Fabrics for Fashion Design: Essential Learning for Designers ~ Fabrics Inspiration for a Collection | Nino Via | Skillshare

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Fabrics for Fashion Design: Essential Learning for Designers ~ Fabrics Inspiration for a Collection

teacher avatar Nino Via, Fashion Design, Instructor & Consultant

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (57m)
    • 1. 1 - Introduction. Overall highlights of Course Content.

      2:03
    • 2. 2 - Fiber Content. Natural vs Man-made fibers. Plant-Based vs Animal-Based fibers.

      4:03
    • 3. 3 - Woven vs Knits. Jersey, Double-knit, Tricot. Oxford, Twill, etc. , Warp and Weft

      5:54
    • 4. 4 - Leather/Hides. Fabrics with a nap: Velvet, Corduroy, Velour, Velveteen.

      3:15
    • 5. 5 - Greige goods. Finishing Mills. Converters. Vertical Mills. Distributors. Jobbers

      4:14
    • 6. 6 - Properties of Fabric: Weight. Drape. Durability. Softness. Construction. Breathability

      2:45
    • 7. 7 - Sustainable fabrics in an eco-friendly environment and ethical production.

      3:33
    • 8. 8 - How different fabrics "behave": Chiffon, Canvas/Taffeta, Organza, Felt.

      5:20
    • 9. 9 - Color. And Printing: Screen Printing, Heat Transfer, Sublimation, Digital.

      4:12
    • 10. 10 - Using fabric to create a Design (Part 1)*

      4:48
    • 11. 11 - (Part 2) One Design leads to a Group or Collection

      5:56
    • 12. 12 - Distressing Denim Jeans. Tie-dye Jeans.

      6:05
    • 13. 13 - Layering fabrics. Paint your own fabric. Conclusion.

      5:10
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About This Class

This Course defines the different types of Fabrics and how to use them in developing a design, a group, or a collection. In this Course you learn fabric's Characteristics and Properties and Categories such as Knits, Woven and Non-Woven; analyzing fibers: Natural and Man-Made Fibers; Plant-based and Animal-based Fibers; and different types of Weaves

This Course will not only educate you, but also inspire you to approach Fashion Designing from a different perspective: using fabrics as a source of inspiration to create your designs and develop a group or collection.

I will show you (by draping fabrics on a dress form), how different fabrics "react/behave".

This Course includes topics such as:

  • Fiber Content: know your fabric

  • Natura vs Man-made Fibers: how they affect the environment.

  • Woven vs Knits: an important difference.

  • Different types of weaves: Oxford, Twill, Herringbone, Flannel, Popeline.

  • Grainlines: Warp and Weft

  • Learn Fabric Nap as in fabrics such as: Velvet, Corduroy, Velour, Velveteen.

  • "Life" and Process of fabric: Greige Goods. Finishing Mills. Converters. Vertical Mills. Distributors. Jobbers. Important new terminology.

  • Properties of Fabric: Weight, Drape, Construction, etc.

  • Sustainable and Organic fabrics for an eco-friendly environment.

  • How different Fabrics "behave": Chiffon, Canvas/Taffeta, Organza, Felt, Jersey.

  • Color and its importance in the context of fabric selection.

  • Using Fabric as a Source of Inspiration in Designing.

  • Choosing a Theme for your Collection: What is a Theme?

  • How to distress Denim (jeans); as well as creating a Tie-dye look

Fabric is one of the most important element in fashion designing and learning the different types of fabric is essential in creating a successful collection -- learn the process.

You will learn how to distress fabric (denim) to create a unique and individual fabric surface design. And you'll learn how to Tie-dye jeans.

You will see how designers use several layers of fabric to create a "new" fabric/look.

I will also include a great website regarding sustainable eco-friendly fabrics, where you can learn in-depth the environment and how the fashion industry effects its health;

I will include the name of a terrific Textbook that has swatches in it, so that you can actually "touch/feel" the fabric.

Choosing a Theme when starting a Fashion Collection is important in focusing on a design direction and establishing a cohesive group.

The importance of color when choosing fabric in designing a collection.

If you have taken any of my other Fashion Design Courses, such as Sketching, Draping, Pattern Making, etc. this Fabric Course will add a new and important element to your proficiency in Fashion Designing.

Meet Your Teacher

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Nino Via

Fashion Design, Instructor & Consultant

Teacher

From Sketching, to Draping, to Pattern making, to Marketing & Branding, etc. Design Your Own Future!

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Transcripts

1. 1 - Introduction. Overall highlights of Course Content.: Fabrics in fashion design, fabric is the most important element in fashion design. After all, no fabric, no garment, right? If you've always wanted to learn about the different types of fabrics and categories and properties and how to use them to create a collection. Well, this course is for you. Hello everyone. My name is Nino Via and I am your instructor and welcome to another one of my courses in fashion design. In this course, I'm going to cover categories such as woven versus knits, natural fibers and man-made fibers. You will learn about yarns and fiber content and construction. New definitions such as greige goods and vertical mills and distributors and jobbers. And we'll review some grain lines, we'll discuss the different types of knits and the different types of weaving, such as Oxford, popeline, twill, herringbone, flannel. We'll take a look at sustainable fabrics and eco-friendly environments and ethical production. I'm also going to drape different fabrics on a dress form, to show you how they behave, how they move, how they hang. Okay? This course will educate you, yes, but it will also inspire you to approach fashion designing from a different perspective. You see you have to know what fabric to use. 2. 2 - Fiber Content. Natural vs Man-made fibers. Plant-Based vs Animal-Based fibers.: Fabric and textile. Two words that are interchangeable, meaning I will be using them in place of each other. They have similar meaning. The textile industry works way ahead of everybody else. They know what you will be wearing 2, 3 years from now. You see, they have to come up with and create new fabrics, new colors, new fibers. And speaking of fibers, Let's start with fiber content. So what is a fiber? Well, think of a fiber as a filament, a thread, a thread-like peace. And we'll start by dividing fibers into two categories. Natural fibers and man-made fibers. Starting with natural fibers, they also can be broken down into two further categories, plant-based fibers and animal-based fibers. Plant-based fibers are fibers such as cotton. Cotton is definitely one of the most widely used material, right? It's soft, it's transparent, it's easily Island. Linen is another plant-based fiber. Linen is one of the oldest fabrics in the world. It's used a lot in the summer because it absorbs humidity and it keeps the body temperature cool. And then we have fibers such as hemp, flax, bamboo, and others. Now, animal-based fibers are fibers such as wool and cashmere, camel hair, alpaca, angora, morehair and silk. Yes, silk comes from the cocoon of the silk worm, used in elegant and sophisticated garments, right? So these are natural fibers. Then we have man-made fibers or synthetic fibers, which are polyester, nylon, acrylic, acetate, rayon. viscose. And spandex. Lycra is a brand name for spendex. So these that I just listed are fibers. Fibers are then made into yarns, which are then woven or knitted to create fabric. Sometimes a textile company, which by the way is also known as a mill M I L L. So if you see the word mill, it means same as a company. They will create a blend where they will combine fibers, say for example, polyester and cotton, a Poly/cotton blend, right? Or in some cases, you'll see, you'll notice in the label of a garment you will see like 50 percent cotton, 45 percent polyester, and 5% Lycra or rayon or some other combination. Those are blends, right? We also have minor categories called specialty yarns or novelty yarns, where the yarn is irregular. It's made, it's done on purpose, right? They have a unique quality to it. Say for example, sometimes you'll see that the yarn might have loops in the middle of the yarn, which looks like it's a mistake, but it's done on purpose, such as boucle' or chenille. Now, in the next class we're going to look at wovens versus knits. I'll see you next class. 3. 3 - Woven vs Knits. Jersey, Double-knit, Tricot. Oxford, Twill, etc. , Warp and Weft: If I had to break down fabrics into two major categories, I would say it's knits and wovens. So I have here a T shirt and a shirt. Now, a t-shirt almost always is made out of knit fabrics. How do we know that? See... knit fabric stretches It stretches horizontally and stretches vertically. and it stretches in all different directions. That's a knit fabric, that's the property of a knit fabric. Whereas in a woven fabric like the shirt right here, if I tried to do what I just did with the t-shirt, you can see that a woven fabric does not "give", it doesn't stretch in either direction. So that's the main difference between a knit fabric and woven fabric. And I know that you guys are familiar with muslin. muslin is a woven fabric. You see, and you can tell because I can pull this thread right here just like that. In a woven fabric, the only way that a woven fabric can stretch a little bit, is if it's on the bias 45 degree angle. Okay, Let's start with knits. Let's define what it is and the different types of fabrics. Knitting is the process of inter-looping of yarns or interlocking of loops. Some of the types of knits are jersey, or a standard jersey, also known as single knit or plain knit. Jersey is made by using ONE set of needles. Cotton jersey is the most common type of knits. And it's very soft and it's fluid and is very popular for t-shirts. Then we have double-knits. Now, in a double-knit, the structure is created with TWO sets of needles and more strands of yarn that a single needle double-knits give a more structured and more stable look to the garments and are suitable for pants and skirts, dresses, leggings, and so on. We also have tricot as a type of knit fabric. Tricot is a material that can be made from natural or synthetic fibers. Very popular use of tricot fabric is for women's undergarments. Lingerie, bras, for example, allowing not only support, but also comfort. And then we have lace, right? I think we're all familiar with lace. Those are the major types of knit fabrics that you should be familiar with. Okay, so now let's move on to woven fabrics. Not all woven are created equal, meaning there are different types of waves, such as Oxford. Yeah, you might have heard of an Oxford shirt, for example, right? If you look at Oxford shirt, It's very formal and it's used a lot in business looks. It is characterized by using one color thread, say like blue, for example, and one white thread, which gives a dotted appearance. We have twill, twill has a series of parallel and diagonal ribbing that gives the fabric a series of diagonal surface lines. Herringbone. Herringbone has a specific look which is characterized by its diagonal. weave; we have flannel. Flannel is usually soft and warm and characterized by different size stripes in both horizontal and vertical direction using different color yarns. Then we have popeline (poplin). Popeline is another type of weave, popeline is a plain weave with warp threads twice the number of weft threads, which gives the illusion of stripes, but it's not a striped family. Now, I just used two words which you might not be familiar with. Warp and weft, right? What is that? So let's take a minute to review grain lines because these two words have to do with the grain line of the fabric. Warp is the straight grain. Warp is the straight grain which is parallel to the selvage. And weft is the cross grain. And of course, there's always bias, which is the 45 degree angle. Now we have another category of fabrics which are not knits and not woven, they are non-woven, such as felt. For example, felt is produced by condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers or synthetic fibers. Felt never frays. And then we have hides, hides as in leather and suede, which is the skin of an animal. I'm going to show you how to lay patterns on a skin. I'm also going to show you something about Velvet is very unique to you next class. 4. 4 - Leather/Hides. Fabrics with a nap: Velvet, Corduroy, Velour, Velveteen.: Okay, hides, which is another word for leather or skins, right? Unlike, unlike fabric, which comes in, rolls, skins don't come in rolls. It's the skin of an animal, right? It has an irregular shape. Irregular shape. So which means that when you're laying down your patterns, you know, you have to work within the shape of the skin. So what happens, in these situations is that a lot of waste occurs, like this area right here is pretty much wasted, right? So what they do with leather is they will put, seems, if you'll notice that leather jackets have a lot of seems, why? Because the smaller the pieces, the more you can utilize every little, every little corner, because you want to use every inch possible, skins are very expensive. So you have to keep this in mind when you're laying down patterns onto a skin and unto leather. Okay, Let's talk about velvet. Now. Velvet has a unique characteristic to it, known as nap: N A P. Let's see what that means. I have here a pair of corduroy pants, velvet, corduroy, they have a nap. What that means is if I run my hand in one direction, say going down, right, you'll notice that the fabric is smooth. It formally in the opposite direction. It's not smooth, It's rough. That is known as a nap. Now, what happens is if you have your fabric, here's your roll of fabric. And you're laying down a pair of pants for example. Okay? So here's your pair of pants. And sometimes to use every inch of the fabric. What pattern makers and cutters and designers do, they try to interlock all the pieces so that every little inch is used. In the case of velvet, corduroy, which has a nap, right? You have to keep in mind that all the pieces have to go in ONE direction. Otherwise, what happens if you cut one pant with the nap going in one direction and the other leg in a different direction, you're going to notice a difference in the shade, even though it's black, you will see that it looks different. One leg looks really dark black and the other is like kind of a gray. So you have to keep this in mind when you're working with velvet and corduroy, you have to lay down your patterns going in the same direction. Don't forget that.... see you in the next class. 5. 5 - Greige goods. Finishing Mills. Converters. Vertical Mills. Distributors. Jobbers: So we've been following the life of fabric, right? Starting with fibers, which then becomes yarns, which are then woven or knitted to become fabric. When the fabric has been woven or knitted that initial piece, that initial roll of fabric is known as greige goods. Now the word greige good, is spelled GREIGE, , and some people pronounce it greige. But in the industry. Oftentimes you will hear it pronounced gray just like the color gray. So in this demo, I'm going to pronounce it gray. All right, so greige goods, thus raw material. Greige goods then goes to a finishing mill, which is then cleaned or bleached and color is added to it. If you see labels such as PFD means prepared for, dyeing, as in color. And PFP stands for prepared for printing. The next step that greige goods goes through is called a converter. What is a converter? Well, let's look at denim as an example. You've seen denim that has been distressed, right? Ripped, torn. You can bleach it, whatever comes to mind. You can do all that; anyway. So a converter, or converters are companies that will take your greige goods, your raw material, and manipulate the fabric to create a certain specific look, a certain style. Those are known as converters. Let's look at a vertical mils. Again, the word mill stands for factory or plant or shop. So in a vertical mill, everything regarding the fabric is done all under one roof. So in other words, fibers, yarns, fabric, bleaching, dyeing, all under one roof. That's called a vertical mill. Also the word vertical in the context of the fashion industry, also means a vertical operation. Means that the company does everything such as: they make the samples, they do the cutting, the sewing, the grading, finishing, and so on. Next we have distributors. And just like the word says, they distribute fabrics to the world. They sell the fabric. Their job is to sell fabric to the industry and the public. And finally, we have jobbers. Now what is jobbers? Let's say we have a textile mill, let's call it Company ABC. They made 10 thousand yards of fabric, right? They sell it to the industry. And at the end of the season, they have maybe 500 yards leftover. They just couldn't get rid of it, couldn't sell it, right? They will sell it to jobbers. So imagine Jobbers as being like a retail store or stores that only sell small rolls, small quantity like 50 yards, or 100 yards of a specific fabric. And once that is sold, that's it. There's no more available. You can't really reorder it, so you're done. So this is terminology. This is the language, vocabulary, definitions, that you need to know and learn, especially if you're dealing on a professional level where let's say you're speaking with a manufacturer and looking for a specific type of fabric, or you're buying fabric and you want to get a specific look, a specific type of fabric. You have to know how to communicate so you get what you're looking for, what you want. Okay, so learn. In the next class, we're going to look at properties of fabric. All right, I'll see you in next class. 6. 6 - Properties of Fabric: Weight. Drape. Durability. Softness. Construction. Breathability: Okay, I know that for some of you, this information, all these words, it might be a bit dry, a bit boring, but trust me, you want to be educated. When you walk into a store or when you're speaking with the manufacturer, you want to present yourself like you know, what's going on, what they're talking about. You don't want to sound ignorant in the subject of fabrics. So please hang in there. This is important information. So on that note, let's look at properties of fabric. When we look at some basic properties of fabric, there are certain features which we have to consider, such as weight, w, e, i, g, h, t refers to the thickness, the weight, how light or heavy is it. A top weight or a lightweight, for example, is suitable for blouses. Whereas a bottom weight would be used for pants or coats or dresses. And so on... The next is drape, which means how does it drape, how does it hang, how does it move? Is it fluid or is it stiff, does it have liquid-like properties? Silk, chiffon, rayon, satin fabrics are some of the best fabrics that drape really nicely. Next is durability. In simple terms. It just means, will it last a long time? How long will this garment last before it's worn-out and must be thrown away. Next we have softness, fabric softness has different meanings, but it refers to the comfort performance and smoothness. Cotton would be a perfect example of that. Next is construction. or structure can be as simple is it knit or is it woven? But it also refers to the density of the yarns in the warp and the weft direction; the tighter, the weave, the more yarns you will use and the more expensive the fabric. And lastly, breathability is the ability of the fabric to permit water vapor to pass through and allow air to circulate through the weave of the fabric. Does it breathe? So these are some of the properties of fabric. Okay, I will see you next class. 7. 7 - Sustainable fabrics in an eco-friendly environment and ethical production.: We are all conscious and aware of our planet and its environmental issues. We have a moral obligation to protect the environment and promote sustainable development for future generations. Sustainable fabrics, eco-friendly fashion. What does this all mean? Why is this so important? Because the type of fabric used to make that garment will affect how much damage it causes on the environment. When it comes to pollution, the fashion industry is one of the largest contributors in the world. And besides polluting the environment, the materials used to make that fabric affects water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Rain forest destruction, micro plastic pollution, soil degradation, and landfill waste. As designers, we are becoming more and more aware of this. And we're turning to better ways to manufacture of fabrics, better for people and better for the environment. Start thinking of organic fibers, such as organic cotton, which is grown without pesticides, without synthetic fertilizers and processed without chemicals. Not to mention that certified organic provides fair pay and safe conditions for farmers. And the same goes for organic hemp, which requires less water than cotton. And it actually absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere. And the same is true for organic linen and organic bamboo. When bamboo is harvest, you don't have to kill the plant itself, which means that bamboo can renew and be regrown very quickly. There are over 30 eco-friendly fibers and fabrics available, whether it's natural fibers such as organic wool and Marino wool, alpaca wool, or synthetic fibers such as recycled polyester or semi-synthetic, such as lyocell, LYOCELL sometimes just known as Tencell, which is the trademark name of the fabric given by the Austrian manufacturer Lensik. Modal, MODAL is another semi-synthetic fabric known for its top notch comfort and breathability. If you want to read more about this subject, and I encourage you to do so. There's a great website that I recommend, and it's called SustainableJungle.com. SustainableJungle.com. So let's all be more aware of how we, as consumers and as designers can make a difference and create a better world to live it. See you next class. 8. 8 - How different fabrics "behave": Chiffon, Canvas/Taffeta, Organza, Felt. : Okay, in this video, I'm going to show you how a different fabrics behave. When I say behave, I mean how they move, how they hang, how they drape. This is chiffon. Chiffon is a very lightweight see-through, super lightweight fabric. And as you can see, it moves really nicely. Look how it drapes really well. very soft, liquid-like, right? And it hangs in a very vertical shape, very, vertical silhouette. It doesn't stand out as we will see later on with other fabrics like say, for example, taffeta, right? We'll give you a whole different silhouette. This is Chiffon, very fluid, very fluid flowing fabric, Chiffon. Okay, here we have a similar design as the previous one in the chiffon. Similar meaning that there's no seems, there's no princess seems, there's no pockets, just piece of fabric with some gathers, shirring, at the waistline. But look at the difference in the silhouette, in the shape of this skirt versus the chiffon skirt. This almost as a, an, A-line shape to it. Why? Because this fabric is Canvas. Canvas popeline taffeta. They have a certain strength to it, a certain stiffness to it. Here's a piece of fabric right here. And first of all, it's, it's woven and it's really hard, right? So it retains the shape. It really comes down to this, comes down to what is your design? What are you trying to achieve as far as silhouette? What shape are you trying to achieve and what fabric will give you that silhouette, that shape, right? That's how you approach designing. Some designers will find the fabric first and then create from there. But some designers will sketch first and then find the fabric to achieve that design. If that's the case, right, When you're designing and you're sketching, think what fabric would give me this shape, this design, this silhouette, and then go find that fabric. Okay? And this is organza. Look how shiny it is. It's beautiful fabric, organza, satin, they have a beautiful shine to it. Great draping quality drapes really well. There's a lot you can do with it. You see a lot of wedding dresses which use organza and satin fabrics. It's a beautiful luxurious draping fabric. And this is felt. Felt is not a woven fabric. not a knitted fabric. It's a non-woven. It doesn't fray. See that, felt is pressed and compressed fibers together to create this effect. And look what you can do with this kind of fabric. But get the shapes. And you can create, right? Just from putting some gathers into the waistline, you can create some beautiful cascades and a scarf. This is jersey knit fabric, so it stretches. This particular piece is nylon and spandex. So it has a lot of elasticity. The thing with the knit fabrics, the beauty with knits is that you can design and fit. You can create a design without any seams or any darts. Why? Because it stretches, right? You would put some side seems. But it's very easy to create something really simple and beautiful. You can have a little elastic piece or some kind of a button or some closure right there, right. You can do one shoulder dress with it. Right? You can do cowl neck lines. So get some fabric. Start getting creative. Have fun doing it. Draping with fabric is such an amazing vehicle to create new ideas, new designs, use it. 9. 9 - Color. And Printing: Screen Printing, Heat Transfer, Sublimation, Digital. : Color is a very important element in fashion designing. When it comes to fabric, it plays a really important role. And you notice when you walk into a store a clothing store and you gravitate towards a clothing rack. And there's one item in particular that draws your attention. It's usually the color. The color will attract your attention. And color can be applied to fabrics Different methods. I'm going to show you two different fabrics here. One is this woven fabric. And when you look at the right side and the wrong side, you know, it almost looks the same. You really can't tell what is the right side and wrong side. And that's because this fabric is woven with different color yarns. Each yarn has its own color. So it's hard to differentiate between the right side and the wrong side. Now, this one, instead, if you look at this fabric, if you look at the other side, Look at this, you can obviously tell the difference between the right side and the wrong side. Why? Because this was printed onto the fabric, this pattern, these green and red stripes, were printed onto Gray goods, whereas this was woven directly into the fabric itself using different color yarns. Now, when it comes to printing, there are different ways to print on fabrics. You, nowadays we all wear t-shirts. And you've seen the t-shirt that has a logo or a design. That design was printed onto the tissue using screen printing or silk screening. That's one method of printing onto fabric. There is sublimation, there is heat transfer, digital printing, and so on. The right side, the right side of the fabric is known as the face of the fabric. The right side is the face of the fabric and the wrong side is just the wrong side. Okay, back to color. Start paying attention at all the different shades of a particular color. Say for example, lipstick. If you were buying red lipstick, look how many shades of red or pink are available, right? So you can't say, well, let's use a red fabric. You have to really get specific; if you told your significant other, I want a red dress for Christmas. Well, you better be specific as to what color red, what shade of red; color has properties such as hue, saturation, brightness, temperature. So you have to get specific start paying attention or odd different shades of any particular color. Doesn't really matter what color. If it's red and yellow pink, purple, gray, right? Look, these shades of gray right here that I found, right, Look, it goes from very light to very dark, into black almost. So there are endless possibilities and they change every season. Some are very muted, Some are very pastel. So start paying attention at color. Color is really important in fashion designing by particularly in the context of fabric. Okay, see you next class. 10. 10 - Using fabric to create a Design (Part 1)*: Okay, In this video, we're going to look at Fabric as the source of inspiration to create a design, a group, and a collection. As I mentioned earlier, the industry, the textile industry works way ahead of anybody else. So the designer, usually, we'll look at fabric as a starting point, as a source of ideas, right? So I'm gonna take you through a process on how to create a group and a collection. But there really isn't a secret formula. There's not one way to create a collection. Each designer, each artist, you, will have your own way of designing. You will create and come up with your own technique, your own method, right? So this is just one process and I'll take you through and we'll start with one design and us and I'll show you, you'll see how from one idea you can go into another idea and then to another and to another. And before you know it, you've got different possibilities, different options to choose from, and then create a cohesive group and the collection that you can execute. All right, so let's take a look. So here we have this cute little dress. We have three fabrics. In this dress, we have a solid red for the top portion. We have this red with white polka dots for the skirt part and the sleeves, and a solid white for this cute little Peter Pan collar. So obviously you can't sell at designing in only one color. So you say, You know what? We can make it available in pink. So it's pink with white pockets and it could be yellow with my polka dots and purple and blue and whatever. It could be, black with white polka dots. Why not? And you can use black with white polka dots as a fabric in and of itself and create a skirt. So you have a dress, a skirt, you add a pair of pants to it, a jacket and so on. Before you know it you have a group. And then you say, well, we can have a second skirt as an option, combining a solid black with black and white polka dots. Now, you can take that even further and say, well, we have black with white polka dots. Why don't we add a stripe to go with that same color combination of black and white. But now we're adding a whole new element to it. Stripe design. Or you can say, you know what, We have these big white dots, white pocket. That's, why don't we add little, is cute little white polka dots. So you have two different designs to different fabrics to collaborate with. And furthermore, you can say, you know why they settled the white pocket. That's why don't we do it in black, black dots, right? And if you want to really take it a whole new step further with the stripe and new elements. You say, You know what? Why don't we add a whole new design pattern? A whole new idea here, still black and white, but it's obviously a different pattern right? In the fabric. So you see how before you know, when you go from one idea into another, into another and you keep evolving and developing a small little groups. So before you know it, you say, You know what? We have a whole new design. You're cute little dress that started as a little black and red and white pockets. Now we have this idea. It's still polka dots and why didn't read theme? And so this design can develop into a small group and then groups become collections. And that's one way to develop a group and a collection. This is just one option. Our eye. So now I've got some homework for you, your project. I invite you to create your own design, one designed to start with, right? You can destroy ways, you can do this. You can go to your local fabric store and choose 3 fabrics that you like and create one garment, one outfit. Or you can just sketch your idea on paper just a sketch right? Combining three different color combinations to create one design. And then we'll move on to creating a group in the next video. All right, so that's your homework. I'll see you next video. 11. 11 - (Part 2) One Design leads to a Group or Collection: Okay, So in the last video, we ended up with one design, one idea. Let's take a look and see how we can create a group from one design. Now, keep in mind that when you're starting a collection, you should have a theme in mind. What is a Theme? What do I mean by that? A Theme is a unifying and dominant idea or motif that keeps your designs cohesive so that they, your designs, look like they all belong together as a group, right? So you should have a theme in mind when you're studying a collection. In this demo that I'm working on, I used polka dots, but you can have vintage as a theme or nautical, or stripes or the sixties as a period piece, science fiction, anything goes, whatever inspires you to create a collection, that should be your theme. So that as you're creating, as you're adding pieces to collection, they should be cohesive and there should be a thread, a thread that keeps all these ideas together following your theme. Okay, So let's take a look. Okay, So in the last video, we ended up with this design, which again, there are three color combinations. If we have the polka dot, we have the red ribbon and the trim at the bottom. And the skirt is a floral. If you look at the floral background, color is white. So white could be a fourth color, as well as this background of this polka dot, this blue or navy or black, that could be a fifth color. So the idea here is to build a group based on this one design. For example, you could add skirts, separates, right? We can use the polka dots as one fabric and change the color combination, create a different skirt, different design, or combine that with a solid color and create a third, fourth, fifth, and so on, create skirts. And then of course you can do tops. And here we have a polka dot top to go with a solid color bottom. And the reverse is true here where it's a solid top with a polka dot bottom. And then you can really play around and experiment and try different combinations, top and bottom, different color combinations and so on. And you could add dresses, Different, different designer dresses in solid colors or, or polka dots, so that you started to build a group. And then you can add a skirt to go with a solid bottom, solid pants, solid color skirt. And then eventually you start creating what's known as separate, meaning separate pieces. This is the same combination. If you look back at the original design here, these colors are the same, see?. It's the red and white and the polka dots, but they're now used to create separate design, separate ideas so that, so that you can give options to the buyer. You can also add accessories, scarfs and hats and shoes and so on. So eventually you end up with a, what's known as a group which becomes a collection. Here we have some tops, we have a top here and here we have some bottoms, pants, shorts and skirts and dresses. Eventually, this group becomes a part of a collection so that you're giving the buyer options, you give them the buyer different ways to buy your line, your group, your collection. For example, a buyer at Bloomingdale's might buy different items, different designs than, say for example, a buyer at Nordstrom's or Neiman Marcus. So you want to give the option to buy or to purchase according to what their customer is. So that is one way to develop a group and a collection, see. This is just one way to create a group. Okay, So that was one approach, one way to create a group. Again, keep in mind the theme. And keep in mind, what season are you working on? A spring summer collection or is it a fall winter collection? Obviously, if it's spring summer you want some lightweight fabrics. Whereas if it was, if it's winter, you want some heavier weight material. Okay. And also when you're buying fabric, when you're mixing and matching fabric, keep in mind, what are you using that fabric for? If it's a lightweight for a top, for example, versus a bottom way for skirts and pants and jackets and so on. So keep in mind the way of the fabric. Are you using that fabric for? Alright, so now you see how a group comes together. Your homework for this lesson is to come up and create and design a small group. It doesn't have to be very complex and complicated. Keep it simple. 4567 pieces may be more if you'd like to. Separate tops, bottoms, dresses, designs that work well together, cohesive with the theme. And let's see what you got. Okay, I'll see you next class. 12. 12 - Distressing Denim Jeans. Tie-dye Jeans.: Alright, in this video, we're going to look at how to distress fabric. What does that mean? Well, you've seen those jeans that have been torn and ripped and bleached, and all that, I'm going to show you how to do it. Now in the industry, there are professional machines that do that, but I'm going to show you how to do it using scissors and razor blades and sandpaper and bleach and all that. So let's take a look. Okay, We'll start with a pair of pants or old or new and some sandpaper. Coarse, rough, not fine. Start by rubbing the surface of your pant. This might take a while, so be patient. Keep rubbing it until you can see that the color begins to change. And you keep doing until you get a color that you're happy with. You can also use a razor to remove the surface of the pant of the fabric. You can fold the denim over slightly to create an even more interesting texture. And you'll do one leg and you do the other leg or wherever you'd like to put it. Next, we're going to cut the actual fabric. I would suggest that you put a piece of wood or cardboard or newspaper and magazine so you don't cut through the back of the leg. And you can use an X-Acto knife. You can use scissors. I prefer scissors. And you can put 2, 3, 4 cuts in the leg. And then using tweezers, you'll start by pulling the threads from the edge of the cut. You'll notice that there are blue threads and white threads. You want to keep the white threads don't cut them. Do not remove the white threads, only the blue thread. You'll do each side, each edge of the cut. And you keep doing it until all the blue threads and the blue fabric is gone. And you do that for each cut. And just keep removing the blue portion of the fabric. Again, keep the white threads attached. Don't cut those off. You can also use the scissors to snip the edge to give it a fresh look and keep removing those blue threads. And you can also remove the edge of say, the pocket, for example. And using your razor to, again distress the surface of the fabric. And you keep doing the pockets. You can do really any area that you like. It could be the pocket, it could be the waist span. You can use your razor, you can use your sandpaper if you want to. Now you could stop here if you're happy with the results and you say, Great, I love it, I'm done. But why stop here? Let's keep going. Let's add some bleach and create a tie dyed look. You'll need rubber bands and some bleach and some water. Start by folding the fabric and putting the rubber bands everywhere. There is no set specific order. It doesn't really matter. Fold the fabric and apply the rubber band really, really tight. Now denim is a heavier weight fabric. So the size of the rubber band does matter. You should use a heavier size rubber band and a quarter of an inch maybe. And keep adding rubber bands everywhere. You can't go wrong here really. So don't be afraid. Put them on the leg, on the waist band and the front and the back. Fold the leg in half and add another rubber band. Make sure the rubber bands are nice and tight. Keep folding the fabric and adding more rubber bands. It might end up with a very strange looking shape, kinda like this, but that's perfect. Next, you'll need a bucket water at some bleach, three-part water, one-part bleach, submerge the pant in the bucket, use a wooden spoon or wouldn't stick. That is soap for two hours. If you see those little bubbles of air bubbles, That's perfect. Let the air come up, wait two hours and carefully drain the water. I'm using rubber gloves and remove the rubber bands. I've found that it gets a little tricky to remove them. So go ahead and use scissors. It'll make life a lot easier. Removal the rubber bands. And the final step is the washer and dryer and a whole new design that you have created. Very unique. No one has that design except you. So now you know how to take your old pair of jeans for new and make it your own. Make him unique. When you start bleaching fabric, you never know what you're going to get. Really, It's always an experiment, really a new invention, a way to create a new design. I, so I invite you to get a pair of jeans or t-shirts or a dress and do one, right. As I said earlier, you never know what you're going to get with these tie-dye projects. So I would love to see your projects for this class. And please share. See you next class. 13. 13 - Layering fabrics. Paint your own fabric. Conclusion.: So I've been encouraging you guys to use fabric as a source of inspiration, as a starting point to design your collection. And along with that comes using layers, using fabrics as layers, meaning this designer, right? Use two completely different fabrics to create this design. This top is, obviously it's black. This one is turquoise. This one is a woven shear. Looks like a chiffon type of fabric. This is a Jersey, two completely different items, but together create a really interesting and cool look. Ok. And along with that is the skirt. Now this skirt is also two layers. There is a white lace and satin. And together they create this effect. So this is a white on white obviously. But what if we have a different color Skirt underneath? It will give you a completely different look. So start playing around with fabrics, combining fabrics, layering fabrics, mixing and matching to create a third possibility, a third option, okay, So play around, see what you can come up with and along the lines of creating new fabrics. How about creating your own fabric by painting it, Dior collaborated with artists George Condo to create a unique one of the kind print, check this out. Did you see this? Dior collaborated with artists George Condo to create this amazing collection. Check this out. Art meets fashion. Let this be an inspiration for you. Create your own fashion art. Go to your local art supply store, get some markers, find an old shirt, t-shirt, dress, whatever. And bring out the artist in you. Create your own fashion art and have fun. Alright, so go to an art supply store, get some paint appropriate for fabric, and start creating your own fabrics. I would love to see your own original artwork on a shirt, a T-Shirt, whenever, right, have fun with it. You can use markers, paints, spray paint, try different mediums. I would love to see your work share with us. Students have asked me what's a good textbook regarding fabrics to use. There are many options out there obviously, but there's one in particular that's very unique. It's called Fabric for Fashion. The swatch book. If you don't know what a swatch is, it's a piece of fabric, small piece at three inches by three inches or so. And what makes this book unique is that this book has swatches, which means you can actually touch and feel the fabric, right? You see, when it comes to studying textile, there's nothing like going into a fabric store, spent hours in there and start looking at February, looking at the colors, touch the fabric field and family. Let the fabric talk to you, let in inspiring you. There is no other way to learn textile mean that there is, but there's nothing like it. You know what, it's like? It's like if I said to you, read a book on how to ride a bicycle? Well, you can read a book on how to ride a bicycle, but can you really learn how to ride a bicycle? No. You have to get on the bike and ride. Fabric is the same thing. You know, you have to go into a store and start touching the fabric and feel the fabric. How does it hang, does it move. And how does it feel, right, what does the hand of the fabric let the fabric talk to you, let it inspire you to create your next collection. Okay, so this concludes this course on fabrics. I hope you've enjoyed the course and check out my other courses in fashion designing from sketching and draping, pattern making, lots of pattern making classes, et cetera. So I hope to see you in the next course. You take care, be well, and "Ciao, ci vediamo in classe".