imperial, wherever made in America by the imperial system is still mostly used. So the easiest way to convert between inches and metric is by times and it 25.4. This is because there is 25.4 millimeters in an inch. So, for example, if we have 1.5 inches, we need to convert, we simply times it by 25.4, and it gives us 38.1 millimeters. Now if we transpose that equation, so we're divided by 25.4 instead of times in. It makes it easier to convert from metric to imperial. So if you have a metric figure you wish to convert into inches. You simply divided by 25.4. So in this example, 50 millimeters, divided by 25.4, gives us 1.968 inches. In my experience, a lot of times the machines are set in the promises to work a metric. So if you have an imperial job, you need to do this a lot of work out to the dimensions as your program in the components. In this part, of course, we have learned the differences between G 20 and G 21 converts in the machines, the metric system or the imperial system. We've also learned how to easily converts between metric and imperial using a simple equation. 9. Slot Milling: in this example, program began to cover slots. 1,000,000. We wait to be used in cutter compensation on this particular part, so we will program to center off the cutter. Here is a working drawing that we will be following. As you can see, the datum is in the bottom, left hand corner and in the top off the job. Therefore, all said, moves in the minus direction will be cutting on always that moves in the plus direction will be clear off the job. For this components, we would use a 10 millimeter square cornered slot drill. We start our program off with the program number in this case 20001 This is so the machine . Install the program without overlapping any other programs in the memory. After that, we have the program name in brackets. This is purely so The operator can identify which program he's running on. Our next line of code. We introduced the end number. This is a search function. This is so be confined. What's all we are running? If there's multiple tools on the parts, it's also standard practice to keep this the same as the total number. So in this case, we have n one for 21 Turo one identifies are 10 millimeters slaughter we are using. We're using offset one. So our first line is t 11 to finish off the block. We have our operating notes, so the operator can quickly see which tall t 01 is on this line. We wish to tell the machine we are used in the metric system. So for this, we use a G 21 command. Now, we sent the spindle speed to 700 revs per minute, using the s command and switch to spindle on in a clockwise motion with my free. Now, we wish to move our cutter to the starts of the slot to do lats. We will use a rapid travel movements. A G O command, as you can see from the Y position, were cut into the middle center line of the slot. If we were using cutter compensation, that would be white 20 while using the G 40 to command. Our position is still 10 millimeters above the job. This is so we have safe, rapid travel on. We don't have to worry about collisions. This program ashamed the bill it is already roughed out so we can safely bring ours it down to minus six millimeters without worrying about it cutting into the material. Now it's time to start cutting the list. We use the gear one command with the feed rate of 100 millimeters per minute. Our X value shows position as we move to the left by 40 millimeters. Now we will feed upto. Why 60? This takes us up to the beginning of the radius. We don't need to stay a geo one command or feed rate as both still live from the line above . Now to machine the radius to do list, we will use a G o free command for a counter clockwise arc. We put our endpoints in X and boy of where we wish to ARP to finish the I N J values stand for ex envoy for the center points off the radius. We don't need to given our value for this because the machine already knows the center points and endpoints and can work out radius itself. After machining the radius, we issue a straight line commands using g 01 to bring the cutter down to white 25 millimeters from the data position to move to cut it to the left. We do not need to issue analogy. 01 command, because the one above still active the position x 40. Why 65 gives us the end points off the 45 degree slots to finish us lot. We perform a simple X move past the data position to clear the cutter from the component. Now, using the G o rapid movement, we left a cutter clearly job by 10 millimeters. The G 28 command 1000 machine is going back to its home position. The X and Y zero just reinforces to the machine where it's tour change on home. Position is this is relevant to the machines data, which is set incrementally. Biology 91. I will discuss the genial and she wanted more depth in a different part, of course, Now we use the M I five value to stop the spindle. This can also be short into M five is much the same way is Geo. One can be shortened G one, and finally, the M O command this town's machine to stop. It stops running the program, and if it's been do is active. It will also stop the spindle if you've got to about the M five in this section, we learned about using the G in this section. We learned about using the G O Free. In this section we learnt about using the Geo free to cut internal radius is wash using an I N J value to designate the center point of the radius. This is a far more accurate way than using in our value as we saw in the allergies. 10. G90 and G91: in this part, I will show you the differences between G 90 and G 91 switching the machine from the absolute to the incremental coordinate system. This part has been programmed to using the absolute system on the third line where it's highlighted in yellow, you could see the gene 90 commands that stands for the absolute polar coordinates system. This is a system that highview so far in this course on programming jobs, it means that all dimensions come from the data on the datum doesn't move. What the job is being programmed are cutter starts from the date in position. On the seconds highlighted box, we can see a geo one y 80 move with feed rate of 100. This takes a cutter ups the top left corner off the components we next have on X 100 Move that takes it over to the top right hand corner of the component. Now we move down minus 20. And, boy, that brings us to the cool net not to do the cut out section. The X 80 refers to 80 millimeters from the datum. So where the cutter finishes, then we bring the cutter back down and boy to zero and then back to extra data position, then lift up. Now let's look at see how different it is when we program using incremental and no absolute coordinate system to use the incremental coordinate system, we change our Jeanne 92 a gene 91. This is represented on this particular program on the phone Highlighted line. Now, as you can see from the drawing, I have put data positions on the end points off every line of the program. This is because the incremental position acts like a datum shift for every line. So your coordinates come from the last known position, not from a fixed data on the components. Let me explain again, referring to lower highlighted box on the program. We starts from the bottom left hand corner data position on cuts upped it. Why 80? The top left hand corner. Next we go X 100 which takes us over to the top right hand corner exactly the same as before. But this time, rather than coming down to boy 60 we use Roy minus 20 because we just moved in 20 millimeters and avoid minus direction from the last position. The next line is X minus 20. Again, the previous program, We had this line it X Plus 80 which is 80 millimeters from the Datum. But here, since we are moving 20 millimeters from our last known position, we just use X minus 20 and again, why minus 60 brings us 60 millimeters from the last name position towards the bottom of the job. Now, to bring our cut it back to the start point, we use an X minus 90 movement. Although we're only traveling 80 millimeters to this point, I added an extra 10 millimeters to bring the cutter past the job for a safer attraction point about damage in the edge of the components. In this lesson, we have learned the differences between G 90 and Jean 91 the absolute on incremental program insistence. 11. DRILLING CYCLE: in this section, I will explain one of the most you cycles in milling G 81 drilling cycle. Before we start, I like to explain some drawing standards that I've added to this particular component. What we have here is an 80 millimeter square billets. As you can see on the dimensions from the left, I have added to the incremental moves of 20 millimeters between each hole on the bottom. That means exactly the same. I've just used the phrase typical and then used commerce to show that each section is the same size. It's also applies to the diameter off the board, I have stated, is 10 millimeters. Typical. That just means that every ball is exactly the same size, the first few lines this program you're probably familiar with by now. The first line we designate the program number of operators names, calling it a drilling cycle. With the second line, we have our search number, the end one. Now we designate tall one offset one with t 01 by one. Let me give it's not practice notes off a 10 millimeter drill. The next two lines, we specify, were used in the metric system with the G 21 commands. Then we set our spindle speed, have 500 rpm on em free, which turns a spindle on in a clockwise motion. For the next line, we move our cutter above the first hole. We against drill for this. We use a g 00 commands and designates the X and my position off the whole. We also bring our cutter down to 10 millimeters above the surface of the job. Now it's time to activate our drilling cycle. We do list by using the GI 81 command on the same line. We declare how deep we want our drill to go into the material. In this case, we are drilling minus 10 millimeters. So we're drinking 10 millimeter deep hole. We also set a feed right on this line. I personally set feed right 50 millimeters per minutes, but it depends on your machine and the cutter you're using. Now let's we have RG 81 drilling cycle active. The machine automatically converts. It's the incremental positioning system. I explained to the incremental positioning system and another part of this course by just stating one line of code X minus 40 millimeter we can move our cutter to the center points off the next hole. We don't need to tell the machine to move down in X to drill a hole. We simply just need to give it the center position of each hole on the driving cycle. Will take care of the rest are using the set movement on the G A T. One line. So here we just had it to go. Why? Minus 42 the next position of the whole automatically drills it for us again. A simple X plus move takes its the sense points off the full foal on the machine. Droves It The final hole that we need to drill is in the sense of the job. For this, we need to to access move, except, boy again, This is an incremental move. So we're not taking up positions from the data. We are taking our positions from the center of the last hole. Now it's time to cancel our training cycle. Phyllis, we simply use G 80. This cancels all kinds cycles, not just drilling. This line takes us back to the machine zero position, which is commonly used as a tool change position. to finish off this block of program. We used the M 05 command to stop the spindle. Any Moro Command to tell the program to stop in this parcel, Of course, we learned about the GI 81 drilling cycle. How to cancel the G 81 drilling cycle with the G 80 command on incremental programming to drill holes.