Figure Drawing | Siobhan Twomey | Skillshare
Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
24 Lessons (1h 44m)
    • 1. Introduction

      5:02
    • 2. Intro to Gesture Drawing

      5:00
    • 3. Techniques for Gesture Drawing

      5:11
    • 4. Setting Up

      1:22
    • 5. Drawing Demo- 30 Second Poses

      4:44
    • 6. Your 30 second poses

      2:40
    • 7. Drawing Demo - 1 min Poses

      5:27
    • 8. Your 1 minute poses

      3:14
    • 9. Drawing Demo - 2 minute Poses

      2:53
    • 10. Your 2 minute Drawing Practice

      6:17
    • 11. Gesture Review

      2:13
    • 12. Introduction to Contour Drawing

      4:36
    • 13. Drawing Demo - Blind Contour Drawing

      4:35
    • 14. Your Blind Contour Drawing Practice

      5:00
    • 15. Drawing Demo - Semi Blind Drawing

      5:11
    • 16. What makes a -good- drawing-

      4:42
    • 17. Introduction to Anatomy for Artists

      2:21
    • 18. Understanding the Torso

      6:48
    • 19. Drawing the Torso

      4:01
    • 20. Drawing the Arms

      5:07
    • 21. Drawing the Legs

      5:00
    • 22. Composition

      4:43
    • 23. Sighting

      3:39
    • 24. Conclusion

      3:54
17 students are watching this class
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

968

Students

9

Projects

About This Class

Learn How to Draw the Figure from Life

f4ba1a6e

This is a complete overview of the process of Drawing the Figure From Life. What you will learn by the end of this class:

• a way to draw that is totally unique and natural to you

• how to see things with an artist's eye and draw the real shapes instead of the symbols

• how to understand the figure and be able to draw the model in any given pose

• you will have gained an in-depth understanding of anatomy for artists, and know exactly the right anatomical points to look out for on the model and put into your drawings

• you'll also have a clear and concise way of measuring while you draw so that you can ensure you draw correctly and in proportion

If you are someone who feels stuck in their drawing practice, or even if you are someone who has never attended a life drawing session but you know you want to learn how to draw the figure, then this class is for you. What I’m going to teach you is a set of techniques and approaches to the figure that will burst open the door to your very own natural and expressive style.

I designed the whole class along the lines of a normal everyday life drawing session, which is split up into short warm up poses, longer poses and then finally one or two very long poses. There are 4 distict sections.

1). The first section is all about Gesture Drawing which is a technique for expressive mark making.

2). Then I’m going to introduce you to Contour and Blind Contour Drawing, which is a technque to unlock observation.

3). After that I’m going to teach you some key anatomical landmarks that will underpin your drawing and hone your accuracy.

4). Finally, will show you a method for ensuring that you will always have a well composed drawing, that your proportion and measuring are in tune with your expression.

My whole entire approach to drawing the figure is based on a natural, responsive way of drawing that has observation at its core as well as knowledge of anatomy.

So many people go to a figure drawing class because they want to replicate pictures that look like perfect images of the model. I can guarantee you that having this as your goal, and striving to do this in a live figure drawing session, not only will be frustrating but it will also lead you in the wrong direction. Having this as your goal focuses your mind on the outcome, instead of the process.

In this class, I’m not going to teach you to draw an idealized or perfect image of the model; or a templated version of the human form. Instead I want to teach you the process so that you can unlock your own powerful expression and observation. Those are the tools that are going to take you and your Art to a level that is way beyond just making a nice picture.

By the end of the class, not only will you have a complete understanding of how to draw the figure from life, but you’ll also have discovered your own voice and expression through the process. And that’s something that you can apply to any creative pursuit, not just to your drawing

 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Siobhan Twomey

Artist, Illustrator, Instructor

Top Teacher

Hello, I'm Siobhan

My background spans the disciplines of drawing, painting, filmmaking and animation. I studied Film in Dublin, and at the Tisch School of the Arts, at NYU in New York. I later studied drawing and animation. Since 2002, I have worked in studios in Vancouver and Dublin as a professional background artist and environment designer. I've also worked as a storyboard artist, concept artist, and I have directed a number of short animated films.

All in all, I've worked for over 15 years as an Artist, Illustrator and Animation Professional. I've provided artwork for studios whose clients include Disney UK, Sony Pictures Animation, HMH Publishing, to name a few.

I also have an ongoing painting and drawing practice, and I paint portraits on commission, and exh... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
    0%
  • Yes
    0%
  • Somewhat
    0%
  • Not really
    0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

phone

Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to the course on figure drawing. I'm delighted that you enrolled and you've taken your first steps on these incredible creative journey. The very first thing that I want to say is that from here on out, I'm here to mentor you along the way and to help you out as much as I can. You can contact me at any time. If you've got questions or if you want feedback on your drawings, or if you even just want to share your point of view about some of the material that I'm covering. What I'm going to teach you in this course is a set of techniques and approaches to drawing the figure from life that will really just burst open the door to your own natural expressive style of drawing. I'm very excited to get started. In this introduction video, I'm going to explain the course outline. I'll talk about the demo videos and the practice videos that I've left for you, as well as talking about how to work with the photo references and I'll also mention what you need to know about materials. I designed the whole course along the lines of a normal everyday life drawing session. Those are usually split up into short warm up poses at the beginning and then progressively longer and longer poses throughout. There are four distinct sections. The first section is all about gesture drawing, which is a technique for these first warm up poses but is also a technique to unlock your expressive mark-making. Then I'll introduce you to contour drawing and blind contour drawing, which is a technique to unlock observation. After that, I'm going to teach you some key anatomical landmarks that will hopefully underpin your drawing and give it accuracy. Then finally, I'll show you a method for ensuring that no matter what pose you're faced with, your composition will always be spot on and you'll be able to measure and take proportions correctly. In each section, I start out with a demo video of how I draw the pose, and I talk about the main concepts or ideas or my reasoning behind it. Then it's over to you to have a go at applying those techniques to a drawing yourself. Now for the first few poses, they're very very fast, 30 seconds or one minute. But after that, you can always take the reference photo and draw for as long as you like. I have to point out here that I'm very aware that drawing from photo is not really the same thing at all as drawing from life. But I do believe that the techniques and the approaches that I'm going to show you, even if you are working with the photo, will be hugely beneficial to helping you understand the process so that when you do go into live drawing class, you'll know what you're doing. The last thing that I want to cover now is really just about the materials. I would encourage you to try drawing with charcoal. If you do that, then get what's called newsprint paper to work on. This is the best paper to use when you're just starting out and practicing. You can get small pads of newsprint paper if you don't want to work on big large sheets. Although alternatively, you can use pen and pencil and work in your sketchbook. That's totally fine. Your materials list should really be affordable and uncomplicated. I actually don't mind what you use to start drawing so long as you just start. Before we get started in this course, I just want to say that my entire approach to drawing the figure is based on a responsive and natural way of drawing that really has observation and anatomical knowledge at its core. In this course, I'm not going to teach you how to draw an idealized perfect image of the model or like a templated version of the human body. Instead, I want to teach you the process so that you can unlock your own expression and observation. These are the tools that are actually going to take you and your art to a level that's way beyond just making a nice drawing. By the end of the course, not only will you have a complete understanding of the figure and how to draw it from life, but you'll have discovered your own voice and expression through the process and that's something that you can take and apply to any creative activity you want, not just drawing. Let's get started. In the next video, I'm going to introduce you to the foundational practice of gesture drawing. 2. Intro to Gesture Drawing: In this class, I'm going to introduce you to what I believe is a core technique for all the figure drawing. In fact, I really think it's the basis for any drawing that you want to do, and that's gesture drawing. For me, there are really two things that are very important for figure drawing. One is observation and the other is expression. Observation means that you are looking at an object or a model or a thing really deeply. You're letting go of preconceptions, letting go of labeling, and just seeing the thing in front of you in terms of shape, form, color, texture, things like that. Expression means your unique ability to naturally, responsibly put marks on paper according to what you observe. Your expression is really really important. It's like your signature. That's what I want to focus on in this next section of videos. I've put gesture drawing, expression, mark-making, first and foremost in this course because I really think it's an important area to explore before you start to fine tune your drawing and your observation and get a little bit rigid about things. I'm going to encourage you to work with gesture as much as you can in your sketch books and in your practice drawings, because I really believe it's the one thing that will unlock all of your drawing, even transform it, transform you. It certainly did that for me. Diving into gesture drawing for me really unlocked everything that I wanted to say through drawing and has become a source of unending expression. Even if you're already familiar with gesture drawing, this could be an opportunity to revisit it, maybe even step back and see it from a new perspective, and then hopefully take it that much further. Let me start off by saying what I believe gesture drawing is. For me, gesture is actually a way of drawing that goes much deeper than just being a past sketch. It's a way of drawing that captures the essence or the energy of the model of the thing that you're drawing, whether it's a person or an object. It's a drawing that goes way beyond just the outline. That's why drawing the figure is so exciting because it's a way to explore this idea that we are more than a mere shell. You're capturing something that is beyond form and yet is very much a part of your experience of that form. If you approach gesture drawing with the idea that you just want to get down the main shapes very very quickly, you run the risk then of ending up drawing something that's very flat, something that's simplified, and also symbolized. That's what we don't want to do because when you start to symbolize shapes, it means you're not really observing in a true sense. If this is all sounding a little bit abstract at the moment, don't worry. In the next lecture, I'm going to get down to technique. The main thing that I wanted you to understand from the very outset, and this could even apply to the rest of the whole course, is that I don't really want you to be too concerned about making a perfect drawing or making a drawing that you think looks just like what the model looks like. Just let go of that for the moment. Put that aside. Gesture drawing and when we get to contour drawing, are really exercises. Feel free to just explore those exercises as much as you can and don't hold yourself back by saying, this isn't what it's supposed to look like. We don't care about that. We care about your unique mark making. So that's what I want you to focus on. Up next, in the next video, I'm going to walk you through the actual technique of gesture drawing and then after that, we'll dive into some actual poses with the model, starting off with 30-second poses. I'll see you in the next video. 3. Techniques for Gesture Drawing: The technique for gesture drawing is very straightforward. It's literally keeping your line loose and rough, and almost like drawing scribbles. You need to be prepared to get a little bit messy with the charcoal or with your pencil or pen, whichever you're using. I'm using mostly compressed charcoal. It comes in sticks like this. I'm going to just break it off and use a small piece. You can see how messy it is just from that little bit of handling. I'm also going to be using willow charcoal, which is a lot lighter than compressed. I also have a charcoals pencil. It might sound a bit random or arbitrary to just use scribbles, but you will begin to harness these marks and make them say what you want to say with practice. For now, just think of it as using scribbles to move around the edges, and up and down the model as you're drawing. Another aspect of the technique is that you're drawing the motion of the forms. Think about how the body is built for movement, and you're describing how the body bends, or twists, or turns. Instead of saying to yourself things like, okay, well, now I'm drawing the torso or now, I'm drawing the upper arm, or the ear, or whatever. Think in terms of action or motion, and this is also called impulse. With gesture drawing, it's really important to look for that impulse within the post. The impulse or movement of the pose might start in the feet and push itself all the way right up to the top of the head. It might begin in abdomen and then spiral that through the arms. Think in terms of action, what the model is doing, and then draw that action as opposed to drawing the model. All of these motion lines are going to help you to really capture the energy and the gesture. The last important point about the technique is dash the line in a gesture drawing should run through and around the form. This might be a bit of a mind shift for you if you're not familiar with drawing like this. But basically, I want you to think about the forms as though they are see. You're able to describe front and back with one encompassing line. If you can get your line to wrap around the whole form, you'll be describing weight, volume, and that'll make your gesture drawing really start to come alive. Think about shape, volume, direction, and impulse. All of gesture drawing does take practice and it's not until you experience it that it does make sense. But the most important thing is that you let your mark-making be free. It really helps not to look at your page when you're drawing, and it helps even more not to criticize your drawing afterwards. That's really important. Don't judge your own work. Remember that you're exploring a technique. Let your drawings be what they are. It's the mark-making and the experience of it that's so important at this stage, not the finished product, that will definitely come in time. Remember as I said, this is a technique, we'll work with it for a while, and then afterwards, you're free to drop it if you don't want. But I think if you do commit to working with gesture drawing, you won't easily give it up, because it does become such an integral part of life drawing as you develop and get better. Before we move on to the 30-second poses in the next video, I'm just going to leave a short assignment for you. If you want to, you can take time now. Press pause here and just grab your sketchbook. All I want you to do is basically fill up a few pages with some gesture drawings using this technique as I've described it in this video. Obviously, if you don't have a model to draw or somebody to sit in front of you to draw, then just draw any object around you. Look out the window, draw a tree, draw a pot plant. Just practice with this gestural line work, and then when you're ready, meet me in the next video, and we're going to get started with some 30-second poses of the model. 4. Setting Up: 5. Drawing Demo- 30 Second Poses: We're starting with 30 seconds. This is my first 30-second pose. The model's taken the pose and the timer starts now. All I'm concerned with is trying to get the whole shape of the pose from top to bottom with loose gestural line work. I'm not going to bother with any details whatsoever. It's just about getting the feeling or the shape of the pose, working as loosely and as gesturally as I can. Because there's not a whole lot you can get done in 30 seconds. The timer goes and the pose is over. That's the first one done. I'm moving on straight away to the second pose. You don't necessarily need to change the page, you can keep working on the same page since these 30-second gestural poses are not necessarily drawings that you want to keep. I'm just trying to get again gestural marks. It can be a bit daunting to try and get the whole form or the whole body in from top to bottom, but as long as you get a line of action and indicate the main points. In that one, I didn't even get the full pose in. Just a little bit of the pose, but that's okay. Moving right along to the next one. This is my third 30-second pose. When you do go to a live drawing class, you'll see how this can really help you to warm up and how it'll get your eye and your hand coordination going. It'll help you to switch into that pure observational mode that you really want to get into when you're drawing from live. That's it. That pose is finished. I'm going to reset and get ready for the next one. You'll notice I'm starting at the head, but I'm making sure that in the first few marks, I already indicate where the feet are and move up and down throughout the whole pose. That's time up again. You can see how fast these 30-second poses are. There is not a lot of time at all. You're not making final finished drawings by any means. This is the final pose for this session, the final 30-second pose. We're just going to reset and go again. I'm basically mapping out the whole body from top to bottom, side to side with marks. Not necessarily drawing the shapes or the things themselves, but just marking down where my eye hits certain important landmarks. That's that 30-second pose done. Now, I'm going to hand it over to you. I've left these images up for you in your Resources folder. I want you to have a go at drawing these out in just 30-second bursts. Don't think about it too much, we will move into much longer drawings later on. But just take the photos and see if you can sketch out the pose for each one and time yourself to just 30 seconds. When you're ready, I'll meet you in the next video where I'll show you how to develop that further to one-minute poses. 6. Your 30 second poses: 7. Drawing Demo - 1 min Poses: For one minute or even two-minute poses, or even five minutes of gesture drawing, the technique is still the same. If it is a little bit longer, I think the only difference is to start out a little bit lighter and then work your mark up progressively. If you know you've got a couple of minutes to get your drawing down, you don't need to go in heavy-handed straight away in the first few seconds of the pose. I'll show you how to approach a woman at pose in the same way that I did in a previous video. I'll give you some indications and some tips and then at the end of the video, it's over to you to have a try. The timer has started for one minute. The very first thing I do is plot a line of action that goes from the head or from the very top of the pose all the way to the feet. Then I'm just going to work my way back up using the directional lines, the flow lines that I see in the pose. I'm not going to get too much detail, but because this is one minute I've got a little bit longer to start to look at things in terms of shape as well as gesture. I always like to try and get the feet in, although in this drawing I didn't quite manage to get the other foot into the drawing. But it's good to at least indicate as I did on the left foot where the foot is actually touching the ground. That's the end of that pose, one minute is up. It's time to reset and go again. So Gene takes another pose. This time it's seated and one minute starts now. So again, working loosely from top to bottom. I'm trying to plot the major joints like where the knee is, I usually do with the elbow and the arm before you know it one minute is up. But at least in a drawing like this, I've managed to get down a basic map of the whole figure so that's okay. I'm happy enough with that and it's time to reset and move on. This is my third and final woman at pose. After this, we'll move on to two minutes. Timer starts now, I put down my line of action showing me the direction of the torso quickly mapping the shoulders, chest area, and then I can work down and plot out the leg down to the foot. So in this pose, the other foot comes underneath the front leg like that. It's just a matter of even just using one or two lines to indicate that and then back up to the head. Make sure that I get something down for the head and then come back down through the arm, which is resting on the upper leg. The timer goes and one minute's up and I think just indicating that hand finishes off. Now, this is a gesture drawing that I think actually is quite successful. It's loose, it's very light in areas yet there is definite marks in all the other areas. The form is described in a very gestural way. The whole pose is captured on paper in almost less than one minute. So this is something like what I would be aiming for in my gesture drawings at all times. Try and get this loose, free-flowing line quality that has really good observation as well. So that's what you're aiming for. Obviously, for a lot of times, your gesture drawings are going to look awful and you're going to want to throw them away. But every now and again you'll get a gesture drawing where it works, things have clicked and I encourage you to maybe hold onto those drawings. Always refer back to them and look at them and try and figure out what you think works in them. In the next video, I'm going to leave these three poses up for you. I'm going to time it out for one minute each and give you a chance to try and draw one-minute poses. Then we'll move on and do finish up the gesture drawing section with some two minutes. 8. Your 1 minute poses: 9. Drawing Demo - 2 minute Poses: After a while when you get used to doing quick 30-second gesture poses, when it comes to doing a two minute pose, it actually seems like quite a long time when you're drawing gesturally. My advice for the slightly longer gesture poses is to work really, really lightly. You can see here how I'm barely putting any marks on the page, but I'm still following the form gesturally and very, very lightly mapping out where things are going to be. I've gotten about one minute into the pose, so the timer is still going, and now I can start to put down some more definite marks, some more darker areas, pushing the charcoal into the page where I'm absolutely sure that that's the mark I want to make there. But working all the way from the top right down to the bottom of the pose, loosely indicating the head and the direction of the head, following the lovely line of action down through the back. The shoulder is quite prominent so putting marks in for that and making sure that I can indicate that lovely angle between the upper body and the leg. I'll be talking a lot more about the angle of the torso in a later section in this course. But just nudging that angle here, makes the pose very dynamic and very readable. That's it. Two minutes is already up. I'm going to leave the drawing there even though I would like to finish it off. I'm not going to go labor the point too much. I think I'm going to leave it over to you to do a few two-minute sketches on your own and I'll leave some reference photos up in the next video. Then I'm going to take time just to review the work that we've done so far. Join me then after that in the video where I'm just going to do a quick review of gesture drawings before we move on to contour drawing. 10. Your 2 minute Drawing Practice: 11. Gesture Review: I hope you were able to get through your 30-second and one or two minute poses all right, and that you're enjoying this dynamic way of drawing. In this lecture, I want to look back over some of the drawings that I did and reiterate a few points about drawing gesturally to have a bit of a review, hopefully help you as you look back on your work as well. I did mention that these drawings are not really keepers. It's more about the practice, but I do think it's very important to look back over your work. Don't throw them out immediately. Give them a day or two, let the drawing settle, and come back, and look at it, and see what you can glean from your own drawing style. What I always try to aim for gesture is to get the whole pose down in one go. Now that might seem a bit much to be honest when you just have 30 seconds, but that's really what you should be striving forward. Try to express the pose from head to toe in your very first marks that you place on the page. For me, ultimately, a gesture line is a really searching line. It's not a definitive line that says this is exactly what the object looks like. Instead, it's a line that actually questions what the object is and tries to find meaning or find definition through the marks. Lastly, remember that gesture can be used to describe weight. Having weight in your drawing is crucial to having a solid and successful drawing, because you want to be able to describe the weight and volume of the form. The human figure is all about motion for sure, but it's equally all about how it occupies space. The next video I'm going to introduce you to contour drawing. It's the other side of the coin for me. If you got gesture, you need to have contour. See you in the next video for that. 12. Introduction to Contour Drawing: The next section of videos, I want to leave gesture aside and I'm going to introduce you to the second foundational practice of drawing, and that's contour drawing and blind contour drawing. Gesture was all about fast, fluid line work and getting the pose and the impulse down in one go and working very intuitively and responsively. Now I'm going to get you to switch gears completely and slow things down a lot. Really, really slow them down. The next few poses will be either 5, 10 minutes or even 15 minutes. It's going to require very concentrated, almost a meditative approach to drawing. I'm going to show you a couple of demo videos of me actually drawing blind and semi blind, but I will explain the process as I'm going through them so you will get a much better idea of it. But before I do that, I just want to highlight three main points that I think you need to keep in mind. The first one is that a contour line isn't a silhouette. Contour really means a line that follows the shape of the object, the model, or the subject that you're drawing. A contour line does run along the outer edges or what we perceive as being the edges of the model, but that line can also run across the front. This will make much more sense when I show you how I'm doing it. But just keep in mind for now that don't think of it as a silhouette. Think of the line instead as just following the shape. Second point is that, you're going to start off at these drawing blind. What that means is that, you're not going to look down at your page at all. You keep your eyes glued to the image of the model and focusing really, really carefully on where you think your charcoal is in relation to the picture that you're looking at. A lot depends on your eye and hand coordination, but you've got to really make the effort not to look down at your page. This is very disconcerting at first, so really try to commit to drawing blind for at least the first drawing. Then the third point to keep in mind is that, this is really a very slow drawing process. The tendency for many people, all my students when they start doing this for the first time, they really take it fast and I've got to tell them over and over again, no, go even slower. Go even slower than what you think you're doing. If you get through the whole pose in one drawing session, say it's five minutes or 10 minutes, then you've actually gone too fast. If you can get through half of the pose or even less within the drawing time and you're not finished by the time the timer goes off, then that's great. That means you are really looking and really slowing things down. This way of drawing is probably the most effective and the most immediate technique that I know of to get your brain into what's called a drawing mind. Normally, we are stuck in, for Betty Edwards, identified as the non-drawing mind and that's the left side of the brain, the analytical side. The side of the brain that likes to name things like an eye looks like this kind of a shape or an ear looks like this. Whereas the right side of the brain is the more intuitive, more responsive side that just sees shape. It's very hard for us to automatically switch from being left-brained, analytical, and naming things into this naturally intuitive and responsive right way of drawing. But this technique, blind drawing and blind contour drawing, is amazing for getting you into that mood, almost immediately. You've got to practice this technique over and over and you'll be able to then really almost switch it on and switch it off. Let's dive in. In the next couple of videos, I'll show you a demo of me approaching a blind contour drawing and a semi blind drawing. Then at the end of that, I'll leave the poses up for you to have a go rush. 13. Drawing Demo - Blind Contour Drawing: I'm setting up for my very first blind contour drawing. Jane is going to take a pose, and the very first thing that I do for the first few minutes is I place the charcoal on the page, and really carefully look at the model, and try and get it into my head that the place that I'm looking at on the model and the place where my charcoal is on the paper are the exact same spot. So that when my eye then starts to move forwards, my hand and charcoal can move across the form in complete coordination. That first initial setup is really important to convince yourself that the spot that you're looking at on the model, it's almost like your charcoal is touching that spot. Then I start to look across the form very, very slowly and coordinate my hand and charcoal really slowly. It helps if you stand off to one side of your drawing board or if you're drawing or working in your sketchbook, it really helps to put your sketchbook off to the side as of your direct line of sight so that you're not even tempted to look down, and if you do look down, you don't actually see it. Keeping my eyes away from my drawing board and looking only at the model, I'm going to continue. Now this pose is quite long, it's five minutes. It's the longest pose that we've covered so far in the course. I don't think I will let the whole five minutes play out in this video. I do want you to get a really good sense of how slow and careful this kind of a drawing is. There's a couple of points that I want to mention here. My line isn't necessarily following the outside shape. I've clearly drawn the side of the arm, but then now somehow, I'm moving across the body to the other side. This is called a cross contour line. What you can do is you're not restricted to drawing just the outline. You can use cross contours to follow the form from one side to the other. It's very useful if you get stuck or if you get to the end of an arm say for example, and then to be able to work your way back up across the body. You can just use a cross contour line like this. Now I'm actually over on the left-hand side and I'm clearly drawing the arm again, the left arm. I'm going to skip ahead to another point in the pose. Here, I'm drawing the contours around the hand, but as you can see, it's not looking anything like the model or the pose in front of me. That's okay, that's actually really good, it just means that I'm purely in observation mode and studying the contours as closely as I can. You'll notice when you do blind drawings, your final finished product will more likely look like a map of France than anything else. The point is not to make final finished drawing. The point is to get into the practice of observation. Although, personally, I think some blind drawings and blind contour drawings are actually some of the most beautiful drawings because they are so closely and so faithfully observed. That pose in total was about five minutes, which actually is not very long at all for a contour drawing, but I skipped through some of it because I just want you to get the idea. Now, I want you to have a chance at practicing this kind of a drawing. I'm going to leave this pose up for you in the next video. I want you to try and draw it completely blind and see how you get on. Then after that, I'm going to move into some semi-blind contour drawings. 14. Your Blind Contour Drawing Practice: 15. Drawing Demo - Semi Blind Drawing: In this video, I am going to now explain a method of moving on from blind drawing into what's called semi-blind drawing. In the semi-blind drawing, you are supposed to be looking down your page 20 percent of the time and keeping your eyes focused 80 percent of the time on the subject that you're drawing whether it's a model or something else. That's very hard to do because obviously, we all want to look at our page and monitor our progress and make sure that we're drawing exactly right. But I'll encourage you to try it out and try to be a little bit disciplined about keeping your eyes focused on what you're drawing rather than on the drawing. What I tend to do is I look down at my page when I'm not drawing, when I'm not moving my charcoal, and then look at the model when I am moving the charcoal, if that makes sense. That's a way just to make sure that you are in the right spot and that your drawing is in proportion and everything is correct. But then you move your charcoal when you're fully observing and your head is turned towards the model, in your case, at the reference photo. Other than that, everything that I talked about in blind contour still applies. You really have to focus on connecting your charcoal to the object or the subject that you're drawing and really try and get it into your head that connection is very real. That you are moving your charcoal along the form at the same time as your eyes are moving along the form. With semi-blind, you can start to create a more realistic-looking drawing than the pure blind drawing. That's the nice thing about it. It also is still very slow and very concentrated so your observation is engaged. Now at this point, you might be saying to yourself, "Well, my proportions aren't looking correct, even though I'm looking down at my page 20 percent of the time to make sure that my charcoal is in the right place and that my drawing is right." Don't worry too much about proportions at this stage because I'm going to explain citing and proportions later on in the course after I've covered some structural information at like anatomy and things like that. Again, no judgment or criticism on your drawing. At this point, we are still engaged in pure observation practice. Even if you're drawing turns out to be great at the end, that's nice, but it's not the ultimate goal. The ultimate goal is for you to get into this way of drawing where you're really looking intently at the subject and slowing your charcoal down or your pencil on the page. I've come to the end of my semi-blind drawing. It looks okay, it's not finished or maybe you might think it is. But I didn't bother to do features of the face. I was focusing on the torso. But that was about a five-minute pose and I'm going to leave the photo of this pose for you in the download section. I don't think I'll leave another video up and let it play out for five minutes. I'll encourage you to go and grab this photo from the download section and take as long as you want. Maybe spend 10 or 20 minutes this time during a semi-blind drawing of this pose. Then when you're ready, meet me in the next lecture. I want to discuss very quickly my thoughts about what makes or what constitutes a good drawing before we move into the more structured section of the course that's going to deal with anatomy, and measurements, and sighting. I'll see you in the next lecture. 16. What makes a -good- drawing-: We've got to about halfway through the course, and I just wanted to take this opportunity to step back and reflect on everything that you've achieved over the last two sections; all that you've learned and all the skills that you're developing as you honed this life drawing technique. I just want to take a moment because over the last few classes, you've gotten deep into pure observation and expressive natural gestural mark-making. I think it's a good point to step back and look at what that means for you as you are progressing in your life drawing talents and skills. Because I know that you're possibly looking at the work that you've done up until this point and going well, it doesn't really look much like [inaudible] drawings or it doesn't look anything like the model and you really wanted to at least look something like the model. I get that. I really understand this notion that we do want our drawings to look a little bit like they're based somewhat on reality. But I wanted to take time now just to remind you of the process and also of what you're actually aiming for ultimately, with life drawing, like why you would be doing life drawing in the first place. It comes back again to what I've been talking all along about these two twin skill sets of observation and expression. On the one hand, a drawing that has pure observation is just completely, almost perfectly obsessively, just right, and looking just like the subject matter almost in a photographic detail. For me anyway, a drawing like that sort of fall short because there's something lacking. There's no unique artist stamp on it. There isn't really anything new or unique that it adds to the world. On the other end of the spectrum a drawing that's just completely and totally gestural, while gestural marks that are not actually based on anything in reality. That kind of a drawing also pulls a little bit short for me and in the sense that I feel that it doesn't let the viewer in. Its closed off completely because those marks are just too personal to the maker. So somewhere in between those two extremes is a drawing that combines both of those and in that sense, exceptionally powerful. I wanted to just reiterate this, that if you can find a way to combine those, that very, very clear and pure observation with your own unique, expressive mark-making, you are truly adding something unique to the world that nobody else can do. Nobody else can make the marks that you make, and nobody else can see something quite the way you see it. A drawing doesn't have to be a photographic representation. It also doesn't have to be a complete jumble of messy lines. As I think that you've probably discovered a little bit in the last two sections, it's the process that's nearly as important as the result, and I don't want to state that too much because I know we are here to learn how to draw the figure. But I hope that in some way you've also learned a little bit about yourself in the process. You can appreciate what it takes and the amount of effort that goes into making any kind of a drawing. Please don't underestimate the learning curve that you're on. It does carry the power to transform your skill set, your drawing, and yourself. It's a really exciting journey to be on. I just wanted to encourage you to keep going with it. I also wanted to say, please don't let go of gesture work or contour line work because as we move into the next section, which is going to focus on the anatomy, the structure, and how to measure things. If you still use gesture lines and contour lines, then the whole thing is going to start to come together beautifully and your drawing will start to take on a much more sophisticated and nuanced look. With that in mind, let's forge forwards and I'll see you in the next lecture. 17. Introduction to Anatomy for Artists: In this next section of videos, I'm going to look in depth at anatomical structures of the human figure. This is really anatomy for artists and by that I mean I'm not going to get really in-depth with medical or scientific analysis of bones, muscles, tendons. Really, I want you rather to have a good general knowledge or general understanding of the structure of the body and bring that into your visual response to what you see in the post. My approach to learning anatomy for drawing is about knowing where certain bones or joints are in the body, how they're shaped, and what their function is. One of the key things about understanding anatomy for drawing is that you'll know what to look out for. I'm going to give you a few landmarks, let's say, throughout the forum that once you look out for those on the model and you put them into your drawing, then everything else will just flow naturally from there. There are definitely certain ways to know the figure in terms of a template through like generalized proportions and there are tons and tons of videos or books that can explain generalized proportions of the figure. I will go over some of those almost there like what I call cookbook formulas. I'll go over them later so that you have a good idea and a good sense of those generalized proportions. But remember they are generalized and not every figure is the same and definitely when you're in a live drawing class, like you'll rarely get opposed with the person standing straight up. If the body is in a different position, it might be hard to apply those generalized proportions. First up, I'm going to explain the torso. The torso is basically from the neck to the waist and it's the most important part of the body. For me, it's often where the pose actually generates. If you get the torso right and you even just indicate a line or two for arms and legs, your drawing will still have meaning and still make a lot of sense. We'll talk about the torso in the next video and then after that I'll explain how to draw the legs and the arms. 18. Understanding the Torso: The torso is the section of the body where all of the most dynamic, if not the most powerful poses have their origin. The way in which the torso moves informs the entire pose of the figure. You really have to get the torso right to have any semblance of correctness in your drawing. In order to get to grips with this very complicated shape, I'm going to break it down into two simple parts; the rib cage and the pelvis. Let's look at the rib cage first. The first thing to note about this area is that it's hollow. It's basically bones or the ribs that curve around to form a protective outer shell for the inner vital organs of the heart and the lungs. In fact, the rib cage is often referred to as a cavity. This is something that's actually quite important to get into your drawings. This idea of it being a hollow rounded shape. Think of it as an oval shape, and it's this oval-shaped no matter what body type you're drawing and no matter what pose the figure is in, it's always going to be this rounded, circular, oval, almost like an egg shape. I'm going to point out some landmarks that are really useful once you've established the position and the angle of the rib cage. Just below the top of this shape is where the clavicle and the collarbones will sit. It's all at the very, very top, but it's just right below the tip of the oval shape. Once you've got that in place, you can easily work out where the shoulders are. You can work out the length of the shoulder width and then easily place the tops of the arms. The second landmark that I want you to know about is about halfway between the clavicle and the bottom of the rib cage is the chest area or sternum. This is a really important area to find on your model and to indicate on your drawing. The chest area is almost like the outer signal for the direction of the rib cage. If you make sure to get that correct in your drawing, then you know you will be on the right track for the rest of the drawing. The rib cage from the side is a flatter version of the frontal view, but it's still oval in shape. Keep it rounded from the side as well, and in fact, that rounded shape at the back gives the spine its S-band look. Below the rib cage are the muscles of the core and it's what holds the rib cage and the pelvis together in the front. The spine holds the rib cage and pelvis together at the back. But this area here is also the belly and it's where the navel is. In fact, the navel is about halfway down between the bottom of the rib cage and the floor of the pelvis. Maybe you can take a moment now just to realize how big the space is. A lot of people don't get this area enough space in their drawings, especially when they're starting out and they don't know these landmarks or these proportions. Especially the waist, it's a lot longer than you would initially think. Now let's look at the pelvis. The pelvis is quite a complicated structure. There's no getting around us simply because it's complex by nature. But also we can't really see it from the outside the way we can see the rib cage. It's almost like a bowl. A bowl that slightly tilting forward if that helps. Thinking of it this way will help you to visualize or at least locate the very top of the pelvis. Right here you can feel that on yourself, the top of your hip bones. This is very important for you to figure out where this is in your drawing. If you can spot it on the model. Below this tip of the pelvis are two hollows on either side of the hips, and this is in fact where the legs start. The bones of the legs, the femurs actually start right up here at the side of the hips. Once you've indicated where these are, you can get the proportions of the hips and legs, and torso all working very nicely together. It's also good to know that the pelvis is extremely versatile in movement. It can tilt forwards, it can tilt backwards or side to side, and that's what's going to give you that dynamic and fluid quality to your drawing. If you are finding it difficult to visualize the pelvis as a bowl or to get to grips with it at all, you can think of it as a butterfly shape. This is not got anything to do. It doesn't really relate to the actual structure of the pelvis. But it's very helpful for getting a 2D flat visualization of where the top of the hip bones are, the indentations that I was talking about for the legs, and then the sit bones. That nice butterfly shape. If that is too complicated, then your final option is to think of the pelvis as being just almost like a squarish oval. This will help you to get the idea that it's the three-dimensionality of it. The fact that this shape or this block can tilt forward and back. But just be wary of making it look too blocky. If you do want to indicate it as a block for starters, then that's fine. But try to include some circular lines around it to give it that nice, rounded shape. In the next video, I'm going to give you few more tips about the torso, and I'm going to show you how to put all of this information together in terms of making a drawing of the model. I'll see you in the next video. 19. Drawing the Torso: The thing that allows the torso to move is, of course, the spine. That's an incredibly strong and versatile column of bones going all the way up the back. Be aware that this is almost like a line of action. Sometimes in your drawings, especially if you have a pose with the back facing you, try to find that line of action of the spine. That'll give you a great indication of how to hang the rest of your drawing onto that. There's a very simple correlation to look out for that will make any pose at your drawing work extremely well. That's the tilt of the pelvis and the tilt of the shoulders. This, in proper art terms is called contrapposto. This is the basis for the balance and harmony in the figure. If you think of the iconic statue of David, this is the ultimate expression of perfect balance and harmony within the human form. It's actually an exquisite example of contrapposto within the body. Essentially, the body moves like an accordion. When one side is folded in or shortened or squeezed together, the opposite side will be opened and long. You can spot this in any natural pose if someone's putting all of their weight onto one hip or they're leaning or if one knee is bent and one leg is straight. You'll see that again and again. The thing you need to look out for is this, when the shoulders dropped or in any way, one shoulder is lower than the other shoulder, in a standing pose, the hips will always correlate by opposing that tilt. If one shoulder is dropped, then that hip will be higher than the opposite one. When you start to draw the torso, you should always draw your first construction lines really light. As long as you start out really light and draw construction lines and extremely lightly, you can't really go wrong in your drawing. Because as you build it up and as you add more deeper marks, you'll know the direction that you're going in. Draw your first construction lines as lightly and as gesturally as you can. These are really just guides and you can erase them later, no problem. The idea I want you to get is that you can start out by getting the rough oval shape that I talked about earlier about of the ribcage and that bowl or butterfly shape of the pelvis. The important thing to note for yourself, as I said, are the tops of either side of the pelvis. I'm going to roughly mark out where the chest area is. This will also give me the angle or the tilt for the shoulders, which I can sketch in now. Right here, you've got the basis for the whole pose. It's rooted completely in this relationship between ribcage and pelvis. At this stage, you can erase the construction lines if you like. I'm going to show you how much you've achieved. If you've gotten this far in your drawing, but just these two shapes, you can literally just draw a couple more lines to finish it off completely. It's almost as though you're following the inner shapes and making an outline. Really there's nothing more complicated. The hard work is placing the ribcage and the pelvis in correct relation to each other, determining where the navel is and where the indentations are for the start of the legs. 20. Drawing the Arms: There are certain generalized proportions of the arm that can really help you to draw it correctly; basic units of length, basic shapes. But before I explain those, I want to make sure that you first of all approach drawing the arm with gesture. So think about if the core of the body or the torso is where your pose originates, then often the expression of that pose or the gesture is carried out through the arms. In this way, arms are sometimes overlooked because we do tend to put a line of action down that goes from the head to the toes or from the to the head. Then add the arms on as a bit of an afterthought. But in fact, arms can often be the most elegant expressive of the gesture that's given in the pose. Don't forget to try and get them down as free flowing gestural lines first. Then you can start to fill in the form and add on the more detailed, more structured shapes based on what you know about the anatomical structure. The first and most basic point about drawing the arms is that from the shoulder to the elbow is pretty much the same distance again from the elbow to the wrist. Importantly, the elbow is always at the waist. If you're trying to identify the waist on your model and you're looking specifically for the iliac crests of the pelvis, then if the arm is down by the side, it's a very nice and easy indication, the elbow will always be pretty much where the iliac crest is. Let's start off with the shoulder. The shoulder is made up of bones that are often called the shoulder girdle, as well as the muscles of the shoulder, which are called the deltoids. This girdle runs from the sternum in the front, so that kind of notch or pit of the sternum that I showed you in the previous video. That bone runs all the way out towards the very outer edge of the shoulder. You can sometimes identify that point on the model. Sometimes that bone is very prominent on certain people. Then it runs all the way around the back with the shoulder blade and the spine of the shoulder blade. So from the shoulder girdle, the deltoid muscles wrap around on the top and they insert downwards into the bone of the upper arm, which is called the humerus. Your shoulder has this rounded cap-like. Think of it as cap that holds the upper arm to the shoulder girdle. From underneath this round form or round mass of muscles, the bicep and the tricep originate and the bicep sweeps outwards and the tricep like that. These main muscles are what gives the upper arm its shape. Don't forget that they work in tandem. So when the bicep is flexed, the tricep is relaxed and vice versa. Then the lower arm is made up of two bones called the ulna and the radius. You can feel on yourself how these bones overlap each other at the elbow and then run into parallel as they come down to form the wrist. So they come down and formed this flattened out squarish area of the wrist. You can think of this as a block shape. It's very important to get this area in your drawings. Some people don't give the wrist enough room or was a don't acknowledge enough. It's flattened shape compared to the rounded shape at the top. Then when it comes to the hand, again, think of blocky shapes. The palm of the hand is one block. You can use that to indicate the direction of the palm or the shape or the pose of the palm. Then onto that you can add the fingers. If you do want to really study the structure and the details of the hand and get really good at drawing hands, then I would highly recommend that you practice blind drawing of your own hands. This will make a huge difference to your observation of the intricacies of the hand. In the next video, let's look at the structure and the anatomy of the legs. 21. Drawing the Legs: In the last video before I brought down the structure of the arms, I encouraged you to practice drawing the gesture of the arms first. The same holds for the legs. It's as important to observe the flow of forms and the aspect of the gesture as it is to know the structure. More often than not, a line of action which is so important in gesture will actually start in the feet, moving all the way up the legs through the body and then add to the arms. Think of the legs as the strong, stable base of the gesture supporting this upward flow of movement. Legs can be difficult to get right, mainly because of the length. With this in mind, I'll try and break down the main shapes into basic forms that fit together and make sense for you. The first thing that I can point out is that in terms of proportion, a very generalized way to think of the legs is that the upper leg is equal in length to the lower leg and that the leg as I've explained before, actually originates way up here in the pelvis. The femur, that is the bone of the upper leg, sits into the socket of the pelvic bone and comes down all the way to the knee. The main muscle that you need to look out for here is obviously the quads at the front. These are the muscles that give the upper leg its shape from the front and the side view. These front leg muscles attached to the kneecap, which is called the patella. The knee is actually made up of the upper leg bone and the lower leg bone. They meet together here and then they have the kneecap, which is the patella. The whole structure of the knee can be seen as a blocky shape. But it's got an all important support that sweeps down just underneath it, down into the shim. The knees, and the fish can both be thought of as architectural structures in a way that support the entire body. When this leg is bent, the kneecap's going to follow the lower limb, so like understanding this, I think will help you to draw the knee and tricky poses. Then when you're drawing the knee from behind, you need to simply lookout for those two very prominent tendons that attach the upper leg to the lower leg. Now the upper and lower leg are interlocked at the knee, but crucially, the bones of the lower leg are not directly underneath the upper leg. They're almost offset and this provides this spring-like mechanism that almost acts as a shock absorber for our legs. Below the knee, the back muscles of the calves define the shape here and just like the arm, each of these masses of muscles taper down into the ankle. The lower leg is also made up of two bones. The tibia is on the inside of the leg and the fibula. Both of these end at the ankle and the important thing to note about the ankle is that the inner bone is higher than the other bone. That's something to look out for on the model and always try and get that into your drawings. Quick note about the feet. Think of the foot in terms of a blocky shape and it's good to approach understanding the forms that make up the foot. Really, you just need to think about three basic blocks. The heel, the arch, and the long bones of the front of the foot. Just be aware that this section of the arch is cone-shaped and the flasher longer part of the foot displays outwards from here. The key to drawing legs really is just follow the flow of the forms. There are general curves that you can look out for in a front view, this outer curve, in the side view, the flow of curves here and here. These lines that flow down and around through the legs are great indicators of the balance and the proportion that you're trying to get in your drawings. Also, looking out for these flow lines will connect all of the shapes of your drawing so that it reads beautifully as of one unit. Again for anatomy and for breaking things down in an anatomical way remember that's purely for studying them, when you go to drawing them, you want to think of all of these things, ultimately all fitting into one unit. 22. Composition: So far, I've gone over a few of the generalized proportions of the figure in terms of the length of the arms and the length of the legs in relation to the torso. But you can actually break the figure down in so many ways to work out proportions of each parts to the whole. There are calculations that measure, for example, eight heads per the length of the body, two heads per width of the chest, the sole of the foot is the exact length of the inner forearm so can all get a little bit mind boggling, and I think it's not exactly user-friendly, if you're aiming to draw natural and expressive drawings based on observation rather than calculation. In the next couple of videos, I want to explain to you how I approach drawing a sustained pose. Because really the key to working for a longer pose, like 20 minutes, half an hour, or even longer, is to make sure that your composition is working from the outset. There is one very simple way to do that, and I'm going to show you that in this video. It all comes down to getting the torso in the pelvis correct, and working well together and having it on the page exactly where you want it to be so that you don't end up having worked through a drawing for half an hour and find that you've got no room for the head, for example, or that your composition is so way off that you don't have any space for the legs or the feet. Once you get the torso placed on your page correctly, that will solve all of your compositional issues no matter what the pose is. Once you've got construction lines for your torso on the page, then you have a much better chance of drawing the rest of the figure in proportion. The way that I do it is I actually just use a very simple figure of eight shape. That's really all there is to it. The first thing I do is I bold a pose, see what the direction of the torso is. See the relationship between the rib cage and the pelvis, and then simply draw that figure of eight shape onto the page as lightly as I can. Instantly with this on the page, I will know exactly how big the torso is and therefore, what the length of the arms are and the length of the legs. Immediately I'll know whether I've got room on my page to draw the whole figure from head to toe. If it's too small, I can simply rub it out and make my figure of eight shape a little bit bigger, or if it's too big, I can look at it and say, "Okay, I'm not going to be able to fit the whole figure onto the page, let me make my torso shape a little bit smaller." The figure of eight can work for any pose. You just need to keep in mind that the [inaudible] are three-dimensional. If the torso is bending towards you, for example, or it's what we call foreshortened in anyway, think about that figure of eight in terms of the 3D model, so one-half of the figure of eight will be behind the other if you know what I mean. Beginners often draw the torso way too big, and then the rest of the drawing is either as proportion or it just doesn't fit on the page at all. Just lightly draw a figure of eight, I bold the pose and reassess whether or not you think the whole figure will fit into your drawing. Because it's such a light construction line, there's really no problem to redraw it smaller if you need to. I want to reiterate that when you're working on a long pose, don't let go of your first initial gestural mark making, keeping him very light. Just start out as light as you can and work in this way for as long as you can. If you stay light and gestural all of these marks will add up to a much more exciting and much more dynamic drawing. For example, if I've got a pose that's about half an hour, I'll try to work lightly for at least five or 10 minutes. Then only after that start to put down some strong contour marks where I'm confident of what I want to say about the pose. In the next video, I'm going to get into how you would keep your proportion under control when you're drawing, and it's a way of making sure your proportions are correct without having to fall back onto cookbook measurements or generalized proportions of the figure. I'll see you in the next video. 23. Sighting: Nearly all of the techniques that I've been teaching you in this course that I hope have had the effect of demystifying the process of figure drawing have had to do with getting you to see things in a different way, getting you to see things with what's called a drawing eye. I'm still very keen on new developing unnatural and expressive style of drawing. But when it comes to drawing the figure for longer extended pose, as I say, anything beyond 20 minutes to half an hour, you do need to be able to keep your drawing, and check and know how to measure for correct proportions. In this tutorial, I'm going to show you how to move into the tricky area of measuring and sighting while still keeping a fresh and purely visual approach to your work. It's called sighting. It's a way to measure things in relation to each other as you draw. The main idea behind sighting is that one unit of what you're drawing can be used to measure everything else in your composition. That might sound a bit counter-intuitive to pure visual response. But what I like about this method as opposed to the generalized proportions, or cookbook measurements, or taking readings from a proportional divider, is that when you sight while you draw, you're still completely engaged in a drawing mode. What you do is hold out your arm completely straight with a pencil in your hand. Then close one eye and line the top of the pencil up with the top of the head. Now you can move your thumb so that you can position the thumb right about where the bottom of the chin is. Now you've got a measurement for the head. You can use that measurement to see how many times that length fits into the rest of the body. Or for example, you could take a measurement of the width of the upper body. From shoulder to shoulder and see how many times or how that fits into the length of the arm, for example, or the length of the leg. Then you go back to your drawing. You look at your drawing and you take the exact same measurement. Take the measurement on your drawing and see if you're drawing in proportion. This method is excellent for tricky poses like a foreshortened view or anything where it's difficult to see the full extent or proportions of the figure. Now that I've shared this method of sighting with you, I want you to work with it and see how you can on, but unfortunately, this isn't going to work with a photograph. What I want you to do is pause the video and maybe look around the room that you're in or out the window and draw something from life. Something where you can actually take measurements with your arms stretched out fully and referring it down to the drawing on your page. Give it a go and let me know if you've got any questions. As always, send me your drawing if you want to, and I can have a look, and check your work, and give you any feedback. 24. Conclusion: Well done for getting through the whole course. I'm delighted that you made it to the end. It means you're genuinely and honesty interested in your own drawing practice and in your own art practice. I wanted to leave you with just a couple of bonus tips as a way of wrapping up and finishing off this course. When I talked earlier about observation and how in gesture drawing and live drawing, you're really trying to observe the model in a pure way. Something that's very important in this and very good for you to understand is that when I talk about observation, I don't just mean seeing. Observation means taking in all of the information in front of you through all of your senses, not just your sight. You have to use all your senses, maybe even read your own emotional response or pick up on the emotion that you might see in the pose. Art is not just about recreating something that you see with your eyes, I think it's about creating an entire way of knowing something that you've experienced through all of your senses. The main sense after sight that you need to think about is your sense of touch. How does something feel? How does the form or the volume of the thing that you're trying to draw actually feel? Without being too weird about it, you almost have to think about the charcoal moving across the form and how that charcoal records the volume and the shape of the form that you're drawing. The second bonus tip that I'm going to leave you with is to, if you can pick up this book, it's called The Natural Way To Draw. This book is the only book that I've ever had to use for live drawing, or for drawing in general, really. The things that he talks about in this book form the basis for my entire approach to drawing, things like gesture, contour, blind contour. Definitely try and check this book out. It's actually a schedule of drawing exercises. He has structured the book based on classes that he gave. You don't necessarily have to follow the drawing schedule that he lays out in this book, but definitely read everything that he has to say about mark-making, about natural and responsive ways of drawing. I hope that you now have a better understanding and an actual experience through drawing of what figure drawing is and why you would even spend time to draw the nude model. So many people go into a live drawing class with the sole aim in mind to draw a perfect representation of what they think the model looks like. I hope that through all of my emphasis on observation and expression that you can see that that goal isn't the be-all and the end-all. It's not the only goal to aim for. Drawing the figure from live really is all about meeting yourself in that moment and possibly understanding a bit more about yourself than you would have before. It says much about drawing you as it is about drawing the model. Instead of approaching figure drawing like another dull and boring still life, you've got the opportunity to really explore something a lot more meaningful. I hope that you've taken something like that away from this course. Let me know if you have, I'd love to hear back from you and I'd love your feedback. If there's anything that was not clear in this course, do let me know. Above all, please send me your work. If you want me to give any response on your drawings, I'd be really happy to do so. Thank you for being part of this class and making it so amazing. I hope to see you in the next course.