Finding the Planets | Joshua Hollinger | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 1m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Where do We Live?

    • 3. How is Brightness Measured?

    • 4. Mercury

    • 5. Venus

    • 6. Mars

    • 7. Jupiter

    • 8. Saturn

    • 9. Uranus

    • 10. Neptune

    • 11. Pluto

    • 12. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

In this class you will learn about all of the planets and discover how to find them. We all are on a rock flying through space, and it is amazing to view other objects swirling around the sun with us! My goal is for everyone to be able to see every planet. This class makes it possible. Take this class and the doors of the universe open up!

Meet Your Teacher

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Joshua Hollinger

Amature Astronomer, Photographer, and Musician


For anyone who wants my astrophotos, they are sold online at Creative Market. I also have presets for astrophotographers!

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1. Introduction: Hello, everyone. And welcome to this online class on how to find all eight of the planets. Not very many people know that you could just step outside and easily see six planets with the unaided eye in two more. Uranus and Neptune are very easily visible just with ordinary binoculars. Uh, Pluto's. Some people wonder, Uh, is that a planet? No. Pluto's not a planet anymore. 2006. It was demoted, but just for reasonings. We will talk about how to find Pluto's at the very end of this lesson. So by taking this class, where you gonna learn? You are gonna learn how to find all eight planets. It is very simple. I have seen two of the planets in the middle of the day and I have seen all eight planets. It is not very difficult. This video will make it so simple. Even tonight. If you're skies are clear, you can go out and see all eight of the planet's. Ah, But tonight I don't think you'll be seeing mercury or Neptune because there close to the sun we will talk about that later. And how to find all the planets. I hope you take this class Because finding the planets is an amazing thing. And I have enjoyed it. And I'm sure you will too. Thank you. 2. Where do We Live?: visit. How to find all the planets. Let's talk about where do we live? You know, this is a very interesting question off. Where do we live? We live in the solar system, so right there is earth. Now, these are all the terrestrial planets, meaning they have a solid surface. So through the telescope or binoculars, you will be able to see the surface of these objects, especially Venus. You'll be of the sea. It's phases. Mars will be able to see its surface. So here we have all the terrestrial planets. So whenever you see Venus or Mercury, they're never going to be very far from the sun. Because as we look in on them, they're only going to get this far away. Venus could get that far. Mercury can only get that far, so these objects never will have an opposition. What an opposition is is Mars Canavan opposition. Whenever Mars is right here in his opposite of the sun, technically meaning it's taking the form of kind of what a full moon would be. Whenever the sun sets, it rises whenever the sun rises, it sets. We also have something called a conjunction. That is, whenever the object is on the other side of the solar system, technically taking the place off the sun. And then we have mercury and Venus where we call them elongation is that's how far they are away from from the sun. So we have the Western issue in elongation. That's what we have for Venus and Mercury. So what about the gas giants, The gas giants of the planets, that they have no surface, Believe it or not, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have zero surface at all. They are a humongous ball of gas that is orbiting around the sun. So as you can see, look how much farther these things are out. And I don't even think this is 100% to scale. So as we just keep on going out, look how small our inner solar system gets. And as I said, this is the distances might be the scale. Maybe not 100% though. So here we have. You know, the inner solar system that we have Jupiter, Saturn. All of these planets out here will have oppositions, meaning that they will be just like Mars, where they can kind of be like the full moon opposite of the sun. And as we orbit around the sun, they will change the place in the night sky. These planets orbit very slowly around the sun. Neptune, it was found in the 18 hundreds just a couple of years ago finished its first orbit around the sun, which is pretty crazy, where Mercury orbits and 88 days. So that's also crazy, too. And then out here we have a little pluta which, as I said before, we will touch on Pluto's at the end of this lesson. So now you kind of know where you are. What are you seeing? Whenever you see Venus, you're you're seeing the object right about They're so you know, if you're right there on the earth, the sun set But you can see Mercury and Venus above Mercury and Venus, you'll see Mars, the new of Uranus. Then around the 10 o'clock ish hour, you will have Jupiter rising and go later into the night, and Saturn will rise and Fluto and then before you know it were all around again with Neptune and then the sun. So whenever you see things from Earth, they're not just things in the sky. You're literally seeing the planet from where you are on earth, you're literally seeing Mars. You're looking at Venus, which is very close, looking out on Mars and then even further You're looking out on Uranus, which is pretty crazy to think about these distances. So again, hopefully this helped you realize where we are in the universe. And what are you seeing whenever you see the planets? 3. How is Brightness Measured?: guys and welcome back in this section of the video, what I want to do is talk to you about this scale we use for determining how bright a celestial object ISS. Whenever I view objects to the telescope, I want to know what their magnitude is. So then I know what they're gonna look like through the telescope. The magnitude scale is based on the star Vega, so Vega does that star right there. So what Vega is is Vega's apparent magnitude is going to be zero, and that means any star that is brighter than it goes in the negative magnitudes. Any star that is brighter or dimmer than it will go into positive magnitudes. For instance, the sun, pretty obviously is brighter than Vega. The Sun has a negative 26 apparent magnitude. Sam is a lot brighter than Vegas. Let's take Altair. Altair has an apparent magnitude 2.76 That means it's just a little bit dimmer than Vega. Let's take your NUS. Uranus is a 5.89 apparent magnitude, which means that it's pretty significantly dimmer than Vega, right on the naked eye magnitude, depending where your live your naked eye magnitude will change. For instance, if you're in New York City is probably going to be around four. That's gonna be the dimmest objects you can make out with the unaided eye. And as you get in a more country, we'll start to shift. You know, five for kind of that suburban area, and then you'll get to six in the country. And then whenever you kind of go to those dark national parks deserts in the middle of nowhere, you can get some 7 7.5 So now let's go to Venus. What's Venus at Venus is a negative 4.4. So whatever I said, I have seen Venus in the daytime before. That is because the sky brightness in the daytime is negative for Sammons. If you would look at the sky in the daytime, the brightness is negative. For of the sky. Venus shines brighter, so that means an overcomes the brightness of the sky. I've also found Jupiter now. Jupiter never gets that bright. Ah, couple of years ago, Jupiter and Venus were very close to each other, so I found Venus and then found Jupiter. After that, which was pretty cool if you would even go to dim Roger. Zoom in here. Maybe click on any of that star 47 settee. Wow, that was actually pretty bright. Let's go to another one. Well, this one, that's, um, did enough because we're still getting some pretty bright stars. It's try to find some dim stars here. Here we go. Yeah, we're still 5.51 there. It looks like a little different. Here we go. Yeah, 12th magnitude. This one's dim. This is really dim. Binocular limits are usually nine ish, depending on how good your binoculars are, depending on where you are. Observing around nine ish is where the limiting magnitude for binoculars are. If you maybe get some Astro binoculars, which have wider apart Cher's departures, where the light comes in on the telescope or the binoculars, then maybe you can go. Even dimmer, depending on the size of your telescope, will alter how dim of objects you can see. For instance, my sections telescope can see about a 13.7 magnitude so it could see this star. But again it will be probably one of the demonstrators in the frame. So now, maybe even noticing there's two types of magnitudes on here. What do these mean? Apparent magnitude is what the object looks like from Earth whenever we see it in the night sky. How bright is that object? Absolute magnitude? This is more for astronomers. Where they try to see why is the Starbright is the star bright? Because it's big or is the star bright? Because it's close. So, for instance, this star is actually very, very close. It's 12.12 light years away, which makes it a very close star. So we can tell by here that this star is overall a very, very dim star because even the absolute magnitude, which is measured at 32 light years away So absolute attitude is how Bright Star is a 32 layers away. That is only 14. So if we move the star to 32 light years away, it would be invisible through my telescope. Let's go to another star. Why don't we go back and revisit our good old Altair? So Altair has an apparent magnitude 2.7 absolute magnitude of to so another star. This star is bright because it's close. Ah, and still have a 32 light years away will still be a pretty bright star. And we can see this is 16 light years away. Let's go to another one. It's good I didn't nap. Now Dinev is a crazy star because it is 3229 light years from both. Think about it. Our last two stars. We had 12 light years and 16 light years now were 3229 light years from Earth. It has an apparent magnitude of 1.25 It's absolute magnitude is negative. 8.7 The full moons about negative 13. Venus gets to about negative four. So that means this is about half the brightness between Venus and Full Moon, which is just incredible. This object that this star was 32 light years away from Earth. It would be visible in the daytime without a question. It's crazy. It's crazy bright. So now we know this star is just huge. This are a humongous Ah, let's go to another one. Probably just do got a warm or why don't we go to Let's go to Polaris Players is the North Star, and it never moves. It always is rotating around north, as you can see, sold it off. I need to get it. There we go. It's always north, and the whole sky rotates around. It instance I am living in the Northern Hemisphere. It is always up Southern Hemisphere people. You'll never be able to see this star. Polaris is 431 Lakers away has an apparent magnitude of one absolute magnitude of negative three. So that means this object is bright because it's big, not because it's close. So as we go through this, just keep in mind these magnitude scales what they mean. And again, as I said about probably positive six is going to be your naked eye limiting magnitude. Because, you know, most people kind of live in that suburb and country area. Maybe five will be floating around somewhere in there. All right, thank you. And hopefully this helps you understand more about magnitude 4. Mercury: Now we get to the fun part. Now we are going to be able to find all eight planets. We've kind of had a little bit of things that we just need to get into our minds about. You know, where we are in the source is somewhat. We're seeing the magnitude scales. Here we are. Now let's get into finding all eight planets. This is the fun part. So here we go. First of all, let's see, What are you seeing Whenever you see Mercury well, mercury is a planet with zero planetary satellites. That's another word for Moon. So mercury has zero moments. It's orbital period is about 88 days, and you know, there's a lot of characteristics you that you can think about, but you know, the one that gets me the most 58.65 days for it to rotate. While that's crazy, so that means one day is 58 of our days. So for about two months on Earth, mercury has only rotated once its surface gravity is 0.3. On Earth, it's only one. So on mercury, you can jump pretty high. Axle Till is just too, so that doesn't really have any seasons. Earth has a 23 degree axis until very hot. Kelvin is probably not the most usable scale, but it's about 800 degrees Fahrenheit on Mercury. For a pretty good average distance from the sun is 8000.35 a strong clean units. One of those is just the distance between sun to the earth. So this is about 1/3 end from the sun. Now, these air just tons off things that you can use whenever you're outside to help you find. It's probably not gonna help us very much because mercury is a very, very bright object and you won't need any of these things. So what's Mercury gonna look like? Let's just say through binoculars, Mercury through binoculars is the smell would like it if you bring binoculars out to maybe help you find Mercury is just gonna look like a doubt. What's Mercury gonna look like through a telescope, depending on how big your telescope is? And war mercury isn't its phases. You make its start to see some phases, especially as it gets close to Earth. So mercury kind of does a little bit what our moon does with phases whenever it's on the other side of the sources and we see it as full. But we could never see it is an actual full, because whenever it's full, that means it's in the glare of the sun. And as it starts going around, we start to see it at its what would be the first quarter or the last quarter. I mean for the moon or it's lit up half, so it becomes sliced in half. And then we have, you know, our little crescents whenever it gets close to Earth, that's where you could probably see some phases through the telescope, and then it goes. And then it goes in between the sun and earth. Sometimes whenever we get really lucky, it goes in between Earth and the sun directly. We call that of transit of mercury, so he's not very common. Mercury is, you know, pretty small objects, and it has to get in front of the sun. But we have those. Sometimes I know we think we had one about maybe, I think 2016 May of 2016 there was a transit of mercury, and then it goes back around switches. So now if it would be going around now, would be in the morning sky, and then it keeps on going until we start the process all over again. So here we go. So, as you can see now, Mercury beyond the other side of the solar system. And so now it should start growing outward. It's going to get a greater distance from the sun. Let's watch this. Let's fast forward time. No, no, no. Selected on Mercury There we go now, our fast forwarding through time. Now something that you will see is the distance between the sun and mercury is going to start growing. Yep. You can see it. You can already see it. Zia Mercury is expanding. It's going further. Oh, no. There you go. Getting further heaps on getting further and further from the sun As the day goes on Whoa, no rocket it out. So here we are, April 3rd. So in about two ish months with summer here you go that far out, it's now what does Mercury look like? What is mercury look like? See, right here it reaches elongation. That's the farthest it will be from the sun or from the sun in our sky, not physically, but just from viewing it. Let's see, what is Mercury? Wow, look at that. Now Mercury took. Now it's getting close to a crescent. I once it's completely a crescent, but it's definitely past half. So now we can completely see the difference. See how mercurial also? Technically Now, Mercury would be larger, and they will be comprise of it. Here, look how much bigger I can get. Mercury, Remember, In the last one, Mercury was still pretty small. Now we can get Mercury even bigger. It's a crescent Now, Now it is getting now it is actually going to get closer to the sun. Now it's time. Go on here. All right. So what do you think is gonna happen? It's pretty easy to know what's gonna happen now. Mercury's crescents gonna be even bigger. Look at that. Look at the crescent. Now it's now That's only the part that's lit up on Mercury. And as you can see, it does not get very far from the sun. Mercury is on Lee at its elongation. Gonna set. Arise about 45 minutes. Different in the sun. Mercury is definitely a hard one to catch, but Let's see what the magnitude of Mercury is right now. Right now, it's only a two, so it's definitely catchable. But mercury, by many people is called probably the hardest planet to see. And in my mind I would completely agree with it because it is so hard to catch. And there's not really any tricks, you know, for Knapton. If you want to find option, you just get a bigger telescope for Mercury. You know, son comes, You can't stop the sun, so definitely go out. If I were you, I would go out with binoculars. Just, you know, for clarification. You can sometimes line it up the different stars in the star chart. Mercury can get to about a negative one negative two ish at its best point, as you can kind of see now the Crescent has gotten a lot bigger, a lot less surface areas pushing light off. It's taken a lot from its elongation, so now it's a lot more hard to see. So this would probably not be the recommended time to see Mercury. I would recommend whenever it's right there, right there or someplace like that. So mercury is actually the Greek god of the messenger. So the messenger, you know, it was a fast person. It's always running around. So that's kind of what mercury is in our skies, always running around. And it's hard to catch, and it's never in the same spot. But trust me, you can find Mercury. You just need to get the right time. Get binoculars, go outside. You should see with the unaided eye and then, you know, trying out with binoculars or if you have a telescope view through the telescope. All right. Thank you for watching this part on Mercury. Now we're going to Venus. 5. Venus: I would have asked me, What planet have I seen the most? It would be Venus. If you are someone and just doesn't know if this planet thing's gonna work, step outside. See venous. It will make you say Wow because it is crazy Bright. It's just you step outside and there's no hunting for it's just there. And I think Venus is really. I guess you could put Jupiter in this category to, but Venus is a planet that is just wow, like there's there's not a question in my mind. Whenever I see Venus, I'm not like, OK, let's go to the star charts. Is this venous? It's wow! And again, Venus is like Mercury. It's never gonna have an opposition, but right now you can see it was at its crescent face, and you can see Mercury or Venus is doing about what Mercury dust and just like we did with Mercury. Let's go through some of these fax over here, so zero moons and it takes 224 days or but the sun heres something interesting. It takes 243 days to rotate, so that means on mercury, it's year is shorter than its day because the year is based off of How long does it take the sun dais, how long it takes to roti, so that is kind of crazy On Mercury surface, gravity on mercury is pretty much the same as Earth. Just 0.9, so it's just a little bit less Merker. Venus is a lot hotter than Mercury. Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. On Venus, it rains sulphuric acid, cook a pizza nine seconds on its surface, and it is crazy sometimes can get up in the 9 900 degrees. And sometimes even in the thousands, this thing is super hot. It has a 177 degree tilt, which means it's South Pole is its north pole, the South poles pointing north north poles pointing south as we can also see. Venus is very, very, very bright. So let's go through a couple things here. What whoa venous look like on a day to die easy. Venus is the easiest planet to see. It's at sunset. It's out, especially if you get it at the right time. Any time. You know, whenever this number is anywhere in the negative force sons down. Venus is out. Venus also has a lot longer of a time after the sun sets for to be out. It can, you know, sometimes peak at about an hour and 1/2 maybe hour and 45 minutes after sunset. You'll still have Venus up, which is amazing because, you know, it gives you a lot more time to see Venus. Venus is very bright, as I've said before. So what does Venus do with its crescents and stuff? It does the exact same things. Mercury dust. Venus is exact. Same thing is Mercury does. You know, whenever it's right here, it's behind the sun. So now it's It's getting closer, so that means it's getting bigger. Venus. It's phases are easy to see, easy to see anything. I was right before the half. I could start easily making out the crescent face, and then it just keeps on. Getting bigger and bigger. Here is getting bigger and then probably right around two year old reaches half. Then it reaches about a 25% crescent. Now is it's getting closer. It gets bigger and at the same time that it gets bigger, it gets a smaller and smaller crescent toe. What the crescent is like right now, which is super small. And some people say wolf, we're only getting like, what 10% of the like? How is this so bright? It's because Venus has a very high surface reflectivity. Whenever you see Venus, you see it's clouds. You're not actually seeing the surface of Venus. There's tons of thick clouds that trap the heat from the sun, which is what makes us so hot and also reflects. And Venus reflects a locked. It reflects a ton of life. And since it's so close, it's not that lights having to go very far. It's very, very close. So Venus, as I said, is a fun planet to see. Even through binoculars. You can see it's crescents, especially as it starts to get bigger. And just like Mercury, Venus has a transit. It's called the Transit of Venus, and these are a little bit less common of mercury because, you know, I think you can probably see here, see how much bigger off a area it is from this bottom point to this top point. So it's a lot harder to be the go right across the somewhere. Mercury is a lot less so, as I said, for anyone interested in finding planets and you just don't know where to start. Start with Venus. It's an amazing planet to see. And as I said, I've seen it the most, and I've just every single night I see venous. It's just amazing. I can see Venus even the nights I don't stargaze, you know, in the winter sunsets and five oclock, I just step outside. Just see Venus. Even if I'm out and about somewhere, it's easy to see Venus. Venus is a very easy planet to see. Very fun planet to see, and I hope you can see it, too. 6. Mars: welcome back. The next planet on our list to see is Mars. Mars is a incredible planet, really? For anyone, no matter how old you are, you know the first planet that you really kind of hear about his Mars. And it's kind of this this eerie planet, this red planet Mars gets this red from this iron oxide that it has technically speaking, Mars rusted. That's what happened to it all. This red is technically just this rust that you get on your cars and on all that iron and stuff. Let's learn just a little bit of about Mars. Mars has two plants or two moons. I mean planetary satellites. Here we have our two moons right there. And as you can see, it's a lot longer to orbit The sun. 686 days rotation period very close to earth. Just a little bit over 24 hours is 24 a half hours. Surface gravity is 0.3, so it's about mercury, and Mars is a lot cooler than Earth. The hottest will ever get on Mars. I'm meaning the e quater middle of the summer Bright summer day would be about 70 degrees the coldest. It could easily drop into the negative of hundreds and get deep into the negative of hundreds. It averages probably around, you know, negative 20. Negative 30 is about the average temperature on Mars. And as you can see this access until it's very close to Earth. So you know, if we're looking at all these features on Mars, what is closest Earth? It will probably be Mars, you know, has one moon there. Two moons. Earth has one very close day to earth and the axle till it's very close to Earth temperatures office of the closest to Earth from any other planets here is kind of the crazy thing about Mars. Mars gets. As I said, this is the first planet that will have an opposition that we've been talking about so far . And Mars can get very close to Earth, and it's out all night, and it's just kind of this huge red star in the night sky. But really, besides its opposition, Mars honestly is not. Wow, I You know, I viewed Mars on its opposition last year, and it's crazy. It's like bright. It's big. It's almost like this evil eye staring at you all your stargazing and you know, then it's kind of get gotten a little bit further from Earth, and it's so small. It's about half. Um, it's about half the size of Earth, so it's It's a very, very, very small object, and there's just not very much light bouncing off of it. So, you know, it's kind of this reddish darkish color, so it doesnt reflect the tunnel light very easily. And it's just kind of, you know, am I saying it's dim? I'm not saying it's dim it all. It's probably gonna be the brightest star in the area of the sky you're looking at. When I'm saying is is it's not the wow a venous and it's not the wow of mercury. Whenever you see Mercury, whenever it's very, very bright at opposition, it's Wow, it gets negative. One sometimes see the negative two magnitude. But, you know, most of the time it just kind of floats around in this one, you know, And it as we talked about orbital period, it takes about two times orbit the sun two times earth orbits the sun for everyone Mars, So you can kind of see, How about every two years. We have an opposition. So for those 3 to 4 months around, the opposition is bright. Is bold. Everything else. It's kind of just floating around in the sky. It's fun to look at the telescope you condemn. Finitely. See, some things definitely make out the body shape through any size telescope, especially in opposition. And Mars is very easy to make out as Mars. I never you know, whenever I look at it, so is that Mars? No, it's distinctively red. And, you know, as I said, it has opposition. So it does kind of take that full moon form whenever inside its opposition. There's not that much more to say about Mars. Honestly, because, you know, as I said, right here, you can find it. It's really gonna be the only star there. It's easily gonna be brighter than all the stars Look, that these magnitudes are gonna be Yep, fourth. So it's gonna be way brighter, and as you can kind of see right here, look how bright that star is. It's probably gonna be about the same magnitude. Is all these yet even brighter than those? So Mars is not too hard to find, especially the opposition opposition. It's Wow. Um, I definitely suggest you take a look at Mars because a who doesn't want to go around saying , Yeah, I saw Mars last night like that. That's just a crazy thing to say. And people would probably look at you like what? And they were like, Yeah, I saw Mars last night and you know that that's just a cool thing to be able to say for the rest of your life. I saw Mars, you know, the planet that movies have may have made about the planet That's kind off known as you know, where humans are going to go. You know, they want to send humans to Mars about 2030. So, you know, Mars is a very well known planet, and it's crazy to see it, especially whenever you get a good view through the telescope. 7. Jupiter: Here we go. We're done with the terrestrial planets and now we're on to Jupiter. Jupiter is outstanding. Jupiter is such a fun planet to look at it. It's just amazing. Jupiter. Unlike Mars, Jupiter doesn't change very much from opposition any other time, because the thing that's making it bright is it's it's large mass. That's what's making it so bright. Where Mars thing making Mars bright is the distance, distance changes mass does not change. So Jupiter is gonna be very bright most the time. Look at this negative two magnitude. Right now that's bright. And right now, Jupiter is very close to its opposition, Uh, from the sun. So this is a great time to view Jupiter. You may be looking and seeing Whoa, what are all these little dots doing around here? These are the Galilean moons, and all of them are easily visible through binoculars. Uh, telescope. We even get them better. But all these moons are just incredible. They're actually they should be visible to the unaided eye. It's just Jupiter so bright. It kind of takes over. And, you know, it's kind of hard to make all these objects out there, and I binoculars. Easy telescope, Easy. A telescope will show the bands of Jupiter the great Red spot and depending how big your telescope is. This how magnified all that stuff ISS But you know it in itself. It's like, Whoa! I'm seeing Jupiter. Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. It is humongous. You could fit 1000 Earths inside of Jupiter. Jupiter's huge and you know I'll this has the most volcanic activity of any object in our solar system has tons of volcanoes. It is so close to Jupiter that Jupiter's heats up its core and just volcanoes crazy. And you know all of these. These are the exact same plane as Galileo looked at back in 16 10 whenever they were trying to realize What's the plan? It what's not a plant? Wait a second, Maurer. Planets have moons, an earth, us. But this is crazy. These are all the exact same objects Galileo looked through with his telescope. And now you're seeing it with the your eye, your binoculars eager telescope from your backyard. That's that's just such a cool thing to think about. So some stats about Jupiter, obviously Jupiter suit. You can look at that diameter. And, you know, remember that Earth is around 12 1064 planets, most in the solar system. That's crazy. 64 planets or, I mean moons. Sorry. Planetary satellites, 64 moons or planetary satellites takes 4331 days to orbit. The sun takes about nine hours there. I guess you could say 10 hours to rotate fastest rotation of any planet in the solar system . Surface gravity 2.5. So take about how much you weigh on Earth and multiply that by 2.5. That's how much away on Jupiter if you weigh £100 on Earth, you weigh 250 on Jupiter Axel Tilt three. So you know they don't really have any seasons, not very much changing with its axis until, as I said, it's very bright. And Jupiter. The thing that I love about Jupiter is, you know, besides conjunction, where it's on the other side of the solar system, the first night is out in the night sky. It's like Jupiter, and then it just keeps on saying there, you know it's in the morning sky girls, the higher and higher and higher up in the morning sky and then you know it gets to its opposition and it's just it's big all the time and it's so cool again. You're seeing Jupiter. You see all these pictures of Jupiter, and it's like This is not a picture. This is actual light that was actually hitting the actual Jupiter and is now hitting your I . So there's not much to say about how to find Jupiter because I remember the first time I saw Jupiter. It was actually at my bus stop for school. Then I stepped outside and I was like 100 able to see Jupiter and I stepped outside and undeniably, it was like boom like before I even looked up. It was almost like, you know, in the per feel vision, like there's something up there and then you look up and it's like, Wow, you mean it's crazy New York City. You can see it, you know, you can see you can see Jupiter everywhere. So I highly recommend any night that's clear to squat side and see Jupiter discourse. I Jupiter is an amazing planet. Then come inside, you know, and look up on your phone pictures of Jupiter and just be like, Wow, that's the same object I saw last night. Jupiter is awesome. I'm visited by many spacecrafts That's being studied all the time just because it's such an amazing object in our solar system. So hopefully this helps you find Jupiter. No, but more about Jupiter. Know about what you're seeing whenever you see Jupiter. 8. Saturn: Now we get riel. Now it is time to find sadder. Saturn is my favorite object of use of the telescope. The rings are just something that every time I see, it's it's something that even if it's cold outside, you know, even if it's windy, even if maybe I have something else going on, I'm like I don't go outside. It brings me outside. This is an object, and once you see it, you'll be hooked. It's it's amazing. Uh, really. Any telescope can see Saturn drinks now. It may kind of just looked like, you know, kind of an object with some bulges on both sides. If you know the larger the telescope to get through my six inch telescope, it's It's incredible. Even with the kit lenses, it's incredible. Still, Saturn don't worry about, you know, seeing the rings even through the night. And I it's not very hard to find. Uh, it kind of almost sounds like a butterscotch look to it. It's just kind of know that color is kind of that butterscotch color. You'll be able to tell the difference between Saturn and other plants. Saturn is definitely not like a super super bright planet. It gets to about zero magnitude and its brightest oppositions. And whenever it's not an opposition, that's usually about one. So a lot of people say, You know, Mars, you look up and it's like red, you know, it's distinctively red. What I do is Saturn. You know what? If I can't see Saturn's color, the biggest thing was Saturn. This planet's don't twinkle. Stars do so you'll see Saturn and Saturn will be stable. It won't be twinkling. And then you see other objects in the look a little bit more unstable. That's just because that light has been traveling so far so long, Dad, you know, it's just kind of been a little bit distorted just from the light traveling so far. Planets are not like that. So it's a little bit of facts about Jupiter. So this thing, for some odd reason, says there is 200 planetary satellites. I will say right now that this false it does not have 200 planetary sent lights. It is in the sixties in lower sixties about how many planetary satellites Saturn has. Maybe this is putting more things into account, but Jupiter does seven, the most planetary satellites. Orbital period. Wow, 10,000 tastes. I mean that Just put that into your head that that's crazy rotation, period. This is longer than Jupiter. At 10 hours, 19 minutes. Surface gravity very, very close to what Earth is. And they have 26 degrees for the tilts that they have seasons just like Earth. When you know, we kind of talked about that magnitude. Now you may be seeing some moons and here and wondering, can I see those You've definitely can to the telescope. And actually, even binoculars should be able to bring out its brightest moon Titan. Titan is an incredible mood because there's actually oceans on Titan. So, you know, who wouldn't want to see an object with oceans, that is 10 s, a Republican units from the sun. And you know, there's this all these little moons, the bigger the telescope you get, the more of them you will be able to see. You can see tightened shines at a C 99 Thank the tube right now, so you know, decently dim. But opposition will jump up to about eight, so you can easily see if their binoculars and you know that there's all these other moons out there that you can see that are I. I love viewing Saturn's moons, and I think the fun thing. I didn't say this about the gale Galilean moons, but it goes for these Galilean moons to it's fun to see them change every single night. You know you view a one night make a sketch of you at the next night, make another sketch view the next night, make another sketch, and you know, even if you don't have a telescope, do for the NA killers. If you don't have binoculars, just do it with Saturn through the time saddens in the sky. You know that that's the thing that I love about the night sky. It's it's always changing, Nice guy. You will only see the nice guy one way one time, because that's exactly you know. It's always changing moons, always changing. Moons are always changing. Planets are always changing. Um, so, as I said Saturn, it's so much fun to see anything more than about 30 times will start to get the rings resolved. And then, you know, I would say above 60 times magnification. You can definitely start to see gaps And there's also gaps in the rings, the consigning gap, this large gap right there and then we'll let me zoom anymore. But this little little gap right there, it's called the NK Gap. So, as I said, Go on, see Saturn because, you know, if Mars wasn't enough to say it's on Mars last night, I think Saturn will definitely be. And once you find the once, invite your friends over and show them I know the first time I show people sad and they look at me like this is crazy like, Is that actually Saturn, like, really like, um, I really seeing Saturn. It's like, Yes, you're seeing Saturday. You're not seeing a photograph under computer screen. You're seeing actual light that was just on the surface of Saturn about two hours ago. So view Saturn as much as you can. You will not regret feeding Saturn 9. Uranus: So far, our single planet we have seen has been able to be view with the unaided eye and actually very brightly visible to the unaided eye. Even sadder, which is the dimmest object that Dima staffing will ever get, is a one magnitude. So, you know, we're jumping big hurdles here, you know, were going from brightest of the stars or objects in the sky. And now we're going to probably night of invisible to 98 and I and even if you could see Venus with the idea and I wish you can, it's very hard to make it out. So binoculars definitely help on this thing. And you know, some people like to find that the telescope. I have seen it through the telescope many times, and we'll get to later. You know how to do that? Let's just start with a couple facts about Uranus, you know, Let's get some motivation. Why do I want to find this plant? So you're in. This has 27 planetary satellites. I finally got it right that seven and stay planets. It's a little period is 30 1000 days. That is a lot of days, and the rotation period 17 hours surface gravity 170.89 So it's a little less. An earth accessible tilt is 97. That's weird. Uranus orbits rotates inside. As you can see, these rings air just like Saturday. Actually, all planned are all gas giants, which would be Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and up to all have rings going around them. You will not be able to see these things to the telescope sadly, and there's no surface features toe look for you're necessarily through. Tell us it's just gonna be a blob. Um, we'll get to more of that later, as I said. But yes, Uranus rotates on its side. So here's something crazy to think about. If you lived on Uranus, the seasons would be 42 not a season. A day to night time would be 42 years, So I know I probably did not say that very, very clearly all kind of explaining this a little bit. The seasons on Uranus will take 21 years, just like you know, on Earth takes 1/4 of the time. It takes orbit the sun or involve around son. So on Uranus, it takes 42 years to go from day to night because it's almost just like everywhere is like the Earth's North Pole. You know, we're here in the midnight sun where the sun's up all day and then there's a time with Sun never rises on Uranus. It's kind of about like that. It's just extreme because of the access will tell a soul Strong. It takes 84 years to orbit around the sun, takes 42 years For there to be day, Tonight's you get 42 years of sun, 42 years of dark and in the season's last 21 years. So that's kind of the stats on all that. So you're in. This is pretty insane because of that fact. You know, just just think about it for a second. That would mean half of your lifetime the sun will be up. Half the sun will be down, but it's all chunked. It is one huge time where the sun will be up one huge time that something will be down, and that would be pretty insane. The living I don't know about you, but I am kind of glad we live on Earth. So, as I said, Uranus has some moons. You'll need a pretty decent sized telescope to see them. I would. They shine it about 14th magnitude, the brightest. So you'll probably need about an eight inch size telescope to get these things in. Also. What about finding Uranus of binoculars? You know, again, where this is kind of a new territory for us, we're not going to be able to see Uranus with the unaided eye. So how do you find your in s? And I'm trying to get this thing swam out. There we go. Now it's certain alone. All this slowly loads. I'll start talking. So, Uranus, I always know it's your in a spy. Its color. Uranus kind of has a bluish, you know, color that you can kind of see on that surface. That's from all the methane. See, Uranus is so far away. Good thing it has a lot of methane. The method absorbs the heat and reflects all the cold stuff out. Which is exactly why it is blue. So here is kind of what I would do to find Uranus. If I were you, I would find a bright star nearby. Let's just go to this star right there. What I would do there is. I would start start hopping. So this is even for a telescope. I would start up. I would say, Okay, let's find that. All right, that's in the telescope. Lets go up more, find that. All right, I see that pattern. Go over, find that pattern and then maybe I'll say All right, those to make a line, Follow that line. You go to find two that make a line, Follow that line, find a bright star and then right there at your Uranus. And I can always tell Uranus because it's that blue color. And even though you're looking at it through a telescope, it still is way more stable than all the other stars. So definitely your s is a very fun object toe. Look at I love viewing Gurganus. Even though you know what you don't see very much. It's kind of just the thought off. I'm seeing something that is about 20 Astronomy, Kal units from the sun is an ice giant is freezing cold with methane. And you know, I'm seeing that light with my own eyes. That light that is sitting your eyes traveled from the sun to urine. It's back to your eyes, which is a pretty incredible thought. So, as I said, it's not too hard to see. And, you know, willing Virtual is the guy who found Uranus and discovered Uranus. Whatever. He was trying to find Uranus. He kind of just stumbled upon it, you know, he was kind of looking through. The sky is like, Wait a second, this object looks different. Tons of astronomers before him probably rolled over Uranus but didn't notice it. Is anything different? So finding Uranus is not hard. You just have to make sure you notice that it's Uranus. Find the star patterns around it. Also, remember, if you are using a telescope, your view is gonna be flipped to make sure you do that were bought by a bilingual which, you know, flips the image backwards. So finding Uranus, as I kind of said, it's not hard to find it. Sometimes it could be just a little bit hard to recognize, so hopefully you confined Uranus. Uranus is very fun. Has that very fun blue color. That is awesome. Look at through the telescope and hopefully you can find it 10. Neptune: Here we go. Last but not least, Neptune, Neptune is the dimmest of the planets. It is probably with Mercury, as I you know, I kind of already said Mercury was the hardest one to see. This is one literally that is the hardest to visually find. Um, you know, NEP Neptune is it's visible in binoculars. And I think the thing people misunderstand a lot is that Tunis still a generally bright binocular object. As I said, around nine magnitude ish is, uh, you know about the limiting magnitude for binoculars, you know, is somewhere in the nines. So Neptune is not like on that limit. So Neptune is definitely visible through binoculars through a telescope. Neptune is gonna be one of the brightest stars in the frame. Uranus is easily going to be the brightest star in the frame. Brightest star in your binoculars. Evidence. That's the big thing. People misunderstand, you know, they they see Uranus and, like, oh, has the color. But I don't know if that's eeriness. Have meth a little bit bright. Well, you also gotta think you're almost going to see this thing with the unaided eye. So let's let's look at some facts that Neptune 13 moons, which, you know we've kind of downgraded. We went from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and we just keep on going down. Six, 2000 years earn 60,000 days, 60,000 days for it to orbit the sun. That that's just that's crazy. That's crazy for me to, you know, just even imagine 60,000 days. That's how long it takes for this thing to orbit the sun. That's how longer years, rotational periods, 16 hours. It's less than earth surface gravity, 1.1 a little bit more than Earth axel till 28 degrees. That's just a teeny bit more than Earth, five degrees more than Earth. This is the coldest planet in our solar system. Here's a fact about Neptune that you may not know. Neptune has crazy windstorms. If you think you know that the whatever 76 mile hour hurricanes speeds, you know if it's above 76 miles an hour is considered a hurricane are high. Go to Neptune. 1000 200 MPH is the speed of the winds. Neptune get Teoh, and it's just constantly wins. You know these pictures? That's just tons of clouds stripping across its surface. It's this humongous cold blue ice ball. Could you imagine what the windshield would be like on there? Man, you're already talking temperatures in the negative three hundreds and then add windshield to that. This thing has got to just be bitter cold. So how do you find out too? So we known after now we know Neptune is pretty amazing. Triton's about a 13 ish magnitude so very difficult to find. You need about a six inch to find it. Um, but you know it. Just look at a star chart like this and trying to find where it will be. So how do you find out you? I'm gonna tell you this. Do exactly what you did for your Innis. Slower steps. Be a little bit more careful. So what I do for what would I do for Neptune? I would find that star third magnitude visible to the unaided eye. Find it, boom, go over, find that pattern. I know that one's not, too. And as I said, Neptune's not even that hard to find. It's just it's harder to recognize. Knapton has a little bit of a darker blue color ish to it not as visible as your anus because it's dimmer. Um, but yet Neptune. You know, a lot of people think No, this is gonna be hard to find. It's actually not. And through a telescope, it's gonna probably be the brightest star in the frame. You know what? Let's look, how bright is this star? Okay, 3rd 9 to and for zooming in. Okay. So you might get this vicious in frame that starts gonna be brighter. Wait. No, I didn't click on it. My bad eighth man. It'd okay, Bones. It's the brightest star in frame. So Neptune, as I said, not too hard to find just a little bit harder to recognize. 11. Pluto: We did not forget about Pluto's. Here we go. It is time. How do you find Fluto? I have seen Fluto once through my six inch telescope at a very dark location. Look at this. 14th magnitude. So we're talking dim. Dim, dim. Very dim. Now a lot of people say so. What is polluted now is in a door planet. Yes, Pluto's a door planet. In 2006 the International Astronomical Union came together and they said, OK, so what are we gonna do here? I mean, a Pluto's planet or clue to adore planet. And the reason they decided to make clue to adore plant was because it is a Keiper belt option. Keiper belt object is technically the region behind Neptune that is filled with, uh, just tons of asteroids and these little door planets. And it's also where some comments come from. So what? They decided waas Okay. Pluto's Keiper belt object is the largest kite about object. Then we also have objects like Siri's. That's the largest asteroid. Why shouldn't series not be a plan? And then you have tons of Keiper ball objects that are close to the size of Pluta and Elliott the PLU toys, which is named after Pluto's because they have a 2 to 3 ratio of orbiting with Neptune. That's how Neptune does not swallow them up with them up whenever Neptune inner crosses or Pluto's Inter crosses Neptune's orbit. So the reason why they did this is because they wanted a planets. And these were the big Eight planets that are actually planets. Fluto um New Horizons Winds Fluto in 2015 then flew by Plato. We learned a lot about Fluto. Plato was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh, and he actually found political using photographic plates. They were looking for Planet X. Now we know Pluto's not a Planet X because it was not big enough to be that planet that they were looking for. And now we probably know there is no Planet X. But there is Fluto planetary satellites and actually has five hydra nix P. Four p five and sharing, which is its largest moon. 90,000 days to orbit the sun that is just forever. Rotation period. 6.3 days. Surface gravity. Look how low that IHS that is crazy. That's that's That's crazy Earth is one this 0.8 You mean, even if you were if you were £100 on earth, I mean, it would be £8 on Pluto's access will tilt. Um, is 119 degrees, which would actually mean just like Venus North Pole would be on south end of it. And, you know, we already talked about it. Spirit magnitude distance from the sun is 33. I cannot tell you very much on how to find Pluta. To be honest with you, you're gonna need a big telescope. Recommended, actually ate into larger. I don't know how I found out with six that it was just I guess you could call it luck. You're gonna need a end up Starch are not this. This is not in depth enough. You'll need a very in depth star chart that's gonna go down to very dim stars. You're gonna have to match him up the skies full of 13 92 stars. Just like pollute os. Unlike, uh, Uranus and Neptune, political is not gonna be the brightest object. It's gonna probably be the dimmest object, and you're gonna have to try to hunt it down. Um, if I were you and you really were serious about finding Ludo. I would go to Sky and telescope dot com because they have many great articles on there on how to find Fluto and some great tips. Great star charts. I would also go to the Sky live dot org's and they have tons of charged online to show you where Plato is Currently. Pluta was definitely fun. Object, define. And once you find that you can say for life, I saw Fluto, but it's definitely a challenge to hunt down. 12. Final Thoughts: guys, Thank you for taking this class on how to find all the planets. I hope you are successful in finding all the planets. If you have any questions, please leave them in the comments section below. And I will try to get those answered as soon as possible and answer them to the best of my ability. Again. Thank you for taking this class and happy stargazing.