Forensic (Criminal) Psychology | Elmira Strange | Skillshare

Forensic (Criminal) Psychology

Elmira Strange, Psychologist, Coach

Forensic (Criminal) Psychology

Elmira Strange, Psychologist, Coach

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20 Lessons (2h 16m)
    • 1. 1 History of development of Forensic Psychology

    • 2. 2 Research Design and Methodology

    • 3. 3 Critical evaluation of psychological research

    • 4. 4 Introduction to theories of offending

    • 5. 5 Theories of sexual offending

    • 6. 6 Theories of violent offending

    • 7. 7 Theories of fire-setting behaviour

    • 8. 8 Personal characteristics of offenders

    • 9. 9 Personality disordered offenders

    • 10. 10 Psychopathic offenders

    • 11. 11 Mental Illness and offending

    • 12. 12 An Introduction to Offender Profiling

    • 13. 13 Approaches to Offender Profiling

    • 14. 14 The Effectiveness of Offender Profiling

    • 15. 15 Eye-witness testimony

    • 16. 16 Expert witness testimony

    • 17. 17 Attitudes towards victims

    • 18. 18 ’What works' literature in reducing re-offending

    • 19. 19 Interventions to reduce risk of re-offending

    • 20. 20 Incident management (Crisis Negotiation)

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About This Class

In this Forensic Psychology course you will learn many fascinating facts and theories behind criminal thinking and behaviour. Whether you are ready to start your career of a forensic psychologist or use this information for you personal interest or work, you are in the right place!

In this course you will learn for example, why eyewitnesses are not always correct when they give testimonies at court, and whether  psychopaths are more likely to commit crime than people with other mental health disorders. 

You will know what is offender profiling and how FBI uses it in their investigations and what’s possible to do in order to reduce the risk of re-offending and imprisonment. 

After completing this course you will be able to apply theoretical knowledge to criminal case studies, explain motivational factors of various criminal behaviours such as sexual, violent or fire setting offending behaviour.

We are really glad that you are joining hundreds of other students who is fascinated by psychology as you are. Welcome once again to the fascinating world of psychology! 

Meet Your Teacher

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Elmira Strange

Psychologist, Coach


Hey, my name is Elmira Strange, and I am Research Psychologist (MPhil), Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (Dip), and Certified Life Coach (Dip). I love combining my passion for Psychology with Coaching.

The unusual bit: I was born in Northern Kazakhstan (where it's freezing cold in winter -40C), then moved to Russia, then to the United Kingdom.

The interesting bit: I had a life-saving surgery and near-death experience in 2012. The near-death experience made me realise that we are here to share our knowledge, help each other, and enjoy this life.

My interests: Psychology, Online Entrepreneurship, Spirituality, and Paranormal phenomena (no wonder after my near-death experience!)

My previous experience: Whilst I was working at University (Wales, UK) as a Senior R... See full profile

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1. 1 History of development of Forensic Psychology: Hello and welcome to the first lecture off this course on forensic psychology. On In this lecture will be talking about the history which you might be really interesting because because when I'm researching something for this lecture, well, for this course, really, I'm picking up the most interesting information, most interesting facts and topics. So it was interesting for you to listen to the lectures as well and to participate in that homework and the recommended literature that they gave for the questions to reflect on the give. So I hope you will enjoy course as much as I'm enjoying it created for you what I have created for you already. But I derived and immense pleasure in creating this and researching this this fascinating area off psychology. So let's get down to our first Leijer. Forensic psychology is one of the most fascinated branches within psychology that students choose to study. Forensic psychology is a combination off knowledge and psychology related to criminal behaviors, police work investigations and court proceedings. It is a specialty that looks into a unique area off human behavior, which can also be called abnormal behavior within society. But for 80 psychology is not a narrow speciality. Some might think it in compacts is a wide range of work. Indeed, for example, criminal psychologists can work in police departments and prisons, studying the criminals and the crimes that might interview the criminals and their families in order to analyze the traits and write reports. They might also work in courts where they would give testimonies about why the criminal behavior had occurred and whether it is likely to be repeated based on the profile they've completed. Forensic psychology can also study crime scenes, which they would then analyze as a part of the old scientific research. And that would basically right. Scientific paper So late Forensic psychology is a branch of psychology that emerged in late 18 hundreds when researchers off those times were investigating the accuracy off eyewitness testimony. The first findings off that and the subsequent research studies show that a witness testimony can be unreliable, inaccurate if the witness is like in confidence in the answers on if they experience heightened emotions during the recall of the events. This is when the first theories in forensic psychology started emerging. It is considerate that the filth research in forensic psychology belonged to James McKeen cartel. He was a psychologist, publisher and editor off those times. Makin Hotel was an influential figure within forensic psychology back then, and he was the first American to publish his dissertation on the subject off psychometric investigation. Later on, he took an important part in the information off many scientific publications, such as the Journal Science and The Psychological Review. Makin Cartel conducted an experiment with students at Columbia University, where they had to provide a response and to rate the degree off confidence. The findings showed The direct association known US correlation within psychology between the level of confidence and the degree off accuracy off the recalled events. This is when the subsequent research started taking place, building on the experiments and fell. The investigations related to eyewitness testimonies and validity over it. In quartz, the next prominent figures were Alfred Bean. It's on William Stern. Alfred Binet was a French psychologist. He was a co creator off the Simon Binet Intelligence Scale, which is one of the most used intelligence tests that is still used today. Where is William Stern became a collaborator with other criminologists in order to fill the research. The theories off witness testimonials, Stern developed several theories, which explained why suggestive questions could lead to an inaccurate testimonies. What is the difference between adult and child testimonies? How the time period between the event and the recall off the event can influence the accuracy off the recall on even the memory off the witnessing individual and others? In 1922 William Martin had become the throws professor off legal psychology at American University. Marcin had discovered that there is a correlation between blood pressure and lying and had developed a device that could measure the changes in a person's blood pressure. Whilst the person was being questioned, his work was influential and led to the invention off the polygraph test. In later years, Marston was an active lecturer and worked along other consultants in criminal investigations and legal court proceedings. During the world wars, Forensic psychology has hold it. It's developments on Onley. In the 19 sixties, it's interest became grown. Once again. The court started relying more on the say of the mental health psychologists, and these lead to fill the growth and development off forensic psychology as a whole. For instance, psychology subjects started studied at colleges and universities and became officially recognized by the American Psychology Association as a specialization in the year. Off to thousands. Well, this is it for first lecture, and I hope you enjoyed learning a bit about forensic psychology and how it developed on now . As you can see and as you can understand, forensic psychology is really new branch of psychology if it's become officially recognized Onley in the year of 2000. So let's proceed to our next lecture, where we'll talk about a research, design and methodology in forensic psychology. See there. 2. 2 Research Design and Methodology: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll be talking about a research designs and methodology. You probably have heard about research before research within psychology and some people whose what he started studying this subject at universities and colleges find it quite boring or difficult to grasp because especially if they were unfriendly so much with mathematics, for example. But the truth is, psychology is building itself on the theories on where do theories come up from They come up a za result off research findings, the research studies. How do we conduct those research studies? This is exactly what we're talking about here in this lecture. So let's get down to it. Research in psychology is a very important area off understanding, individual and group behaviors and experiences. How do psychologists learn about very psychological phenomena? The use many research tools or, in other words, methods the differ from one another in the way they're used. Constructed and applied Methodology can be split simply into two categories. Qualitative and quantitative methods. Quality of methods are mainly used for studying naturalistic behavior or, in other words, understanding behavior. In a natural setting. Qualitative methods can range from observations and conversation analysis to open ended question is on structured interviews and surveys. So we can say that qualitative methodology is mainly used for understanding human behaviour through reporter descriptions and themes. Quantitative methods, on the other hand, are mainly used for studying social phenomena through gathering and analyzing facts. In these type of methodology research, the studies are conducted through measuring new miracle comparisons and statistical formulations. Data in this type of research can be conducted through questionnaires where participants have to make a choice in the offered answers. The data can be also collected through experiments and observations in the forensic psychology. The researchers, for example, can be interested in examining the nature of crime, analyzing criminal types or personalities, reliability off witness testimony in certain conditions, social and psychological causes of criminal behavior and activities. So let's have a look at several researchers methods that I used widely within psychology today. Well, the first on these case study. It's a research method that is used for studying a certain event, a person or a group of people in depth. It can be also called in depth investigation. This type of research can provide a reach data because ski studies can be done over a period of time when the study person or events closely observed, the investigator can collect data through studying past records, awfully research person or phenomena, direct observation, psychological tastings and interviews. The limitation of this method is that it can take a long time to conduct and can be subjective or, in other words, based on what the researchers report on the own. But overall, this method can give deter that other methods cannot provides and that can be used for generating hypothesis. The 2nd 1 it's a surveys survey, is a very common method of collecting data. Surveys can involve both questionnaires and interviews and can give mixed data mixed in a way that it can give qualitative and quantitative data, which can be complex to analyse. Due to its richness. Though, these type of methodology, it's useful for measuring attitudes, understanding, behaviors and experiences. The received data can be described us self reported data, and it has its own downsides. For example, it is known that participants can give inaccurate responses for various reasons, such as pleasing the researcher, given the answers that they think that their desired or failing to understand questions or not giving full answers to the asked questions. But overall, these method is considered to be cheap enough to conduct and is able to provide a lot of data in a failure. Short period of time. The third Method East Laboratory Experiment or laboratory observations. It's the research method that is used for gaining an accurate, mainly quantitative data. This type of experiment can give well controlled data where any interfering factors can be greatly reduced or eliminated. The researcher can use sophisticated equipment on observations for research in the behavior of the subject so we can see that the researcher has a great degree of control over the environment. This type of methodology, however, has its own downsides or weaknesses. Even though the environment is controlled in the laboratory settings, the observation off the phenomenon is not conducted naturally. That means that the participants may not behave naturally, given the researcher inaccurate data as a result. But overall, this method is widely used within academic settings on gives data that this measured and recorded accurately through equipment. The fourth melodies, naturalistic observation. It's a research method that provides information about behavior in the natural environment , the researcher is observing the behavior off the research subjects that a cure in natural environments or in other words, it is not manipulated or controlled. The method is designed to be accurate or reliable and can give both quantitative and qualitative data asked with the case studies, it can give data for making generalized hypothesis and reach data, but it can take a long time to conduct it for the amount of data received. Other known research methods can include something like psychological tests, psychometric methods and various types off experiments. So whatever method we use for gathering our data, we can end up with a large data in the form of words, phrases or sentences or new miracle data of these data needs to be organized, summarized and interpreted. Qualitative data in psychology is typically analyzed by thes types of methods. Content analysis. This method involves taking the data which is informs off words, phrases and so on, and transform in eights into a quality of data or new miracle data. The researcher uses cogen units in the content analysis that she or he is conducting. These units can be, for example, the number off positive or negative words used by the students when they talk about the social experiences in the college. Stress off the content analysis is that this technique is fairly straightforward, easy to use and no too time consuming. It is a reliable way to analyze qualitative data because coding units are not open to interpretation by the researcher, which means any potential bias is minimized. The witnesses off these type of research can include something like, for example, it cannot give us any deeper meaning off what's been saved or reported by the participants . In the quantity of methodology. We gather data that this new miracle or can be made into new miracle or statistical data categories or any other measured units, which can be used for constructing graphs and tables to analyze these type of data. Research issues computerized programs for statistical analysis, for example, SPS is forest pierces. You need to have prepared a raw data from your study, choose the appropriate tool for analysis within the program or usually it is more than one , and then they conduct the analysis. These program tools can be, for example, and analyses for any potential correlation between the variables. By the way, variable is a unit of data or the relationship between several variables. These can show us any potential frequency off certain conditions at particular types, off groups, off people, behavioral trends or patterns over a period of time, and the prevalence off a specific condition or any other data that can be used for reporting statistics and generalizing possible hypothesis. Another type of data analysis is mixed method research. So, as we say, a lier qualitative data comes from, for example, observational or interview data. Quantitative data comes in a form off new miracle or statistical data, and the mixed methodology means combining both types of data. Typically, researching psychology heavily relies on qualitative data and its analysis, but it is clear that mixed method is what could give us the richest data on the best interpretation and analysis is integration off. Mixed methods can be complex and lengthy, even when there is a strong reason for using these type of methodology in the mixed methods , you would take some part of data on use it us a statistical data analyzing it with computerized statistical program and are the part of data. You would analyze it as a qualitative data using for example. Thematic analysis methodology. Well, this is the end of this lecture. Ah, Hope you have a good grasp on waters research, design and methodology. What sort of methods we use on how we design the research off course I'm gonna give you hear an additional region, which you will see now off the books that I always recommend to start a reading in the beginning off this course well off any course that I teach because then you can derive the best value from the course, and you will get the best knowledge as well. So don't rely just on information off the course. Try to read all around its use Google four additional articles or get a book from library or buy from Amazon and start raising on, especially on those topics that a particular interests to you on. If you like the idea off research methods and what exactly they involved If you interested in mathematics that statistics. Then go hat and start region around it as well. And in the meantime, I will thank you for listening to this lecture and I will see you in our next lecture where we'll be talking about critical evaluation off psychological research. See, there 3. 3 Critical evaluation of psychological research: hello and welcome to our next lecture. I hope you're enjoying this course so far. And if you have any questions or comments, you can contact me directly through this school. Or you can find me on social media as well. I'll be glad to hear from you. And you could tell me how you doing and what you found interesting. The most interesting things in this course. Oh, perhaps you will be interested in my other courses that are psychology and counseling related, so make sure to check them out as well. And by the way, while we're here, please do leave your feedback because it helps me to learn how I can improve this course and for other people to see what it is you like the most about this course as well. So looking forward to your feedback. So in this lecture we are talking about the critical critical evaluation off psychological research because, as you can imagine, like with any signs, there are downsides and upsides to everything that includes psychological research that includes all the methodology and research designs as well that all half the old strengths, but the same time they're weaknesses. So what are the weaknesses to research designs and the mythology reeling. Let's discuss it here. When the research within the area off forensic psychology needs to be conducted, the researcher faces many issues. For example, in order to conduct an experiment, the researcher needs to identify representative sample off the group that is being researched. There are many samples that forensic psychologists might be interesting. For example, people who are in prison with indefinite centers, serial killers or victims of crime. So identifying the specifics off the sample would be done on the basis off the researchers . Objectives, hypothesis and design. Typically, the larger the sample ease the more accurate research findings we can get. Survey a large chunk off the whole population of Great Britain, for example. Research in the attitudes towards criminal behavior can give us a very large on a pretty accurate data applicable to British population. But research in the behavior off Cyril Cures, for example, will go on a much smaller scale, involving perhaps only a handful off participants as it's all down to our available resources, including time and money. Validity in the qualitative research is another important topic for researchers. Qualitative research has we stayed. A layer is the one where, for example, a case study or naturalistic observation is involved. For example, the researcher can observe prisoners on the behavior when they interact with each other or investigate a case study off a particular serial killer. The Resurges represent his or her findings through collecting data, identifying the relationships between the variables. Examining the phenomena in detail and gathering. Reach information about these phenomenon. The upsides off this type of research would be that this methods can be used even in those cases where there is little known because threes and limited previous research available, and it can give a fresh cheese it waas. But on the other hand, the data gather it analysed and reported through the researchers own interpretation, which can undermine its validity. Same happens with surveys and studies where the participants half being interviewed. It is known that research participants may have a subconscious desire to please the researcher on give the answers they believe that I wanted or, for example, when feeling in the survey, the participants may take the boxes quickly without giving much thought to the questions. All these can give an inaccurate Dita in the research. In comparison, if the sample is large on the both qualitative and quantitative methods are involved, the findings of the study can give more reliable and accurate results. Also, ethical considerations need to be put in place when research study is taking place. The right certain rules and agreements have to be made between the researchers and the participants. These rules and agreements is what researchers refer to ask Ethics researchers have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm ethical agreements means certain moral principles and rules have to be put in place and that the participants have the right to be respected and protected from both illegal and the moral standards. How do researchers know what sort of rules must be put in place? The researchers fall of the guidelines off either the British Psychological Society, all the American Psychological Association. Some of the most important ethical rules include, for example, getting an informed consent, which means that the participants agreed to take part in the research on that they understand what exactly it involves confidentiality agreements, which means that the participants personal information is concealed, kept anonymous and protected within a certain amount of time But he spends also should have the right withdraw from the study, which means that they can leave the research study at any point. If they feel uncomfortable or just don't want to continue for any reason, they don't have to explain their reasons for doing so either on, they can also withdraw all the data from the research. Knowing the ethical rights, the participants can leave the research study at any time on they sees the potential issue that the researchers would have to deal with. The participants may not agree with a study and may not give the full details or full participation, which in turn can give an accurate data a lot of time and money or the data that cannot be used. Causation and correlation issues when the research employs correlation research methods, which means that one variable is correlated with the other, this can also cause an issue. For example, you want to find out that drinking wine causes a feeling of happiness and people say you have found that this is true drinking a certain amount of wine correlates with highest cause off happiness. It is easy enough for the research is a report the drinking wine cause happiness, and that she can happen is contributes to drinking wine. But in reality, though, correlation does not mean causation. If one variable correlates with another, this doesn't necessarily mean that one scores in the other. They just merely correlates with one another. But it is easy to see how we can fall into thinking trump off causation than simple correlation. Just remember that correlation is merely a relationship between two variables. So it's about two things go to get a hand in hand. Whereas causation is one thing that is causing the other, though it doesn't mean that it's reversible, either. So you know, for example, if drinking wine causes some feelings off happiness, this does not necessarily mean that happiness contributes to drinking wine. On the final one is the generalization from a salt small sample. Some studies are done taking a small pool of sample because that's what's available to them . For example, if you would research the effect of certain foods and the brain off the best teaching methods the teachers all mathematicians use, you might find on the small handful off those participants that are available to you at the time when you get your data. It's easy enough to generalize your findings on the report that all people in that category on all the teachers off mathematics do certain things in the way that your findings show. But that's the issue. Generalizing from a small sample leads to inaccurate findings. The reliability and such studies are reduced, and more studies on the same subject or a study with more participants have to be done again before the final conclusions on, mate. Well, here we go to the end of these lecture own critical evaluation off psychological research. I hope now you got a good idea about the downsides and potential issues in any psychological research. Now we'll proceed to our next mortal model free, where we will be discussing the theories of offending See you there 4. 4 Introduction to theories of offending: hello and welcome to our next mortal. Where will be discussing theories, theories? Off of fainting? As you can imagine, it's very difficult to point out what, exactly what's causing the person to get engaged into some criminal activity or even criminal planning and thinking, because there could be a combination of different factors. By now. We have some good, solid research evidence for why it's taking place and what factors are involved in tow. All this thinking and action. So let's have a look at the theories behind the criminal opportunities when we're thinking about criminal behavior, we have to think about many factors that taken important part. For example, it is important to consider they so so economic stages and psychological factors off the person who offended the neighborhood and the parenting factors would also be important, and in hurt it or genetic factors and personality traits can be added to the reasons to finding the specific reasons for the offending behaviour cannot often predict whether the person will re offense or they would not. One of the theories that we're looking at here is called psychodynamic theory, which shed some light on the matter off offending behaviour if you took any of my other psychology related courses, you might be familiar with the sacred, dynamic approach in psychology. Psychodynamic theory stems from the work of Sigmund Freud, who explained that human psyche has three elements. The eat the ego on this super ego. The seed is the animalistic part, which has primitive desires, such as sexual and hunger related. Super ego, On the other hand is the moral consciousness, which makes the person to morally reason before they engage into any behavior where his ego is a part of the psyche that functions as a mediator between the Aedes and the super ego, which makes the person to rationalize, assess the reality and delay the desired gratification. So according to the Freudian theories, the moral part the super ego develops at the age of five years old. If the child is growing in a dysfunctional family, has a very poor communication with parents or the relationship with the parents can be considerate, us abnormal, then the child, super eager, would be weak or on the developed. If this happens than the child when he or she grows up, can engage in tow offending behaviour because the moral reasoning would be very weak to prevent them from doing so. On the other hand, if the child has a strong super ego, this can also lead to the offending behaviour later on in life. If you think about it, a strong super ego means that the child has a very strong sense of morality so strong that defending someone or something in the name of justice can lead to the criminal behavior. A strong super ego can also mean that the person often experiences the feelings of guilt and exciting for much off the behavior. So engaging into some criminal behavior can be a subconscious way to receive punishment so that the constant feelings of guilt and anxiety would eventually subside. The psychological theoretical moral explains that the most important principles in criminal behavior our personality, the dysfunctional, off, normal mental processes, defective or abnormal mental processes may have a variety of causes for example, a diseased mind, inappropriate learning or improper conditioning, the emulation off inappropriate role, morals and adjustment to inner conflicts. One of the most prominent social learning theory is the one by Albert Bangura, a psychologist specializing in developmental and educational psychology. Bangura, Social learning theory explains that learning happens through observation off mortals when the child and then adolescent chooses who to model the process. Iran's on a subconscious level where the child is drawn to those who have similar characteristics to them, for example, the same gender or an interest that the share the status on even the attractiveness factors play a role. The child or the adolescent tends to imitate the behavior off the moral. The behavior can be reinforced through some sort of appraisal or rewards on. Then it will be more likely to get repeated on the other hands. The behavior can become less frequent on even can be seized if the child receives some form off punishment or gets discouraged from engaging into the behavior. Are the contributing factors to the offending behaviour can include, For example, the person's here aided here or genetic factors of normal brain functioning, which we'll talk about later. It's also economic factors, which, in other words, is the level of society, and the personal was growing up the attitudes and values. Another factors. Well, I hope you enjoyed these electric as well, and we will continue talking about the theories off. Offending. On in particular will be looking at theories of sexual offending in our next lecture, and I'll see you there 5. 5 Theories of sexual offending: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we are continuing to discuss theoretical, basic knowledge, off psychology and particularly forensic psychology. And here we were talking about theories behind sexual behavior or sexual offending. Rather, we'll be discussing Why. What's the theory? How we would explain when somebody's going over the boundaries off moral reasoning, what makes the person engaged into such behavior? So let's have a look at it here. In the previous lecture, we've already looked into general explanations off offending behaviour. Sexual offending has been studied for many years on try to find answers to so many questions, such as why an adult person, this sexually drone to a child to the point of going over the boundaries off the moral reasoning and engaging into its deviant behavior. Some theories, such as biological theories, explain that people who sexually offend have certain abnormalities in the brain hormone levels and neurotransmitters, a low intellectual functioning and hereditary or genetic predisposition. Evolutionary theories explain that on the large scale, human behaviors include the one off sexual aggression, so sexual offending can be explained as one of the ways to reproduce on species. The offender may not have an opportunity to have the reproducing option by normal means, whether because of the self believes, past failures or low attractiveness, some researchers even suggest that rape is what mating process in the animal kingdom is. So according to evolutionary research, sex offending behaviour is a form off, adopting to the individual environment personality theories on one of the personality theories we looked at your in. Our previous lecture was proposed by Sigmund Freud through his theories off the Aedes ego and super ego and Seka social developments. He also explained that sexual deviants stems from certain unresolved problems in the childhood, even though his theories were greatly criticized by many researchers afterwards. Nevertheless, some personality researchers have to agree with him later. Research shows the trauma, abuse and growing up in a dysfunctional family can significantly affect the child's developments. The child can internalize negative experiences, which in turn will affect the child's believes about him or herself, the relationships with all this, and including those that are related to sex and sexual relationships later on in life. Another well known theory off the childhood development. The attachment theory was introduced by John Bowlby in 1988 who explained that the year relationship between the baby and they first K giver is the most important link to healthy personal developments. Even in the idle hood, babies have a tendency to create strong attachments with a K give us, because in the first days they rely on the own survival. They require sustenance being warm and getting soothed during the emotional distress, so forming a strong bond with the care giver is a must for survival. Later, researchers suggest that Ball Bey's attachment theory can be extended in its explanation. For example, it's been found that there is a clear association between poor quality attachments and sexual offending Marshall in 1989 farm that men who sexually abuse Children often have not developed a social skills and self confidence necessary to form effective, intimate relationships with peers. This failure creates frustration that causes them to seek intimacy with young partners. Another theory that combines many factors in its into its a quick equation is called the the Finkler Horse Precondition Theory, which was developed in 1984 and gave its own explanation to sexual offending behaviour. These theory was looking at multiple factors in relation to childhood abuse and proposed that there are four preconditions. Steak, please. Before sex offense happen. The 1st 1 is the motivation to abuse. For example, sexual satisfaction lack off other sexual outlets. A desire to have intimacy, a relationship with a child. The 2nd 1 is the overcoming off internal inhibitions, or personal sense of morals. Values, ethics, Fear of being caught. Internal inhibitors may be overcome due to poor impulse control the use of alcohol or drugs , engaging into excuses and justifications. All impaired mental ability. The 3rd 1 is the overcoming off external inhibitors. The lack of privacy. Adequate supervision, strong personal bound er's off the child good support system are on the child negative social consequences For an offender to overcome external inhibitors here, she must locate both an opportunity for privacy and a child with poor boundaries and inadequate supervision. Their friends are also must consider that the possibility off negative consequences is unlikely On the last one. Is the overcoming off victim resistance or taken advantage off a trusting relationship with a child or care giver using bribes, trickery or manipulation? The strategy is also called grooming behaviors on I used by the offender to successfully engage the potential victim. Finkelhor hypothesize that possible motivational factors for committing such a friend's include the need to be powerful and in control, sexual arousal and the inability for some individuals to have their needs met through normal. For the majority of people ways social out, its dating, It's a truck. The precondition theory was largely criticized, however, by later researchers, for example, that this theory has never explained why those individuals who sexually offense half the motivation to do so in the first place. For example, how Lost 1994 noted that while poor social skills or lack of available sources off sexual gratification amongst other factors may be important, they're not direct causes off sexual offending. It is also unclear whether deviant sexual interests deficits in intimacy or a need for power in control. Maybe it work when an individual offence. Other theories that explain sexual offense include cognitive behavior off years where the behavior is explained by thinking processes, diminishing feelings of guilt whilst rationalizing the behavior through justifications and excuses, behavioral theories where the behavior is explained through conditioning, either reward or punishment. As we've looked at your in the previous lecture and the biological theories that explain the behavior through the biological mortal, where on imbalances in the brain can lead to a deviant behavior on this is will be talking about in some of our legis later on in this course. Thank you for watching that also, you know a next lecture. 6. 6 Theories of violent offending: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we're still continuing, talking about the theories that underpin forensic psychology and explained to us that behavior off the individuals that engage in criminal behavior on different types of criminal behavior. On in this lecture, we are talking about the violence of violent behavior on what theories suggest to us how they explain this behavior while aggressive behaviour and violence seems to be part of human developments, don't you think? In some people, this behaviour can be exhibited in arguments on aggressive speech in other individuals. However, this form can be seen as extreme when the violence can lead to severe injuries. Worse, whilst the offender gets committed to prison, Evolutionary researchers explained that violence is a form of aggression that we can even observe in animals. It's some form of competition where the strongest winds, whether it is in the fight for food, land or sexual related behavior when the genes have to be passed on to the females psychologist, explain violent behavior as a pathology, or something that is caused by student abnormalities in the brain, brain injuries and possibly traumatic childhood. For example, a study by Leon Carry on and Ramos in 2003 fund that if a person does not seek rehabilitation treatment for the brain injury, then this can increase the probability off committing to a violent crime. This is because the functioning off the injured brain can cause the person to interpret situation irrationally and inadequately, thus making the person to resort to aggression. The psychodynamic perspective also plays a role in the explanation of violent behavior. As you know, by now, the psychodynamic approach is the one that has its roots in the psychosocial development theories of Sigmund Freud. Freud explained that they eat, which is one of the three components of human psyche, is responsible for human drives, says your sexual hunger and others that would be similar to primal, animalistic survival behaviors. According to his explanations, violent behavior results from the functioning off the deed. Who is taking over the super eager, which is the moral reasoning part of the psyche in the normal developing people? This animalistic urge is repressed, and this is what happens when the person experiences normal childhood. However, if the child has any difficulties and no transitioning well through certain periods off the childhood, this can lead to some aggression can leak out off the unconscious, and the person can engage in random acts of violence. Freud the refer to these US displaced aggression Behavioral theories, on the other hand, explain that any behavior is learned from our social environments. On this applicable to violent behaviors to the explanation is that people don't get predisposed to violence but learn to adopt to the environment on daily basis. So if Children grow up in a social environments with, for example, abusive or violent parents in the neighborhood with a high incidence of criminal activity and so on, then they learn to think and act with violence. Behavioral theories have argued that the following four factors help reduce violence. The 1st 1 is a stressful event or stimulus, like a threat, challenge or assault that heightens arousal. The 2nd 1 is aggressive skills or techniques I learned through observing Arthur's. The 3rd 1 is a believe that aggression or violence will be socially rewarded by, for example, reducing frustration, enhancing self esteem, providing material goods or earning the praise off other people, and the fourth released a value system that condones violent acts within certain social contexts. Ailey empirical tests off these four principles were promising. The moral development theories also gives some explanation to the A cures of violence. Behavior. Moral development is a process of growth and understanding off what is considered to be an acceptable or good behavior and what is not acceptable or bad behavior. But generally speaking, at some point off our life, we know what is considered to be wrong in the society. For example, a B here that is not approved in our family of school or the activities that are punishable by law. Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, proposed a theory off moral development that progress through 23 labels off moral thinking . Based on our collective developments, this theory is known as the Colebrook stages off Second social developments. Coal Bricks proposed that there are three levels of moral developments that all Children go through pre conventional, conventional and post conventional. Each of these levels has two distinct stages. Level Wanless, pre conventional level, where a child sense of morality or what's right and what's wrong is controlled by external factors. For example, the child except what the parents considers us wrong, the rules that are imposed by the authority like figures, the Children at that age judge an auction based on its consequences. Level two is a conventional level. Where and other lessons, sense of morality greatly depends on the relationships with others. Rules from authorities are there to be followed. But now the individual considers are the relationships personal and those within society? US. Tie to the moral values? There is less flexibility in the stage. They're also there to be followed, and the appropriateness off rules and laws are rarely questioned. Level freeze, a post conventional level where an individual sense of morality has changed their rules from authorities still have power. But at this stage, the person questions whether all this rules are just or whether some should be changed or eliminated entirely. So where is that the first level of development? The person is afraid of punishment. By the last stage. The person tends to obey the law because they believe that it's built on the basis of justice and respect for others. Colbert found that violent use was significantly lower in the moral developments than non violence youth. Since his pioneering efforts, studies have consistently found that people who will be the law simply to avoid punishments . I, out of self interest, are more likely to commit acts of violence than the people who recognize and sympathize with the fundamental rights off others high levels of moral reasoning on the other hands associated with acts of altruism, generosity and non violence. So even though the person might have grow up in a very poor environments with a lot of crime around them in the neighborhood, it is the values that will make or break the spirit on make them or not make them to engage into criminal activity. So let's have a look at the theories off Fiset in behavior in our next lecture. Thank you for listening. Thank you for watching and to you there. 7. 7 Theories of fire-setting behaviour: hello and welcome to our next theory. I hope you're enjoying this course so far and hope you are getting grasp on some of the theories as well, because they are important, As I said, a lier. They under being the psychology and the forensic psychology as a branch, you have to know the persons who conducted the most interesting and most valuable and prominent research in the history eso prefer. But you would actually know a few names on the days off the studies because they are important, their famous on their well known within forensics. I culture, for example, So find what you really like, especially which topics when we're going through this, lectures and start reading on them a little bit. Maurin trying to remember those names off the researchers on the and the prominent figures within forensic psychology that talk about it that started the phenomena that contributed to the information that the wheat today we study. So let's get down to our lecture where we're talking about the fire stating behavior on what what makes the person to again to get engaged into such deviant behavior? Fire setting behavior is a type off deviant or abnormal behaviour which is often referred to this intentional fire stating, Oh, our song In legal settings, intentional find sitting can be devastating to organizations and individuals. Buildings can be burned to the point of total destruction. Organizations can go financially bankrupt. Worries Intentional fires can also end up with deaths off people and animals every week. Criminal if I sitting in the UK causes 65 casualties or this and cost £42 million which is £2.2 billion per year. Remarkably, no standardized offends a treatment. Programs have been developed for this common coarsely and tragic offense in the US this Vegas I even higher. During 7 4011 an estimated 282,000 and 600 intentional fires reported to the U. S fire departments each year with associative annual losses of 420 civilian civilian deaths , 1360 civilian injuries and $1.3 billion in direct property damage. Arson is an intentional destruction off the property. Typically, however, the following criteria are present in legal definitions. Off Arsene, there must be some element off intention on the line. The act the fire must be said for an unlawful purpose, or it to harm others or to profit fraudulently on the fire must damage property or belongings in some way. Most of the available research explains five sitting behaviors either juvenile delinquent behaviour, which means a participation in illegal behavior by younger people or US psycho pathological cases. One never feels the researchers on the subject has been conducted in 1951 who, using 2000 reports of fi stating, identified four reasons as to why fires were set unintentionally through delusions through erotic pleasure and to acquire revenge. Current research shows that the majority of fire setters are white, male, predominantly aged between 18 and 35 years old. Typically, find setters tend to be low achievers in education and more likely to be unemployed or unskilled than other non fire sitting offenders. These advantages, in terms of social class and also possessed difficulties in forming long lasting relationships as many are typically reported to be leaving alone and never to have married , even though most, if I said, is a mainly off male gender. The research also shows that the number of female fire seders are also increasing on that most females more likely to sit fight to the own property or to the property off the partners, relatives or neighbors. Fire setters are also tend to exhibit personality that this introverted on even socially isolated, less assertive than other mental disorder offenders. Whereas many off the female offenders have a history of being sexually abused, most arsonists have criminal histories before an arson arrests. However, most arson Aristides do not have prior arson convictions or in known history. Off I sitting the study of Tyler at all in 2013 had conducted research with mentally disordered fire setters, where they looked at the cognitive, behavioral and contextual factors leading to and surrounding the fire sitting offenses. As a result, the fire setting of France chain model was developed that explained that first of all, some mentally disordered fire setters hand the Ailey experiences with fire in the past, including the childhood, for example, watching the fire or they have poor fire safety awareness. Are they reading? They ignited fire for various purposes or even the possibly the induced fear with fire as a revenge to somebody. Secondly, there is a strong association between mental health problems and Fi stating long term mental health issues, including anti social personality disorder and hallucinations, can make the person at three skull. If I sit in behavior, though, not all people with mental health problems engaged into such behavior finally are the motivational factor can be present. For example, that was a cry for help, suicidal attempt, border or interest and fire. When you consider that most cases involving arson result in financial losses, it is no wonder that many of the court cases are linked to fire setting litigation. Mental health providers also often have to deal with people who have a history of fire sitting as many of their Arsenis have mental health disorders at the time of the act of arson, most mentally ill arsonists are either receiving mental health treatment, have recently discontinued treatments or have been unsuccessful in initiating treatment. Mentally ill are sinister, more likely to have a history off psychiatric hospitalization than any other mentally ill offender groups. Further after 16 off state psychiatric hospital, in patients have a history or fire sitting based on the research that we've just gone through, it is clear that fire sating is a serious offense. That can cost a large sums of money and losses on even their off people. It may seem impossible to predict such behavior in those who are friends, but there is a definite great area off people's off people's personalities, and they previous history that can make them more likely to engage into such destructive behavior as we see it. Ailey Experiences With Fire in Childhood Core Existing mental health disorders, especially related to antisocial personality disorders and certain motivational factors such as cry for help, seem to be leading prerequisites off fire stating offending behaviour while this is the end off mortal free, where we're talking about the theoretical knowledge behind forensic psychology and now we'll move on to model for where we'll be discussing personal attributes off offenders. Thank you for watching and I'll see you there. 8. 8 Personal characteristics of offenders: hello and welcome to our next mortal. It seems like you're flying through this course. Wow. Well, don't you? You reached actually model for which is so great on a hope you're interested in this information as much as I do. So in a model four will be discussing personal attributes off offenders and especially in this lake show. We're talking about personal characteristics off offenders. So when you look at people around you, can you predict that some of them can be mawr violence or half some traits that can make them to engage into fire sitting behavior or any more severe crime? Can you identify anybody by just looking at them War personal characteristics do they have That makes them different from a normal large population that don't engage into criminal behavior for any kind of form. What makes them different? This is what we're discussing in this mortal. So let's get down to you. In the previous lectures, we went through some of the personal characteristics off offenders where their fans is related to sexual sexual deviancy, violence or fire stating behavior. Here in this lecture, we're discussing the personal characteristics off those who engage in criminal behavior on what makes them different from those who do not. Earlier research in 1965 found that most of the offenders come from lower socioeconomic groups characterized by poor housing conditions, inadequate education system, poor job opportunities and Lakoff recreational facilities. Child who the bring and relationships with all this also play an important role. It is found that the Children who have poor relationships with their parents grew up in a dysfunctional family. Experienced Rome abuse are more likely to engage in criminal activity than those who grew up in more favourable environments. Personality traits such as low anxiety, high impulsivity, hostility and external locus of control have bean also associated with criminal behavior off registered offenders. High impulsivity integration are also the two prominent personal characteristics off sex offenders. The research in 2003 reported that novelty seeking behavior, impulsiveness and lack of empathy were found to be common characteristics in both rapists and child molesters. In addition, rapist aggressiveness seemed to be associated with lark of personal intimate is while child molesters, aggressiveness with two side or behavior. Charlotte Francie in Hoboken, antisocial personality disorder and other personality trait in sexual offenders, explained that sex offenders and non sex offenders have similar anti social attitudes, though criminal offenders who participated in various crime activities but not sexually related tend to exhibit more antisocial traits abnormal personality traits that can be categorized by psychopathic deviates. Integrative trades Marshall and Barbara Res Integrated Theory proposed that sexual offenders develop deviant sexual needs in response to having had adverse Ailey developmental experiences on being unable to understand emotions appropriately. Research by Craig Atoll 2006 showed that violent offenders tend to score highly on such personality tracers, depression, hostility, impulsivity and aggression than non violent offenders. However, most if not all, individuals engaging in criminal Bahia tend to exhibit antisocial personality on these traits can be seen as a lei us the school years, for example. These individuals might be running away from home, skipping school license, fighting with others, lying, stealing and damaging the property off all this, harming animals, possessing weapons and so on. It is possible that criminal offenders have anti social values where they thinking includes justifying the behavior, for example, by blaming others and finding excuses and reasons for the actions growing up in a dysfunctional family where the person had low support from their parents possibly suffered from emotional of physical abuse. Had poor communication with family members grew up in a family where it was not appropriate to express emotions in a well in the appropriate manner can make the person more likely to be involved into a criminal behavior and activities later on in life. Finally, substance abuse such as drugs or alcohol can make the person less able to have satisfying relationships with others and to lead to a successful, productive lifestyle. This factor is considered to be one of the most important ones to be included into criminal profiling, but police organizations 9. 9 Personality disordered offenders: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing personality disordered offenders. Personality disordered a friend. This means the offenders that have personality disorder and how it affects the behaviour is right any link between personality disorder and criminal behavior. This is what will be looking at the research behind it. In this lecture. Personality disorder is a complex psycho social disorder. Studies have estimated that whilst it effects between four and 11% of Yuki population, its prevalence in the criminal justice system is far higher. 60 to 70% of prisoners on about 50% of offenders managed by providers of probation services , which means that 60 to 70% of prisons have personality disorder off some kind. A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which the person has a rigid and unhealthy pattern off thinking, functioning and be heaving. A person with personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in the relationships, social activities, work and school. In some cases, they affected individual may not recognize that they suffer from such disorder simply because the way of thinking and behaving seem natural to them. Personality disorder can begin in the teenage years or early adult hood. Those some types can become more prominent in the middle age. The main features of personality disorders include a constant feeling off suspect that others are lying or attempting to harm the individual. Frequent angry outburst and hostile reactions. Lack of interest in social on personal relationships with the preference of being on the own inability or lower ability to derive pleasure from most activities. Indifference towards office that can be seen. US cold attitude, impulsive or risky behaviour. Frequent mood swings, difficulty controlling behavior, being sensitive to criticism or reaction being dependent on all this on seeking approval, substance addictions and deliberate self harm. As you can see, some of these features can be somewhat contradicting to each other. But this is because personality disorders very and the types and include many different characteristics. As you can see, the diagnostic and statistical manual off mental health disorders classifies personality disorders into three classes where each class that has 3 to 4 types off the disorder. For example, in the Cluster A, there are paranoid schizoid and skis, a type all types that are characterized by Suspiciousness Lakoff attachment to all this and some eccentric behavior in the class to be There are types such as antisocial, histrionic, narcissistic and borderline, which are mainly characterized by attention seeking Lakoff empathy and they need for approval and admiration by others. Where is that? The class? The sea includes the times such as dependent avoidance and obsessive compulsive disorders, which are characterized mainly by submissive behaviour, social inhibition and the need for perfection and control. Personality disorders is one of the mental health issues that is very common in those who are imprisoned. Prevalence of personality disorders very but generally speaking, want to 10% off the general population, half some type of some kind of personality disorder, 25% of whom have multiple mental health issues. Such So it's not just one. It's not just a single disorder, but more than one 50 to 70% off. Male prison population are those who have some kind of person to disorder and 30% of female prison population. Also, half that a friend us with personality disorders present an additional challenges to various who work in criminal justice on National Health Service. As the case with those offenders need to be managed whilst maintaining safe working environments and appropriate treatments need to be offered. The treatments for antisocial personality and psychopathic disorders exist. Most individuals with personality disorders and criminal behaviour often engaged into substance misuse as a corporate strategy. How we were treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments can result in better cognitive functioning, decrease in substance abuse and anxiety. Also, a wide range of programs for management of our anger and violence can also be offered in both community settings and in prisons. While this is the end of this lecture, where we're talking about personality disordered offenders and now will proceed to another really interesting topics, which is all about psychopathic six, which is all about psychopathology or psychopathic offenders, Thank you for watching and I will see you at our next lecture. 10. 10 Psychopathic offenders: hello and welcome to our next lecture were where we'll be discussing psychopathic offenders or individuals with who wants diagnosed us psychopaths with psychopathology on, and we'll see how it affects the behaviour and cannot explain the FAQ that they engage into criminal behavior. You might have your own conclusions about what psychopathy ease because it is fascinating topic for many people. We tend to associate psychopathic behavior with violence, a rape, murder or is every psychopath can actually go out and kill all the person. This is what will be talking here on the research behind it. The definitions of what is psychopath varies from researcher to researcher, and there is a constant debate about the causes or psychopathy. However, the signs and symptoms off the disorder are pretty clear in general on they can be obvious even before the individual keeps his 16th birthday. One of the most comprehensive definitions for psychopathy is offered by the Society for the Scientific Study Off Psychopathy, a constellation of traits that comprises effective features into personal features as well assim pulse it on antisocial behaviors. The effective features include lock off guilt, empathy and deep emotional attachments. To all this, the interpersonal features include narcissism and superficial charm. On the impulsive and antisocial behaviors include dishonesty, manipulative nous than reckless. Reese taken. Although a psychopath is a risk factor for physical aggression, it is by no means synonymous with it. In contrast to individuals with psychotic disorders, more psychopaths are in touch with reality and seemingly irrational psychopathic individuals are found at elevated rates in prisons and jails, but can be found in community settings as well. Psychopathy as an illness have been recognized for centuries, even in 18 hundreds. The medical professionals noticed that some people have symptoms off abnormal behavior and appearance and called the condition ist moral sanity. With the actual term psychopath appeared in the 19 hundreds, the term was changed to so so path in the 1930 to show its associate with their attitudes towards the society. Though recently researchers have reverted to calling, these disorders are psychopathy instead. So what would be the symptoms of his disorder, the science and symptoms of psychopathy, identified most commonly in scientific studies by hairs? 20 items psychopathy checklist revised. This checklist identified the following, asked the symptoms and signs off psychopathy, the first on these superficial charm and glibness. The second is inflated sense of self worth. Constant need for stimulation line both a logically Corning Arvis being manipulative. Lakoff. Remorse or guilt. Shallow emotions. Colors. Nous, lack of empathy using office, a parasitic lifestyle, poor control over behavior, promiscuous sexual behaviour, behavioral problems, alien life like off realistic long term goals. Being impulsive, being irresponsible. Blaming all this and refusing to accept responsibility. Having several marital relationships. Delinquency one young revocation of conditional release criminal arcs in several re alms. Criminal versatility. The causes of psychopathy are not clear. Researchers agree that the causes originate from the mixture of environmental, genetic and interpersonal factors. The childhood of bringing in a dysfunctional family, poor parenting and substance abuse within the family, child trauma or abuse can all be contributors to this disorder. It is known that one in five violent offenders is a psychopath. There have higher rates of recidivism and don't benefit from rehabilitation programs. Psychopathic offenders are different from regular cream ales. In many ways, regular criminals are hyper responsive to threat quick, temperate and aggressive. While psychopaths have a very low response. Two frets are cold and the aggression is remediated. Evidence is now accumulating to show that both types of offenders present abnormal but distinctive brain development from a young age. Researchers agree that psychopaths have abnormalities in the brain that can be seen through and Mariah and tomography scans. Specifically, Professor Hawkins and his team looked at the brains of violent offenders convicted for murder, rape, attempted murder and grievous bodily harm and healthy known offenders, and found that the offenders had changes in those parts of the brain that are responsible for empathy, feelings of guilt on embarrassments, rewards and punishments. Professor Hawkins explained that in childhood, both psychopathic and non psychopathic offenders alike are repeatedly punished by parents and teachers for breaking rules and for salting others and from adolescence onwards there, frequently incarcerated yet the persistent engaging in violent behavior towards office. Thus punishment does not appear to modify the behavior off course. Psychopathy doesn't mean criminality, as most criminals are not psychopaths but more psychopaths half an inclination to be engaged into a criminal type of activity. However, recognizing the signs and symptoms in the early age can help to prevent serious criminal behavior later on in life. I hope you enjoy this lecture, and if you do to check out the additional pdf guides where I include additional recommended literature for these kind of topics and the additional no, on the leadership of additional information from various websites that are find interesting myself. This is what you will find here. I now will proceed to the next lecture where we'll continue to talk about mental illness and how it's related to offending. Thank you for watching, and I will see you there. 11. 11 Mental Illness and offending: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we're discussing mental health, mental illnesses and how they're connected to criminal behavior and thinking. And from our previous lectures, you can see that there is a definite clear link between the criminal activities, criminal behavior on mental health. We've already looked at personality disorders, and we mentioned, for example, substance addiction, substance abuse. And there is all this disorders that are linked to criminal activities. This kind of research have bean on interest to many researchers for many years, and also to the great criminal justice system, of course, and to mental health professionals to and now we know that psychopaths, for example, are more likely to be engaged into criminal behavior. So what else can we see about mental health? What else the research shows. So let's have a look at it here. The public opinion survey suggest that many people believe that mental illness and criminal behaviour are strongly linked to Charlie. A 2006 national survey found, for example, that 60% of Americans thought that people with schizophrenia were likely to act violently towards someone else, whilst 32% thought that people with major depression we're likely to do so. It is no wonder that these figures are so high as to the media tends to represent the link between mental health and criminal activity in a negative way, creating the perception that most, if not all, people who commit crime I mentally ill. In reality, these findings are not backed up by research because most people with mental health conditions and disorders are not engaging into a criminal activity or violent behavior on the daily basis. Research shows that around 30% of people who have both substance abuse disorder on a psychiatrist is order a dual diagnosis, committed, least one act of violence a year. Were us out awful people with, say, character disorder alone. This figure comes to 18% these confirming the previous findings. The substance abuse is a key country contributor. Toe violence, behavior, The relationship between mental health and Crime East complex. Some research. Investigating this link dates back to the 19 sixties and seventies. Under his much research has been Dancing Sven, a study that involved almost 600 patients admitted between the years of 1985 and 1987 with major effective disorder such as depressive, manic and bipolar, compared the rates of offending with psychologically healthy control. Participants on this research found that there is a significant increase in offending amongst those with admissions for effective disorders in comparison to the healthy controls when the age, gender and area off residents have been much too. The study also found that when those who had a diagnosis off a substance abuse as well as a diagnosis, often effective disorder, were compared with those without Carmo bit substance abuse is the relative levels of offending were markedly higher in those who had abused alcohol and drugs. In another study off More distant and Our Man in 1985 more than 1200 patients with mental health problems studied in terms of the mental health issues and criminal offense on the researchers found that apart from traffic law, violations by men and violence crimes and sexual offenses by women, patients were more frequently a registered in all crime categories. And that's alcoholics and drug uses of both sexes had a significantly higher criminality rate. Also, patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly female females, had a higher rate of committing an offence that than those with are the psychological disorders on the researchers like Wallace, it'll 1998 used the end existing the registrar that contained information about criminal offenses and concurrent mental health problems in more than 4000 and 100 patients that were convicted in the High Court in Australia. They found that over 25% off all offenders had prior contact with mental health services, which included substance abuse. Schizophrenia, Affective say, causes affective disorders and personality disorders. Numerous studies have found that offender groups contain MAWR individuals with low I accused. According to the Law Reform Commission report, in 1996 the prevalence of intellectual disability in the general population in Australia is 2 to 3%. But amongst prisoners, the Reiter at least 12 to 13%. The rates amongst those arrested, those charged and there's appearing before the courts are even higher. It has been found that Children in the lower I Q ranges are more prone to conduct disorder and delinquency than those with average or above scores on intelligence intelligence tests . Also, the research shows that various forms of brain injury, brain dysfunction and brain degeneration associated with impulsive and criminal behaviour. For example, people who have injuries. The frontal lobes are prone to increased levels of violent behavior, and finally, epilepsy has long been held to be associated with criminal behavior. Epilepsy is found more frequently amongst prisoners. While this is this wars, the last lecture in the mortal, on mental illness and offending. And now we'll proceed to our next new model, where we'll be talking about forensic psychology in police investigations. I will see you there. 12. 12 An Introduction to Offender Profiling: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll be talking about offender pro fighting or how they create these profiles that you possibly know about from SciFi films where FBI and police officers know who to look for . They create this profile. So what he's profiling and how do they do it and doesn't work? That's the main thing. So in this lecture, we this an introduction to a friend of providing, so we'll start talking about it. On expand throughout the moral profiling is the identification of specific characteristics , often individual, committing a particular crime by a thorough, systematic observational process and an analysis off the crime scene victim, the forensic evidence and the known facts off the crime. The profiling technique has been used by behavioral scientists and criminologists to examine criminal criminal behavior and to evaluate as well as possibly predict the future actions off criminal offender profiling. Also known US Criminal Profiling East, an investigative tool used by law enforcement agencies to identify likely suspects, descriptive offender profiling and analyzed patterns that may predict future offenses, and all victims, which is known as predictive offender profiling. Creating an offender's profile can include both physical and nonphysical information such as the description off the crime scene. It's layout on the presence off any significant items, the description off what was down to the victim, the behavior off the offender and any other significant information. Then this information is processed and analyzed on certain presuppositions are drone. For example, tying up a victim may mean a necessity for control while stabbing the victim before sexual intercourse may mean a need for arousal from pain or blood characteristics off the victim location of the crime. Use of a vehicle on the relation to the previous crimes may also suggest social and demographic features off the offenders are just race, age or occupation, our friend. The profiling process is often done by behavioral psychologists and not by in the and not by the investigators, who seemed to have experience an adequate knowledge anyway. Behavioral psychologist specializing in criminal profiling used theoretical psychology to draw certain conclusions and not the experiential thinking, though in some cases investigators can contribute to this process. Criminal investigative analysis or profiling is currently neither a widely accepted law enforcement practice. No, I widespread investigative process. But there is some evidence to support its usage in the investigation of certain types of crime. Profiling has been developed by the FBI's Behavioral Science Unit. A. Que investigative support unit, though, is also used by police on investigation departments. In many countries, a friend of profiling is not meant to solve crime but to be used as a way of narrowing down the range of potential suspects. If the suspects are known, then profiling would be done individually for each of them. In this case, that includes such information as the offenders, background, physical characteristics, they habits, beliefs and values. And they previous behaviours. Finally, what you need to know is that in a murder investigation, criminologists are concerned with the four different faces off crime antecedent these faces concerned with a murderous remediation of the fact. What plan and motivation did the perpetrator half method and manner This includes the demographics are victims as well as the method off killing them. The 3rd 1 is body disposal. This face examines the consistencies and methods off disposal and 4th 1 East post offense behavior. This is the review of the murders, response to the investigation and media. So does often the profiling works at all, or it doesn't. Before we answer on this question, we'll have a look at approaches to offend the pro fighting you know, a next election. 13. 13 Approaches to Offender Profiling: the ride different ways, actually to create a criminal profile. And here we'll have a look at general approaches that forensic psychologists use when they have to create a profile on. As you can see, it differs from country to country as well. Some approaches may be better than let us. Some have more evidence that the work and that they are more effective than Alice, so we'll have a look at old lease here. Well, the Iran various approaches to offender profiling, unknown and used eins warfare doesn't one identified four main approaches, which are geographical, investigative, psychology, technological and clinical profiling. The geographical approach. This looks at par Terance in the location and timing off offenses to make judgments about links between crimes and suggestions about where our friend a sleeve and work investigative psychology. These grew out off geographical profiling on uses, established psychological theories and methods off analysis to predict offender characteristics from offending behaviour. The technological approach. This involves looking at the characteristics of crime scenes to assign offenders to different categories, each category off offender having different typical characteristics. The clinical approach is the approach that uses insights from psychiatry and clinical psychology to aid investigation when offender is thought to be suffering from a mental illness or other psychological abnormality. And the other two well known approaches to criminal profiling are the top down approach, known mainly as a U. S approach and the bottom up approach, which is known as the British methodology. The top down approach is also referred to US crime scene analysis, psychological profiling and the FBI approach. It involves entering the data into the database where it is then compared against other entries off other suspects. The aim of this approach is to detect similar potters on a signature feature off the crime possibly identify crimes that were committed previously by the same offender. The top down approach is considered to be as qualitative approach because it looks at the overall picture whilst using to biological factors. This approach can involve in depth interviews, gay studies, sketches and photographs, information from investigator and behavioral science unit, not only psychological theories drawing conclusions from previous knowledge statistics and categorizing crimes. This approach is most useful for serious crimes such as murder and rape, where murders are classified into organized, which are Preplant crimes, where their friend ISS cover the trucks usually and is organized, which are unplanned crimes where clues are left behind the bottom up approach known us the British approach. It became established when, in the 19 eighties, David Canter drew up an accurate profile off John Duffy, the Railway Arabia's who was responsible for 24 sexual assaults. Cantor was correct about the area Duffy lived in his age on the fact that he had knowledge off the railway system as he worked for great rich rail. He also mentioned that Duffy would have probably had a criminal record on be under arrest in the time there were no reported attacks and it was found. The Duffy deed, in fact, rape his wife at the knifepoint, So Cantor was quite accurate. Later on, in the 19 nineties, Counter and Heritage developed a computer program that involved a content analysis off 66 sexual assault cases as a result of a several correct every six that were common in most cases, for example, use of impersonal language like off reaction to the victim that became a very useful set of techniques in the investigative psychology. The bottom up approach is largely based on theoretical methodology where psychological theories are used first and then new theories created to explain how and why criminal behavior accuse. It is believed that the bottom up approach has more validity and reliability than the top down approach. But let's talk about the effectiveness and our next lecture. 14. 14 The Effectiveness of Offender Profiling: some researchers argue whether a friend of providing the reliable at all. Some say that the British approach, where they used the existence, psychological theories to create new formulations and explanations for criminal activity, is more violent than the U. S. Approach, where they use the information from the key study from the crime scene and so on. A friend of profiling has its own downsides. In any case, any incorrect information can lead to the creation off an incorrect profiling, especially in the US based approach. Researchers say that the overall offender profiling a lacks an adequate evidence for its effectiveness. For example, the study off Minnesota and Finkel, 1990 on validity of criminal profiling showed that those who specialize in creating offender profiling did not do much better on this task than other people, such as, for example, university students, psychics, psychologists and police officers. From these findings, Eastwood. It all concluded that there is no compelling evidence that criminal profilers are more capable off predicting the characteristics and trades off a criminal than those who are not trained in the field. Thus, if criminal profiling cannot be shown to be a violent instrument for narrow narrowing down the suspect pool and potentially targeting a guilty individual. It is questionable where they should be used in investigations and courtrooms at all. In the UK, cops in Holloway survey detectives who had worked on 100 and 84 cases where a friend of refining had been used and believe that it had produced identification off offenders in less than 3% of cases and help to solve the crime in 16%. So they concluded that profiling can work very well, but not as the way some practitioners would have. People believe. Other issues with profiling methods include reliability off interviewing. As you know by now, in some cases, in depth interviews are done on. The information is used for their for creating an offender profile. But the interviews can have false or misleading information on these reduces reliability off the whole profiling. When a forensic psychologist creates an offender profile, they also rely on their own intuitive conclusions on old interpretations of the events. On this again can lead to an inaccurate on reliable information. Hannah ineffective profiling a friend of profiling is not an exact science on often has to rely on stereotyping where the researchers relies on a small number of characteristics. The Osteria type in can result in creating an unreliable and are successful pro filings. So shoot criminal profiling be used it all if it doesn't have enough off empirical evidence . Some researchers decided to serve a criminal investigators and police officers with this question and found that over 75% of police officers regard criminal profiling US useful on that it helps to increase the understanding off the offender. However, only 3% found the defender profiling is actually useful tool in identifying the actual offender. On the other hand, a majority of British police officers complained that offender profiling is unreliable to general and is not helpful in solving crimes. However, the study employed only small sample off participants and fill that similar research is still needed. So the jury still out the profiling can be used by its It can be on reliable right. Do you think that is professional enough to use a tool that can be ineffective in many if not most cases? Deborah Schumann, coffee from the Psychology Today explained it. In this way, human beings are versatile and no one can ever predict with 100% accuracy. How a human will heal or react. But do is scrape medicine saying, Why Bola? The answer is no. We go to our physicians with the hope that they can heal us. Criminal profilers work the same way. We may not always be 100% accurate, but we work based on seeing thousands of cases, drawing on years of experience and using our education. So behalf softer old criminal profiling should still be continued to use. Well, this is the end off the immortal five well done for staying with these lectures or throughout this course on listening to hopefully not so boring voice. Hopefully, you are enjoying the course and information on as I say Alia, do participate in additional activities, such as additional reasoning that could really help you to grass, the the new terms and the new information that is presented here. I know. So do check out the supplementary information that comes with this course because that's where I put some additional reading information questions for reflection, a little bit more information that can help you to learn thank you for washing, and I will see you in our next mortal way. We'll be talking about forensic psychology in the courtroom and will start the next lecture with eyewitness testimony 15. 15 Eye-witness testimony: hello and welcome to our next model and the new lecture where we'll be talking about various types off. This demo knows whether they're effective, whether there should be used because are they actually reliable? This is what we're looking at because the research is not very convincing that it's all reliable. Let's start here with the I reducing testimony and see for ourselves when a weakness stands up in a quart and gives the testimony. This can literally decide the fate off the offender. A witness can give a compelling evidence that will bring the truth and justice, but how accurate that eyewitness testimonies really are? For many years, researchers have been attempted to also this question and overall found that witness testimony can be very inaccurate in many cases. And we know that the word of the witness can result in years off imprisonments or even a life sentence for the offender. To those who follow crime and courts, the stories are familiar and unnerve. Ing Cornelius Dupri spent 30 years in prison in Texas for a 1979 rape and robbery he did not commit, largely due to a single Irishness identification. He was freed in 2011 through new DNA evidence. Derrick Williams of Florida was free through DNA evidence after spending 18 years in prison for a rape based on eyewitness misidentification. Joining Pinch Barca, Texas Inmate Convicted offer at 1984 rape Based on eyewitness misidentification. Waas free through DNA testing after 27 years in prison. This is consistent with statistics showing that more than 3/4 off wrongful convictions later overturned by deer in a evidence relied on faulty eyewitness evidence. First of all, it is known that our memory can be unreliable when recalling some event. Some people think that memory records information just like a video recorder, but in fact the memories get reconstructed and not merrily played back to us when we recall something. The act of remembering safe, eminent memory research and psychologist Elizabeth Loftus off the University of California is a more aching to putting puzzle pieces together than the retrieving a video recording. Even questioning by a lawyer can alter the witness testimony because fragments off the memory may unknown Lee be combined with information provided by the questionnaire leading to an inaccurate recall, So the information is thought in the way that is convenient. Tow us the most prominent and important details we might remember better than the less important to us. But what are the most important details to us? The research shows that personal interpretation dependent on our learns or cultural norms and values and the way we make sense off her world. So what's important to us might not be so important to others. What we remember from the situation might be not what the other person would remember from the same situation. Research also shows that people can get confused and give a false testimony when the person who questioned them using misleading questions. For example, if the crime involved a vehicle and the robbery, the person can use the question that involved in unrelated objects such as someone's dog and motorbike instead of the car or a wrong color off the vehicle by deliberately using the false piece of information, the person's memory off what they've witnessed can be become contaminated with different information and will lead to recall off in incorrect information. This phenomenon is called the mis information effect. The research studies demonstrate that young adults are often is acceptable to misinformation and Children and old adults can be even more acceptable. The research shows that misinformation effects can a cure easily on without any deliberate intention to deceive. Even slight differences in the way that the question is awarded can lead to misinformation effects. But he spends can be more likely to say yes. When asked, for example, did you see the blue car beside the bank than when asked, Did you see a car beside the bank? The researchers also explained that a lot of information that witnesses seem to recall cannot be accurate for the following reason. Distance creates below airiness, Jeffrey Loftus, Perception and Cognition psychology professor, explained. At 10 feet, you might not be able to see individual eyelashes in the person's face. At 200 feet, you would not even be able to see a person's eyes. At 500 feet, you could see the person's head, but just one big blur. These this equivalence between size and blurriness. By making something smaller, you lose. The fine details in the 2005 article in the journal Economic Bulletin and Review Loftis examined his distance are filtering hip hypothesis that as a face moves fell away, its details become progressively coarser on more difficult to recognize, So the further away the person is standing from the event on that not needs to be that far . The less objects that would be able to identify on that would include the recognition of faces and bodily character characteristics, including approximate height and weight, the objects on the ground, the brand of the vehicles and so on. I read this testimony is one of the most powerful forms off evidence in Crile. It's also one of the most problematic. In fact, it's the number one cause off wrongful convictions, our memories of what we see on static, their elastic and malleable and change over time. So in this lecture I will leave you with a proposed book for additional reading, which is by Brandon Garrett himself, which is called Convicting the Innocent, where criminal prosecutions go. Rome. I think you might really enjoy it. Thank you for watching. Ana will see you at our next lecture, where? Where will be discussing expert witness testimony on whether it's effective? See, there 16. 16 Expert witness testimony: welcome to our next lesson where we will be discussing expert witness testimony. An expert witness in England, Wales and the United States is a person whose opinion, by virtue of education, training, certification skills experience is accepted by the judge. Awesome expert. The judge may consider the weakness specialized scientific, technical or other opinion about evidence or about facts before the court. Within the experts area off expertise refer to us an expert opinion expert. Witnesses may also deliver expert evidence within the area off the expertise. The testimony may be rebutted by testimony from other experts, all by other evidence or fact. An expert witness participates in court as a volunteer mainly and not because they were involved into any other activity that is related to the case, the expert testifies because they have a professional or expert knowledge, skills or relevant training, and the opinion will be based. All these knowledge fact weakness, on the other hand, would provide facts rather than opinions. When an expert witness school for the hearing or trial, he's a her qualifications of being an expert would be established beforehand. For example, work experience and college education would be considerate from an a tourney standpoint. An expert is also evaluated all he's or her skills as a witness, and the tourney would evaluated experts ability to use good judgment in analyzing facts, express him or herself clearly express complex material in a fashion that, racially can be understood by those who do not have expertise in the field and handle intense cross examination by opposing counsel. An expert may be asked to see teen and observe the trial in order to gain a better understanding of the keys and also to provide ongoing assistance to counsel the alias known case of inviting an expert witness to the trial. A cure it in 17 82 when British court had hearing litigation related to clogging up off whales, Harbour with sleep in Norfolk and the court accepted evidence from a leading civil engineer , John Smeaton. By now, of course, expert witnessing is a regular phenomenon that adds greedy to the juridical service. One type of an expert witness can be a forensic psychologist, psychology soft and cool to provide a testimony at court trials. But to claim that one easel expert on forensic matters, he or she needs to have appropriate qualifications off or such other types of psychologist get also often participate to give testimony on different matters. The forensic psychologist, on the other hand, can serve two roles at the same time, the therapeutic one. And as a forensic specialist, this type of specialty requires an awareness that forensic expertise can be in conflict with the therapeutic work that forensic psychologist represents. Other types of expert witness can be in educating witness and a reporting weakness. The educated witness teaches the fact finder jury or in a bench trial judge about the underlying scientific theory on instrument implementing theory. This witness is an expert witness called to elicit opinions that the theory is valid and the instruments involved are reliable. The witness must be accredited as an expert witness, which may require academic qualifications or specific training. 17. 17 Attitudes towards victims: hello and welcome to our next lecture on attitudes towards victims who is a victim off crime. A victim is defined as a person who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss. As a result, off a crime a person has been charged, convicted or far not criminally responsible due to mental disorder for the offense that resulted in the victimization is not defined as a victim. For example, if a parent has been charged with abuse of a child, the parent will not be allowed to exercise the child victims rights or the own rights as a parent. In cases where the victim is not feeding now for the court, for example, he or she will have a mental of physical health and payments or not a life any longer. Then he's a her spouse. Relatives or dependents can act on their behalf. But the times the process of court hearing is not a straightforward as it seems to be. We know the victim, and we know there fender. The rest is clear rights. According to some research, their attitude towards the victims of crime can sway the Justin system in the way they view the keys. The rock current issues with a roll of the victim in the criminal justice system. Some opponents, the involvement of victims in the justice process argue that the presence at hearings or impact statements caused this system to sway towards harsher sentences for the offenders. So should the victim be present at court hearings at all? On one hand, it is their right to be present at all hearings and trials. On the other hand, this can hinder the whole process of judging. Whether the victim is playing an active for passive role during the process is also seems to be important to the final outcome. If the victim is involved, much less they might know less off the own rights and roles and how they supposed to be protected by the whole jurisdiction Domain. Proponents of victim involvements argued that research shows that victims generally have feelings off dissatisfaction with the criminal justice process, are unhappy with the results off the key says for the perpetrators, and that the justice system is more concerned with the offender than the victim. These complex issues all play in toward the role of the crime victims in the justice process, should be. It is clear to us that victims should be not only protected but also listen to on giving the voice at the court proceedings. Also, victims should explained how the court proceedings is taking place, what to expect, how the jury decide what centers to give the offender and why it can be different from the wild and is expected by the victim. So what are they attitudes of fathers towards the victims of violence or rape, for example, is there any difference in how they viewed and treated in court? He studied by Ferguson and Ireland in 2012 involved 189 students in this study. All were provided with a fictional rape scenario depicting various levels off perpetrated intoxication or varying extents, to which are an intoxicated victim was able to recall providing consent, but he spends were then asked to rate the opinions off victim and perpetrator responsibility. The results of the study showed that the study participants have different attitudes towards the victims that were intoxicated and towards those who did not drink any alcohol before they became a victim of crime. It became clear that people can treat those victims who drink alcohol as if it was their own fault that they became victims of rape, whether it was the partial or full responsibility to make sure that they didn't get involved in it in the first place, the victims of domestic violence have only recently got recognition that they in fact are the victims of crime. Although men have buttered, abused and mistreated the wife's or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a normal part of marriage or intimate relationships. Onley towards the end of the 20th century in the 19 seventies has domestic violence being defined, the crime justifying intervention by the criminal justice system, so to be victim is not enough in order to get treated appropriately. These depends on the nature of the criminal activity and the involvement of the victim, but also the personal on physical characteristics seems to the involvement of the victim in the jurisdiction process is still not satisfactory, although there are more rights and protection available to them than ever before. Finally, I will leave you with this piece of research, finding their role off the crime victim in the justice process should be viewed as a balancing act. The victim should be more than the weakness but not have total control over the persecution of the geese. They're all that the victim place should be stronger than in the years prior to the victim's movement with an emphasis in sentencing. The victim and the court should communicate frequent frequently with the quartz, giving victims specific explanations as to why an offender will be sentenced differently than the victim expects. This can give victims the personal gratification of being heard while balancing the power between the victim and the states, and thus the Justice secretary, Chris Grayling. Seeds victims deserve the best possible support to cope and recover from the effects of crime. From today, they will have more help than ever before to help bring offenders to justice with the highest level of service at every stage of the system. For those who need it most, 18. 18 ’What works' literature in reducing re-offending: hello and welcome to our next election, where we discussing what works in literature when we're thinking about reducing reoffending . Recent prevent reoffending rates show that the proportion of Hoddle's of re offending within 12 months he's us follows 58% of prisoners released from under 12 months off custody . 35% of prisoners released after 12 months or more in custody, excluding public pretension and life sentences and 34% of those starting a court order. So these are the figures off adults reoffending within 12 months off their release from prison. Why people who commit crime re offense, it's not enough for them to serve the sentence and get released. Do they freedom to enjoy it? He said. How people viewed in reality, they seems to be a range of problems or knees that are applicable to the offenders more than anyone from the general population. For example, research shows that offenders often experienced drug and alcohol addictions past traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse, being victims off violence, suffering from mental health disorders, burdens by unemployment and financial problems. Having a lack of adequate education, having pro criminal attitudes and issues with homelessness may off. These factors put the offenders in the high risk category for re offending, and many of these factors are interlinked and need to be tackled at the same time. So overall, it is known that a typical range of re offending, measured by re imprisonment in national studies is between 30 and 50%. So what other factors make the person to re offend? Serving a short prison sentence for one year or less is associated with a substantially higher re conviction rate than serving a longer prison sentence off a few years or more, having any prior experience of prison. Great increases once Likelihood off three conviction whilst having many prior convictions appear to be less important for a conviction. Rates in the UK younger people have much higher conviction rates than older people. Theft and property offenses have the highest rates of re conviction in all countries studied in all countries that reviewed re conviction. Rates are higher for those leaving prison than do serving community services, the Offender Management Community Cohort study. Preliminary findings represent a fact in the table that you can see now, so drug and alcohol misuse is considered as one of the strongest factors off many that repeats throughout the research literature. But also it has been found that this certain personality traits, such as high impulsivity and low self control, can lead to violence and social on criminal behavior. Having pro criminal attitudes and surrounding themselves with a network off other offenders would clearly contribute to the higher risk of re offending. Additionally, Lakoff supportive network or family and friends, strong and positive relationships with others play an important role in the fenders. Attitudes towards the imprisonment, having a suitable employments and accommodation upon the release from prison can make the person less likely to re offend and get imprisoned again. Having a suitable home to return to seems to be big problem for many offenders scorches. Government statistics show that nearly 20,000 people are liberated from prison each year, and research shows that 30% off people liberated do not have a home to go to. Research also shows that having a supportive family plays a highly important role in reducing the rates off. Re offending research suggests that having family ties can reduce the likelihood off, re offending by 39% overall ex prisoners who are visited by a family member have a significantly lower reoffending rates. The odds are 39% higher that it will re offend within a year if they have received no visits. Research also shows that Children off the offenders are at high risk of becoming the offenders themselves. It is known, for example, that 63% of boys with convicted parent go on to offend in later life. Children of prisoners are at risk off poorer outcomes. It is estimated that there are 160,000 Children have a parent in prison each year. They're vulnerable group at risk of poor outcomes, three times more likely to have mental health problems or to engage in antisocial behavior than the piers. Nearly 2/3 of boys to have a parent in prison will go on to commit some kind of crime themselves. From all this research, it is clear that tackling the problem or free offending is not an easy task. The multitude of factors need to be considerate, analyzed and decided from problems with homelessness and lack of suitable employment that the support from the offender's family and changing the pro criminal attitudes. It is clear from the research that there is much work needs to be done. But what is available to the offenders and their families these days? What interventions already in place that target the problem off defending. This is what will be discussing in our next lecture. 19. 19 Interventions to reduce risk of re-offending: welcome to our next lecture interventions to reduce risk off re offending. In a previous lecture, we were talking about theories and what's available in the literature review as the factors that increase the risk of reoffending. And here we discussing what actually works on what's in place already that works. The more serious and long lived once involvements in the criminal justice system is the higher the rate of re conviction. Whether this is due to the fact that individuals with more involvements are more committed to criminal behavior, less embedded in positive social networks and environments are more likely to be targeted for arrest, Conviction and punishment is not clear. It may be a combination of all three from the research that we looked at in a previous lecture. It is clear that interventions for reducing reoffending need to address the problems related to employment, family life on education, us the other three strongest predictors for re offending. But these issues need to be addressed before the prison gets imprisoned to gain, and preferably outside of the criminal justice system. Let's have a look at what helps reduce the chance of getting re offended as we can see the first and the most natural factor is the one off maturity and getting older. Statistically speaking, all the people get less involved in street crime, for example. The other factor is having strong relationship ties with the family and close supportive friends. Research shows that those offenders who have Children and partners waiting for them to complete the sentence are much less likely to re re offense than those who do not have such support. Drug and alcohol addiction as we can seize, emerging once again as a strong predictive element for being re imprisoned, another is employment way. The person achieve satisfaction on mastery can help to stop their re offending. Those offenders who demonstrate hoping motivation to change their life for the better, tend to stick to the new ambitions. People who feel and show empathy for others are more likely to deceased from crime. Those who contribute to society on the achievements are formally recognized. Also, half less desire to be involved to gain with any criminal activity, not associating themselves with criminal identity and having people who believe in them are also strong, contributing factors to a lesser risk of reoffending. So what interventions work currently well. First of all, these aggression management training, which can take form off workshop or a therapeutic session where the person that learns, for example, a problem solving strategy, relaxation techniques and behavioral self management research shows that even as little 6 to 8 hours of such training can result in remarkable outcomes for the participants, whether their Children are the lessons or Adel's. Secondly, it's the cognitive behavioral therapy for exciting depression that established itself as a very effective approach and is currently recommended and offered within the National Health Service. Three leads interventions with young offenders which include, for example, counseling skill oriented programs, learning about interpersonal skills, behavioral programs, psychology related workshops and so on. These types of interventions are found to be very effective, reducing recidivism by as much as 40% whereas individual counselling and behavioral programs are found to be one of the most effective. Once up to date structured individual counselling, which opposed to the unstructured personal person centred therapy, is found to be positive in its outcomes, especially in the community settings. Structured form of counselling involves, for example, problem solving or mindfulness therapy. The structured sessions seem to be seemed to result in the better outcomes, there is evidence of the importance of both prison and community based drugs. Interventions in reducing re offending prison based approaches include abstinence focused approaches such as 12 steps substitute prescribing such as breath driving, methadone for opiate users and psychosocial approaches such It's going to be hero programs . There is good evidence that the wide range of drunken directions have a positive impact on reducing re offending. These includes methadone treatments, hearing treatment, therapeutic communities, second social approaches, draw courts and probation and parole supervision. Very approaches I used in community settings, including those that divert or rude drug offenders into treatment, typically with testing and supervision requirements finally providing mentoring programs for their friend. This is yet another effective approach in reducing the risk of for offending. It is reported that there is a strong evidence that mentoring is an effective approach, which helps mentees to learn constructive, non criminal ways off. Addressing problems and which reduces rigs. Risk factors associated with offending in combination with the widest system of support and mentoring also helps engagement with other services. The evidence suggests that this wheel in the long term cult tribute to a reduction in reoffending. There is therefore strong keys for the continuation and expansion of mentoring. Suze is. There's no doubt that government should support these interventions that work and proved themselves to be effective in reducing risk off reoffending. Helping to a friend is to get into training and employment assistant with house and needs, providing mentoring, counselling, another psychology based services and addressing mental health problems such as depression on excited se causes and person personality disorders that are more prevalent among offenders done within the general population east. The key to long term success. This understandably requires financial support for the provisional services and the re sewage that can show us what else is affecting in reducing reoffending. Researchers have also concluded that employment programs are unlikely to be, in fact effective unless they combined with motivational, social health and educational support services to help address other needs that may act as Bari's to find unemployment, for example, learning difficulties, mental illness and substance abuse. The more successful elements of employment programmes appear to be strong local partnership working training, which is related to local employment needs and opportunities, longer funding and long leading times. The more successful programs are likely to be those which coordinate work before and after release from prison 20. 20 Incident management (Crisis Negotiation): Hello and welcome to our last lecture of this course where we're talking about incident management and crisis negotiation. Well, first of all, incident management is a term describing the activities. Offer an organization to identify, analyse and correct Harvard's to prevent a future recurrence. These incidents within a structured organisation are normally dealt with by even incident response team or an incident management team. These are often designated beforehand. Would you ring the event and our place in control off the organization whilst the incident is dealt with to restore normal functions? Well, crisis. New Goche negotiation, on the other hand, is a law enforcement technique used to communicate with people who are threatening violence . For example, of workplace violence, domestic violence, suicide of terrorism included barricaded subjects, stalkers, criminals attempted to ski. But after a botched robbery and hostage taking US crisis, negotiation is often initiated by the first officer on the scene. You might recall what is crisis negotiation if I'll remind you off, see aside films where police officer, for instance they want from the New York City Central Police Department, has to speak to the criminal over the phone and negotiate lady months. It is possible to imagine how stressful this might be for everyone involved. In reality, it's not only the main officer who eventually persuade the criminal to release the hostage and admittedly crime, but the whole team that under takes the pressure off crisis negotiation. The team discusses the drill off the negotiation, which includes the aims and the ground rules off the process. Before the negotiation with the hostage starts, for example, the team appoints negotiating leader, allocates negotiating roles and responsibilities, discusses negotiation techniques and strategies. Another key objective the team sometimes failed to discuss is the importance of staying on message that is making sure that statements by the individual members do not contradict the groups agreed upon position and goals. War does the process off negotiation involved, while the 1st 1 in the main one East a fact off. Active listening, which means making sure that the other side understands that the negotiator is listening, repeating what has been saved on a knowledge in the comments, pausing for emphasis and for encouraging the other person to keep talking. The aim of active listening is to shoulder the other person that the negotiation team understands what you she is coming from and how they feel ultimately listening is the most powerful tool we have in terms of social influence. Leasing is not a passive endeavor. It is asking to full are questions. It's asking open ended questions. It's paraphrasing what the person has just told you to demonstrate that you're hearing water. Have to say influencing is the next stage that comes after reports and trust has been established on. The Negotiator can start working on the problem solving on the following course of action. At this stage, it is possible to attempt to talk him out of violence. For example, the negotiator can say, You sound like a good man that's being through a bad situation on things have not gone the way you wanted them to. But do you really think becoming violent is going to solve the problem? What impact will that have on your family? In the influencing stage, the negotiator uses a combination off emotional and rational thinking, but it is important to reduce the emotions so that the offender started using more rational thinking than the emotional reactions. David Koresh, a highly experienced crisis negotiator who is in 1993 led a team that negotiated the peaceful release of 35 hostages at the Walker, Texas, explains that the most damaging thing for a hostage negotiator is losing self control. If you can't control your own emotions, how can you begin to influence someone else's If you get angry to what the person has stayed on done, if you overreact when they don't follow through on what a state If you overreact to a verbal attack, that self defeating and self destructive incidents where crisis negotiating takes place can involve barricaded subjects. Hostage takers, people frightening with suicide. These all creeds are highly stressful in environment for everybody on the scene, officers that come feels to the scene have to quickly assess the requirements off the current situation, securing the area from bystanders. Requesting additional support from the police and emergency response teams, the soul takes a thorough training for all low reinforcing organizations. Prior to that, it is established that negotiators have become very active doing part of the reputations that have established for the successful peaceful resolution of various types of critical incidents. For example, in 1993 the hostage negotiations team off the Seattle Washington Police Department to resolve 21 incidents, expanding the total off 263 negotiator hours in 1994. Negotiators resort 32 incidents, spending 407 hours in negotiations. The training that involves crisis management is conducted regularly. Team exercise can be done 46 times a year on involved incident management and crisis negotiation Skill training. Because the department's training qualifications may become subject to critical review in the courts should negotiations fail, negotiators should further the training through advanced courses, seminars, basic psychology classes and detailed critical analysis off past incidents. So it is clear that crisis management and negotiation is a conflict area to study and includes a multitude of highly professional techniques and skills to learn. Even though the officers can be trained really well, the mistakes can be made on these can cause people's lives. This is what we can see to the conclusion of this topic. Despite moved towards proactive policy methodologies, law enforcement remains inherently reactive profession. When violent or troubled subjects created crisis, they forced the police to react to a situation in which their friend is already hold. Many off the cars, the press and the public judge of the police by how well they respond to such situations. The negotiations process can be tedious, complex and at times confusing the better. Field commanders understand that many factors that affected the more likely that negotiators will get the support necessary to resolve critical incidents peacefully. Well, this was the last lecture, this course well done, you for completing this course and for getting to the end of it. Please don't forget to you check out any additional. Pdf guards the support of material that I usually attached to this course where I usually recommend some leader chance on websites that fill their increase. Your knowledge, which would be really good because you will derive the best value from the course. And, of course, don't forget to check out my Allah courses that are related to psychology and counseling topics which you might find interesting as much as I do. While thank you for watching Ana will see in one of my other glasses. See you there