Experimental techniques in Cinema 4D : nested cloners + formula & step effectors | Dylan Slater | Skillshare

Experimental techniques in Cinema 4D : nested cloners + formula & step effectors

Dylan Slater, To conjure images of the future

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7 Lessons (40m)
    • 1. intro clip

    • 2. navigation hotkeys

    • 3. pyramid deformers+subdivision surface

    • 4. pyramid cloner setup

    • 5. formula adjustment + red cloner

    • 6. 2nd cloner + physical sky

    • 7. materials + render settings


About This Class

In this class, we'll go through using the "nested cloners" technique to create variety using simple primitives, and adding two different effectors for increased form interest. Using the for effectors native abilities, we will create an animation using zero keyframes. 


1. intro clip : What's up, guys? Odds doing from experimental render tactics. And in today's class, we're going to be hopping into Cinema four D and we're going to remake this image right here. So first, we're going to start off modeling this blue piece in the background. Then we're gonna move to modeling these to read pieces and finally, at the end for our lighting. We're gonna add this physical sky and a strange of the color of the clouds for some visual interest. And now, while we're doing the class because of this formula, affect her right here. We're actually going to create an animated piece. Just is a byproduct with, and that's going to involve no key frames. So what it's going to look like it's going to turn out something like that, which is pretty sweet. And of course, it totally depends on how you arrange your pieces, what it's made out of everything like that. But the formula effect is a really great tool, and you can get interesting stuff. I mean, just within a couple frames, you can have something totally different, so that right there is different than say something like that. Yes, I guess we'll see you guys in the next video 2. navigation hotkeys: All right. So here we are on cinema four D. Um, I do have a few extra things added. Inch my layout here. This right here is a free plug in it. It's called Python something. You can get it for free on the max on website, and then these pieces right here are just said the sculpting tools. And this is just a little custom layout I saved. So I was working. I was trying these out, and I I wanted to save the sculpting tools the next. I was doing a lot of sculpting at the time. It's just a useful thing tohave. If you do want to arrange your layout and a custom way, whichever you know windowpanes, whatever you want to call it, it's safe. For example, my materials. Ah, where? Down here. Originally, I think in in the initial max on set up, and basically you just grab. If you didn't catch it, these 12 dots right here and you can drag it to any whether this white line highlights it. That's where you can drag it to you. So I just set up my materials and objects right underneath each other, just going to give the objects a little more room. Another thing is I do have my grid turned off. So the grid, if it's on it looks like this. And, um, if you don't know how to navigate with hot keys, I just like to review this really quickly. Whenever I'm starting a class, if you want to tumble around the view port like this now you just hold Ault and drag, and that will allow you to tumble around. One is to pan back and forth like this. That's the one key, and then that to keep is to zoom in and out. So those are really useful hot keys because you could just get around a lot faster. I should also mention that the when you're using Ault it will tumble around whatever is selected. So right now, I just have this cube. If I hit all, it will navigate around the Cube. But if the cubes no longer there you are, as long as it's not selected, then even if it's there, but you don't have it selected, it will just navigate around the origin point right here. All right, so that's just basic navigation. Also, I guess I should mention scaling and translation and rotation as well. So let's go grab a capsule this time. So again, Ault to tumble around one to pan back and forth and to zoom in and out. So now we have this capsule and let's we already had translation selected. Let's say we wanted to get rotation. So how do we do that? Well, when a translation is active, you just tap are on the keyboard, and that will give me the little gumball. And you can just roll that around however you like. Um, if you also want to rotate in very specific amounts, if you hold shift and then if you grab it and then hold shift, I'll move it in increments of 10 degrees. So you can see there 40 50 60 70 and so on I would bring it back. And if we wanted to get the translation again, translation is E, and he will just allow you to move it around along the world. Axes, whichever you prefer. And let's say we wanted to scale this uniformly well, we just tap t on the keyboard and so t will allow you to scale it. I'm in whichever way you prefer. And then if we want to get back to translation again, just e so e for translation Ours rotation and t is for scaling, right? So that's just basic hot keys that you should know as well as navigation. All right, In the next clip, we're actually going to get to the fun stuff and to start modeling your pieces. See there. 3. pyramid deformers+subdivision surface : All right, so that would be covered. Hot keys. Let's get right into it. First thing we're going to do is going to navigate to our primitives over here. I just hold that down while you're clicking it, and we're gonna grab Pyramid for today. So here's our pyramid. We're going to adjust some of the some of its attributes said before we get started on the rest. So this pyramid, it did end up being quite large on that render the you guys saw. So I'm going to bring that up, do the size that it was on and it ended up being like 11 92 across the board. You guys don't have to make it that big. I think that's just how large it ended up being for me. But I did bring these segments up quite a lot. Thanks. We're going to be bending it around and doing some other stuff. I also change the orientation to Z. Plus, I didn't use the different orientations before, so this will play into how the diff or MERS and the defectors will alter it, especially with this amount of segments. All right, so we've got that and I'm just gonna move it to the coordinates of where it waas. So when the X I'm going to move it to 9 88 again, you guys don't have to do this. If you can move it around in whichever way you prefer. I'm just going to remake exactly what you guys sauce. You can see the technique and what was occurring and so on. Um, I think that's all we gotta do, at least for this pyramid right here. Next thing we're going to do is go up to our def or MERS, and first we're going to grab a bulge. It of former swears that at there we go right, so we're just going to drop the bulge to former right onto it. In that way, it's working in the hierarchy onto the pyramid. So the bulge object. Let's go toe. Let's go to the properties here. Um, we're going to bring this size up quite a lot on this ball job decked. So we're going to have 9 33? Or is it 9 33? Oh, sorry, 9 93 And the why it's going to be 9 33 and in the Z. Where else we're gonna do 9 33 limited mode. We're going to keep that. And of course, nothing's happening so far on The reason for that is we haven't adjusted our strength. So we're going to go in, do the strength, and we're just gonna pull it up 69% and already Now we're starting to get somewhere. Next thing we're going to dio actually, that's not too bad of a shape right there. The next thing we're going to do is adjust our curvature and this bad boy is going way up. We're going to bring it to 16. 17. So yeah, it's pretty big. That's pretty crazy already. That's like semi starships stuff. If we were to reorient that and we're going to add a fill, it, um, that's actually looking pretty good right there. That's kind of crazy. Now, the next thing we need at their boat is I think, what is going to adjust the coordinates here so it's more accurate. So the ex were actually going to drop to zero. The why. Let's see what's happening in the wise to 31 to 31. And I think the Z, we're just gonna zero that right out. Oh, zero that Right out and yeah, it's looking pretty good. All right. So our next defector that we're going to drop in here is we're going to go. Sorry. Our next dip Former is the Taper. So we're just gonna drop the taper right onto the pyramid here, and, ah, the Taper is Let's go over here to the object, and we're going to bring this one up again. 29 33. Going to bring the Y up to Sorry. That's 9 93 93 again. And over here. And I believe this one is Z. We're going to do 9 33 All right, so let's just hide our bulge effect. As we can see, the Taper is not really doing anything yet. And again, That's because we haven't turned a strength up eso the strength on this one. We're just gonna put it like to 49. All right, so that's already kind of interesting. The curvature on this is also going to go way up, so we're gonna do like, 1000 and 48%. So that is pretty big. And again, we're gonna add the feli um, rights that's looking pretty funky, I think. Next, let's go to the coordinates on our Taper X. We're gonna zero that right out on our why going to have just 21.5 And for our Z, we're also gonna zero that right out. All right, so that is our basic working piece, and that is pretty weird, man. And let's just double check yet. We got our fill it going on and over the mode. We're actually going to change this Teoh Unlimited just because in limited, you can see down here. I wanted to sort of pull it over a bit more, and this was too sharp. So bring out Toe Unlimited. That's looking a bit better rights. And finally, for the pyramid, we're just going to drop it into a subdivision surface that it's a bit smoother. Um, yeah, I think I'm good with that. I'm just gonna hide the tapers. We don't see that. Yes, so good. With that piece in the next clip, we're actually going to drop this into a cloner and set that cloner up. And then we're going to start in our honor, affect ear's. All right. So see you guys. There 4. pyramid cloner setup : All right, So now we've got our in our subdivision surface happening. We're going to grab our first Kloner. And if you guys saw on my class, I think from the other day, um, we were going to use the nested cloner technique again. So if you don't know what that is, well, just watch it in a hurry here. So for this first, Kloner, that's a drop. It's going to radio. Um, that's already looking pretty funky. Next, we're going to increase the count on this. We're gonna have a ton of these guys. Let's do like, yeah, like, 58. Um, and let's bring it into the xz plane. All right, so that's looking pretty good. We're just gonna turn on render instances, so that doesn't have so much to think about. And now we're going to need are defectors. So let's go over here to mow graph. And with the cloner selected, we're going to go into effect, er and we're going to grab the step defector first. So already that's, you know, fairly interesting unto itself for these step effect. Er, I'm just gonna quickly adjust the coordinates here. So on the why I was just bring this to, like 1000 38 it's just moving a step. Affect her over there. We're going tohave in the parameter. The scale is going to be turned on, but we're gonna leave it as is just gonna pull this over a little bit, We're going to turn on rotation and in the h, it's going to be negative. 262. Not too bad in the in pan. I think it is. It's going to be negative. 71. Okay, Pretty good. And in the B, we're going to go negative 94. All right, so that's sort of that's fine by itself. But there's a little bit more weaken. Do I think that's all that's needed for the step affect? Er, next thing we're going to do is again with the cloner selected. We're going to go into mo graph going to grab our formula, affect her right here, and for a formula affect er very first thing that we need to do is come in and adjust this formula right here. Eso what? I set up waas. Something is sort of interesting. Instead of, um, I d divided by the count divided by t which I think is time going to come in here and we're gonna make it times time that changes it a bit. And instead of just time, we're going to actually go, We're gonna add another print, the seas here, and we're gonna have time divided by six. And that's not gonna do anything until we click play. Actually, it's not doing much at all. Really. Um, now we're going yet Times 360 is good, and we're just going to include this whole thing into a parentheses. And I think what's happening here is we're going to need a few more in order for it to register that, um just in order for the computer to say, Okay, this guy wants to, you know, do you times So on and so forth. Let's just add two more. Now you can see something's happening. So let's see. Will it play? It'll just probably grow and grow and grow and grow, and that's fine. S I think that although we had to do for that, let's let's go into our rotation here in the coordinates. Let's bring age up to 390 and this is all zeroed out So there we have it. Um, I don't think we need to do anything else for the formula, either. It was a fairly simple formula if sign and that's 123 parentheses. Good count time. Teen time divided by six. So we're looking me up pretty good here. Let's let's just go back to beginning. Next is we're going to actually nest this cloner inside of another one. So it is going to go back over here to mow graph out another Kloner gonna bring it down, and we're gonna put this Kloner onto here. So first, let's just double check. Are defectors step affected? And formal effects are good. Okay. And so for this cloner, we're going to make it radio again. And we're going to bring this radius right up to I think it did like 39. 72. Something like that. It's that's looking a bit better than more interesting on for the count on this. I was like to use hexagonal symmetry, so I just brought it to here on the plane or again, we're going to make this the xz plane. So they so now we can see Oh, it's pretty crazy, actually. didn't notice that before, so it'll just grow and grow and grow. But we'll get that under control as we move along. So it's also render instances here just that it has a little bit less to think about, all right. And I guess because that's really all that's needed, we're going to go into our third cloner. We're cloning quite a lot, I know, but that is the nested clone or technique. So there we go. And now we've got 1/3 cloner happening, and for this one, we're going to have a another radio. So your object handling at best point might get a little bit bad. But as long as you have your instances turned on, it should be fine. Um, for the let's bring the radius up on this again. Um, and let's go to the 972 Let's bring the 73 So that is pretty crazy. I'll admit I'd end the count. Actually, let's do that playing spring this taxi again and already we're getting closer to what we saw before. So now it's growing out of all sorts of places just like that. That's pretty good. Um, what is going to quickly adjust the coordinates on this one. So we're gonna go to the axe. We're going to make it. These are going to go down a lot. Um, 5064.5. Just for fun. Navigate with one over to here and then in the Y direction. Job Negative. 5 63 Oh, that's 2.6. Just for fun and for our Z direction. Uh, let's do negative to 88 0.5. That's not too bad, right? And that we are going to rotate this a bit. So let's bring this to I don't know what a 30 and let's bring our our banking Teoh Negative 90. And now we can see very beautiful geometric set up here. But that's fairly interesting. You could do something even just with that, I think I'm gonna bring the subdivisions up a little bit. It's gonna bring it to three. Looks a bit better if you find that your object handling is pretty crappy. I'm just gonna turn the grid off is well, we can't really see what's happening now, so, yeah, if you find your object, handling is kind of crappy. Maybe bring the subdivision editor down, and that should help you out. Um, other than that, I think we're sort of set for this piece right here. So in the next clip, we're going to be going over making those smaller red ones that you guys saw. And then we're going to also be I think this that one of the top of the one on the bottom are clones, so it's not gonna take too long on. And then after that, we'll get into the materials, and then we're going to add our physical sky and alter the cloud color. All right, we'll see you there. 5. formula adjustment + red cloner : All right. So I'm before we move onto adjusting, moving into the bread, culinary should say I just want to make a few adjustments to our formula affect er here because this between scaling and moving along the X axis, it is just gonna grow infinitely. I'm someone going to turn position off, going to go back to beginning, and I'm also gonna turn scaling off. But what I am going to do is turn rotation on. And I adjusted it to 390 just that it has a continuous spin throughout the Timeline 390. I think if you close it off at 360 it will eventually go back on itself again. But 390 just keeps it moving infinitely on. And I think that's due to it being, you know, times time divided by six things. That's what's happening there. I'm so our formula Fechter is set up a bit better. I'm just gonna go back to the beginning of the timeline on I'm gonna hide our first cloner here and let's just move to Let's move back to our primitives for the red one and let's grab a pure mid again and since it is far away, I'll just quickly adjust the coordinates on our first pyramid here. So let's bring the on the X. Let's bring it closer to us. Let's do 987. It's not too close. Still, so on on R Z, let's do 319. All right, so it is still pretty far away. Um, Senate. We're going to bring the size up a little bit. 300 we're just gonna do 300 across the board. Keep a uniform engine 303 100 and let's bring our segments up again to seven. And let's adjusted. The orientation is e plus. All right, so now we've got that. It's just zoom in to get a better look. Nothing do special happening right now. Let's go into our to formers. And first let's grab our tapered reformer. And let's just drop that guy right onto the pyramid. Eso for a Taper D Former. We're going to leave at 250 across the board. We are going to change the mode to unlimited on. We're going to bring strength up Teoh about 49% so that's pretty weird. Right there. is stretching it out quite a lot on, and we're going to bring Let's turn the fill it on right away and let's bring her curvature . Quite a bid. Actually, let's bring it like 1000 and 48. So that's just a big mess. So now let's grab our ah bulge defector here, let's drop that right onto the pyramid and for our ball defector coordinates. Let zero out the X and the Why. Let's bring that up to 231 and let's take a Z and let's zero that right out. All right, so that looks pretty good again. We're going to leave this, as is. We're going to leave the mode as limited as, well. Um, we're going to bring your coverage. You're up to 16 17. Let's bring our strength up to you about 69% on. Let's turn our Philly on. All right. So again, still not that much happening here. Let's drop it in a subdivision surface just to smooth it out. And now, um, let's bring this into our first cloner here. So clone air. Drop it in and in our cloner. Let's make this sort, not grid array. Let's make it radio. All right, and turn on our instances. Coordinates. Well, zero. All those out. We'll just keep it. As is, um, Let's bring your account up to 58. All right? So let's looking not too shabby. Um, and the Radius. Let's bring that right down to just bring it to zero so it doesn't affect too much. Let's put it in the xz plane, and we're going to put some defectors on this cloner right here. So let's first drop in our formula. Affect er and let's drop our step effect, er, and as well. Um, and let's just have a little peek, see what this one's doing. All right. So it's moving around, doing different kind of stuff That's good and now lets a drop in. Let's drop our whole cloner set here into another one grown in number two. And for our second Kloner Oh, that's navigate over the object. Let's make this radio pretty hard to get oriented. Teoh A shape like this. Uh, let's turn on instances again. Let's bring it up to six and let's bring this radius up way, way up to about 1000 and we're gonna put it on the 6. 2nd cloner + physical sky : All right. So I realized that I had actually had the strength of my taper to former over here at 490. So it has brought it down to 49. Um, and it gave me much closer to the result that I was originally looking for. Even just one of these on its own is a fairly interesting shape. Let's just hide that. Let's have a little I'm just gonna have a little look here. This looks pretty sweet. Um, yes. Let's turning out pretty much exactly the way that I was looking for it. So we're just gonna turn this cloner back on. Sorry. Give me a second here. Right. So there we go. Um, And now we're going to be getting into creating, I think, the materials and the lighting. So let's just go for turn this back on, um, and maybe will just do a control and let's hit e to navigate it down. Let's turn this cloner off again. With our second cloners selected, I'm just going to drag this down so that it's a directly below its companion here. And for this, I'm just gonna adjust the coordinates. So instead of I'm gonna zero out the Z axis here, mostly going to alter the why and for the y direction. I'm going toe have it be negative. 3047. Take the zero away. So now it's down there. Um, and let's see what happens with this, so it looks like it's matching pretty good. Um, all right, so now let's move on to creating that physical sky. So I'm just gonna turn all the cloners back on again is sort of just see ubiquitous white mess, but we'll be able to fix that. So let's go up here and let's grab a physical sky. The first thing I'm going to do with the sky object isn't gonna hit are And I'm actually going to rotate it so that the skyline is Let's say that he was a clip right here. I'm just gonna just it down. And I'm just doing this on the fly for the other ones. I did have the set up written down, but the sky I can just adjust on the you know, I can just do it by I. So I'm going to adjust it so that as maximum sun exposure right here is gonna make sure completely centered on our objects. There we go. Enough the sky. We're going to come in here, and the basic information gonna turn clouds on. You can see already we've got some cloud action. I'm just going to navigate over here to the cloud set up and for layer one, Um, I don't think I adjusted the density that much, but I am going to adjust the color, so I'm gonna make some of them orange. That's not doing too much. Let's find there's a lot of different cloud layers. Second layer. Let's make that I don't know. Let's make a like red ash. This time it's so now it's It's affecting a lot more. Um, Layer three. Let's come in here and let's do something I don't know, maybe a purple. There we go. And layer four, let's pop in its adjusted. Maybe to this blue. Just see what happens there, not too much. And let's go down to layer five as well. Um, let's maybe try a pink out. It looks pretty cool, but actually, I think I'm going to scroll this back and have this be oranges. Well, maybe I'm going to Do you think we're gonna bring the coverage up on this one just a little bit like 45%. Yeah, and I'm gonna bring this one, Maybe bring it up to 42nd. See, It's changing over there. Let's just bring that one back down. I think I'm gonna change this to F B m just to see what that looks like. Because all these clouds just run on on the noise Alphas. Right. So maybe blistered turbulence, See if that does anything different. Yeah, I'm just gonna leave it like that. Maybe instead of Naki, let's try mod noise. All that's way too big. Let's go to electric again. Uh, spring that coverage up. Bring the density down. Not orange is a bit too aggressive. I'm gonna make it later. There we go. Uh, maybe, actually, for a cloud layer. Where is that? Where's that 1st 1 All right, so this one, I'm going to bring up about 41% and I do want to get some reds happening in there, so here we have it. And actually, I'm just going to go down to therefore maybe I'm gonna make this yellow. So there is some interesting highlights in the sky Just gonna bring out a bit. Close it, Alex Better. It's now let's adjust our sky whichever way we prefer. And I What I like to do is have it be so that this bottom part is showing in the render. Just cause there's a lot more on the bottom here than in the top cell. Looks pretty good. I'm comfortable with that, Skye. Of course, you guys can adjust in whichever way want choose certain colors, but I like this purple orange red schemes. I'm gonna leave it at that. In the next clip. We're just going to be going over making the materials for this, and then we'll set up for a final render. 7. materials + render settings : all right. So before we get into making their materials, I just wanted to a quick adjustment to our sky Here, Um, the physical If you go to the sky settings like there's basic coordinates, so on to go to the sky settings. I'm actually gonna turn physical sky off right here, because when you do that, it gives you access to the custom horizon. Um, and I wanted to start a change this up so you can see already This is blue because the overall sky color is blue. But I'm gonna change this to sort of this Aqua Marine and then this one. I'm just gonna scroll this back, save even distribution, and I'm going to change this blue right here. I don't know. Maybe to like a purple, a brighter one, though purple, maybe even like a paying cash. Oh, yeah, some good with that, I'm just gonna give it a little little render region just to see how that looks. It shouldn't take too long. As for the materials, I actually just a lot of the times. What I'll do is if I'm looking for inspiration on materials, I'll head over to Pinterest, and I'll just find some copyright free images and drop those on there as the material and then just adjust the U. V s to make it seamless so that you know, it's not just like the material goes and goes. And then suddenly oh, it's ending. It's not lighting is yet. It's OK, but it's not going to stay like that because our material here is not a model. Sorry is not going to stay white. Um, so let's go create new material and actually saved the two that I had is my material presets for this class. So I'm just gonna say, load preset, go to user and then green texture for the class. But if we review what this is, let's see if I could just expend the windows, you guys can get a better look. Um, all right, so it's not. You guys don't have too great of a view, but I think it's just some kind of spacey tinfoil that's green, yellow, purple with a little tinge of blue thrown in there so you can pause the class right now, head over to Pinterest and just say, You know, weird materials are interesting fashion or whatever you can even just say iridescent material. I think that's what I looked for in this one. I'm so for that. I'm going to plop it right onto our first Kloner. And there we have it. Um, Now I'm going to control and drag this to create a copy, and I'm going to do, ah, load preset again and red texture for class. And for this one, it's actually just some roses that are gone through some post editing something. It's like some kind of flower glitch art. And so I'm just gonna drop that onto this Kloner and onto this cloner right here. So that's how I got the materials for this again. Not not a super special process that wish it was. But, um, yeah, I didn't I didn't make that. It's I'll admit it. All right, so now in the while the material is selected, let's head over to attributes and under the under the texture tag right here, I'm gonna click seamless. Just that it spreads evenly across the material. Um, I do a little bit of an explanation for that. In another class, basically seamless just means instead of wrapping around and cutting off at one point it's going to spread evenly across the whole across the whole piece, just so that you know, for obvious Susan's. There's no scenes, so that's going to be this. And we're gonna have to do that for each tag. So again, over here in this second cloner, that's I think this is the one on the bottom or it's one of the top story we're going to click seamless again. And, of course, for 1/3 and final tag, we're just going to click seamless again and there we have it. I'm so let's click play and see how it looks. All right, so perfect. That's exactly what we're looking for. Although I think one thing that I'm going to do is our bottom corner here. I'm just gonna rotate it about 90 degrees so it starts off in a different position, just that it doesn't look exactly the same. It looks pretty good. I'm gonna leave it like that. So you have it an animation with no key frames, just with a few effect er's and there's the model right there. So for the render settings, I'm going to go in here, and probably because there are a lot of different shapes. And because of lighting and everything, it will take a little while to render. If you wanted to do the whole animation, I think for one frame, I said it took like, 22 minutes for that. I had it set on 150 d. P. I, um I did. I started switching my film aspects. I think now I'm gonna work with HD TV 16 by nine and you can tell right here it's a little bit faded at the top, and that's sort of where whether the camera's going to see, um, I'm going to do lock ratio. But I'm gonna bring the width up to 14 40 which is I think it's just 30% larger than standard instagram size 1080. But of course the height is not as much, so it is gonna be a little bit shorter. But if you were making this whole animation for, say, like a YouTube video or something like that, or just online content, you wouldn't want to work in 16 by nine because I think that's what a lot of phones air in now. Four effects. I'm going to go into global elimination and if you guys air fine waiting for, you know, 40 minutes or about an hour for this to be done, you can keep your samples at medium. Typically, if I'm doing an animation and I have global elimination turned on all just in the samples toe low and I'll just have a radiance cash. But if you're just doing a single image, I do recommend turning on light mapping. It just gives you more accurate results and, of course, some ambient occlusion on there. And I haven't messed around with these too much, but I think the standard settings work fairly well, and our final effect is always like that. A little bit of color correction, just like increases saturation by 10. Contrast by 10. And that's basically what I had for my render settings. I did go into the anti alias ing. I tried that out. The anti a housing will probably make it take if you change it from geometry to best. Any changes to eight by eight, it will look a lot more crisp on it will be more accurate, although you're probably going to increase surrender time at least 30% if not longer. But again if you guys air really wanting, dubbed, like, super high quality renders and you feel like either your computer can handle it or you know , you you're going to go to sleep or something to go to work. You're going to leave it running on. It will be all finished up for you by the time you get back. But I'm just gonna leave it four by four for now. Trained directed geometry And that's pretty much it for render settings on this one. If you did want to render it out as an animation, you can just go to output. And instead of current frame, you can either select all frames or you could just do manual, which allows you to trees. How many frames do you want to go for? Um, I think that's it, guys. Yes. So, again, I hope you enjoyed this class and I'll see you guys in the next one. Thanks