Essential Korean Grammar Level 2 | Pre-Intermediate | Keehwan Kim | Skillshare

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Essential Korean Grammar Level 2 | Pre-Intermediate

teacher avatar Keehwan Kim, Language teaching professional

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

78 Lessons (9h 37m)
    • 1. 1.1 Course Introduction

      2:26
    • 2. 1.2 Course overview

      4:54
    • 3. 2.1 Present Progressive (~고 있다)

      6:51
    • 4. 2.2 Present Progressive (~는 중이다)

      5:39
    • 5. 2.3 Using '었' (similar to 'used to')

      7:42
    • 6. 2.4 Review Lesson

      10:04
    • 7. 2.5 Future Simple Tense (~을 것이다)

      9:23
    • 8. 2.6 Future progressive

      7:58
    • 9. 2.7 Review Lesson

      7:11
    • 10. 3.1 만 (only)

      6:26
    • 11. 3.2 밖에 (only)

      7:08
    • 12. 3.3 Review Lesson

      6:50
    • 13. 3.4 그리고 (and)

      8:36
    • 14. 3.5 고 (and)

      8:58
    • 15. 3.6 Review Lesson

      7:49
    • 16. 3.7 하지만 (however)

      6:05
    • 17. 3.8 지만 (but)

      6:35
    • 18. 3.9 Review Lesson

      8:03
    • 19. 3.10 그런데 (however)

      6:04
    • 20. 3.11 은데 (but)

      6:42
    • 21. 3.12 는데 (but)

      7:03
    • 22. 3.13 Review Lesson

      12:02
    • 23. 3.14 그래서 (therefore)

      6:14
    • 24. 3.15 아서 (so, because)

      8:16
    • 25. 3.16 어서 (so, , because)

      7:28
    • 26. 3.17 Review Lesson

      11:26
    • 27. 3.18 니까 (so, because)

      10:04
    • 28. 3.19 때문에 (because, because of)

      12:12
    • 29. 3.20 이라서 (because it is)

      6:09
    • 30. 3.21 Review Lesson

      10:42
    • 31. 4.1 전에 (before)

      9:20
    • 32. 4.2 후에 (after)

      9:10
    • 33. 4.3 Review Lesson

      7:03
    • 34. 4.4 고 나서 (after)

      10:11
    • 35. 4.5 아서, 어서 (and)

      8:06
    • 36. 4.6 때, 을 때 (when, during)

      10:11
    • 37. 4.7 Review Lesson

      10:47
    • 38. 4.8 면서 (while)

      5:54
    • 39. 4.9 동안 (for, during, while)

      9:28
    • 40. 4.10 Review Lesson

      7:07
    • 41. 4.11 자마자 (as soon as)

      5:34
    • 42. 4.12 은 지 (since)

      8:15
    • 43. 4.13 Review Lesson

      7:40
    • 44. 5.1 아야, 어야 되다 (have to, must)

      6:17
    • 45. 5.2 아도, 어도 되다 (can, may)

      5:07
    • 46. 5.3 Review Lesson

      7:27
    • 47. 5.4 면 안 되다 (should not, must not)

      6:05
    • 48. 5.5 지 않아도 되다 (don't have to)

      6:29
    • 49. 5.6 Review Lesson

      7:03
    • 50. 5.7 고 싶다 1 (want to)

      7:29
    • 51. 5.8 고 싶다 2 (want to)

      5:23
    • 52. 5.9 면 좋겠다 (wish, hope)

      8:56
    • 53. 5.10 Review Lesson

      8:56
    • 54. 5.11 아,어 보다 (try to do)

      4:48
    • 55. 5.12 적이 있다, 없다 (have done)

      6:52
    • 56. 5.13 Review Lesson

      7:18
    • 57. 6.1 겠다 (will - intentions)

      6:26
    • 58. 6.2 을개요 (will - intentions)

      5:44
    • 59. 6.3 을래요 (will - intentions)

      5:02
    • 60. 6.4 Review Lesson

      9:17
    • 61. 6.5 러 (to + verb - purpose)

      6:37
    • 62. 6.6 려고 (to + verb - purpose)

      8:38
    • 63. 6.7 Review Lesson

      7:49
    • 64. 6.8 위해서 (for - purpose)

      9:26
    • 65. 6.9 기로 하다 (promise to do)

      5:58
    • 66. 6.10 Review Lesson

      7:11
    • 67. 7.1 세요 (request to do something)

      7:31
    • 68. 7.2 지 마세요 (request not to do something)

      5:20
    • 69. 7.3 Review Lesson

      6:05
    • 70. 7.4 아,어 주다 (request to do something for me)

      7:15
    • 71. 7.5 아,어 줄게요 (offering to help)

      8:11
    • 72. 7.6 Review Lesson

      6:49
    • 73. 7.7 을까요 (making a suggestion)

      5:20
    • 74. 7.8 읍시다 (making a suggestion)

      6:15
    • 75. 7.9 Review Lesson

      6:42
    • 76. 7.10 시겠어요 (would like to)

      4:51
    • 77. 7.11 을래요 (do you want to)

      5:03
    • 78. 7.12 Review Lesson

      5:46
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About This Class

Hi everyone and welcome to the SECOND course in our Essential Korean Grammar series

In this course, we're going to continue developing your knowledge of Korean grammar by learning to expand your sentences using various connector words and verb endings. You will also learn to show relationships between ideas in your sentences and learn how to sequence ideas by using various time expressions.

The following is the unit guide for the course.

  1. Course Introduction - Find out how this course is structured and how you can best use all the learning resources available to get the most out of this course

  2. Verb tenses - Learn how to form various continuous tenses, past tenses and future tenses

  3. Particles & Connector words - Learn how to use 'only' in Korean, and learn how to show relationships between ideas that have contrasting and cause and effect relationships

  4. Time expressions - Learn how to use various time expressions to sequence ideas in Korean.

  5. Obligations, wishes and experiences - Learn various verb endings which can be used to talk about obligations, wishes and experiences. The verb endings are similar to English modal verbs

  6. Intentions & purposes - Learn various verb endings which can be used to talk about one's intentions and purposes

  7. Requests & suggestions - Learn how to use verb endings which cab be used to make requests and suggestions

All our lessons come with worksheets, so you can preview and review the vocabulary and the example sentences from the lesson. You can also use the worksheet to practice writing the sentences from the lesson.

Meet Your Teacher

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Keehwan Kim

Language teaching professional

Teacher

Hi everyone!

My name's Keehwan Kim and welcome to my teacher profile page.

I have been a language teaching professional since 2005, and I have been working as a language learning content producer, working for the likes of BBC Learning English as a content producer.

I love everything about teaching and learning languages. I think best analogy of language learning is of trying to go up an escalator that's coming down. You have to work hard to make forward progress, and if you stop trying, it's easy to lose all that progress you have made.

Many of us live in environments where interacting with the language you're learning is extremely difficult, but I hope my courses help you to engage with the language you're trying to learn and help yo... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. 1.1 Course Introduction: Hi there, I am your instructor. Kim gave one and welcome to our level to cause in our essential Korean grammar series. Now, in this course we're going to continue building on what we learned in our level one course. And the key focus of this course is on learning the verb tenses, how to expand our sentences, and how to use various verb endings, which will allow us to be more expressive When we use Quran, we will learn how to form progressive tenses in Korean. We'll also learn how to use the past tense marker ought, which function similar to use to in English. We will then learn how to form the future tense in Korea. After that, we're going to learn numerous connector words which will allow us to show cause and effect and contrasting relationships between ideas. Will then learn how to sequence events to show how one event happens after another event, and also how to events happen at the same time. We'll then move on and learn various verb endings we can use to talk about things we have to do, as well as things we don't have to do. We'll learn how to ask for and give permission. And we'll also learn how to talk about our hopes and wishes, as well as our past experiences of things we have done and not done. Now, many Korean verb endings function like English modal verbs, such as will and should. And just like the English modal verbs, we can use career verb endings to talk about our intentions and to make suggestions. Will also learn how to talk about the purpose of our actions, as well as making polite requests to do and not do something. Now, as with all our courses, every lesson is accompanied by a worksheet so you can preview and review the lesson vocabulary and practice writing the sentences from the lesson. Now, this course is aimed at pre-intermediate level learners. So you should have some basic understanding of Korean grammar and be able to read hungered to follow the lesson. Now, there is almost ten hours of video lessons to get through. So let's not waste any more time. And once you decide to join the course, I will see you in the first lesson. Bye for now. 2. 1.2 Course overview: Hi everyone and welcome to the lecture on course overview. In this lecture, we're going to go over three things. First, we're going to go through all the units in this course and briefly look at what you will be learning in these units. Second, we'll look at the lesson worksheets and how you can use them throughout this course. And third will look at verb ending additional table and how you can use this reference sheet during your learning. Okay, so the first unit is the course introduction unit, which is this unit. And the core learning units are units two to seven in unit. So we'll first take a look at verb tenses and focus on forming the progressive tense using art, which is similar to use to in English, and the future tenses. In unit three, we'll first look at two particles we can use to mean only in Korean. And then we'll look at many connector words which we can use to show relationship between ideas. These connect to words are similar to the English conjunctions. And however, but therefore so and because. So learning these connect to words will help us to expand our sentences. In Unit four, we'll continue to learn expressions that will allow us to expand our sentences. And we will learn various time expressions in Korean, which function like then, during, while, when, and as soon as. So we'll learn how to show time order relationship between ideas in this unit. Then in the last three units, we will learn various verb endings, most of which function like English modal verbs. In unit five, we will learn how to talk about obligations, our desires, wishes, and hopes, and also about our past experiences. In unit six, we'll focus on learning how to talk about our intentions and purpose. Then in the final unit, we will learn how to make requests and suggestions, as well as asking for people's preference. So that's the syllabus Overview. And by the end of this course, your understanding of Korean grammar is going to improve drastically. Now, the other main learning resource in this course is the lesson worksheet. Each of our video lectures, not including the review lessons, is accompanied by a lesson worksheets. And in these lesson worksheets, you can preview the vocabulary you will see in the example sentences in the video lecture. And you should always preview the vocabulary before you watch the lectures. As it will not only help you understand the sentences you will see in the lecture, but understanding the sentences will also help you to grasp the grammar concepts you are learning in that lecture. We do recycle a lot of the vocabulary in our lessons. So in some lesson worksheets, you may only see few words. However, quite often there'll be some new vocabulary in certain lessons. So before each lecture, open up the worksheet for that lecture and just have a quick look through the words you will see in the lecture. Additionally, the sentences in the writing practice parts are the example sentences from the lesson. So you can have a look through them as well as part of the Preview process before the lesson. Once you have watched a video lecture, you can practice writing the example sentences from the lesson. And this will help you to learn how the grammar structures are used. And in certain lessons, there are exercises on how verbs are conjugated and how verb endings are added to verb stems. These exercises will be really helpful in learning the structural aspects of what you are learning in the lessons. Okay, so the last thing to go over is the verb ending or verb suffix addition table. Now, many verb endings have a similar pattern. And the way these verb endings, where the similar patterns are added to verb stands is the same. So we've created a reference sheet that shows you how verb endings, where the similar patterns are added to different kinds of verbs. Of course, we do explain how these verb endings are attached to verb stems in our lessons. But going through each and every way in all our lessons would be time-consuming and rather repetitive. So in our lessons, the focus of the explanation is on the main way of how these verb endings are added. And irregular patterns can be found in these reference sheets, as well as in exercises in our lesson worksheets. However, this reference guide is something you can refer to whenever you need to. So this is something you can utilize, not just for the concepts you're learning in this course, but also for any other structures you will learn in the future. Okay, so that just about covers every learning resource included in this course. And we'll now move on to unit two and start learning about Korean verb tenses. See you then, bye-bye. 3. 2.1 Present Progressive (~고 있다): Hi everyone and welcome to the first grammar lesson in this course. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to form and use the present progressive tense in Korean. Now, there are two ways of forming the present progressive tense and Korean. And there by using the verb endings, call it that and none. Juanita. In this lesson, we will learn how to use core it that. And in the next lesson, we will learn than Juanita. In Korean core, it that is the proper form of the present progressive tense. So it's meaning is similar to 2B plus verb I-N-G. Adding this verb ending is very simple, and regardless of whether the verb stem ends in patch him or not, we simply add a core it that to verb stems. Here are some examples. Cauda, cargo that to be going bought, bought, goign to be eating. Kong. Congo has to be studying. So as you can see, we simply add core to the verb stem. And to use these structures in sentences, we can say Cheonan, cargo, SIR, I am going to London Cowboys, SIAH mins linen and MAC or Isiah Min Zu is not eating beans. And then our mock way CYA, surgeon in Congo hago is CYA, is Suzy studying surgeon and calm walkway CYA. So in all of these sentences, we use the polite form of core, that core is soil, and to form a negative statement in the second sentence, we can use an infant of the verb structure. However, we can also add T and Tad to the verb stem. So the sentence could also be written as mins or none, bought an IR, benzene and mako Janna. And lastly to form a question statement, we can just use the statement structure and raise the tone at the end to change these verb endings into formal and casual forms, we can say is some Nida and ISA. Now the way we use the present progressive tense in Korean is similar to English. We can use the present progressive tense to talk about something we're doing at the time of speaking. So in this first sentence, I'm talking about what I'm doing at the time of speaking, which is that I'm going somewhere. However, we can also use the present progressive tense to talk about something we're doing around the time of speaking, but not necessarily at that time of speaking. Consider the following sentence. John, then your Jim's head-on neither tact voice CYA, I'm looking for a new job these days. Cheonan, your Jim's had owned iterative takeaway CYA. So this sentence doesn't describe what I'm doing at the time of speaking, but around the time of speaking is what I've been doing the last few days. And it may be what i'm doing over the next few days. Here are two more example sentences that use the present progressive tense. In this way. Surgeon in Hangzhou goddess pill goi, CYA, Susie is learning career switching then Hangul got repel voice sale. Insulin pi r to the halfway. Cya means xw is dieting Benson and tired psycho, SIR. Now, whether the sentences are referring to something happening now or around the time of speaking depends on the context. But we can use these sentences to talk about things we're doing now and things we're doing around the time of speaking. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use core it that repeat after me. Cheonan, cargo, Isiah, been Cernan and McCoys CYA surgeon and Khumbu hypo is CYA surgeon and Hangul border po boys, CYA, Vinson, n pi out hago is CYA, TA1 and new gems head-on. Neither Chaco Isiah. Excellent job, well done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to complete the sentences by adding the polite form of core, that core, SIR, to these verb stems. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Tannins chair hago is CYA, tunnels of jaguar, SIR. Benzene and TB pogo, Isiah benzene and TV Boko, SIR. Bb&n. Jodi, Heiko, Isiah, B9, urea quasar. Surgeon n codon should be hypo Isiah, cytogenetic Harlan jom baggweo, SIR. Cheonan Taemin integrally recoil Messiah, tn and Taemin integrity, Messiah, bananas head ON shadow attack, coy CYA. Banana has had on chatter takeaway CYA. Excellent job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned one way of forming the present progressive tense using the structure core it that in the next lesson, we'll learn the second way of forming the present progressive tense using Zhang IDA. I'll see you soon in that lesson. Bye-bye. 4. 2.2 Present Progressive (~는 중이다): Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn the second way of forming the present progressive tense using Nin Junior. Didn't Trinidad is made up of three parts. Then is a suffix. We add two verb stems to make that verb into an adjective form. And June is a dependent nouns, which means middle. So when we add the engine to verbs, let's say mom than Jiang, It means middle of eating. And if we say Canon Jiang It means middle of going. The final part of this phrase is IDA, which is the verb to be in Korean. So manduneun Trinidad means to be in the middle of eating cannon to me, that is, to be in the middle of going and Congo Hannon Trinidad means to be in the middle of studying. And we commonly use these phrases to literally mean I'm in the middle of doing something. However, because of its meaning of describing someone being in the middle of doing some action. In Korean, we use the data in the same way as core to say that I am doing something. So in sentences we can say Cheonan cannon, Joni L, I am going Cheonan cannon Jiang Yale, bins and then among them to100 ALL been X2 is not eating benzene. And among junior, surgeon and congruent and Junior is Suzy studying cytogenetic combined engineer. So these sentences have the same meaning as those we saw in the previous lesson, using Core Data. And just like core it that we can use Ninja needed to talk about something we're doing at the time of speaking, but also to talk about things we're doing around the time of speaking. So we can say Cheonan, your Jim's head-on neither challenging Yale. I'm looking for a new job these days. Tn and your germs head-on. Neither tendon junior surgeon in Hangul, gotta pay one1 junior. Susie is learning Korean surgeon and Hungary upheld on Joni L. Benson and tired Hannon junior. Min Zu is dieting bins London tired to Hannon junior. So these sentences can be used to talk about what we're doing now or what we're doing around the time of speaking, depending on context. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use the juanita repeat after me. Cheonan cannon to meet ALL medicine and among them to me a pseudonym, congruent and junior a ton. Then your Germans had only Roots, had an engine PAL, surgeon then Hungary, water repellent and junior AL been Sudan tire, tan and junior. That was excellent, well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. Same as in the previous lesson. You will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add the polite form of Xiang Yu Dang Zhong he heir to the verb stem and complete the sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Tonight. Jan and tunnels of challenging L Benson and t people then junior ALL medicine and TV Bolden, Johnny a. Banana and urea and engineer B9 and urea and engineer. Pseudonym codon should be an engineer. So genetic colony Symbian and GEL. Cheonan, Taemin and Taggard, England junior challenge, I mean integrity ninja, bananas, head-on chatter tendon junior, bananas, heroin shadow tendon junior. That was fantastic. Welder. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned the second way of forming the present progressive tense using Tumisah. In the next lesson, we will learn how to say used to in Korea. Susan again, bye-bye. 5. 2.3 Using '었' (similar to 'used to'): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to say used to in Korean. Now, the verb structure we're going to learn today is very simple. You do first need to know how to form verbs into past forms in Korean. But all you do after that is add the syllable to the verb stem. So Margo's sayo, which means eight, becomes Margo's societal and has soil, which means did becomes Hester Messiah. It's that simple. Now some textbooks labeled this verb structure as the past perfect tense. However, it's important to note that this verb structure actually doesn't function like the English past perfect tense. The past perfect tense is used to say that an action happened before another action in the past. However, this verb structure is used to say that a past action stopped at some point in the past. Therefore, it is no longer true in the present. And it is this connection to the present that makes this verb structure so unique. And in a way, it's actually similar to use too. We used to talk about past habits that are no longer true in the present. So let's first take a look at some sentences that use the past simple tense. Cheonan, Changsha, Na, Yang or Hao Guan air Taenia Messiah. Last year, I went to an English Academy. Cheonan Tanya near Yamaha. Juan Antonio soya. Beans soon took good. Angela has CYA. Min Zu didn't like football. Benzene into gooder and joy Josiah. Surgeon Chung paid on their hand, Google has had our Saya, the Susie live in Korea in 2008. Surgeon then each impaled on their hunger guess had Isiah. So the verbs in these sentences are in the past simple tense. They discuss something that happened in the past. First sentence talks about what I did last year. The second sentence talks about menses preference in the past. And in the last statement, we're asking if Susie lived in Korea in 2008. However, when we add after the verb stem, we're indicating that the action or the state described by the verb ended at an unspecified time in the past and is no longer true in the present. So in the first sentence were saying that I stopped going to the academy at some point in the past. So I no longer go to the English Academy in the present. In the second sentence, Min Zu didn't like football in the past. But at some point he started to light football and in the present, he likes football. And although the meaning of questions can vary depending on the context, this question may imply that Susie no longer lives in Korea, but we'd like to know if she did in 2008. So the key point of this verb structure is that the action ended at an unspecified points in time in the past and is no longer true in the present. Now, of course, depending on the context, the past simple tense could also indicate that these actions and states were only in the past and are no longer true in the present. However, the past simple relies on the context to show such meaning. Whereas the addition of art in the verb phrase makes it clear that these actions and states stopped at some point in the past and are no longer true in the present. Here are a few more examples sentences. Surgeon, Messiah, Susie used to exercise, surgeon who don't have societal Cheonan core Gita, Josiah, I didn't use to eat meat. Cheonan Kugler, mobile societal, bananas and so sorta Bonnie regards Josiah, did mean I used to read a lot of novels, nano, rigorous Australia. So even without additional information, art in the sentences indicates that these past actions and space ended at an unspecified time in the past and are no longer true in the present. Suzy doesn't exercise these days. I eat meat and perhaps Mina doesn't read novels these days. Okay, so now that we have an understanding of how these verbs structures work, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences. Repeat after me. Surgeon who don't have Messiah. Cheonan Colgate, a mother societal. Bananas. By ni, Messiah. Cheonan Chang Yuan, a Yamaha Guan, a tiny associa bins sooner and took gooder and July societal surgeon in each chunk pioneer Hunger Games had AS messiah. Great job, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences in the past simple tense. And I'd like you to add odd after the verb stem to indicate the meaning of use to. Okay, so it's a pretty simple practice. If you're ready, let's begin. Surgeon who has societal Sudanese, who has SIR Shannon's hangs on a model societal tunnels hangs on our mobile sociale. Banana and tagger, Messiah. B9, integrity by nearly got Messiah, Messiah, Messiah bins, Yunnan, Dong gooder and joy, Josiah, benzene and Dongara and July societal surgeon Chunyang neonate be Google's had associa, surgeon then itanium neon MB, Google's harness Australia. That was fantastic, well done. Ok, so today we learned how to add up to the past simple verb structure to talk about a past action or state that ended at an unspecified time in the past and are no longer true in the present, which is similar to use to in English. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we'll review what we learned in the three previous lessons on the present progressive tense and the use of art from this lesson. See you then, bye-bye. 6. 2.4 Review Lesson: Hi everyone and welcome to the first review lesson. In this lesson, we'll review what we learned on using the present progressive tense and the use of art from the previous lesson. Let's begin with the present progressive tense, and we'll begin with using core EPA. Three lessons ago, we learn to add a core that to verb stems to form the present progressive tense. And we learned that we can use this verb structure to talk about what we're doing at the time of speaking, but also to talk about what we're doing around the time of speaking. With that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice, and then do an independent practice. Cheonan soup, Chao Guo, Isiah, Benson and TB Boko Isiah, banana and urea. Goal is CYA, pseudonym codon tomb bianco Isiah, Cheonan, Taemin, integrity, Messiah, bananas, heroin, chatter, Chaco, SIR. Great job, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you see sentences without any verb stems, and I'd like you to form the correct present progressive structure using the polite form of core. Core is psi L. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Cheonan cargo, Isiah, Cheonan cowboys CYA means on and our McCoys CYA medicine and Amoco SIR. Surgeon and Gua Gua Isiah, suggestion calm wacko, Isiah, surgeon and Hangzhou other peo GO SIR. Surgeon and Hungary uphill GO SIR. Means soon and tired. Hago Isiah means an entire takeaway. Cya, Cheonan yo gems head-on. Neither Chaco Isiah, Cheonan yojeum set only the Chaco, SIR. Excellent Joe, well-done, less. Now review the use of Tunisia to form the present progressive tense. The literal meaning of ninja is to be in the middle of something. And while we can use this phrase to actually say that we're in the middle of something. We can also use this structure like call it that and say I am doing something and same as core it back. We simply need to add the data to the verb stem. And it can be used to talk about what we're doing now and what we're doing around the time of speaking. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first start with a listener repeat practice. Cheonan cannon, Junior. Minister known among non Junior. So genetic combined engineer. Ton than your germs head-on neither channeling junior. Suggestion, hunger, border pale, and engineer. Great efforts. Well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. Same as before. You will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add the polite form of Juanita, then GAO, and complete the sentences. Ok, so let's start the practice. Cheonan soup Johanna and junior. Cheonan soup challenging a consonant TB bone and junior minus1 and TV bone engineer. Banana and Urey had engineer banana and urea and engineer suggest n codon GMB and, and junior. Suzanne Collins Symbian and Gene Cernan, Taemin, integrity ninja VaR. Cheonan Taemin and shepherding engineer. Bananas, heroin chatter a challenging year. Bananas heroin channel challenging Yale. Fantastic job, well-done. Let's now review what we learned on adding on to the past simple verb forms. In the previous lesson, we learned to add the syllable ought to verbs past forms to indicate the meaning of use to in English. When we add up after the verb stem, the verb phrase indicates that the action ended at an unspecified time in the past and is no longer true in the present. Ok, so let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use this verb structure. Searching and Khumbu has societal, Cheonan, hangs on a Maga societal, banana and money and illegal. So Saya, TA1 and Tanzanian edge from Google mean xenon, Dongara, and joy has societal surgeon then each non-union NBA Google's had AS messiah. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences in the past simple tense. And I'd like you to add to the verb stems to indicate the meaning of use to in English. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Surgeon then, Messiah, Susan and Noah societal. Cheonan Colgate, a mogul, Suseela, Cheonan Colgate and Maga Suseela bananas. So solder, Barney analogous, Messiah, banana and Romania and egos Messiah, Cheonan, Tango ne johayo hub on a tiny Josiah. Cheonan Tang Yana Yamaha, Juan Antonio saw CYA bins and then coder. And Joel has been xenon two-color, and Joe has Messiah, surgeon each chunk pioneer Hunger Games had US Australia switching then each compiled on a hamburgers had associa. Excellent job today, well done. Ok, so today we reviewed how to form and use the present progressive tense and how to add odd in the past simple tense to talk about a past action that ended in the past and is no longer true in the present. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to form and use the future simple tense in Korean. See you soon again. Buh-bye. 7. 2.5 Future Simple Tense (~을 것이다): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use cause cheetah to talk about future plans and intentions. Now, how we add that to verb stems depend on whether these verb stems and then patch him or not. So let's first take a look at some example sentences that use Kashi data. Cheonan II carbon is hardcore. I will buy this bag. John Tanika banners, Heiko L, surgeon, and daily Zimbardo's sinner Korea. Suzy is going to wear the shoes tomorrow. Surgeon and their ischium batteries, Shinrikyo. Okay, so let's first consider how we add Kashi dad to verb stems. First, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add Liu CASI there. And if the verb stem does end in patch him, Then we add Kashi down. And although the formal, polite and casual forms are calls him neither cause GAO and call Xia. These verb endings are commonly used in the contracted forms, come Nida, coil, and Korea. Now it's important to note that there are numerous other irregular patterns of adding a constant there. And we will list them all in the lesson worksheet. So please refer to the worksheet for more details of how we add cost you that two verbs. Now in English, we tend to use will when we talk about our intentions and be going to, to talk about our future plans. And in these sentences, Kashi DAC can mean either will or be going to, depending on the context they used in these sentences, could either be used to talk about our intentions to buy something or to wear something. But they could also be about our future plans to buy or where something. Later on in this course, we will learn various other verb endings we can use to talk about our intentions. And although Cauchy dash can be used to talk about our intentions, is more commonly used to talk about our future plans. Here are few more example sentences using the polite form of Kashi data. The clay bins sooner than xiang qu Heiko air. When x2 will study for his exams. Benzene and xiang gongbuhada. Gene Cernan town to a young guy Korea is Jingzhou going to travel next week, Shinzen encounter a young guy, Korea, Cheonan. Each hung by j are nibble gray are I'm not going to where these genes Chang'an Ni Tang by G I need require. So in each of these sentences, we use either Lear coil or go l. And these structures can be used to describe one's intentions or future plans depending on the context they used them. One other point to note is that this foul, Yeah, in call jeo is weakened. So in everyday speech is pronounced as the vowel a. So it's called a o. So do keep that in mind. Okay, so lets first to a speaking practice of the sentences that use early Cajal. Cheonan e carbonates, Hiroko a, a surgeon tomorrow singular Monaco AR. Vinson Xiang, Congo, Hiroko, gene Cernan town where your anchor require. Cheonan Yi Chong BIT uneven require. That was greats, well-done. Let's now consider how we use the Cauchy that with descriptive verbs. Now, the way we use the Cauchy doubt with descriptive verbs is the same in terms of how we attach it to the verb stem. However, how we use descriptive verbs is very different from regular verbs. When we use cause it out. With regular action verbs, we describe either our intentions or future plans. But with descriptive verbs, which are like adjectives, we express our prediction as in how something, someone or some situation would turn out in the future. Here are two example sentences, bins and then key guy Chirico. Min Zu will be tall, minus1 and kick our daily diet and all Coahuila. Tomorrow's weather will not be hot. There dystocia undergo. So in these sentences, we use the descriptive verbs, cadaver and top that. And they used with early Qazi dad to protect that Min Zu will be told in the future and that the weather will not be hot with a descriptive but top that, although it ends in pats him to add a Kashi Dan, we remove the Pew Batson and add little Kashi data. So this is one of the irregular patterns that you will find in the lesson worksheet. Here are a few more examples sentences. Igor, bad ops, recoil. This will not be delicious. Ego, bad obstacle. They died. Require tomorrow's weather will be cloudy. They're nicely guy Henrik. Daily, chemise shirk, boots, tomorrow's exams be easy. There is yummy should require. So in each of these sentences, we use descriptive verbs with the cost data to make predictions or to ask how something will be in the future. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences. Repeat after me. Minnesotan Qigong, Chirico. Dale dicey, ego, bad op silicone. Daily. Daily Show me. Sure. Excellent job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either Lear coil or the Gaya and complete the sentences. If a verb ends in a peer Batson, then remove the peer Batson and add will require, will only practice using the polite form of the CASI than the coil. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practices. Surgeon and Susan NCBI will go here. Vinson and young mother pull Goya, beans, xenon, young Arab or Cajal. Cheonan e banger mobile, Cajal, Charney banner mobile Cajal. Oci, psycho AR, which is psycho, ego basses recoil. Eco basses recoil. They sure, Cajal, nalssiga, deoweoyo. Fantastic efforts that I wrote on. Ok, so today we learned how to form the future tense using CASI data and how we use this verb structure to talk about our intentions and future plans and also to make predictions when we use this structure with descriptive verbs. In the next lesson, we're going to look at how we form and use the future progressive tense in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 8. 2.6 Future progressive: Hello there and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to form the future progressive tense in Korean. Earlier, we learned to form the present progressive tense using Core Data and none, Juanita. And in the previous lesson, we learned to form the future simple tense to talk about our intentions and future plans using the Cauchy data. And to form the future progressive tense, we basically combine these structures together. So let's first take a look at how we combine a Core Data and Kashi them first to attach the Qazi dad to call it that because the verb stem of it that has Apache him, we just add the cost to the verb stem. So the combined form is core, is Sarkozy dam. And this structure means will be plus verb I-N-G. To complete the future progressive tense, we basically attached to this structure to the main verb stem. Here are two examples. Boc, BOC goal is surrogacy. There will be eating poorly. Poco is silica Rashida. We'll be watching. And the way we use the future progressive tense in Korean is the same as the English future progressive tense. We use it to talk about a progressive action in the future and to make predictions and guesses about future events. Here are a few example sentences using the polite form of core is Circassians. Core is circle AL, Cheonan Thompson, marimba, Goya's circle l. I will be eating lunch. Challenge homogeneity, mock voice, zirconia, surgeon. And Al Gore is zirconia. Suzy will not be working. Sudan, Iran outweigh circle L. Benson and young poor boy is zirconia, will mean Xubi watching a film, Vinson and young water per voice of Gaya. Now, how these sentences are used depends on the context, but we can use these sentences to talk about a progressive action in the future, to make predictions and guesses about future events and to ask about possible future events. Okay, so lets first do a speaking practice of the sentences that use core is sukha AR. Repeat after me. Cheonan, Tommy Samaria and Morocco is circle AIR. Cheonan Thomas and Mary mongoize silico, our surgeon in it are now Gore is zirconia surgeon and area an ACO is a Qajar. Benson and young wider poor war is require. Benzene and young Arab logo is Gaja. Great job, well done. Let's now take a look at how we combine at noon Tschumi dot n. Consider first the stem of the chimney that doesn't end in pats him. So we add Lear ACASI dad to Tunisia. And the combined form is then junior Kashi data. And similar to core is gosh eda. We simply attach the masida to the stem of the main verb to complete the verb phrase. Here are two examples. Top-down to mend. Generic OSI data will be helping cauda. Cannon generic OSI data will be going. And we can use these verbs structures in sentences and say Cheonan chair singular to mention Hiroko AR. I will be helping my friend. Cheonan, singular Tomlin, junior Kaya means on gun and junior Kaya means we won't be going home. Benson and shebang gallon generic OIL, B9 and congruent and junior Kaya will be now be studying banana and Cong Guan and junior Kaya. So same as the verb structures that use core is ACASI data. We can use these verbs structures to talk about a progressive action in the future, to make predictions and guesses about the future and to ask about possible future events. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use the glial Cheonan singular to mend generic. Cheonan, Chechen girdle men junior Cajal being consonance and dissonance. Shebang, Ghana, Benin, B9, and excellent job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences on the screen with verbs in the infinitive forms. And depending on the prompts given on the screen, I'd like you to say the full sentence by adding either Core is silica layer or the Judaica. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan copy their bicycle is certainly a, a ton and copy their bicycle is silica. Banana and dominant bananas uno non-engineering. Tongs or an algo is silico, Jensen and Chang's or an ACO is a surgeon who mapped Susan Andrew Martin and junior Kaya, Benson and jadi and medicine and URI and an engineer, banana and check Iroquois. So Eukarya, manana, and Chegg requests require excellent job today, well-done. Ok, so today we learned to form and use future progressive verb tenses. Using core is circles, and then junior costs into. The next lesson is a review lesson. And we will review everything we learned over the past two lessons on using the future simple and future progressive tennis. See you then, bye-bye. 9. 2.7 Review Lesson: Hi everyone and welcome to another review lesson. In this lesson, we're going to review what we learned on how we use the future simple tense and the future progressive tense from the previous lesson. Let's begin with the future simple tense. To lessons ago, we learned to form the future simple tense using CASI data. We learned that for verb stems not ending in patch him, we add leader CASI that. And for verb stems that do end in patch him, we add the ACASI that there were many other irregular ways of adding a reconsider, and these were listed in the lesson worksheet. We also learned that we use Cauchy doubt with regular verbs to talk about our intentions and future plans. And we use costed out with descriptive verbs to make predictions. So lets first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use the polite form of coffee that you go Ale. Let's begin. Pseudonym or glial means and then Yamada, Cheonan, e banner and Balbilla. Ego by historical daily dicey got Sure. Excellent job, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add the Qajar appropriately to each verb stem and complete the sentences. So if you're ready, let's start the practice. Cheonan II carbon there and sidecar AR to100 carbon or Antioco AR. Pseudonym tomorrow night owl. Pseudonym tomorrow singular Monaco. Shinzen. Young Heiko. Require, Qigong, Chirico L, Benson and Keychain. They die, Sega and all their dicey guy and darker. Daily Xiaomi shear Kaya, daily Xiaomi, sure, choir. Fantastic efforts, well-done. Let's now review how we form and use the future progressive tense. In the previous lesson, we learned that we can combine and call it that. And then Tunisia with ACASI that to form the future progressive tense. And these combined structures are attached to the stem of the main verbs to complete the verb structure. In Korean, we use the future progressive tense, just like the English future progressive tense. We use it, talk about progressive actions in the future and to make predictions and guesses about future events. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use these verbs structures. Cheonan, copywriter, bicycle is zirconia, banana and unknown unknowns. Shinzen and Chang's or are now go is require switching then junior Qajar been xenon, URI and Allen Junior guy. Banana and shaggy recoils require. That was great, world out less now do an independent practice. And this time using the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to complete the sentences by adding the polite form of core is circle cheetah or didn't junior cos theta. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan Thompson, Marion Marco is Cheonan Thomson, Mary mako circuit switching. Then it are now go is silica suggestion here and I Boise being xenon, young matter per voi is require Vinson and young Arab or voice require Cheonan, Chechen go to Nanjing, require challenge etching. Goto managing benzene and shebang gun and junior Coahuila medicine and shebang garden during require, mean and n congruent and geometrical area. Banana and combine and junior require excellent job again, well done. Ok, so today we reviewed everything we learned in the two previous lessons on using the future simple tense and the future progressive tense. We now going to move away from verb tenses. And in the next unit, we're going to learn about particles and connect to words. I'll see you soon again in the next lesson. Bye bye. 10. 3.1 만 (only): Hi everyone and welcome to Unit three. Over the next few lessons, we're going to learn a few words which can correlate to only and just in English. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use the word man, which can mean only. And just now to use man, we simply attach it with a noun we're referring to as only that noun or just that noun. There are two ways we can use man. So let's look at the first US. Here are two example sentences. Cheonan at chimeric copy man by sharia. I only drink coffee in the morning. Children are chimeric copy man, Messiah Tolman, Jupiter to our hair. Only. I like golf, Chama and go put urge Y L. So as you can see in these sentences, we add MAN after the noun to mean only coffee or only i. And when we use man in this way with saying that out of all the things and people, I only do this one thing or only I do this thing. So these sentences mean that out of all the food I could have for breakfast, I drink only coffee. And out of everyone, the only person that likes gulf is me. So in this way, Man is similar to only in English. However, we can also use man to suggest that a certain number is a small number, a number that is not to be exceeded. Let's take a look at two example sentences that use man in this way. Moody today, MR. hand, Kelman tabu JR. Let's watch Just one more episode of the drama would lead to a Hampton ment or Buddha to gamma tomogram. Eat just two more, two gamma and tomogram. So in these sentences, man is used with noun phrases, hampton, one episode to get two things to say that we'll watch just two episodes and the other person can eat just two more. So in these sentences, we use man to indicate that these numbers are small and these numbers are not to be exceeded. In this way, is similar to just in English. Now, when we use Mn in these four sentences, man replaces either the subject or topic particles in this sentence or object particles in the other three sentences. However, if we use MAN with other elements, they're actually used with the particles. Here are two example sentences. John then hack you Emma and Messiah. I only went to school. Cheonan hacker manga, SIR. John Lennon got pairs or mine. I only study in a cafe. John and gut pairs emoticon, whoo, hell. So in these sentences, man is used with nouns that are used with a particle, air and SR. Which can mean two and in and in these sentences, man is used after the particles rather than replacing them. So it's important to know that other than subject, topic and object particles, man has to be used after the particle. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a listener repeat practice of the sentences that use man. Repeat after me. Cheonan at chimera, copy man-made Chama and gold put her to wire. A ham come man, Toyota to gamma and Tom, Olga, Cheonan, hacky way man. John then got pairs are great job, well-done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In practice, you will see sentences with certain parts in bold. And I'd like you to add man to the bolded phrase and complete the sentence. Remember that if the particles are subject, Topic, or object particles than man replaces these particles. However, if there are other particles, then man is used with the particles. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Cheonan torso Guan there man and cassava. Cheonan torso one among us sayo. Chairman, two-color shit O'Hare, Charmin, Chicago, Cheonan, ci Bazerman and gongbuhaeyo. Cheonan she Bazerman, Khumbu, woody Dora, hunger man thought that red-orange moment or the Cheonan at chimera, Bandmann, Montoya, Cheonan HMMer, Bandmann, Makayla, hunger man, Tom ogo, hunger man, Tamagotchi. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use man to mean only and just. And we use man with nouns to save that, that noun is the only thing out of many, ought to say that a particular number is a small number that is not to be exceeded. In the next lesson, we will learn another way of saying only in Korean season again, bye-bye. 11. 3.2 밖에 (only): Hi everyone. So in this lesson, we're going to learn another phrase we use to mean only in Korean, and that's Packer. Pack gay is used with nouns relating to people, things, or numbers to indicate that that noun is the only option available. And if packet is used with a noun phrase relating to a number is suggest that that number is a very small number. So let's first take a look at two example sentences, and then we'll look at how we use PAC get in more detail. Then Django and blue bug get upside. There is only water in the fridge. Then Django Hebrew but Guelph CYA, that Chang'an but gaps are, I only have 1001 that Chang'an bug kelps are. First we use packet after the noun we're referring to. So it effectively replaces the particle the noun would be used with, which would be the subject particles e in both sentences. And same as MAN. If Pat gay is used with other elements in a sentence, PPAR gamma will be used with the particles. Secondly, part gate is always followed by a verb in its negative form. In these examples, the verbs are Abduh, which is the negative form of it that and up down means to not have. And in terms of usage, we use when we want to emphasize that someone or something is the only option available to us. So in the first sentence, we use pockets, emphasized that water is the only drink that's available in the fridge. And although man can also be used to say that water is the only drink available in the fridge. Packet is commonly used to further highlight that something is the only thing and that there is nothing else. However, the second sentence highlights a unique use of packed care. When we use Pat gave with a noun phrase relating to a number, it implies that the number is very, very small. So this sentence can be used when someone asks us to borrow money. And we want to say that I only have this small amounts of money. So I can't lend the other person money in this situation rather than using man and saying that ton on man is. So it's more appropriate to say that turn-on bucket upside as highlights Cheonan 1001 as being a very small amounts of money. Therefore, I don't have any spare cash. And we commonly use PAC get when we want to emphasize how a certain number is so small that I am unable to fulfill the other person's request, such as lending money. Okay, so with that in mind, let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Tba, you see Uber and Air. News is the only thing on TV. Tba, you Seba Afghan air. Cheonan hackers are congruent. I only study at school. Cheonan hacker is about Gai Cong Glendale. Narayanan pen to gaba Gulp saw. I only have two pens, none and pen to give our kelps are been sooner than single guys. Hang back. Kelps are Min Zu only has three friends, means soon and shingle GSS, hummingbird kelps are. So in the first sentence, we use to say that the only thing on TV is the news. And in the second sentence, the only place I study is the school. And in the second sentence we've used pack Get with the particle, SO rather than replacing it. And the third, fourth sentences highlight the numbers use with Pat care are so small that I don't have a spare pen and that means it doesn't have any other friends. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use Pat get as only. Neng, Django and blue back upside will not turn on, but gaps are TBA. You sue back on a single gas hummingbird kelps. That was great, well-done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with certain parts in bold. And I'd like you to add a packet to the boated phrase and complete the sentence. Remember that if the particles are subject or topic or object particles, then packet replaces these particles. But if there are other particles, then pack gay is used after these particles. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start. Tba to dharma and air. Tba to dharma by air. Cinguga. Tech sang a period hunger, check, sang a ion pair hunger, but kelps are pat tiers for naming her Melba nasa. Patti S only mi ha member, Ghana saw excellent job, well-done. Ok, so today we learned how to use PAC ad to mean only. And we use it to say that someone or something is the only option. And we also use it to highlight that a particular number is a very small number. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we will review everything we learn on using man and Packer. See you then, bye-bye. 12. 3.3 Review Lesson: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using man and PPACA to mean only. And just, let's first review band from two lessons ago. Previously we learned that we use man after bounds to say that something is the only thing out of all the things available. And we also use man to say that something is a small number and that number is not to be exceeded. We also learned that man replaces top pick subject and object particles, but with other particles, Van is used with the particles and it is positioned after the particles. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of using MAN. Repeat after me. Cheonan tos, OK, one m n cosine, Charmin, two-color ship. Cheonan, T. Bazerman Khumbu. Lead on that. Cheonan, Bandmann mock IR, hung gay man, Tom logo. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. Same as two lessons ago, you will see sentences with both parts. And I'd like you to use either man with the particle or use man instead of particles and say the full sentence. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Cheonan at chimeric copy man match IR, Cheonan at CMA copy my Messiah two gamma and Tomonaga, two gamma and omega. Cheonan hacker, lemongrass CYA, Cheonan hacker, Amanda CYA. Chairman Cole Porter to our hair. Chairman Cole Porter too, I hail. Cernan got pairs or man Khumbu, Tanaka pairs on Anaconda, Woody to Rama Hampton mantle boda, read to Dima Hampton, Manto Pooja. That was excellent. Rodin less. Now review how we use pack guy. In the previous lesson, we learned that we use packet with nouns to mean only. But when we use packet with nouns. Indicating that something is the only option available to us, or to emphasize a certain number as being a very small number. Additionally, pack gay is always followed by a verb in its negative form. And just like MAN, pack gas takes up the position of topic, subject, and object particles, but it is used with other particles in a sentence. Okay, so lets first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use PAC, get, repeat after me. Tbn to dharma. Then Django egg, higher bandgap, psi l, char, none who has i about Garr Angus, IR. Banana. Melon backups are check sang a Yom period. Hunger by kelps are patti S, funny me, Melba, nasa. That was great, well-done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. You're going to see sentences on the screen with both paths. And like the previous independent practice, I'd like you to use packet to replace the particles or use them with the particles depending on what kind of particles are used with the nouns. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Neng Django, Bu, Neng Geng Wei Bu backups IR that tunnel NBA Gulp saw that tunneled back kelps are TBA, you sit back and TBI do SBA. Cheonan hukou as Obamacare Kunduz. Ton than hackers about Dan and Penn together kelps are diamond pen to gaba. Kelps are mean xenon, cinguga. Kelps are means a single gas hanbok kelps are excellent job today, well-done. Okay, so in this review lesson, we went over how we use the word man and impact gay, which are used to mean only and just in Korean. In the next lesson, we're going to learn the connector word that means and in Korea and see you soon again, Buh-bye. 13. 3.4 그리고 (and): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use could Eagle, which means and in English inquiry. And we can use could ego and core to connect two clauses and encloses a basically simple sentences. And since many Korean sentences can comprise of just a verb, a phrase like Khumbu Hezekiah can be a clause. In this lesson, we will learn about could ego, and in the next lesson, we will learn about core. Now, before we go into how could he go is used to connect clauses, is important to note that we can also use could he go to connect nouns? In our level one grammar course, we learned to use the particles Lang, Iran, while, Coie and Hagel as and when we connect to nouns. However, to connect three or more nouns together, we have to use could ego instead of these particles. So we can say sagwa, Pana, Pana, could he go directly an apple or a banana and a strawberry? Sagwa, Pana, Pana, could ego, diarchy, char, char, Django, critical Keita, a car, a bicycle, and a train. Char Taizong could've Gorky char. So as you can see in these examples, when we listed three or more nouns, we use critical. So lets first do a listener repeat practice of saying these phrases that you use. Critical. Repeat after me. Sagwa, Pana, Pana, could ego, diarchy, sagwa Pana, Pana critique or diarchy? Char, Django. Could he go Keita charge has ongoing medical kit. That was great, well-done. Now, as mentioned earlier in the lesson, as well as listing nouns we commonly use, could he go to list two clauses? Here's an example sentence. Cheonan Khumbu, SIR, could he go Vinson and TBD Messiah. I studied and Min Zu watch TV, Cheonan Khumbu, SIR, go benzene and tributary by psi l. So in Korean, we can list two sentences using critical as and, and as you can see, unlike the English and which is used within a sentence, could ego is used at the beginning of the second sentence. However, as well as listing events, could ego can also be used as an then. So it can be used to sequence two events. Here's an example sentence, Cheonan Antonio, variable ogre go AR, could ego, subcellular hacker area. I will eat dinner and then I will do homework. Cheonan, Tony ogre mogul. Krieg, also gender Heiko, l. So in the sentence could ego is used as an then to sequence two events. And in general to understand weather, could ego is used as and, or and then you need to rely on contextual meaning. However, using could ego to mean and then is more common when the subject of the two clauses is the same. And in these two sentences, the subject is both char, meaning I. Here are few more example sentences. Cheonan cheaper chunks or SIR, could he go sue Gina and Tony has SIR, I clean the house and Susie tidied up. And then Ji Bu Tong Xue, SIR colleague oestrogen and Tang the SIR surgeon and check KR. Could he go on Chunqiao AIR? Susie is kind and she's very cute. Surgeon and tack care for ego on chunky OIL bins sooner and Khumbu SIR, could ego papilloma Garcia, Min Zu studied and then had a meal means non Khumbu SIR, could ego papillomavirus IR. The first two sentences, could he go is used to mean and to less to different activities or information. And as shown in the second example, we can also connect two sentences that use descriptive verbs. In the third sentence, it is used as an then to sequence two things. That means who did. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of using critical to list or to sequence two events. Repeat after me. Cheonan, Congo has CYA. Could ego Benson and Tiberio Messiah. Could you generate Heiko, Cheonan cheaper chunks or SIR, could ego, pseudonym Tony, SIR. Surgeon and could eagle on Tang keoyo. Could he go? Excellent job, well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice you're going to see phrases and sentences. And I'd like you to connect to nouns or sentences using could equal. This should be a fairly simple exercise, but think about the position of the ego in each line. Okay, so let's start the practice. Could you go Proxima sagwa Zuber? Could ego Proxima unmapped? Yangzhou, SIR. Sir. Sir, could he go suggestions, how about general SIR? Could evolve in Sudan? Urea, Saya, Cheonan. Could you go benzene and urea, SIR? Could ego papilloma means pseudonym, cheddar SIR. Diego Tiberius Messiah. Pseudonyms agenda, SIR. Could ego Theatre, Bizarre, fantastic efforts that a well-done. Ok, so today we learned to use could ego holds a list of three or more nouns together. And we also learned how to use could ego as And to list two sentences and to use it as an then to sequence two events. In the next lesson, we will learn how to use Core as an to list and to sequence two events. See you then, bye-bye. 14. 3.5 고 (and): Hi everyone. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use the Kinect to word core. Now, as we learned in the previous lesson, we use could Igor to connect two sentences. However, rather than using could Igor and having two separate sentences, you can combine the two sentences into one by using core. So let's first take a look at this sentence from the previous lesson. Cheonan Khumbu, SIR. Could he go consonance, tributary of Isiah. I studied and been X2 watch TV. So this is made up of two sentences and they are connected using could eagle, and we use could've gotten less to events in this line. However, instead of using could ego, we can use core to form a single sentence. And we do that by adding core to the stem of the first verb, which would be Khumbu hat. So we have Charmin, congruent had gone. And then we joined the second clause to form a single sentence, which is Cheonan Khumbu heck Gore Vinson, antipattern, SIR, Cheonan convert Gore medicine and or by psi r. Now the key point to note here is that when we less two events using core, the verbs in both clauses must indicate the tense of the verbs. In this sentence, both verbs are in their past forms. Hit, go, and pass CYA. So that's a very important point when we use call to list two events. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Cheonan suggested high-tech go-go, Vinson and young adult book go l. I will do homework and Min Zu will watch a film. Cheonan soup generic go-go means Yin and Yang Widerberg corral surgeon and Chicago EDAR yo shimmy hair. Susie is kind and works very hard. Surgeon and taco Gore. Ido, yo shimmy, how bananas? Uno heck call Shinzen and task SIR. Bina exercised and Shinzo slept banana and who nomadic God Shinzen and josiah. So again, we add core to the verb stem in the first clause and then join the second clause. And the verb tense is indicated in both verbs. Okay, so lets first do a speaking practice of using core to list two events. Repeat after me. Cheonan incident, TBD pass CYA, Cheonan soup, general high cocoa bean soon young surgeon and Chicago, either yo shimmy, B9 would nominate heck core. Sir. Excellent job, well-done. Let's now take a look at how we use core to sequence two events. Here's an example sentence that uses core to sequence two events. Sudden Zhengyi Dao Geico hacks secondary integrity, Qi Shi Ta Ke Messiah. The teacher left and then the students started to read the book. Sounds like Naomi digoxin data integrity against Jack, SIR. Now, the essence of using core to sequence events is the same as when we list two events. We add a call to the verb stem of the first verb and then join the second clause. However, the main difference is that although both verbs in this sentence indicates the past meaning, the tense is only indicated by the second verb, and core is attached to the verbs infinitive form. So in this sentence, core is attached to the infinitive form of the verb daga da, which means to leave. And the second verb, she Jack Castle, is the past form of the verb she Takata, which means to start. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Cheonan par bomb or core converter, Hiroko. I'm going to have dinner and then I will study Cheonan Powell, Marco. Marco been xenon, young, quadruple Gore Chihuahuas ir means a watch the film and then came home. Means on a young honorable god Shiva, CYA, banana and tech than Al Gore, singular Monaco AR. B now will finish work and then meet a friend. Banana integrin, alcohol, singular Monaco era. So in these sentences, core is used to sequence two events. And to do that, we attach core to the first verb stem. And then we add the second clause. And the verb in the second clause indicates that tense for both verbs in the sentence. And although the subject can be different for both verbs as shown by the earlier example, when the subjects were the teacher and the students, as shown by these examples, is more common for the subjects to be the same for both verbs when we use core to sequence two events. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences. Repeat after me, me, me dagger, go hack sang the turbidity case. Jack SIR. Cheonan Powell, mako Congo has been Xun Yang Widerberg or Chihuahuas SIR. Banana and taken an Al Gore singular magnetic OIL. Excellent job, well-done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences and using the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to join the two sentences and use core as either and or. And then, remember that core is attached to the verbs infinitive form when it's used as an then. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. The practice. Means Yunnan Chicago topped OKR, Vinson and Chicago talked OKR. Cheonan triggered a coach has CYA John integrity record has CYA Shinzen in London, I got singular Monaco area. Shinzen, Onondaga, God, singular, Monaco, AR. Chechen, good. Chang's order, how go omega two Qajar teaching rather than Chang's order Hagel who migrated require Charmin parvo, Mobile Core, Chechen Gonen, PGRN about Messiah, Cheonan Powell, mogul co-teaching gone and PG-13, Messiah. Gene Cernan handbook ceramic or a million books or I'm EAR, Shinzen and hunger. Ok, ceramic or a million books around me. A, a fantastic job, well-done. Ok, so today we learned to use Core to less to events and also to sequence two events. When we use core to sequence two events, core is attached to the first verb stem and the tense is only indicated in the second verb. The next lesson is review lesson, and we will review the use of cutie go and call from the two previous lessons. See you then, bye-bye. 15. 3.6 Review Lesson: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using could Igor and call, which we use to mean n. And then let's begin with critical to lessons ago we learned that we use could've gotten less nouns when there are three or more nouns. And to connect two sentences to list, to events or to sequence two events. Also, when could it go is used to mean and then the subject of both verbs tend to be the same. So let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use could ego in these ways. Sagwa, SOPA, could he go directly? Cha, cha, Django? Could he go buzzer, Cheonan cheaper chunks or SIR, could ego surgeon. And so God either has CYA, Cheonan combo, Hezekiah, could he go bins sooner and jadi has SIAH, benzene and CYA. Could he go pathway biogas, CYA. Surgeon General has CYA. Could he go, Tiberius Messiah. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. And this time you will see phrases and sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to add a could ego in appropriate places to connect the words and sentences. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Symbol. Young man, could he go? Symbionts? Pam, Vijay. Check, yum period. Could he go to yoga? Check young period could devote you gain Cheonan panel chunks or SIR, could he go surgeon N sub j has CYA, Cheonan, Ponary, Tong Xue, SIR, could it go surgeon and suggests I R. China and Combo Hezekiah, could he go beyond Sudan task CYA, Cheonan and Khumbu Isiah, critical incidents has CYA, Benson and cheaper was CYA could equal TB the past CYA, benzene and Shiva CYA, could he go Tiberius, Messiah, surgeon converter has CYA. Could he go young mother passed SIAH. So genetic converter has CYA. Could he go young white Reba? That was Excellence, well-done. Let's now review how we use core. In the previous lesson, we learned that we use core to mean and, and then. But unlike could he go, we use core within a sentence rather than between two sentences. Also, we learned that when we use core to mean and the tense is indicated in both verbs. However, when we use core to mean and then the tense of the two verbs is only indicated in the second verb, and the first verb is in its infinitive form. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use core in this way. Means anon, Chicago converter chart, AR, Cheonan poverty mogul coaching one1 Peter above us, CYA, Shinzen in handbooks or AMI go a million books at Umea. Cheonan checkered record has CYA, Shinzen and non ha called singular been narco AIR. Cherishing good chunks order Hagel, my Eukarya. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences on the screen and using the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to join the two sentences and use core as either and or, and then. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. The practice. Means Hunan and Khumbu hardcore, TBNA past CYA, mean xenon come wacko tributary Messiah, Cheonan and John had core medicine and task CYA, Cheonan Jacobian soon into Syria. Huck sanded and Thomson Mary Marco and don't Heiko hacks sanded and Thomson Mary Marco non Alcoa. Shinzen handbook ceramic or listening, young books or AMI a Shinzen and hanbok ceramic or listen and young books or Amelia benzene in Chicago, either ERA semi. Benzene and Chicago either yo shimmy AR Cheonan subcellular hypo Isiah, Cheonan subtitle How goal knowing SIR. Excellent job today, well done. Okay, so in this review lesson, we went over what we learn in the two previous lessons on using could Igor and core to mean. And, and then in the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say, however, in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 16. 3.7 하지만 (however): Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Hattie man, which corresponds to bots or however, in English. Now is important to note that in English we use various conjunctions and adverbs like, but. However, although and while to connect clauses that contrast each other. Or to show how something is surprising despite the idea presented in the other clause. And similarly in Korea, there are a number of different expressions we can use to show a contrasting relationships between ideas. And we're going to cover quite a number of these. And we'll begin with Hattie man in this lesson. Let's first take a look at an example sentence that uses Haji man. And then we'll discuss how we use handyman in detail. Cheonan, Hangzhou, Misha too, I hey, our Haji man means Vernon to Google Music urge or how I like Korean food. However, Min Zu likes Chinese food, Cheonan Hunger Games. You go to i how? Handyman benzene and June Gilgamesh eager to, why, how? So? In this sentence where contrasting two different food preferences. And these ideas are that I like Korean food and Min Zu likes Chinese food. And to show this contrasting relationship between these ideas, we can use Hattie man in the beginning of the second sentence. It's that simple. Let's take a look at few other example sentences. Cheonan converter yo CMI has CYA, Haji man songs, Yogi, and joy. Sir, I studied hard. However, the grades were not good. Cheonan converter yo shimmy ISIL had demands Hong Jungian joyous say our bins sooner and the honey is CYA, Hadza man Tong Zheng and Uppsala. Min Zu has an older brother. However, he doesn't have younger siblings. Means unknown young SIR, handyman, Tong Zheng and upscale. Or didn't die a cigar gauge wire, Haji man or genuine pygostyle. The weather is good today. However, it rained yesterday. On didn't dicey, gotcha, wire handyman or genome P. Garcia. So in each example sentence, we use Hattie man in the beginning of the second sentence to mean however, and handyman is used to show a contrast in relationship between two ideas. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice. Will first do a listening repeat practice of sentences we have seen in this lesson. Cmi has psi hace minus one jockey and Josiah hace man or agenda and pseudonym peg hace man. Excellent job, well done. Let's move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see two sentences on the screen. And all you have to do is use handyman to connect the two sentences together. It's a pretty simple exercise. So if you're ready, let's begin. Haji man, agenda and wounded a nice cigar. Enjoy Haji man agenda and Haji man, surgeon and Peter means soon and peas added to y how? Handyman surgeon and pediatric she know-how? Cisgenome, Tom azimuth and Bob Ross, CYA, Haji man peg will pass psi l pseudonyms, homogeneity, MLA style, hegemon pickup or post-sale. Cernan took guru to our how hegemon means linens for Yangzhou to our hair, our challenge to gooder Joy How had human medicine and Xian Lu Joy, How mean xenon Tong Zheng Isiah Haji man do Nagar upside being dissonant. Tong Zheng Isiah, handyman do Nagai up say are excellent job today, well done. Ok, so today we learned to use handyman to show contrasting relationship between two ideas. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to use Ci Man, which is a shortened form of handyman, to also connect two contrasting ideas. I'll see you soon in that lesson. Bye-bye. 17. 3.8 지만 (but): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Ci Man, which is a shortened form of Hatti man from the previous lesson. Now, same as how we use Core rather than could equal to combine two sentences together. We can use CI man instead of handyman to combine two sentences together. So let's first take a look at a sentence that uses Shimon, Cheonan, Hangul gums, Hugo, Chihuahua, hace man, bins sooner than June Gilgamesh, you go to our hair. I like Korean food, but Min Zu likes Chinese food. Cheonan Hunger Games are good to wire to man minus1 and John Williams ago two are how? Now when we use CI man, we attach she man to the verb stem in the first clause. So the verb in the first clause is a Chihuahua had that, and we simply attach Shimon to the verb stem and it becomes 2R Haji man. And then we join the second clause, which shows a contrasting idea to the first clause. Let's take a look at few other example sentences. Cheonan converter, yo shimmy had two-man, sung jockey and joy SIR. I studied hard but the grades were not good. Cheonan converter yo shimmy had German song geogie and joy, SIR. Consonant Shi Bei synagogue demands Leginon sigdang ape kind of Gaya. Min Zu will stay at home, but susy will go to the restaurant. Min Zu Dang Shi Bei, civic God-Man surgeon and sigdang Akaike glial owner didn't die. Shigao cigar to Shimon, agenda and P. Garcia. The weather is good today, but it rained yesterday. On didn't die. She got what she man or genuine P. Garcia. So in each sentence we simply attach she man to the verb or the adjective stem to show a contrast between the first idea and the second idea. And when you attach a man to the verb or the adjective stem, if the verb is in the past or future tense, then you simply attached to man to the stem of the verbs in different tenses. So in the first sentence, the verb form is in the past tense of hada, has soil. So we add a chairman to the stem in his past form, which becomes hegemon. And in the second sentence, the first verb is the future form of that is zirconia. We add a chairman to the stem of the future form, so it becomes acidic. Aji man. However, if the verb or the adjective is in the present tense, then we attach ti man to the verb or the adjectives infinitive form. So in the third sentence, we add a chairman to the stem of the infinitive form, to form a church hymn. And finally, as I've mentioned before, there are several different expressions we can use to say, but in Korean. And of these, Haji man and Shimon are slightly more formal. So they're more often seen in writing and also used in speech in formal settings. We will learn a more informal way of saying, but into lessons time. Let's now do a speaking practice of using T. Man will first do a listener repeat practice of sentences from this lesson. Cheonan, man, benzene and toluene. Then Amy had G man sung geogie IN Josiah, benzene and CBA Cinco de Man, pseudogene and sigdang ape, man, agenda and Pegasi, pseudonym peg, I will patch the man. That was excellent, well done. Let's move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see two sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to join the sentences to form one sentence by adding Ci Man to the first verb stem appropriately. Ok, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Owner then DIA Shiga and George Simon, agenda and Wuchang SIR, under the NIH Sega and good Superman or Jen and the Wuchang SIR. Bins sooner in a computer you are shimmy had Japan song jockey and Josiah shimmy had Shimon Songjiang. Josiah Suo Jie Nan Thompson minima g man, peg I go psi l, pseudonym Thomas Mann. Peg will pass IR. Cheonan pj either towards the man, hamburger. Jon and Joanne Freeman benzene and hamburger. Benzene and vacua Sugata man, surgeon NCBI, Cajal, Minton and vacua circuitry man, pseudonymity bear Calico a, a fantastic efforts well-done. Ok, so today we learned to use CI man to join two contrasting sentences into a single sentence. And we learned that the use of Haji man and she man is more formal than other similar expressions. In the next lesson, we will review the use of Haji, man and women. See you then, bye-bye. 18. 3.9 Review Lesson: Hi everyone. So in this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned over the past two lessons on the use of Haji man and a man will begin with Haji Man. Two lessons ago, we learned to use handyman to connect two contrasting sentences. So handyman is used in a similar way to however, in English. And the hegemon is used in the beginning of the second sentence. Now I don't think we need a lot of explanation with handyman. So lets first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use handyman. Repeat after me. Dicey guy, Haji man or agenda and Wuchang, SIR. Benson and p data to Haji man, surgeon PJ. So DNN, Haji man. Great efforts, well-done. This time we'll do an independent practice. And all you need to do is read the two sentences on the screen, making sure to use Hattie man at the start of the second sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the independent practice. John, then hang Google Music. Hygiene man bins sooner than China and hunger. How to mine been Sudan to hell. Cheonan converter Yaro, CMI has CYA, handyman Songjiang, and Joe ISIL. Cheonan converter Yosemite has CYA Haji minus Hong Yogi and Josiah. County Isiah. Haji man means Messiah handyman, Tanzanian upside. Only then dicey gij wire, Haji man or genuine P. Garcia. Only then dicey guy, Haji man or genome P Galois CYA, pseudonym peg capacity, hegemon Thompson among Messiah surgeon and peg I will pass IR handyman Thomson, Mary, Messiah. Excellent job, well done. Let us now review the use of Shimon. Now, the meaning of Ci Man is the same as handyman. But to use CI man, we simply attached to man to the verb stem in the first clause. And the second clause is then attached to the first clause, forming a single sentence. When using two-man, if the verb is in its past form, then we attach ti man to the past form of the verb stem. And if the verb is in the future form, then we attach a t man to the future form of the verb stem. However, in the present tense to man is attached to the verbs infinitive form. Lastly, happy man and women are more formal than other similar expressions. So they're more often used in formal writing and used in speech in formal settings. We will learn more informal ways of saying, however and, but in the next lesson. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener 3p practice of sentences that use two-man, repeat after me. Overdone, nasty guy and Yahtzee man, Origen and Wuchang SIR. Bins in any converter you are semi had two-man songs, Yogi and Josiah. So DNN Thompson marine Bhagwati man. Man means and then hamburger. Vacua is greater, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see two sentences again. And I'd like you to join the two sentences by attaching to man to the verb stem in the first sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Cheonan Hunger Games, you go to watch a man beaten Sudan to Google musicology. John and Hank Williams eager to wire demand means to move him to go to why hail, Cheonan and convertor yo shimmy had to man songs Yogi and Josiah Cheonan converter you are semi-additive Man Song Zhao Gan Jue ISIL being dissonant. Shi Bei civic clergyman, pseudonym sigdang Acharya, mean dissonance. Ebay said God, human pseudogenes, rectangles, Alcoa, on didn't dicey Gei Chu Zhi Man, all genuine peak hours CYA, underlain, dicey graduate, Shimon, Origen and P. Garcia. So genome peg I will patchy man Thompson, our MVA CYA, pseudonym peg I will patch a man Thompson, Madame Mombasa. Fantastic job today. Well-done. Ok, so today we review the use of Haji, man and man, which are used as however and bots in Korean. Now the use of Haji, man and man is slightly formal. And in Korean, there is a more informal way of saying however, and, but, so that's what we're going to learn next. I'll see you soon in the next lesson. Bye bye. 19. 3.10 그런데 (however): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use another phrase that also means however, and, but, and that's couldn't there. As mentioned before, the use of Haji man and a man is somewhat formal and is less commonly used in everyday situations. Therefore is more common to use Quran there, which is more informal. Couldn't there actually has a variety of users. But for now in this lesson, we'll focus on how is used to show a contrast in relationship between ideas. Let's first take a look at how it is used in sentences. Here are a couple of examples of using couldn't dare. E sigdang n do music. The PCR codon there by Kashyap soya. The food at this restaurant is expensive, however, is not delicious. Each rectangle E PCR could on their bash Uppsala, Cheonan took kudos to our hair. Quran there been xenon and joy hair. I like football. However, been sued, doesn't like football. Cheonan took good or joy AR couldn't there be insulin and Joe Hale? So as you can see in each line, we use could on there in the beginning of the second sentence to introduce a contrasting idea to the first sentence. Structurally, the way we use codon there is the same as handyman. We simply use codon there at the start of the second sentence. Let's take a look at a few other examples. Chip tannin, chug IR, couldn't there on Tang bilayer. A cheetah is small, however, it's very fast. She, Tan and tag I could on their own Tang bilayer been Cernan, header bar, Goya, codon there surgeon, a mug, Min, Zu, eat sashimi. However, Susie doesn't eat sashimi. Medicine inheritable Goyal on their pseudonym or Mughal surgeon, your SME Khumbu SIR, could on their songs Yogi and Josiah. Susie studied hard. However, the grades were not good. Surgeon NERSC me, Khumbu SIR, could on their songs, Yogi and Josiah. So again, to reiterate, in each line, there are two sentences. And in the beginning of the second sentence, we use could on there as However, to introduce a contrasting idea. Let's now do a listener repeat practice of using codon day. Repeat after me. E E PCR could could be could on their hometown. Couldn't there suturing them? Surgeon NERSC me. Couldn't There's Hong jockey and josiah. That was great, well-done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences and all you have to do is say the two sentences. Use could on there at the beginning of the second sentence is a simple practice. So if you're ready, let's begin. Bins sooner and convertor and SIR could on their Songjiang towards CYA means an n congruent SIR. Codon. There's Hong Zhang was so E n n e madoff. Couldn't there PCR, Egypt anonymity, gay bad Uppsala, Columbia PCR, pseudogene, n timess AMA in Bulgaria could on a mobile surgeon and Tim somewhere in Bulgaria, could on their tongue and ammonia tannin or J tasks I could on their ordinary people now, tundra knowledge HE tasks I couldn't they're only pico now. Cheonan. Couldn't they're switching and enjoy john yang underage who I could on their suggestion and Joe Hale, fantastic job today, well-done. Ok. So today we learned how to use could on there, which has the same meaning as handyman and is used in a similar way as in it is used in the beginning of the second sentence. However, couldn't, there is more informal, so it's more commonly used in everyday situations. Could on there also has a short-term form, which is none there. And we'll look at how we use this shorthand form in the next lesson. See you then, bye bye. 20. 3.11 은데 (but): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use then there, which is a shortened form of codon there and means. But in Korean, Now the use of the net is actually quite broad and it can be used in other ways than using it as just but, but for this lesson, we'll focus on how it is used to mean them. But in Korean, Now, similar to couldn't there than there is more informal than Haji man and she man. So it's more common to use the, they're in everyday speech. How we use that differs depending on whether it's used with descriptive verbs are regular verbs. With descriptive verbs we add in there, and with regular verbs we add that in there. And in this lesson, we'll first look at how we use in there with descriptive verbs. And in the next lesson, we'll look at how we use then there with regular verbs. Now, there are two main ways of adding in debt to descriptive verbs. So let's first take a look at two example sentences that use in their II sick Dannon, who Missy gps, Sunday, mashup, soil. The food at this restaurant is expensive, but it's not delicious. Egypt, diamond and GDP son thereby shop soya. She Tannen tavern there on Chang'e bilayer. A cheetah is small but it's very fast. She Tan and Tyburn there on Tang bilayer. Now, in terms of how we add debt to descriptive verbs, if the descriptive verb doesn't end in patch him, we add D And they're so Pisa that, which means to be Expensive, becomes piece San there. However, if the descriptive verb stem ends in Apache Him, then we add in there. So that which means to be small becomes tag. And they're, now there are many irregular patterns of adding in that depending on how the verb stem ends. And we will list all these patterns in the lesson worksheets. And in terms of how we use that, as mentioned before, then there is a short-term form of codon there. So we use it to join two clauses that contain contrasting ideas into a single sentence. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Ie on one end, open there on Tang TMI CYA. This film is sad, but it's really fun. Young one and serpent there on Chang's hemi cycle. Pseudogenes check, I abandon the cook January Messiah. Susie has a lot of homework, but she went to the cinema. Surgeon then Jagger abandon the cook Jenga soya e ship Dannon Ag son. Then they're gentlemen Saya. The food at this restaurant was expensive, but it's now cheap. Easy, dynamic Music, EP, sudden death, she human sale. So in each sentence we use in debt to join two clauses that show contrasting ideas. And in the first sentence, the descriptive verb doesn't end in patch him, so we add the end there. But in the second sentence, the descriptive verb ends in Apache him. We add in there in the last example sentence, the descriptive piece sada, which means to be expensive, is in its past form, pisa or Pisano. And when descriptive verbs are in the POS form, we add didn't dare to the verb stem. So P sat down becomes P sun there. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of sentences we have seen in this lesson. Ii, sick time, M p Sunday mashups. She tannin type in there. E silicon there on Tang Jamie psi psi L E N P, sudden death. Great job, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences on the screen, and I'd like you to combine the sentences by adding in there appropriately. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Owner didn't die cigar tune their top choice on that. Nic guide-tone, dadgum, trial. E, Kang arginine, Chaconne, their own Chang boost oil. E cannot genomes have been there on oil. Cheonan Halliday, Milan, their singular Monaco L, Cheonan holiday man and that singular Monaco L. Surgeon in Kigali, Suchi, Tom Zang and Kierkegaard's Haggai ER surgeon in Kigali, can there Sui Tang Seng and key Gattaca E E biases on than their chairman bad upside. Ischemic dynamic system than they're fantastic job today, well-done. Ok, so today we learned how to use that to join two clauses that contain contrasting ideas. And we learned the two main ways of using in there with descriptive verbs. In the next lesson, we will look at how we use didn't there with regular verbs. I'll see you soon again in the lesson. Bye-bye. 21. 3.12 는데 (but): Hello there and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Nin there with regular verbs. Now, as we learned before, we use there as but in Korean, and this is a shortened form of Couldn't Day. And the use of there is more informal than the use of Shimon and Haji man. Also, how we use with verbs is far less complicated than how we use in there with descriptive verbs. So let's first take a look at a sentence that uses then they're Cheonan, took good or to a 100 and there been Cernan and joy, Hey, I like football, but Min Zu doesn't like football. Jonathan, two-color joy, a 100 and they're Minnesotan and Joe Hale. When we use then there with verbs, we simply attach that to the verb stem, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in a patch him or not. So in this sentence, the verb in the first clause is Chihuahua hada, which means to like, and it doesn't end with a patch him. And we add that to the verb stem and make Chihuahua Hannon there. However, there are two exceptions to how we add them there. One is where the Korean Be verb EDA and with E that we add D And they're so E that becomes in there. And the other exception is when the verb stem ends in a leery batch him. And in these verbs, we remove the lid and then add that to the verb stem. So higher data, which means to live, becomes Hannon there. So let's take a look at few more example sentences that use them there with regular verbs. Means soon and hang go-getters, Hannon there, Kim cheddar, and Joe Hale. Min Zu lives in Korea but doesn't like kimchi means soon and Hangzhou gas and then their children enjoy hell. Pseudonym yo CMI London. Their songs, Yogi and Josiah. Susie studied hard, but the grades were not good. Suggestion yo shimmy can win and they're Song, Zhao, Gan, Jue, OCR, Shinzen and Ebay is silicon there. So genomic one layer cake glial chin X2 will stay at home, but susy will go to the park. Jim, x1 and x0 Basic on there. So genetical one that kind of go out. In the first sentence we add didn't dare to the verb stems holder. And as mentioned before, if the verb stem ends in a layer by Tim, we remove the patch him and then add that to the verb stem. In the second sentence, the verb but combo hada is in its past form, Khumbu, head that or SiO. And when the verb is in its past form, we add that to the verb stem in its past form. So Khumbu SiO or combo hepta becomes Khumbu Hindenburg. Lastly, the verb in the third sentence is in its future form. The Galileo or gosh that. And this actually ends in the Korean Be verb EDA as in gushy, that ends in EDA. And with eda, we just add D in there. So the ACASI that becomes the Gaussian there. And in everyday speech, we commonly contract this to the gun there. And although informal speech and writing, we would say the Gaussian there. In everyday situation, we say the gun there. Okay, so now that we've had the explanation, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use lin with regular verbs. Repeat after me. Cernan took a 100 and day bins and bins sooner, Hangul gas Hannan, the kimchi, the surgeon, NERSC me. Songs Yogi and Josiah. Ebay is silicon de su genomics, banana to neon then their major shopping or hail. Great job, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see two sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to combine the two sentences by adding then they're inappropriate places. Think about whether the verb is in present, past and future tense, and how we add in there with different tenses. And if the verb stem ends in a leery about Tim, remove the layer by Tim and add them there. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan poverty Balkan than their pay gap or pyre. Cheonan poverty mobile than the PEG will pile. Manana and vacua cannon there, Susan and she begged me banana and hacky wagon and edge in x1 and x0 beg IR, Vinson and Patti. Some rural Minnesota and Patty egg icon there, some Moran's, Isiah, Cheonan, Kim, Cheonan bonum. Pseudonyms. Could Chang, Erica CYA, suggestions Jagger, could Jenga CYA. Fantastic job today. Well done. Ok, so today we learned how to use then there, which means bots with verbs. And for most verbs we added that to the verb stem. But then there is added differently with verbs ending in leery about Tim, and also with the Korean Be verb eda. We now have a review lesson next, and we will review how we use codon there and in there, which are more informal way of saying however, and part in Korea. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 22. 3.13 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned over the past three lessons on the use of codon there and then there, then there. Let's first review the use of codon there. Now we use couldn't dare to mean however. And it's used to connect the two sentences that contain contrasting ideas. Like catchy man couldn't day is used in the beginning of the second sentence. However, couldn't, there is less formal than Haji man. So it's more commonly used in everyday situation. Okay, so let's first do some listening repeat practice of sentences that use current. There means an end converter, an SIR could on their songs yogi to ISIL. E, N, N E bar adopt CYA, could on the p-side. So GNM, Tim, summary, bulk, couldn't debt on-in a mug. That was excellent, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. This practice, you will see two sentences on the screen and all you have to do is use good on there to show the contrast in relationship between the two sentences. This is the same practice you did in the actual lesson. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. E N N E PCR, codon, thereby shop. So you sick tunnel Music EP psi grown Debye shop soil. Cheonan, two coder to why couldn't the bins sooner and enjoy haha, Cheonan, two-quarter joy, hail, granddad, beans on and enjoy hell. Chip Tannen tag I could on their own Chang paleo. She could on their own Shang palace. Vinson and header bug I could on their sewage in a mug. Means the Nano Henry Mozilla couldn't dare surgeon and searching and Yara shimmy Khumbu SIR, could on their songs Yogi and Josiah. Surgeon NERSC may come where, SIR, Quran, decimal Yogi and Josiah. Great efforts, well-done. Two lessons ago, we learned to use in there to join two clauses that use descriptive verbs into a single sentence. In there is used to connect clauses with contrasting ideas. And in this way, it functions like a short-term form of Quran there. Now, when we add in there, if the verb stem doesn't end in patching, we add mi and there. However, if the verb stem ends in patch him, then we add the net to the verb stem. Now there are however, many different ways of adding in debt to a verb stems, and these were listed in the lesson worksheet. Lastly, if the descriptive verb is used in the past tense, then we add that to the verb stem in the past form. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listening 3p practice of using in there. Owner and direct Shiga. Joan Troy II on Chang boost oil. Jonathan Hi Lady band and the band narco. Cij then kick I condemn samgyetang, Zheng Qi catch Haggai. Each rectangle ag biases on their chairman battled. Great job, well-done, less than do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences, and I'd like you to join the two sentences into one by adding appropriately to the first verb stem. Remember to add in that if the verb stem ends in patch him. But if the verb stem doesn't end in Batson, then we add the m there. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. E n, n e p, sandy soil rectangle Music EP Sunday barbershop soil. Chip Tannen, Monday on Chang Shi Tan and having their own Shang palace. E on one and silicon there on Chung Tammy's ir, e on one and silicon there on Tang Chinese. Pseudonym. Could Chang'e cosine switching dense Chegg, Amazon, they're cook Jenga soil. E, e p, son and she, Gherman, sayo. Each rectangle, Music EP sudden the fantastic job again, well done. Now in the last lesson, we learned to use didn't there with verbs and with verbs, we generally just add that to the verb stem. However, if the verb stem ends in leery about Tim, then we remove the Lear batch him, and then add the debt. And with the Korean Be verb, we add to the verb stem. Also similar to the descriptive verbs. If the verb is in its past form, we add that to the verb stem in the past form. And in the future tense, we add a, d and that the verbs future form. And this is because the verbs future form always ends in the Korean Be verb ITA. Okay, so lets first to a less than repeat practice of using the there with regular verbs. Cheonan, Balkan and debt. Pay guy will pile, B9 and hacky way cannon day, Shinzen and cheeseburger. Patty. Condemn. Kim. Could Chang'e. That was great. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to attach that to the verb stem in the first clause and then join the two sentences together to form a single sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Cheonan, too good. A chihuahua, 100 day. Been Cernan and joy. Challenge a 100 days sooner, and joy means soon. And Hangzhou gas Hannan, the medicine and hamburgers and under Kim, enjoy hell. Surgeon, your shimmy congruent and then some jockey and Josiah surgeon. And he or she may come when their song Julia and Josiah. Gene Cernan, Ci Bei silicon then Leginon, Calico, Shinzen. And she basically condemned Susan M. Coma like Alcoa, B9 and Tony. Mainly shopping or hair, bananas to neon and they're barely shopping or hale. Excellent job. Well-done. Ok, so this has been a rather long review lesson, but I hope the practice has helped you to re-learn how to use codon there. And then in the next lesson, we're going to learn how to show cause and effect relationship between ideas in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 23. 3.14 그래서 (therefore): Hello there and welcome back. In today's lesson, we're going to learn how to use could SR, which corresponds to there for in English. Now the use of CSR is quite simple, is always used in the beginning of the second sentence, and it's used to connect the sentence it's used with with the first sentence to show a cause and effect relationship. The first sentence being the cause and the second sentence being the effect. Let's take a look at two example sentences. Surgeon in Keychain, Qajar, could SR Dong. Susie is tall, therefore, she's good at basketball. So Gina and Kaguya could SO dongle Roots had AIR. Chang'an Xiang converter. You are CMI has CYA. Could SR sung jockey to Isiah. I studied hard for the exams. Therefore the grades were good. Chunxiang combinatorial SME SIR could SO Songjiang gagewa CYA. Now in these two lines, we've used the CSR in the beginning of the second sentence to show a cause and effect relationship between the first and the second sentence. The first being the cause and the second being the effect. And credenza can be used in both formal and informal settings. So it's a very common connector word to use in all situations. Here are few more example sentences that use Odessa, Cheonan Pagan who pass Aja could as are provided chickens to moon, SIR, I was hungry, therefore, I ordered fried chicken, Cheonan peg or pass AIA cadenza pride, the chicken energy moon SIL, maintenance, check on Aja. Could SR GPA is CYA hair. Mina has a lot of homework, therefore, she has to stay at home. Banana and subtract our Vinaya could Assad She Bei soya, hell means UGA called Jim matter has CYA could SR or Maga. Panacea means that light, therefore his mother was angry, means sukha cogen matter has CYA Cadenza or MCA panacea. So once again, to reiterate, we use crazy to connect two sentences to show a cause and effect relationship and is always used at the beginning of the second sentence. Okay, so I don't think we need a huge amount of explanation with this. So let's do a speaking practice of sentences that use could SR, repeat after me? Pseudonym, keychain, Korea. Could ASR dome Goodrich had AR. Shimmy has some geogie. Could put I could SRGB, psi. Great job, well-done. Let's move on to the independent practice. In this practice you're going to see two sentences and all you have to do is use ASR at the start of the second sentence to show a cause and effect relationship between the two sentences. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan bogey man, last CYA, crazy Buddha by Josiah. Cheonan bogey man, lasagna, courtesan, pluribus, Josiah, surgeon, key, catch, hack, IR, crazy, dumb, Goodrich, caribou tail. Pseudonym, kick-ass, hug Aja could SO dong euro typo tail. Sir. Sir. Cheonan, either URI shimmy has CYA, could SR, SISO single gene SIR, Cheonan either you are shimmy SIR. Could ISO has ISR singed, SIR. Fantastic efforts that a well-done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use cool ASR as there for, to show a cause and effect relationship between two sentences. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another particle we can use to show a cause and effect relationship between ideas. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 24. 3.15 아서 (so, because): Hello there and welcome back. In today's lesson, we're going to learn how to use ASA. Asa, which corresponds to because or so in English. Now as r. And also, I used to join two clauses into a single sentence. And they indicate the first clause as the cause and the second as the effect. Now, when it comes to conjugating verbs in the present tense, the most important element was whether the verb stem ends in vowels or R, or in other vowels. And how we add ASA. Asa also follow the same pattern. In this lesson, we'll first take a look at how we add ASA when the verb stem ends in vowels or, or. And in the next lesson, we'll take a look at how we add ASA, two verb stems that ending vows other than all, are. Here are a few example sentences that use ASA. Surgeon in Egypt has our owner toil pig on-air. Susie went to bed early, so x0 is less tied today. Sudan and Egypt as our new total people. Now, Cheonan E on water pass on pattern. Young widow put Gayle. I've seen this film, so our watch another film, China neon wanted to pass on cotton. Young writer put Gail, banana, Jens, Jacob, saw, GBA, Sawyer hair. Mina has a lot of homework, so she has to stay at home. Maintenance of Jagger, Manasseh, Shi Bei Sawyer hair. Okay, so in the first verb, the verb stem ends in a vowel with no patch him. So we simply add salt to the verb stem. In the second sentence, the verb stem ends in a vowel or with no Apache him. So we add saw, and this is why the verb stem changes from poor to par. Lastly, if the verb stem ends in vowels or our width patch him, Then we add hazard to the verb stem. So the descriptive verb band becomes Manasseh. And in terms of how it's used, ASL is used to show a cause and effect relationship between two clauses. So in the first sentence, the cause is that Susie went to bed early and the effect is that Susie is less tired. Now in the English translation as R is translated as meaning so. But depending on how the ideas are arranged, it can also mean because let's take a look at few more example sentences. Suchi, guard, she bear cars are child or Egypt. Messiah, Susie went home, so we went home early too. So giga cheeseburgers on toy or cosine up bugging. The Galois saw young wider bus soya that came home late. So we couldn't watch the film. Are bugger that gave us our young wonderful bus ir e TD toolbar saw pattern can locate. This road is narrow, so I'll go another way. You get each or bizarre cutting you look, I care. So again, to reiterate, in the first sentence, the verb stem of cauda ends in a vowel with no patch him. So we add salt to form castle. In the second sentence, the verb stem or that ends in a vowel or with no paycheck. So we add salt to form Watson. And lastly in the third sentence, the descriptive verb that ends in a vowel or with patch him. So we add acid to form, TO basil. And in terms of meaning, we use to show a cause and effect relationship between two clauses. Now one important point to know is that as R is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. So even though the verb may indicate the past meaning in the second sentence, as R is attached to the verbs infinitive form or that to form Lassa rather than its past form, what Dan and form what saw. So do keep that in mind. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use ASL. Think about the rules behind how we add acid to the verbs in each sentence. Surgeon, illogic tasks are on the Topeka nail, Cheonan, e on wider pass our pattern, young, wide-open al-Qaeda. So G got Messiah, IQ, ED tobias, our pattern, Guillot, KKR. That was greats, well-done, less. Now do an independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see two sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to add as our appropriately to the verb in the first sentence and join the two sentences into a single sentence. Think about the three rules we learned in today's lesson. Ok, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. E, somebody. Good. Gail got peg. Cop, Peter got peg. Copyrightable societal cut. So Gina and singular man, nasa key Bunia Josiah, pseudonym, singular ma'am, Nazarene, keep lineage who are CYA. Excellent job today, well-done. Ok, so today we learned to use ASR to join two clauses into a single sentence to show a cause and effect relationship between the two clauses. And we learn three ways of adding ASOR, two verbs depending on how the verb stem ended. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to add Azar to verb stems to form a cause and effect relationship between two clauses. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 25. 3.16 어서 (so, , because): Hello there and welcome back. In today's lesson, we're going to learn how to use Azar as because also in the previous lesson, we learned to use Assad to join two clauses when the verb stem ends in vowels or, or R. And in this lesson, we will look at how we use also with verb stems that don't end in vows or all are. However, we have learned already in the absolute beginner course that there are many different ways of adding suffixes that begin with a syllable or to verb stems, depending on the vowel of the verb stem ends with. So we'll consider some of the most common ways of adding also in this lesson, and we'll list other ways of adding also to verb stems in the lesson worksheets. So let's take a look at some example sentences. Cheonan or Jair, Busan, Han, Jackie, shit, iR. I had a scary dream yesterday, so I don't want to sleep alone. Cheonan or j, whose own? Kumar Gaza, whom judge, I mean Annan, Tony absorbs R could Jang ebook Gaia, meaning it doesn't have money. So she can't go to the cinema. Banana and Tony up so-so could Jang ebook Gaia, a guy called Jim matter has r, omega Messiah. I lied. So my mom is angry. Take our login matters are Maga panacea. Okay, so let's consider how we can add also to verb stems. First, if the verb stem ends in a vowel lw with no Apache m, Then we add also to the verb stem, so goddamn becomes glossa. Second, if the verb stem ends in vowels other than all or r and has about shim. Then we add Azar to the verb stem, so the verb becomes observable. And in the last sentence, the verb stem ends in hada. And when the verb stem ends in Hadar will change it to Has-A. And as with ASA, also is used to show a cause and effect relationship between ideas. So the first clause is the cause and the second is the effects. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences at BCG. Toner chores are pseudogenes, cook, January, cassava. Susie's dad gave her money. So she went to the cinema. Up bugger, Tonu Joseph, surgeon, Jenga, SIR, Cheonan, Thomas, EM embargo, saw peg and go pyre. I ate lunch, so I'm not hungry. Cheonan Thompson, when mothers are peg and go pile, pseudonym, soup, generate power has our TV rupiah. Susie did all her homework, so she's watching TV. Pseudonyms of genotypes are tributary bio. So following the same rules, we add also to the first verb stem as the verb stem ends in a vowel lw with no patching. In the second sentence, we add R3 as the verb stem ends in vowels other than all or R. And hazard that shim. In the last sentence, the verb stem ends in hada, so we change it to Hessel. And as with asthma, even if the verb indicates past meaning, as in this last sentence, also is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Okay, So with all that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use ASA. Repeat after me. Cheonan, all Busan. Han data. B9 and Tony. Could Jang am book called Jim Martin has omega, Hannah CYA, toner, toss, surgeon Jang IGA, CYA, Cheonan Tom machine, mock Asal, peg and go pile. Surgeon, general, TB rupiah. That was greats, well-done. Let's now do the independent practice. Similar to the previous lesson, you will see two sentences on the screen and bearing in mind what we have covered in this lesson about how we add to the verb stems. I'd like you to use Azar appropriately and join the two sentences into a single sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Cheonan, PE or PEG. Xiaomi salsa. Xiaomi Ceasar. John then P gone as our SIR. John and POSIX SIR. John, unquote, e bizarre and John than CO2, really bizarre and joy. To watch also has Saya, chin sukha towards those generate high SIR. Been Cernan was our key B10 and johayo, Benson and key Bunia and joy. Excellent job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use Azar as because and so to join two clauses when the verb stem ends in vowels other than or are. In the next lesson, we're going to review what we learned on using could SR and ASL and awesome. See you then, bye-bye. 26. 3.17 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned over the past three lessons on the use of CODASYL AND ASA. Asa, let's begin with a could, SO good, SO corresponds to, therefore in English is used at the start of the second sentence and shows a cause and effect relationship between the two sentences. Okay, I don't think we need a lot of explanation for this. So let us first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use could SR, repeat after me? So DNN keychain. Let's now do an independent practice. Same as in the lesson. You're going to see two sentences. And all you have to do is add a cadenza at the beginning of the second sentence and show a cause and effect relationship between the two sentences. Ok, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Suit CNN keychain, Korea could as pseudonym Kaguya could. So dong. Bananas, subject. Could as RGBA, manana, Jagger, maniacal, could SRGB Sawyer hail. Minnesota. Matter has CYA. Could SR or Maga means to gynecology mattered, SIR, could as omega panacea. Cheonan peg, corpus CYA, could aerosol provided chicanery to moon, SIR. Cheonan peg I will pass Aja could as are provided to kinetic moon ISIL. Cheonan sham converter, Yaro shimmy has CYA, could ASR songs Yogi towards CYA, Chunxiang, Hungary or shimmy SIR, could SR Songjiang ISIL. That was fantastic. Well done. Two lessons ago we learned to join two clauses using ASA to show a cause and effect relationship. And we learn three different ways of adding Asaad. The verb stem ends in vowels, or our first, if the verb stem ends in a vowel with no patch him, Then we add saw. Second, if the verb stem ends in a vowel or with no patch him, Then we add ASL. Lastly, if the verb stem ends in vowels or with patch M, Then we add ASL. And one other important point to note is that even if a verb indicates a past meaning, ASO is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Ok, so with that in mind, let's first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use ASL. E, somebody Chagas, Bush senile, Cheonan, e, two diameter pass our integrity. Good. Gail got caught Peter, Cheonan, naval surgeon and that was great, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences on the screen, and I'd like you to join the two sentences into one by adding acid to the first verb appropriately. Ok, so let us begin the practice. Ie td to bias our pattern kilo KKR, EGD, shoe bazaar, hadn't Gilligan, the kala-azar. The surgeon in Sudan and Egypt as o L B9, Cheonan II on water pass our pattern young quadrupole, Gaya. Turn on e on water pass our pattern. Your Widerberg Gail. Great effort again, well done. In the previous lesson, we looked at how we use our sought to join to closes to show a cause and effect relationship. And also is used where the verb stems that don't end in vows or R. Now there are many different ways of adding also to verb stems, but we focused on just three of them. First, if the verb stem ends in a vowel, lw with no batch m, Then we add awesome. Second, if the verb stem ends in vowels other than all with patch him, we add also. Lastly, if the verb stem ends in Huldah, then we change how that to hazard. And as with ASL also is always used with verbs infinitive form. Ok, so with that in mind, let's first do a listening 3p practice of sentences that use ASA. John in London has our pay Goggle pile. Xiaomi, Khumbu, Hiroko. And to keep money and job. Great job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice similar to the previous independent practice, I'd like you to join the two sentences by adding to the first verb appropriately. Okay, so let's go straight into this practice. Banana and Tony absorbs, are cooked Jang amble, Gaia, Manantali absorbs or cook Jang able Gaia, Cheonan, Busan, calmer, casa data. Cheonan, RJ Bu Zhong Guo Mercosur. Cheonan Thompson, Maria embargos are paragon and go pi TN and Thomas Seminary moguls, our peg and go pile. Soon get_int soup chatter tie, ASR, TBD, rupiah, surgeon and subtended ISR TV R3 via abigail toner jostle surgeon could Jang AIG has CYA up Bogata, new Joseph Jagger. Excellent efforts at eight, well-done. Ok, so today we review the use of CSR and also, which are all used to show cause and effect relationship between ideas. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another expression we can use to show a cause and effect relationship in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 27. 3.18 니까 (so, because): Hello there and welcome back. In today's lesson, we're going to learn how to use the data to function as so. And because similar to ask also, we use the gut to join two clauses into a single sentence. And when two clauses are joined by, the first clause is the cause, and the second is the effect. Let's take a look at two example sentences that use Leica. Moody's, Bonnie is Sunni, got to Sagar near carta. We have a lot of homework, so let's go to the library. Research Jagger bunnies, Seneca, Kosovar, Niigata, tomato, pizza or nega GPA is silico air. It's raining on the weekends, so I'm going to stay at home to matter, pig ONE guard, She Bei suit go l. Now, in terms of how we add the gap, if the verb stem ends in patch him, we add linear to the verb stem. So in the first sentence, we added linear to the verb, eat that to form a Sunni. However, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add the TGA. So in the second sentence, the verb or that becomes omega. Now there are many irregular ways of adding the gutter verb stems, and we'll list these in the lesson worksheet. And as mentioned before in sentences that use the GPA, the first clause is the cause, and the second is the effect. Now, at this stage, you might be wondering What's the difference between ASL or saw. And they both used to join two clauses to show a cause and effect relationship between ideas. So they look exactly the same. However, although structurally they're pretty much the same, there are actually many differences between Azar or saw and liquor. So let's go through each difference one-by-one. First, we cannot form imperative statements and suggestions using ASL also, but we can, using Leica. Take a look at these statements. P Gao Ni Shi base is raining, so stay at home. Pig ONE guard she base. P GAO or nega, She Bei. It's raining. So let's stay at home. Paeony, gutsy beta. In the first sentence, we used a casual form of the verb. That is, and this is the standard form of the verb which we can use in positive statements. And depending on the context is verb is used in, as long as there is no subject in the sentence, we can use this verb to tell people what to do. And the sentences that tell people what to do or code imperative statements. When we form imperative statements that contain two clauses with a cause and effect relationship, we have to use the god and not as awesome. Additionally, in the second sentence, we use the verb ending tag, which we use to make suggestions to friends. And if these sentences also contain two clauses with a cause and effect relationship, we have to use the gap and not as are awesome. The second difference between ASL also Anika, is that we can use the guy in different tenses, but we can only use ASL also with verbs infinitive forms. Consider the following sentence. P God or Guernica, Ci Bei. It will rain. So let's stay at home. Peak hour. Ghani guys debate Jan. In this sentence, the verb in the first clause is in future tense. And as we learned previously, ASA, ASA is always used with verbs infinitive form, however, can be used with verbs future and past form. The third difference between Azar also and that is that ASL and also are more formal than the TGA. So they're more commonly used in formal writing and deka is very rarely used in formal writing. Fourth, Azar also is more commonly used to talk about general reasons, something being a more natural consequence. So if we say, well known as ours had it by Josiah, I lost weight because I exercised. This sentence implies that exercising is the natural reason why I lost weight. On the other hand, we use nick God to emphasize how something is the reason for another thing. And Monica is a more subjective way to say how something is the reason for another thing. For example, let's say that everyone in my family has a theory on why I lost weight. Some people think is because of my diets and some people think is because of the stress I've been under. However, I think the reason why I lost weight is because I've been exercising. So to assert my opinion and emphasize how exercising is the reason why I lost weight. I can say we don't have any gas Hadi by Josiah. I lost weight because I exercised window manic guys, had he been Josiah? So in this sentence, neat guy is used to emphasize how exercising is the reason why I lost weight. Now, we can also just say, well known Hess are studied by Josiah. But in a situation where you're having to assert your opinion and to emphasize something as being the reason for another thing more appropriate to use liquor. Lastly, with certain emotive verbs, mainly with Pang up that coma comes. I had that bn Hadar and chairs on her that if we want to say we're sorry or thankful because of something, we have to use ASL also. We cannot use deka. So in all these sentences we've used also to say why we are glad to see someone and why we are thankful and why we're sorry. Okay, so that's a lot of information to take in, but let's now do a speaking practice of some of the sentences we have seen in this lesson. Repeat after me. Money is Sunni. Tba, silicon, P, P guy. Because Hadi by Josiah Pang up down towards also Camala. That was great, well-done, less than do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences or two verbs. And I'd like to join the sentences of verbs and form a single sentence by adding ASA, ASA, or the gap to the first verb appropriately. Prompts will be on the screen telling you to add either ASA, ASA or deega. So you can just focus on how you add these structures to the verbs. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. John, then we don't have any money to IR Cheonan who know Monica keep 10j wire. Xiaomi is cynical. Xiaomi is sneaker, paddock guy. Dicey G2 only data. Or J Khumbu money has Sydney, has Seneca will not Indonesia. Tb by an IPO, 10K songs Yogi and Joan Gaia. Tv Rimini bony parts or whatever money, basso, the patio Azar Kamaroi. Their party was our Kamaroi. Fantastic job today, well-done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use as because and so enjoin to closes into a single sentence. And we also learned about important differences between the GAR and ASA. Asa. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another phrase we can use to mean that because or because of inquiry. And see you soon again. Buh-bye. 28. 3.19 때문에 (because, because of): Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use them luminaire as because of. Now, then when air is used with nouns to mean because of. So let's first take a look at some example sentences that use them with their subject, them, luminaire, monogamy. I can't go out because of homework. Subject them when they're both Nagar, Xiang, then Monet, Khumbu hair, hair. I have to study it because of the exam. Shelved them when they are Khumbu hair, hair. So in each sentence the noun before, then when air becomes the reason for the action that comes after demo there. So there is a cause and effect relationship between the noun and the verb that follows. And when we use them when air is not attached to the noun it's used with. And generally the use of dominate is similar to the gun in that then when a is used to emphasize something as being the reason. So instead of talking about natural consequences, we use demo net, emphasize something as being the reason for another thing, such as me not being able to go out because of homework. However, unlike the god, which is quite informal, then when a is more formal, so it can be used in formal settings and in formal writing. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Or Madame Monet, the Josiah, I'm late because of my Mum or met them whenever the Josiah been sued them monad Cabana, IDO body Josiah. I lost my bag because of Min Zu means a damn on-air Cabana robot Josiah. And get them on a PNG guy? Yeah. Contact Desiree. The flight was delayed because of the fog and get them when they're PNG guy on check their CYA. So again, in each sentence we've used them after a noun to indicate that that noun is the reason for the action that follows. Okay, so let's now do a listener repeat practice of the sentence's. Subject them on a Xiang, a Madame monad, the Josiah being sued them on a IDO body Josiah. And get them when they're PNG guy on check their CYA. That was great, well done. Now let's consider how we use verbs with them when they're, when we use them when they're with verbs, we add a key infant of damage there to form a key demo there. And this is because when we attach key to a verb stem, it helps to change the verb into a noun. Here are two example sentences that use key demo there. Cheonan suture, GAR, bucket them when air would nag. I can't go out because I have a lot of homework. Cheonan soup, Jagger monkey them when there would Nagar. Dannon, Xiaomi get them when they're combo hair. I have to study because I have an exam. Dynein Xiaomi, get them when they're Khumbu her hair. So in the first sentence key then when n is added to the descriptive verb, which means to have a lot. So been tab becomes monkeyed them with air and altogether Cheonan subject. And keep them on their means because I have a lot of homework. And in the second sentence we've added key demo, an heir to the verb, which means to have. So we have dan xiang kid them with air, which means because I have an exam. In both of these sentences that refer to the present key demo is added to verbs infinitive forms. However, we can also use key demo on air with verbs in future and past forms. Here are two example sentences. Cheonan the gay, you don't get them on a basilar, do Josiah? I missed the bus because I got up late today than the gate on our Give them when they're basilar do Josiah Cheonan tomorrow. Go get them on a patio book Gaia. I can't go to the party because I'm going to study at the weekend. Cheonan humid air can work or get them on a patio book Gaia. So in the first sentence, the verb is the past tense of Eden. Eden that, that, and with keyed them when air it becomes eat on that, get them when they're. And in the second sentence, the future form of combo, Huldah Khumbu, high-cost Sadat is used with key demos to form. And this is often contracted to gongbuhaeyo, get them on a in speech. So do keep in mind that with verbs referring to the present, we attach key then when air with the verbs infinitive form. But with verbs that refer to the past and future, we can attach key then would add to the verbs past and future forms. Okay, so let's now do speaking practice of sentences that use key demo there. Repeat after me. Keep them. Keep them. Keep them on a messiah Cheonan tomorrow. Excellent job, well-done. Now, one other point to note with key then when there is that when we use the verb eat out with key demo and air, the meaning can be quite different from when we just use them when they're with a noun. Consider the following two sentences. Jong-un's hadn't named them. Luminaire papaya. I'm busy because of my boss. Jonathan's Hassan named them when they are papaya, Chaldeans Hassan Naomi them when they're papaya. I'm busy because I am the boss. Girondins had. Yagni may get them when they're papaya. Now, when a noun is used with them with air, that noun is generally not about the subject. Therefore, in the first sentence, I am saying that I am busy because of bias, hijacking him, my boss at work. However, the first clause in the second sentence, Chaldeans Hassan, Naomi, That means I am the boss. So when we add the key demo there, the sentence means that I am busy because I am the boss. So although at first glance the two sentences look quite similar, the meaning of the two sentences are very different. Lets take a look at two more examples sentences. Cheonan son Zheng, Nim, demo, Halliday, Vinaya. I have a lot of work because of the teacher Cheonan Zhan Zheng in them when they are Halliday Vinaya, Cheonan Zhan Zheng Ni me, get them when they're Halliday Biola. I have a lot of work because I am a teacher. Cheonan sons an immediate them when they are Halliday malaria. So again, in the first sentence, I'm saying that I have a lot of work because of the teacher, because of someone else. Whereas in the second sentence, I am saying that I have a lot of work because I am a teacher. So do keep in mind of this difference in meaning when we use the verb IDA with key demo. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use them and keep them with their, with the verb EDA. Papaya. Papaya. Excellent job, well done, less than do an independent practice. In this practice you will see sentences with either damn luminaire or key demo missing. And depending on whether the highlighted word is a noun or a verb, I'd like you to say the full sentence by adding demos or key demo appropriately. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Xiang Dan, brunette hair. She jumped them when they're Khumbu hair, hair on, need them on a TB available. Attributable by hacking them when they get them on a single key. Josiah. A highly Halliday Cernan are by get them when they're Tomorrow, a Shikai ne outside China and our BY get them manage Medea Shivani Uppsala. Fantastic efforts today. Well done. In this lesson, we learned to use them luminaire and key dominate with nouns and verbs to mean because or because of. And they use a similar to decay in that they're used to emphasize something as being a reason for another thing. In the next lesson, we're going to learn one more phrase that also means so and because, and we promised that this is a last one. See you soon again. Buh-bye. 29. 3.20 이라서 (because it is): Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use the lasso, which is similar in meaning to because it is in English. Now like damn lunar, Lazarro is always used with nouns. And they indicate that that noun is the reason for something else. So let's first take a look at two example sentences that use Lasser. Charles, son Zheng, name it as our Halliday Vinaya. I have a lot of work because I am a teacher. Cheonan sons, I name it as our holiday man IR Cernan, our parasol. Tomorrow. I don't have time at weekends because I am a father. Children are parasol tomorrow's Shivani upside. Now, in terms of how we add lasso to nouns, we add IDA star if the noun ends in patch him. So where the sunset Nim, we added IASA because something Nim ends in a medium, but shaman, but we use lasso If the noun doesn't end in patch him, like I'm back in the second sentence. And in terms of meaning, Lazarro doesn't just mean because it actually contains the meaning of the be verb IDA within the phrase Alaska. Therefore, when we use the Lasso with nouns, is used in a similar way to keep them on air when it combines with a be verb EDA. So the first sentence means that I have a lot of work, not because of some other teacher, but because I am a teacher. And in the second sentence, I don't have time at weekends, not because of my father, but because I am a father. So Lasa contains the meaning of the be verb, eat that. Let's take a look at few other example sentences. Or nerd in Tokyo area lead us are cheaper. Caja de l. I have to go home early because today is Saturday on it in Toyota does our CBG Gaia there been sooner and tragic Jewry jazz are Colgate. A mug means who doesn't eat meat because he's a vegetarian, means sooner and tragic jury data as our Cauchy did a mug IL, daily criticism acid as our CagA papel Gaya. The store will be busy because tomorrow is Christmas Day, Christmas Salazar CagA, papel Gaya. So in each sentence the nouns are used with EDS are all law. So to say that because today is Saturday, because Menes who is a vegetarian and because tomorrow is Christmas, the following action or state in the sentence is true. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use lasso or I-TASSER. Repeat after me. Cheonan sons and name it as our Halliday Vinaya. Cheonan apparatus are tomorrow. Shivani Uppsala. Excellent job, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with blanks. And depending on whether the highlighted noun ends in patch him or not, I like you to say the full sentence by adding either lasso or Eros out. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Manana handbook, Samhita, Asahi, Shimbun matter, terrible tail, mean and and hangups are Amira, so Django, Maritime Hotel surgeon pair Guzman, sources are keychain, Kaya, surgeon, NPA goes on. Sodas are key guy. Omid n choose r get as our permanent Seebeck higher order than to target as our permanent algebraic hired to L. Benzene and hexane eras are Tony soya medicine and hexane aerosol. Tony upside. Cheonan Yogi's had Al-Azhar, your directors had AIR, Cheonan urease had as are your denotes had air. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use Lasso with nouns to mean because it is. And this use is similar to how key demo and a is used with a be verb either. In the next lesson, we're going to review everything we learned in the last three lessons on using the TGA demos and LaSalle from today. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 30. 3.21 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned over the past three lessons on the use of the gun, then lunar and Lassa. Let's first review the use of Dukkha. Three lessons ago, we learned to join two clauses that have a cause and effect relationship using the TGA. And when we use the gap, if the verb stem ends in pats him, we add the Tanika. But if the verb stem doesn't end in patches, we add the TGA. And unlike ASA, Azar, we can use the gut to form imperative statements and to make suggestions. We can also use the girl with different tenses. And we used the gut to emphasize something as being the reason and to give more subjective reasoning. Also compared to ASL or saw, the God is more informal. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use the repeat after me. The Cheonan known Hanukkah, keeping each wire. Xiaomi is Sica Sica tunica, paddock guy. Or J. Khumbu money has Seneca TB songs, Yogi and Joan Gaia. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. Similar to the practice in the lesson, you will see two sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to join the two sentences into one by adding the appropriately to the verb in the first clause. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start. Bonnie Seneca. Wudi is Bonnie Seneca Osaka, Niigata. Tomorrow. Tomorrow API GAO and eBay saw catch eBay saw P GAO or Ghani, gutsy beta p goal gonna catch debate. Jan, who has had a bad Josiah. Josiah. Excellent job, well-done. Two lessons ago, we learned to use them when air with nouns and when we use them in air with nouns, a corresponds to because of. And to use demo with verbs, we need to add a key in front of them. As key helps to change verbs into nouns. Like Nick, God, we can use key demo on out with verbs in different senses. We also learned that when we use key demo with a verb, EDA is meaning can be quite different from sentences that use just demo there. As IDA indicates that the noun it is used with is the subject. Ok, so with that in mind, let's first do a listen and repeat practice of sentences that use their money and key demo. They're repeat after me. She, I'm damn lunar Khumbu hair, hair, NAIDOC, yoga, Tom. That was excellent, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences on the screen with blanks. And depending on whether there are nouns or verbs next to the blanks, I'd like you to say the full sentence by adding either damaged or key demo there. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Subject them. Monad wouldn't NACA subject them whenever will NACA? Jonathan soup, Jagger Ban Ki, Moon m will Nagar, Cheonan soup Jagger man keep them whenever Nagar Cheonan, the gate on that get them on a postorder. Do Josiah Cheonan decayed on that? Get them whenever possible. Josiah Jonathan's had Dang Ni me get them monad, papaya. Chaldeans hydronium may get them on their papaya. Jonathan Zhan Zheng Ni me, get them on a holiday. Vinaya. Cheonan sons actually may get them on a holiday Vinaya. Fantastic efforts, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use Lasso with nouns to mean because it is, we use etas are if the noun ends in patch him, but if it doesn't, then we use Lasser. And lasso contains the meaning of the be verb IDA. So when we use Lasso with nouns, they function similarly to how key demo day is used with a be verb EDA. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listening 3p practice of sentences that use at last I'll repeat after me. Tomorrow. Terrible tail. Sui generis. Keychain. Benzene and hexane eras are Tony Uppsala, Cheonan urease had Azar, you already read which had a, a great efforts well-done, less than do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with blanks and depending on whether the highlighted nouns next to the planks and in patchy Monod. I'd like you to complete the sentences using either lasso or aerosol. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. He LED Vinaya, Charmin, toilet ISR. Does our data as our Mogul. Or Mughal. 80 could have some acid as our daily could've semester guys are fantastic job today. Well done. Ok, so today we review the use of the god damn lunar and lasso, which are all used to show a cause and effect relationship between ideas. We're now going to move on from learning particles and connectors. And in the next unit, we're going to learn various phrases we can use to show time order of events. See you then, bye-bye. 31. 4.1 전에 (before): Hi there. In this unit, we're going to learn various phrases we can use to refer to time, order of events. And in this first lesson, we're going to learn chon there, which corresponds to before or ago. Now, Chan is a noun that relates to the past. And we can actually use this word alone with nouns to form phrases that means before something. For example, if we say Sue up chun, It means before a lesson and it functions as a noun phrase. So we can say sue up to100 AL, and it means it is before the lesson. Now, air is a time particle which we can use with specific time expressions, such as time and days of the week. And when we want to talk about doing something before another event, we have to use air with Chun and say John there. So let's take a look at an example sentence that uses Charney, swap John air menagerie, less meat before the lesson, swap John Oba, Nigeria. First to say before something, we have to use China after a noun, so swap means before the lesson. And as mentioned before, we have to use air to talk about doing something before something. So air in the sentence is a structural element that glues swap John and Manager together. Now, China can mean both before or ago depending on how it is used. So let's take a look at two more example sentences that uses TA1 there as before and ago. Cheonan Thomas, him John ere che Yogi is suicidal. I had p before lunch. Cheonan Tom, Jim, Johnny RTOG societal, Cheonan chimney and John air hunger guys had SIR, I lived in Korea ten years ago. And then shim Yangzhou, Hangzhou guys had Isiah. In the first sentence we use a general noun before Charney. And when we use general nouns before Charney, John F functions as before. However, when we use a noun that relates to a period of time such as Simeon, ten years before China. Then tonight is used as ago. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Mean zoning, package on air, will normal hair. Min Zu exercises before school mean xenon, hack-a-thon, there will no omega L Cheonan handouts on air to January commander soya. I quit my job a month ago. John and handles on edge Xander commando soil, a Bugatti, Michigan, Jon air Tang ISIL. That CO, two hours ago, our Bogata Ugandan edge on ISIL. So again, to reiterate, when we use general nouns before China, China is used as before, but when a noun that refers to a period of time is used before China, China means ago. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use Charney. Repeat after me. Cheonan Thompson, John air, geogie, so Saya, Cheonan ship, Hunger Games had SIR mean xenon package on a normal hair. Cheonan handles on air chip January, commandos, soya, up Berger, who she can John edge on ISIL. That was great, well-done. Now similar to how we use the key demo with verbs, we can also use key tonight with verbs to say that we do something before another action or states. Here are two example sentences. Being zoom-in, hack your car gauge on their windows. Min Zu exercises before he goes to school, means soon and hacky baggage on a window. Maria L. Cheonan Chunyang monkeys on there to generate high SIR. I did all the homework before I had dinner. Cheonan Chunyang Locke's on-air subtended. Hi, SIR. In both sentences, we've added a key turn out to the verb stem, and this indicates that before that action, another action happened. So in the first sentence we add key telnet to the verb ta-da to say that before bins who goes to school, he exercises. And in the second sentence we've added a key to an end to the verb, bought that, which means tweet. So before I had dinner, I did all my homework. And as in the second sentence, even if a verb indicates pass meaning key, Jon is always used with the verbs infinitive form. Let's take a look at few more examples. Sentences 9N, tacky John air, TB thereby saw I watch TV before I went to bed. Dan and tag on their TV. Ribose saw each on a stretching or hedgerows AR please stretch before exercising. Well known luggage on air stretching or hedgerows, AR Cheonan, some jagged edge on air. Tania Gary bagasse area. I had dinner before I did homework. Tunnels of jagged edge on their tongue, ElGamal Josiah. So as you can see in each sentence, we've added a ketone heir to the verbs infinitive form to say before that particular action, another action happened. Okay, so let's now do a listener repeat practice of the sentences that use ketone. They're repeat after me. When sooner and hack your car keys on air. Cheonan Chongyang monkeys on air subjected her Hezekiah. Dannon target on a TV really bizarre. Who know Haggis on aesthetic singer hedges AR. Cheonan, some jagged edge on air, tonal group or Gauss-Seidel. Excellent job, well-done, less than do the independent practice. This practice, you will see either a noun in a sentence or two sentences and unlikely to add either China or key childcare and form a single sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice to marriage on-air tonight. To manage an edge on a handout on air, put unsafe cast. So Saya, handout on their pranks. Eric has Messiah, Cheonan Egypt on a each other's has CYA, Cheonan Egypt on each other's Isiah, Cheonan yogi or each on-air poverty mola CYA, tunnel yogi or poverty mobile CYA. Cheonan Shambaugh is on a copyrighted by Josiah Chunxiang baggage on a copier by Josiah being xenon PNG baggage on air. Pojanghae Degas CYA means in NPN geotag is on a Hua Dang Shi De Garcia. Fantastic efforts at a well-done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use China as before or a Go. Depending on whether we use general nouns or nouns that express a period of time. And we also learned to use a key to on-air with verbs to say how one action happens before another action. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say later or after in Korean. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 32. 4.2 후에 (after): Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to say, after all later in Korean using foo. Now, similar to how Chun is used to refer to the past, who is a noun that means after, and we can use it with nouns to say after something. So if we say Tom Shem, who it means after lunch, and this functions as a noun phrase. So we can use Who with air, so that we can use it in sentences to say after something or a certain amount of time later, something else happens. Let's first take a look at how we use who ate with nouns in sentences. Hacked, go whoever Niger, less, meet after school. Hacker who am ANALOG_IN, Cheonan two, she began for me, so I have an exam in two hours. Cheonan two giga, Xiaomi CYA. In the first sentence we use where with a general noun. And in this structure means after, indicating that the school is the first event and meeting is the second event. However, in the second sentence, where is used with a noun that refers to a period of time. And in this structure where it means later or as the English translation shows in time. So we use this structure to say how much time later something will happen. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Cheonan, Thomas, him whoever be Z22 or be Isiah. I have an art class after lunch. Cheonan Thompson mu_0 be x2. X2 obeys CYA bins sooner and hand-eye whoever caught on I got a a when x2 is going to get married in a month, min xenon handout away codon nautical AR, pseudonym Patty who as singular Monaco as Susie is going to meet a friend after the party. Pseudonym Patty, where singular Monaco EIA. So in each sentence we use a general noun or a noun that relates to a period of time and where is used to mean after, all later. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first to a listener repeat practice of sentences that use where with a noun, repeat after me. Hack, go through a magnesia, Cheonan 20k and whoever Xiaomi CYA Cheonan Thomas him whoever B is also a B psi means handout where cotton article, pseudonym Patty who had singular Monaco. That was great, well-done. Now, like China, where can also be used with verbs. But instead of adding key, we need to add in in front of where. And we use this structure to say that one action happens after another action. Let's first take a look at two example sentences that use the bins. Nan Xiang, born through air Cooke Johnny archaic Goya. Min Zu will go to the cinema after he takes his exam. Minnesota and Chambord, whoever could gigantic Gaya Shinzen and Tonya Morgan, who is Gerald SIR. Kinsey did his homework after he had dinner. Shinzen and Chunyang Morgan, who has general Hezekiah, impose sentences. The action in the first clause is the first action, and the action in the second clause is the second action. And in terms of structure, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add new and who are so poor, that becomes porn where? However, if the verb stem ends in patch him, then we add in the air, so that becomes Morgan through air. Now there are other irregular patterns of adding in whoever, and we list these in the lesson worksheets. One other thing to note with this structure is that we only add these structures to verbs infinitive form. So although the verb in the first clause in the second sentence indicates past meaning and whoever is used with the verbs infinitive form, Bach that. Ok, so let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Surgeon in Tibet or in the fluid Khumbu SIR. Susie studied after coming home, Suo Jie Dan Shi Bian Hua. Sir Cheonan, longhand, the Fuad Tom machinery and mockery. Ar I will eat lunch after exercising. Cheonan, who know nanowire Thompson were embargoed. Ar Cheonan, Chicago surgeon who had Seebeck Isiah. I went home after I found the wallet. Cheonan ship surgeon who edge burger psi L. Okay, so to reiterate, we added new and whoever after a verb stem that doesn't end in patch him. And lymph where after a verb stem that ends in patch him to say that after one action, another action happens. Let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use Hootsuite with verbs. Repeat after me. Min Zu Ni Xiang, Hu, Jang. Tonya Morgan who has CYA surgeon and Khumbu SIR. Cheonan, Tommy Sumerian, Bulgaria. Cheonan Chagall, Chattanooga, who edge Bagua CYA. That was excellent, well done. I think it's time for an independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see either nouns and sentences or two sentences. And unlikely to combine the two to form a single sentence using either foo or whoever. Remember that we add new and whoever, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him. But we add Limbo where if the verb stem ends in pats him. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Swap whereby SOP whoever handout where Caldonia L, Tn and handout away coudl nail. Sir. Means copy machine who had means and then copy imagined whoever come while shopping hands where bodies are last CYA, Shinzen and shopping and where bodies are lasagna, Tynan, Thomas Hunt Morgan who had to Osaka and a ton then Thompson mobile who had excellent job, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use where as, after or later, depending on whether it's used with general nouns are nouns that express a period of time. We also learned to use than whoever with verbs to say how one action happens after another action. In the next lesson, we're going to review what we learned on the use of China. And who see you then? Bye-bye. 33. 4.3 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using tonight and who's to say before and after? Let's begin with China. To lessons ago, we learned to use childcare to mean before or a go. First when we use Charney with nouns, if we use China with general nouns is used to mean before. However, if we use China with nouns relating to a period of time, then it is used to mean a go. We can also use tonight with verbs, but we need to add a key infants of China as it helps to form verbs into nouns. And we use key john add to say that before one action, another action happens. So with that in mind, let's first to a list and repeat practice of sentences that use char there to manage on their tonight, Gail, hundreds on their Messiah. John, then yogi or gauge on there pub Omar Garcia, Cheonan Xiang mortgage on a copy. The rabbis are CYA, Benson and PNG tacky John, they're hijacking Judaica Saya. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an Independent Speaking practice. In this practice, you will see either a noun in a sentence or two sentences. And I'd like you to add either China or key China and form a single sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Thompson, John Thompson John RTOG, Suseela, Simeon, Johnny Hunger Games had Isiah semi-annually hamburgers at Ostia. Cheonan, Chongyang monkeys on a subject, a messiah, Cheonan, tonal markings on there, some stereotype Isiah Dannon charges on air, TBNA buzz saw that and shaggy Jeanette Tiberio Vasa, London Haggai john S touching hedges, Haha, no AGI John as selecting a hedges EIA. Excellent job, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use where to mean after all later. When we use Whoever with general nouns is used to mean after. But when it's used with nouns relating to a period of time is used to mean later, as in a certain amount of time later. We can also use where with verbs. And to do that we add an infant of where to form an H2O. And if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we added D1 who add to the verb stem. But if it does end in batch m, Then we add Linphone. And these structures indicate that one action happens after another action. There were also various irregular patterns of adding an H2O, and these are listed in the lesson worksheet. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice of using where. Swap where by nasa, Cheonan handout whoever Caledonia, minus1 and copy machine where conglomerate Kaya, Shinzen and shopping and the fluid bodies and last CYA, Thompson Moglen through air, torso, Guan air cast CYA. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. Same as before. In this practice, you're either going to see nouns and sentences or two sentences. And unlikely to combine the two to form a single sentence using either through air or whoever. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Charmin to Xi Guan Fu, Xi army CYA, Cheonan two Michigan who as Xiaomi CYA Cheonan Thomas him whoever business lobby is CYA, John and Thomas him away. Bees also RB SIR. Mean xenon Shambaugh. Jan Boyar mean xenon Shambaugh, NH2, air cook Jang agaric, Korea. Shinzen, Young login flow air subtitle has CYA, Shinzen, Antonio Moglen who air subtitle SIR. Pseudonym TBA on where Khumbu Hezekiah, pseudonym Xi Bian Hua conquest. Excellent efforts that I am well-done. Ok, so today we reviewed what we learned in the two previous lessons on using China as before and f2 as after. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another useful expression we can use to mean after in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 34. 4.4 고 나서 (after): Hello there and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn another way of saying after, and this is core nasa. Now, we use core nasa to join two clauses to say that one action will happen once the other action or an activity has finished. And this is a key difference between core data and, and Huawei, which we learned in the previous lesson. When the fluid is simply used to say that one action follows another action. Whereas core nasa emphasizes that an action or an activity must finish before another action or an activity can follow. So let's take a look at two examples sentences that use core nasa, Jonathan's hack on Nassau, TB, the Messiah. I watch TV after I did homework. Children's gender has gone as our tibia, very bizarre bins. And then also goanna us are at cima embargos. Cya, Min Zu ate breakfast after he put on his clothes. Means and then also the gonads are at similar Mosiah. Okay, So in terms of the structure, core, nasa is really simple. We simply add a core nasa to the verb stem in the first clause and then join the second clause. Corners are, is always attached to the verbs infinitive form, and the tense of the verb is only indicated in the verb in the second clause. So in the first sentence we add a core nasa to the verb a Huldah to form Hagel nasa. And in the second sentence we add a core nasa to the verb, eat that to form IEP goal nasa. And in both sentences, the verbs in the second clause indicates the tense of both verbs, which are both past forms, past sayo and Margo's soil. Now, earlier in the course, we learned that we can add core to verbs to say and then, and in nearly all sentences, we can use Corr and corners are interchangeably. There would be very little difference in the meaning of the sentences that use either core and core nasa. However, the slight difference between these two phrases is that if we want to emphasize that the second action we'll follow only when the first action is done, then we would use core nasa. For example, let's say that I'm doing my homework. And while I'm doing my homework, my mother nags me about tidying up my room. So to say that our tidy up my room, once I have finished the homework, I would use core nasa and say, Hey, how gonads are. Chung me. I'll tidy up after I finished the homework. So jaguars are Chongyang. So in this sentence, I've used a core data because I want to emphasize that I will tidy up my room only when I have finished the homework. Now, we can also just say, Jay, How go Tony Hat GEO and convey the same meaning. But if we really wanted to emphasize that one action will follow when another action of activities done, then we would use core nasa. Okay, so let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Pseudogene in young liable for nasa, eBay or Susie will come home after watching the movie. Suturing then your marble one as RGB or Shinzen is handshake has gone us our Chunyang Mosiah, Shinzo Abe dinner after taking a walk, Shinzen and Chicago. And as our Chunyang Mosiah, B9 in the MCQ, the gonads are suggests. I mean, I did homework after she listened to music. Manana Newmark, the corners are suggests I are. So again, to reiterate, we join two clauses using core nasa to mean that something will happen after the completion of another activity or action. And we add a core nasa to a verbs infinitive form regardless of how the verb stem ends. Now, there is one important point to note with using core nasa. Generally when we use corn as are the subjects of the two closest tend to be the same. However, we can also form sentences that have two different subjects. Here's an example sentence, Shinsegae, vacua air cargo, nasa or mortgage. Chang's order has CYA monk clean the house after Kinsey went to school. Shinsegae vacua got one as R or mugger chip chunks or SIL. So as you can see, the subjects of the two clauses are different. Chin x2 and unmapped. Now, when the subjects of the two clauses are different, we can use verbs of motion in the first clause, such as CUDA, which means to go. However, if the subjects of the two clauses are the same, we cannot use verbs of motion, as well as certain other action verbs in the first clause. Consider the following sentence. Cheonan, she bear cow bone as our suggests, I R, I did my homework after I went home. Cheonan Schoenberg, I want us our suggests I are. In the sentence, the subject of both clauses is char i. And in this type of sentence, we cannot use verbs of motion and certain action verbs in the first clause. This is because when we say Cheonan cheap air cargo, nasa. It doesn't actually mean that I go home. It actually means that I leave to go home. So the actual meaning of the sentence is, I did my homework after I left to go home. So when the subjects of the two clauses are the same and the verb in the first clause is a verb of motion or a certain action verb. The relationship between the two clauses is quite confusing. To form this type of sentence, we should use ASA, ASA, which we can use to sequence events. Now, we learned earlier that's ASA. Asa is used to show a cause and effect relationship between ideas, but it can also be used to sequence events in certain contexts. We'll learn more about this use of ASL or saw in the next lecture. Now, as well as CUDA, there are other various motion verbs and action verbs that cannot be used in this type of sentence, where we have the same subject in both clauses. And we will list these verbs in the lesson worksheet. Okay, that's a lot of information secant. So let's now do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use core nasa. Repeat after me. Charmin, subject, how gonads are TBD pass SIAH. Gonads. Gonads are known as our subjects. Shinsegae, vacua, cargo Nassau, Amaka Chang's order has CYA great efforts, well done, less than do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences, and all you have to do is add core nasa to the verb stem in the first sentence and join the two sentences into one. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Take Tomoko, nasa chip chunks order hike care, checkup, hammock on Azar chip tongues order ikea, benzene and TV report gonads are known as CYA, means an antibody level 1 as our SIR. Shinzen is how genetic gonadal cholangiogram logos CYA. Shinzen is how genetic gonadal turnover Mosiah. So GNN, GNN could immediately gonads are singular but Isiah, hypernasal, take IoT. Shinzo, gossip gender has gone as our check our urea. Okay. Fantastic efforts, well done. Okay, so today we learned to use core nasa to say that after an action or an activity has finished, another action will follow. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another way of sequencing events using ASR. Awesome. See you then, bye bye. 35. 4.5 아서, 어서 (and): Hi there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn another way of sequencing events using as our awesome. Now, in an earlier lesson, we learned that we use ASL or saw as because. And so. However, depending on the context it's used in, we can use ASA, ASA to sequence events. It generally corresponds to and when and is used to say one thing happens after another thing. We've already seen various phrases to mean after. And they all used to say that one event happens, another event. And while, as our Azar also functions in the same way, it implies a subtle nuance that differs from other phrases we have learned so far. Now in terms of how we add ASO and Asa, we already went over this quite extensively in the lesson on using ASA. Asa as because and so. So we won't go into all the different ways of adding these structures to verbs. But the key point to remember is that if a verb stem ends in vowels or R, then we add ASL. And if a verb stem ends in vowels other than or we add Asal, we will list all the different patterns in the lesson worksheet. Let's take a look at two example sentences that use ASR or some Cheonan cheeseburgers are congruent. I will go home and study Cheonan she biogas or can work. All means London. London air to check KSR ran tear tonight. Gaia means a will arrive in London and call us minus1 and London at who chat QSR orientate on Iacocca. Now, when we use ASA also to sequence events, the two events are closely related. So for the second action to occur, it's very important for the first action to happen in the first sentence or two actions are Qaddafi to go and to study. And for the second action, Khumbu harder to study to happen. The first action, she bear car, to go home must happen. So these two actions are closely related. Another important point to note is that in the previous lesson, we noted that we don't use verbs related to motion and certain action verbs with core nasa. However, they can be used with ASO, Assam. And in this first sentence, as Azar is used with a verbal motion, harder, which means to go. In the second sentence or two actions are to check cuda to arrive, which is another verb of motion. And China had to call. And just like in the first sentence, the two verbs in the second sentence are closely related to each other. The first action must happen for the second action to happen. So we use ASR Awesome. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences, Shinzen and itching air. The idea of us are copywriters. Has CYA. Kinsey went down to the ground floor and bought coffee, Shinzen and eating and ETO guys are copywriters, Isiah, Cheonan, where ISIL was our tonight, SIR. I came to work and made a phone call. John and who has Iowa's are torn. Other SIR? Bananas and JSR, checkered area Gaia. I sits down and reads a book, Manana And, and just our Tegrity regalia. So again, in each of these sentences we use as our Assam and the two actions in each sentence closely related. For the second action to happen, the first action must happen. And one thing to highlight in terms of the structure is that Azar or saw is always attached to a verbs infinitive form, so the tense is only indicates it in the verb in the second clause. Now, before we do the speaking practice, we should go over some key differences between us are awesome. And the other similar expressions such as coal, coal nasa, and then whoever. First, when we use other expressions to sequence events, the actions in two clauses do not have to be related to each other. But with ASA, ASA, the two actions are closely related to each other. For the second action to happen, the first action must happen. Second, if we use verbs of motion with core or core nasa, the subject must be different in two clauses. However, with ASA or so, the subject is always the same in both clauses. Lastly, we don't use ASA or so where the verbs related to wearing clothes and accessories. And these verbs include IEP, that shin, that end Siddhartha. With these verbs we can use core, core, nasa, or whoever. So these are some important points to note regarding the usage of ASL or saw and other similar expressions. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences where two actions or sequence using ASR also repeat after me. Cheonan she Beggar's Opera. Mini Xun in London, air to chat QSR, Leanne tear tonight, Gaia, Shinzen and eating air, the ideal gas law copies as CYA, China and she bare wires are pummeled Messiah, bananas and JSR checkered area Gaia. That was great, Well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences. And I'd like you to join the two sentences using either ASA or Assam. Think about how we add as are also two verb stems. Now this might be a tricky practice, but let's give it a try. Mean anon and JSR tonight, a podocyte, Manana And, and deciles Hanadi about Isiah, Cheonan eating air. The idea of us are Pamela Mosiah, China and eating N80 bizarre. Pamela soya means soon and she biogas or suggests IR beam sooner and she beggars are suggests IR Sue-Je name Chihuahuas are single and tears. Han Isiah, surgeon and Shavasana Tsinghua vantage on ISIL. Shinzen is how dare to Chuck QSR singular Monaco AR. Shinzen is our, it'll check JSR singular Monaco AR. Fantastic efforts at a well-done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use Azar or sought to sequence two actions that are closely related to each other. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say when enduring in Korean. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 36. 4.6 때, 을 때 (when, during): Hello there. So in this lesson, we're going to learn how to use dare and dare to mean when and during. Now the same as the English phrases touring and when we use there and the dad to say that an action happens in the middle of another action. We use there with nouns and verbs. Let's first take a look at two example sentences that you use there with nouns. Cheonan Thompson dare suggests I r, I did homework during lunch. John and Tom, Jim desk chair, SIR. Been xenon Pang De Yang Geico. Min Zu will go traveling during the school holidays. Mean xenon Pang De Yang Geico. First, when there is used with a noun, it's not attached to the noun it's used with. And when we use there with nouns, it means that during that time another action happened. Generally the noun plus there is used after the subject, but it can also be positioned at the front of the sentence. And since many Korean sentences can emit the subject, the sentence may just have the noun and the verb. So we may say sentences like Tom's, him, there suggests IR. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Surgeon and you're excited, they're piano, rubella CYA, Susie learn piano when she was ten. Suggestion Yosef, Their piano rebels soil, Shinzen and taxing their superior nasa. Xin Xue met Susie when he was a university student. Shinzen and taxing theirs frigidarium at nasa. Now these phrases, Josiah there and taxing there don't include the meaning of the be verb. So the literal meaning of this phrases are when ten years old and when a university students. But for translation purposes, they are written as when she was ten and when he was a university student. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences using debt with nouns repeat after me. Cheonan Thomson suggests IR, Benson and Pythonic day your anger Korea. Surgeon then Josiah, pn order payoffs Aja, banana and taxing their Suchi reading my Messiah. Great job, well-done. Let's now look at how we use there with verbs. Now, there are two ways of adding debt to verbs. So let's first take a look at two example sentences. Cheonan, tag your tiny dare to Google. Josiah. I learned Chinese when I was in university. Cheonan tack your DNA damage from Google rebel SIR means Thompson, Mogkadad, singular Manasseh. Min Zu Men, his friend when he was eating lunch, minus1 and thomson, Margaret dead shim, Good Riemann, nasa. So in terms of how we add there, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add Lear day, so Tanika becomes tiny there. However, if the verb stem ends in patch him, then we add a day, so that becomes Margaret dead. Now there are numerous irregular ways of adding depth, and we will list these in the lesson worksheet. Now in terms of meaning similar to how there is used with nouns, we use dare to say that an action happens in the middle of another action. One other thing to note is that the verb we add debt to can be in the past form. So we can say Cheonan, Hangzhou, gay, hazard, dare, short painter barney has CYA. When I went to Korea, I did a lot of shopping. Cheonan hunger Gaga's shopping or by the SIR. So the first verb is in its past form a cut that, and we add that to the verb stem to form castle there. Now, an important question we need to ask is, how come in the first two sentences, we added a debt to the verbs infinitive form. But in the last sentence, we added that to the verbs POS form. Now the answer to this question is in the difference in meaning between these sentences. When we want to say that an action happened in the middle of another action, we add debt to the verb that represents the long continuous action. So in the first two sentences, tiny dot that represent the long continuous action. So we add debt to these infinitive forms. And the shorter action that happens in the middle is represented by the second verb, which is in the past form. However, the meaning of the last sentence is different as the two actions, cut that and shopping at that, not happening at the same time. And in this type of sentence, we can add that to the verbs POS form. Okay, so let's take a look at few other example sentences. When Johnny Depp in Zhuan tear tonight are CYA means who call me when I was driving. When John out there'd been Zhuan tariffs on US AIA. It's hygiene triggered their harmony saw, stay still when we take a photo, It's hadn't ticker deck harmonies saw Cheonan children accurate tinier sit there. Hangzhou, guess had our SIR when I was in primary school, I lived in Korea, China and total inaccurate dinosaurs, their hunger GSA psi L. Okay, so to reiterate, we use dared to say that an action happens during another action. And in terms of adding, oop there, we add a lyric there if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him. But we add oop there, if the verb stem does end in patch him. And in the last sentence, although me attending primary school and living in Korea are happening at the same time, they're not to actions that are happening together with one action happening in the middle of another action. So in this sentence, we can add that to the past form of the verb at Cannae. Daniel data, however, do note that since these two actions are still happening at the same time, we can add 2w dead to the infinitive form, tiny data. So the sentence could be written as Tanya said, they're or paneled, they're both would be okay. I think sometimes grammar rules are not always black and white, and this is definitely one of them. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use there with verbs. Charmin, tack your tiny dare to legato payoffs. Ir, thompson, Mogkadad, nasa Esau, totaling akio TinyOS, Hangul gears. That was excellent, well-done, less than do an independent practice of using debt. And they're, in this practice you're either going to see a noun in a sentence or two sentences. And I'd like you to join the two elements together using either there or it there. Okay. So if you're ready, let's begin. Benson and pass our cited their young order, Josiah, Minnesota and has offsite day on modern SIR. So G9 children accent Dan, Jack, SIR. Switching then totaling accent there, cool produces Jack, SIR. Camping Garcia. Meaner than camping, SIR? Guys, how I say guys, how they turn our SIR vacua archived there. P. Garcia, hacker. I got their Pegasi Cheonan audio there k guys are CYA tongue in order. So take care guys. So Saya, amazing job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use dare and dare to mean during and when. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we will review what we learned in the last three lessons on using corn as our, as our Azar. And from this lesson, see you then, bye-bye. 37. 4.7 Review Lesson: Hi there. So in this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the three previous lesson on using core nasa as our Azar. And there it then, let's begin with core nasa. Three lessons ago, we learned to use Core nasa to say that one action will happen once the other action has finished. And to use Core nasa in this way, we simply attach core nasa to the first verb in the sentence. We also learned that core nasa is not used with certain verbs of movement and action when the subjects of the two clauses is the same. Ok, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use core, nasa, Amoco, nasa, chip Chang's or had been zoonotic TB variable gonads are known as CYA. Shinzen ends had generic chick gone as our Tanya gerbil Garcia. Great efforts, well done. Let's now do an Independent Speaking practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences on the screen, and I'd like you to combine the two sentences using core nasa. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan subject a hackathon SR, TB day of Isiah. Cheonan suggestion has grown as our TV R3 Messiah. Messiah means when n also known as Messiah. So G Nan Yang Yao Bu Guan SRGB or surgeon and young Barbara want SRGB or Shinzen ends hand tech hub on us, our Chunyang, Mombasa, Kenya, Tanzania, and Santa carbonyls are tunnel Mogul or Mughal Chang's order, SIR. Jin Soo vacua, high-born as our tongues ordered, SIR. Excellent, Joe, well-done. Two lessons ago, we learned to use as our Asal to sequence two actions. When we sequence two actions using Hasaan. Hasaan, the two actions are closely related to each other. So for the second action to happen, the first action must happen in terms of how we add ASA. Asa, if a verb stem ends in vowels, or Then we add ASL. But if the verb stem ends in vowels other than all or R, Then we add Assam. Also, we learn that with the core and core nasa, we cannot use them where the verbs of movements, if the subject of the two clauses is the same. However we can, with us are awesome. We also learned that we cannot use Azar also with verbs that relate to wearing clothes and accessories, such as Schindler and Sida. However we can with core, core nasa and also the fluid. Ok, so that's just about recaps all the key points. So let's first do a listener repeat practice of using saw or some bananas and jazz tornado but Isiah. So Gina and vacua was RGBA tonight ISIL to takeaways are singular. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an Independent Speaking practice. Same as before. You're going to see two sentences on the screen and are likely to combine the two sentences to form a single sentence using either acid or Azar, depending on how the First World bends. Now these are sentences we have seen from the lesson, so it shouldn't be too difficult. Let's begin the practice. Cheonan cheeseburgers or Cheonan she bagasse, benzene in London air to Chuck KSR, re-enter Ptolemaic or yeah, means on and London edit, check his old Jante tonic or yeah, Shinzen and eating EHR data of as our copywriters have CYA, Shinzen and eating at IDO Gaza copywriters, Isiah, Cheonan Chihuahuas are Bamaga, CYA, Cheonan, GBR, ZOPA, Messiah. Banana, banana, banana, and just check. Excellent job, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use their dead to mean enduring or when. We use there with nouns and we use there with verbs. And in terms of attaching two verbs, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add listed there. But if it does, then we add it there. Again, there are various irregular patterns and these were listed in the lesson worksheet. Now, when we add debt to verbs, if the verb represents a longer continuous action and the following verb is the shorter action that happens in the middle of the long direction, then there is attached to the verb infinitive form. However, if the two verbs in the sentence referred to actions that do not happen together at the same time. There can be attached to a verbs past form, which helps to show that the verbs in the sentence do not happen together at the same time. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use there and there been tsunami hazards cited their young Auto Pay or CYA pseudogene and children accent their literacy, jackass, CYA, banana and Yoram bang out there, camping Garcia, hotkey. P. Garcia, Cheonan, order, k guys, Messiah. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an independent speaking practice. In this practice, you will see either a noun in a sentence or two sentences. And I'd like you to combine the two elements together using either there or there. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Cheonan Thompson there suggests I are John and Tom. Jim there suggests IR, min, zoom and pan OK day yawing, Geico, Vinson and pang. Ok, there you are. Angry. Sad, integral harmonies. Ir. It's hydrogen triggered tech harmony, CYA, Charmin pack your 10-year debt. Josiah, Cheonan, Tokyo diner detach from Google rebel SIR. Cheonan hang Bulgaria custard their shopping, Armani, SIR, TA1 and hunger Gaga's shopping Obanya, SIR. Fantastic efforts at a well-done. Ok. So today we reviewed what we learned in the previous three lessons on using corn as our, as our Azar. And there. In the next lesson we're going to learn how to say while in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 38. 4.8 면서 (while): Hi there. So in this lesson we're going to learn how to use it, which is similar to while in English. Now, guns are used to describe doing something in the middle of another action. And it correlates to while in English, the use of baryons are, is quite similar to there. Here are two example sentences using guns are Charmin soup, chair, Hermione's are immigrated IR. While doing homework, I listened to music. Cheonan soup champions are immigrated ir means and then Tanya algorithm or guns are Tiberius via while eating dinner. Min Zu watches TV means an Antonio. Grammarians are TBD Baia. So impose sentences. We use baryons out with the first verb. And this means that while that action is going on, the second action happens. And although the English sentences are written as doing homework and eating dinner, they could also be written as while I'm doing homework or while bins to eat dinner, both convey the exact same meaning. Now in terms of adding guns are if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we just add beyond this are, so Haddop becomes Hermione's R. But if the verb stem ends in patched him, there may add lumens are, so that becomes Margo Manson. Now, as with many structures that we add to verbs, there are various irregular patterns. So adding Manza, and we will again list these in the less than worksheet. Now, there are a couple of key points to note regarding using guns are. First, we can only use young's are if the subjects of the two clauses in a sentence is the same person, the subject of the two clauses is different. Then we will use a structure code Nin domain, which we will learn in the next lesson. Secondly, the tense of the two verbs is only indicates it in the second clause, we only add it to the verbs infinitive form. Okay, so let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Shinzen En uno diamonds are TB robust CYA, while exercising Kinsey, watch TV. Shinzen, NO, no demands are tributary Messiah, banana integrity. Check scenario Tony, SIR, while reading a book, Maenads hided up her desk. Manana integrity recommends are tech Sanger, Dang Ni SIR, Cheonan, your damn eons are so budgetary. Heiko AR, while cooking, I will wash the dishes. Cheonan uremia answers Hogan tittle, Heiko era. So to read the rates, we used to say that while one action is going on, another action happens. And in terms of how we added, we added Beiyang czar. If the verb stem doesn't end in patch him. But if it does, then we add. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use guns or repeat after me. Charles. Champions are umami that IR, benzene and toluene yogurt Bulgarians are TB, thereby our Shinzen Young ions are TBD, ribose, CYA, banana integrity Jacobians are tech scenario autonomy SIR. Cheonan uremia and saw salvage it a haiku. That was great, well-done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice you will see two sentences. And depending on whether the first verb ends in patchy Monod, I'd like you to use either guns are or Libyans are, and join the two clauses into a single sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Means linen. Ocd Booleans are Cabana SIR, means when n, OCD Women's our carbonyl, SIR. Cheonan TV R3 Booleans are Khumbu SIR, Cheonan, Tiberio Booleans are hungry, SIR. Banana and Zimbardo. She nucleons are quoted every buyer banana is Zimbardo scenarios are quaternary via Cheonan and Johnny Manziel immigrated Cheonan, Johnny Manziel migrated IR Shinzen and poverty MobileMe on czar or Maran sour CYA. Shinzen and public amalgamations are or Moran's our CYA. Fantastic jobs at a well-done. Ok, so today we learned to use Young's ought to mean while in English and Guernsey is used to show that while one action is going on, another action happens. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to use Nin domain, which we also used to. Meanwhile, see you soon again. Buh-bye. 39. 4.9 동안 (for, during, while): Hi there. So in this lesson we're going to learn how to use tongs, which can function like for during and while. Now, two-man can be used with nouns and verbs. And its meaning differs depending on whether it's used with nouns or verbs. So will first look at using Tang clan with nouns. When we use Tolkien with nouns, we use Tong man as either for or during, as in for how long and during an activity. Here are two example sentences. Been Cernan Chang, neonate to direct dog ran to Google's had us CYA. Last year, Min Zu lived in China for two months. Benzene and Django, net momentum, gas, autosomal dominant. Thompson domains General has SIR I did homework during lunch. Dan and Tom Jim domains general SR. So in the first sentence, token is used like for to say how long I lived in China and when tomorrow is used in this way is always used with a noun that refers to a period of time. In the second sentence, token is used like during, to say that during lunch I did homework. When we use two-man wave nouns, they are always separated from the noun they used with. Now sometimes rather than using Tong Nan, we can use Tong Lana. And when we use the particle air with tongs, we're emphasizing the nuance of within that time. Tomorrow is similar to talk and when it's used to mean during. And nearly all sentences, you can use Tong Len auto Manet interchangeably. There is very little difference in meaning between sentences that use these phrases. Okay, so let's take a look at few more example sentences. Pseudonyms, Hongyan domain, young order Bella or saw, Susie learn English for three years. Pseudogenes Hongyan Dohnanyi on water bills are nylon yarn, Bangkok Dong and be goo gaa Ceasar. I was in America during summer holidays. Dan and Yalom Barack Dongguan BBVA Ceasar, Cheonan two my abdomen Xiang converter has CYA. I studied for the exam during the weekend. Cheonan tomato, Wang Xiang, congruent, SIR. So in each sentence we use token with nouns to say for how long or during when we do something. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use Tong Nan wave nouns. Repeat after me. When Cernan Chuang, Tzu dealt domain to Google's had SIR. Now and then Thompson has some pseudogenes, amnion domain, domain, Chang'an Xiang. That was great, well-done. Let's now take a look at how we use tone and with verbs. To use Tolkien with verbs, we add none in front of Tang clan and attach it to the verb stem. And when we use Nin Dongen with verbs, we use it to mean while. Here are two example sentences. Min Zu guides eBay or Lindow Man, Cheonan punk Chang's or Hideki Tojo. Wyoming x2 is on his way home. I will clean the room. Means of acetone and orangutan and Pang, Tong Zai acquirer Cheonan, Chunyang, Shandong and Tiberio Messiah. While I had dinner, I watch TV, China and Tony Orlando and Tiberius Messiah. So as you can see in each sentence, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in patch him or not, we add the Mendelian. However, there are also irregular patterns of adding the Mendelian and these will be listed in the lesson worksheet. Now in terms of usage, as I mentioned already, didn't Tong Han equates to a while and we use it to say, while one action is going on, another action happens. And we always add and then Dilantin or verbs infinitive form and a verb tense is only indicated in the second verb. Now an important usage points is that compared to Young's up from the previous lesson, the subjects of the two clauses can be different. So in the first sentence, you can see that the subjects or the first verb is Min Zu, and the subject of the second verb is char i. However, with Ian's out, the subject for the first and the second clause must be the same. Generally, when we use the Lindow Man, if the subjects are different for the two clauses, we use the subject particle with the first subjects. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences, Cheonan, chin, Zooter key data in indoor man, check your data. Garcia. While I waited for chin x2, I read a book, challenge in pseudo key that in endo and check your data. Garcia V Now guy or sit in Lindow Man, man And Cabana Saskia. While mena got dressed, her mom packed the banks. Mean AGA or sitting and don't Nano Man and Cabana Saskia suit. You got my vote in Lindow Man, Cheonan, North America. Why are Susie listens to music? I'm going to exercise Suge ago Margot than an orangutan and no, no. Okay, so to reiterate, we use Nin Dong and to say that while one action is happening, another action happens. And we always attached to the verb stem, regardless of how the verb stem ends and is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use Nin domain. Repeat after me, means UGA domain, Cheonan punk chunks or Hiroko. Cheonan Chongyang Lindow Man, TBD, bizarre. Cheonan tin man or man and carbonyls, SIR. Suit you guys migrate in Lindow Man, China and America. That was excellent, well-done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you're either going to see a noun in a sentence or two sentences. And I'd like you to join the two parts together using either tall man or woman. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Nana and electrical domain PI_2 has saw nine and Egypt or INT02 ASR, pseudonym Tommy Jim Seguin, Dongguan, two-quarter has Syria, Sudan, and Tom Jim's Ugandan two-quarter, SIR. Yada, yada, yada and Bangkok domain to Google rebels. China and hacky way cannon domain check. Ta1 and hacky way guidance. And domain peg I will combine and domain peg will pass IR. Be Nagar choose order Tomlin Dong, n minus1 and she daughter of Isiah mean AGA to Zora Tomlin Dong and she daughter of Isiah. Fantastic job today, well-done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use tall man with nouns and limbed online with verbs to mean for during all while. In the next lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the last two lessons on using guns are and tall man. See you then, bye-bye. 40. 4.10 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using guns are n, tall man. Let's begin with my young son to lessons ago, we learned to use bonanza with verbs to save that while one action is happening, another action happens. And with verb stems not ending in patch him, we add guns are, while we add Booleans are if the verb stem ends in patch him. Now there are also various irregular ways of adding guns are two verbs. These were listed in the lesson worksheet. To key points to note regarding guns are, is that when we use guns are the subjects of the two clauses must be the same. And the other point is that the verbs tens is only indicated in the second verb. And duns are, is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Ok, so with that in mind, let's first do a speaking practice of sentences that use mountains are repeat after me. Bins and then also EBU me on this are Cabana, Josiah, john, then TB Booleans are Khumbu SIR. B9. That was great, well-done, less now do an Independent Speaking practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences. And depending on whether the first verb ends in patchy monads, I'd like you to use either guns are or Umea answer to join the two sentences. Ok, so let's start the practice. Charmin soup. J Hermione's are Margot that IR Cheonan suggestions are omega that IR TB day by L Benson Antonio very mobile. Tb2, TB1, TB2 by CYA. B9 integrity check signer Tony, SIR. B9 integrity, you're going down. So a textile autonomy, SIR. Charmin, Jadi, Hermione's ours, Hogan's Heroes, Heiko AR. Cheonan, urea, mentors, Hogarth, ditto Heiko L. Excellent job, well-done, less. Now review the use of tall man. In the previous lesson, we learned to use tall man with nouns to mean a fall or during. We also learned to use the Nin domain with verbs to Meanwhile, so we use Nin domain to say that while one action is happening, another action happens. Didn't the land is always attached to a Verbs infinitive form, and the verbs tense is only indicated in the second verb. And unlike ones are when we use Lindow Man, the subjects of the two clauses can be the same or different. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of using tall man and repeat after me than n n pi r to the SR pseudogene and Thompson Michigan domain to coulda. Sir. I will pass the Tang Lindow Man. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you're either going to see a noun in a sentence or two sentences. And I'd like you to join the two parts together using either Tong LAN or lint on that. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. 9n Thompson domain subjected has saw none. And Thompson domain nasa pseudonyms having young man, young auto power saw, surgeon and some young man, young order Bella saw B Now guy, Lindow Man, Man and Suchi guy. So GIGO migrate and then don't know Mikoyan. Fantastic efforts at a well-done. Ok. So today we reviewed what we learned in the previous two lessons on using benzene and toluene n. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say as soon as in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 41. 4.11 자마자 (as soon as): Hi there. In this lesson we're going to learn how to use char Maja to mean as soon as or right after. Now, just like the English phrase, as soon as we use to indicate that one action happens immediately after another action. So let's take a look at two example sentences that use this structure. China and Chunyang mock jama at Jericho area. I will do homework as soon as I have dinner. Cheonan Chongyang Bach damage, Jericho, AR lobbied, Canada, has descended in cool sheet as our August Saya, the students left the classroom as soon as the class ended. So I'll be going Agile. My Daxing didn't Kushi desert August psi R. So as you can see in each sentence, we've added char, my dad, to the first verb stem. And this means that as soon as the first verbs action happens or finishes, the second verbs action follows. And we add a chair, my dad, to the verb stems, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in patched him or not. Now, there are two other key points to note. When we use the subject of the two verbs can be the same or it can be different. Also, the verb tense is only indicated in the second verb and not in the first verb. And this means that chance, my dad, is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Okay, so let's take a look at few other example sentences to drama. Drama, Jan Cheonan, Tony ogo bagasse. I had dinner as soon as the drama finished. Today, I'm Aga Khan and Tony auger, Maga CYA, been zoom-in, shorter pyjamas, yawing Gary Korea. Min Zu will go travelling as soon as he graduates. Mean xenon total pajamas ION guy, Kaya, sijang, ME TOO DO jama. She wondered the tongs orders to Jack, SIR. The staff started to clean as soon as the owner came in sijang Naomi to order my dad, Xi Guan De tongues auto is Jack, SIR. Ok. So as you can see in the sentences, that is attached to the verb in the first clause. And this means that as soon as the first action happens or finishes, the second action happens. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use char badger. Repeat after me. China in China, mock jama Jan, Jan Boyar, soybean, rgamma jackson didn't call CSR Nivea, SIR. Today, my goodness, Cheonan, Tanya, logo bagasse, bins sooner than shorter pajama jacket, yawing there, KaiC, KaiA. Sijang, the me too though jama Xi Guan De Jong's order issue, Jack, SIR. That was Excellence well-done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice you will see two sentences, and I'd like you to combine the two sentences by using char, by JAM. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Cheonan pajama, who migrated IR Tn and tired Hadza, magnitude ir. Cheonan, also jama. She bears are daga. Daga. Daga. Daga CYA means Yunnan Thompson mock jama Harrison Jang SIR, means unknown Thompson, Moctezuma Harrison Jang eg. B. Now God she Bear put Takata, Tang IgD, tailed OIL, me now gutsy betel or Takata Maja, Carnegie delete halo IR sons only me to DO jama, linen Sheol, mercy Jack, SIR, something limited 4A Maja renshi armors Jack, SIR. Fantastic efforts today. Well done. Okay, so this was a rather short lesson, but today we learn to use char Maja with verb stems. I mean, as soon as in English. In the next lesson, we're going to learn a useful expression we can use to say how much time has passed since an earlier action. See you soon again. Bye bye. 42. 4.12 은 지 (since): Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use dingy to talk about how much time has passed since an earlier action. The use of injury is similar to since when we talk about how much time has passed since an earlier activity. And when we use INJ is attached to the verb in the first clause, which indicates the earlier action. And the second clause indicates the time that has passed since that action. Let's take a look at three example sentences that use in g. Shannon's however, she just kanji Iranian SIR. It has been a year since I started my business. Children's HOW versus just kanji Elon IT SIR. Cheonan pathway, Morgan G. Hangzhou, gone back and Desiree. It's only been analysed since I ate tunnel and public Morgan Johannes Gutenberg Gandhi, SIR, surgeon in Hungary, congruent G to Daddy now Messiah. It's been over two months. And Susie star to studying Korean surgeon in Hungary from 1G to that inner messiah. First in terms of how we add in G2 verbs, if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add 10x and G. So Shiza CUDA becomes xi Jack Kanji, and Khumbu hada becomes Khumbu ING. However, if a verb stem ends in patch him, we add in G, So that becomes Morgan gene. There are other irregular patterns of adding in G and these will be listed in the lesson worksheets. Also in G is always attached to the verbs infinitive form. Now, when we use INJ, it is followed by a time expression to indicate the time that has passed. And quite often in speech, we can omit the subject particle e, used with a time expression. After the time expression, we commonly use the verbs tear that or numb to state that this is the amount of time that has passed tear that can mean to be or to become. And we use that to state that this much time has passed. When we use, get to say only this much time has passed, we use a negative of form under there. And as we learned earlier in our course, pack is always followed by the verb in its negative form. Now the verb that means to exceed or to go beyond. So instead of using tether to just say, it's been this much time, we can use dump that to say over this much time has passed. Additionally, we can also use the verbs Cnidaria, which means for time to pass, and order delta, which means to have been a long time. The verb at the end of the sentence is usually in its past form. Okay, so let's take a look at few more example sentences. Mean sooner E has Cijiang at an injury to that IT SIR been X2 has been going to this gym for two months. Means Janani heads the Django dynein, g two dotted, SIR, John and Tom. Better, good energy or dead, SIR. It's been a long time since I quit smoking. Ton and ton better good energy audit, SIR. B9 Kinsey ranks Hugin Jay, Iran, each in Isiah mean has been going out with Chin X2 four year. So as you can see in the sentences, depending on the meaning of the sentence, in g can also be interpreted to mean four, to say how long someone has been doing something. Also in the sentences, we've used the phrases, all their data in the second sentence, and she nada In the third sentence. And when we use all their data, we don't use a time expression after in G as already, that already contains the meaning of a time period. Now, before we go into the speaking practice, will briefly explain the different tenses we can use with dingy. Now, Korean doesn't actually have a perfect tense, but depending on how certain Korean verbs are used with other phrases, it can be used like the English perfect tense, and z0 is one of those phrases. Sentences that use in G can end with verbs in the past tense, the present tense and future tense. And all these verbs are used to mean a certain amount of time has passed from the past to the point-in-time referred to by these tensors. First, when the verb is in past tense, it suggests that time has passed from the past to a certain point in time in the near past or the present. Second, the present tense suggests that time has passed from the past to a point in time in the present or in the near future. And lastly, the future tense suggests that time has passed from the past to a point in time in the future. So while the future tense is simple to understand, there is some overlap in meaning when the verb is used in past or present tense. But of these three tenses, the most common verb tense used in sentences that use in G is the past tense. In this lesson, we've focused on sentences that use the verbs in the past tense. So let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use in G and the verb that follows in G In the past tense. Repeat after me. Tannins how both Shidyaq, kanji, EDR need SIR. E heresy, Jang Italian G to better good energy audit, SIR. Sir. Excellent job, well-done, less NADH to an independent practice. In this practice you will see two sentences. And I'd like you to use in g to join the two sentences together. Remember to add DNG if the first verb stem doesn't end in patch him. But if it does, then add energy to the verb stem. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Buddha, good in G, Orban now Messiah, butyrate, good, N-G or will now messiah. And g audit, SIR? Ten intubated on T audit SIR. Means q and g. Q and g two dotted, SIR. Sir. Cheonan Bensouda, key data and Jay Sammy subunit SIR, Cheonan bins hierarchy, that energy is how much should we need, SIR? Excellent job today. Well done. Ok, so today we learned to use in g to say that a certain amount of time has passed since an earlier action. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we're going to review what we learned on the use of char Maja. And I'll see you then. Bye-bye. 43. 4.13 Review Lesson: Hi there. So in this review lesson that what we're going to review, what we learned in the two previous lessons on using tab. And let's begin with two lessons ago we learned to use tab to mean as soon as or right after. And we simply add to the verb in the first clause to say that as soon as that action happens or finishes, the verb in the second clause happens. Two things to note is that when we use the subjects of the two verbs can be the same or different. Also, we only indicate the tense in the seconds. And tab is attached to the first verbs infinitive form. Okay, So let's first listen and repeat practice of sentences that use Cheonan Chai, tall, and then also the IEP means soon and Thomas him bop jama heritage I be now God seabed. Sons and Naomi to row, which that was done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences, and I'd like you to join the two sentences by adding to the verb in the first sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Mock jam, soup, Jericho, tundra. And so I'll be Nagasaki. So I'll be Canada. My Daxing to Tana Antonio variable Messiah to dharma means to an end. Sijang Naomi too though, which I'm Xi Guan De Yi Chong, jackass CYA sedan limited. Oh, damage. Secondary Chiang's orders. Jack, SIR. Excellent efforts, well-done. Let us now review the use of the energy. In the previous lesson, we learned to use energy to say that a certain amount of time has passed since an earlier action. Now, there are two main ways of adding in G. And if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, we add b and g. And if the verb stem ends in patch him, we add in G. And other irregular patterns were listed in the less than worksheet. Also in sentences that use in G, we often use the verbs that num. And already to say how much time has passed since an earlier activity. Lastly, we went over how the verb in the second clause can be used in the past, present, and future tense. And depending on the tense of the verb in the second clause, we can form sentences that indicate how time has passed to a point in time in the past, present, or future. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first to a list and repeat practice of sentences that use in D. Repeat after me. Buddha, good, in G, Orban nor Messiah. Cheonan seabed to dawn j already SIR. Being sooner and cater qn G2 that eat SIR. Xiaomi can then g two xi comeback and Desiree, Cheonan, Minnesota key data in Jay Sammy shipped Punnett, SIR. Great job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two sentences, and I'd like you to add injury to the verbs appropriately and join the sentences together. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin. Channels how bursa kanji era need, SIR? Children's harbors. Chuck Angie area need SIR. Tamagotchi Hannigan, bac k. And SIR. Pam Morgan, jihad Michigan backend, SIR. Been Cernan Harrison Zhang at Hannon j. To that IT SIR. Minus1 n e Harrison Zhang at ING to-date, SIR. Cheonan TAM better gun and j already, SIR. Cheonan, hamburger icon and G or read SIR. B9 is hacking Jay Iran, each in Isiah. B9 engines ranks ING area Nietzschean, SIR, excellent jobs that a well-done. Ok, so today we reviewed what we learned in the previous two lessons on using Tom ITA and in G, We're now going to move away from learning time expressions. And from the next lesson, we're going to start learning about different verb endings that function like modal verbs in Korean. See you soon again, bye, bye. 44. 5.1 아야, 어야 되다 (have to, must): Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use IR or yeah, tether to mean have to or must in English, I_1, I_2, That is a verb ending, a type of verb suffix. And we attach it to verbs to express a meaning similar to have to and must, and just like have to and must. I. Oh yeah, teta is used to talk about obligations and necessity. Also, instead of ten, we can use hada. And there is no difference in meaning. The use of Teradata and Huldah is common in Korean. However, Huldah is slightly less common and using Hadoop can sound a little more formal than using tear down. So let's first take a look at some example sentences that use these structures. Cheonan, Sheepbed, caja de, I have to go home tonight and she Beck higher dal, swap Saigon. And then you have to sit down in the class time. Swap cigar, Lenin and data hell, China, Jacob, Anna, eBay, Sawyer hair. I have to stay at home because I have a lot of homework. Cheonan subject vi minus RGBA, Sawyer, hell. Okay, so in each sentence we've added IR or yeah, tear that or Hidatsa, the verbs to say have to do something. And as with many verbs, suffixes that begin where the R or R, how we add IR or delta depends on whether the verb stem ends in vowels or, or. Now, we've already gone over with other structures, how we add a similar verb endings, but if a verb stem ends in vowels or, or, then we add I2. But if a verb stem ends in vowels other than or R, Then we add all yada, yada. Now there are many different ways of adding audio data depending on how the verb stem ends. And these will be listed in the lesson worksheet. And although we've translated I tear down or Hadar as meaning 2.5. It can also be translated to must or need to. There is little to no difference in meaning. Lastly, only the third sentence uses the Huldah ending. And as mentioned before, had our ending is slightly less common than Ted and is more formal. Okay, so let's take a look at few other example sentences. Cheonan chaired, she garbled, charge idea, hey, I have to find my wallet. Cheonan, Jed's GeoGebra touch I hail. Surgeon in our body and tear tonight. Hey our Ted Goya. Susie will have to call her dad, surgeon Ann Arbor. Agenda tonight, here they go. Linen. E can get to E, Josiah to L. We had to win this match. Would in any Candida E Josiah DE R. So again, to read the rates in each sensors we've added IN, tear down or Huldah. Verb stems to mean have to all miced, and to refer to the future, we change, tear that or Hidatsa, the future form. And to refer to the past, we add IR or hada verbs past form. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use IR or yada, yada, and hada. Repeat after me. Cheonan, Seebeck high, our de our swap Chaconne and, and and Jaya. Ebay is surgeon Abaci and linen E. That was great, well-done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see sentences with verbs ending in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either IR to adapt, or whether to add the meaning of half term will only practice the verb ending tear that as this is more common than using Hadar, also will only practice using Ted that in the present tense. And we'll use the polite form tail. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Cook Jang ASR none and JAR cook Django is honored and JAR owner tunes that urban nowadays. Owner chin sooner, but nowadays, chin sooner and vacua, Shinzen and hacky way higher they are. Or where pun Chang's or hair they are all wear pajamas or where they are. Hexane didn't include a CYA day are hacks ended enqueue, which is a solar day. Excellent job today while we're done. Okay, so in today's lesson, we learned to use IR or yada, yada, and had to talk about obligations and necessity. And its meaning is similar to a half to in English. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to ask for permission and in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 45. 5.2 아도, 어도 되다 (can, may): Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use our adore, our daughter to ask for and give permission. The use of our door are dossier that asked for and give permission is similar to the modal verbs may and can. When we use these modal verbs to ask for and give permission. Let's first take a look at some example sentences that use these structures. Yogi and shadowed hair. Can I sit here? Yogi and geodata hair there? Yogi and shadow tail. Yes, you can sit here. They're Yogi and EBU by chador tail. Can I drink this water? Ybor buy sourdough tail there. Marshall door take yes, you can drink it there. My shadow towel. Now, similar to IR RER TDAP from the previous lesson. At all, outdoor TDA are verb suffixes, so they are attached to verb stems. And we use these structures to ask for permission and also to give permission. So odd or odd Ortega correlates to may or can when these modal verbs are used to ask for and to give permission. And as we learned in a previous lesson, whether we add, add, or, or Adorno, depends on whether the verb stem ends in vowels or are. And to read the rates, we add hardware there if the verb stem ends in vowels or R. But if the verb stem ends in vowels other than or are, we add. Although data? Now in this structure, instead of using the verb to Herder, we can also use the verb pen Santa, which means to be okay. So we can say they cardo Ken Santa Maria. Is it ok to go tomorrow? They're Godot can China. There? They Waldo can China. Yes, it's okay to come tomorrow. There, there you adore can tonight. So as you can see, when we use quenching into the nuance of the statements change a little as we're asking if something is OK to do. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of these questions and responses that use odd or odd Ortega and content tab. Yogi and shadow. Then Yogi and shadow tail. Ie bu bi, shadow tail. There by shadow tail. They CARTO can China. Daily wide-open tonight. That was great, well-done, less now to an independent practice. In this practice, you will see questions and their responses with verbs in infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either odd or odd Ortega to form appropriate questions and statements. In the final two lines, instead of using Teradata, use quintana path. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Ii, boom, ta-da, door tail, even Hidalgo tail. They're ta-da. Etag legato tail, ETag illegal. Doh doh de doh, de doh, doh, doh. They're Harjo dog. Can China. There? How Giotto can China? Excellent job, well done. Okay, so in today's lesson, we learned to use adult Aidan and outdoor data to ask for and to give permission. In the next lesson, we're going to review what we learned on using IR and yada, yada, and add all and odd or data from today's lesson. See you then, bye-bye. 46. 5.3 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using IR or yada, yada, and add all our daughter at that. Let's begin with IAP or Yeah, Ted, that two lessons ago, we learned to use the verb suffix I_1, I_2 add-on to talk about obligations and necessities. And it correlates to have to and must. In English. We can also use Hadar instead of tada, but the use of Hadapt is less common and is more formal than tear down. In terms of adding I_1, I_2, two verbs, we add IR to adapt if the verb stem ends in vowels or R. But if the verb stem ends in vowels other than or are, we add all the data that we can also talk about obligations and necessities in different tenses. And to talk about future obligations and necessities, we can change, tear that or Huldah into future forms. But to talk about past obligations and necessities, we add 4r tear that all Haida to verbs in the past form. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use IR or yada, yada, Pan tongues or hey, are they are taxing, didn't QCD. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you're going to see sentences with verbs ending in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either IR tear that or to add the meaning of 2.5 will only practice using the present and polite form of Teradata tail. Let's begin the practice. Slops. And Jaya. So DNN apogee and tears when I hear they are surgeon Abu Jan territory where they are. Houdini then E can get ego yada, yada, yada. Excellent job, well-done, less. Now review the use of art or our daughter there. In the previous lesson, we learned to use adore our daughter at that to ask for and to give permission. And it correlates to may or can in English, how we add, add all odd Ortega is the same as IR or yada, yada. So if the verb stem ends in vowels or R, Then we add adult ed there. But if the verb stem doesn't end in these vowels, we add our daughter eta. We can also use Quinn tan theta instead of theta. And the nuance of the statement is a little different as Clinton tab means to B. Okay? Okay, so lets first do a speaking practice of questions and responses that use at all, although to adopt as well as Queensland tab, repeat after me. Emotion ta-da shadowed their pada. Etag, irregardless, curtail their ego. Go doh. Igor Casado can tonight. There, CARTO can tonight. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see questions and their responses with verbs in infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either data or audio data to form appropriate questions and statements. Same as in the lesson in the last two lines. Use quintana instead of theta. Ok, so if you're ready, let's begin. Yogi and shadow tail. Again, Giotto to hell. They're Yogi and adult AR. They're Yogi and dot-dot AR. E, bu, bi, shadow tail. Emotion by Giotto, tail. There by shadowed AIR. Their macho dot AIR. They got o can turn AIA. They Ricardo can China. There, they can Tanzania. There. They rhabdo came tonight. Excellent job today, well-done. Ok, so today we reviewed what we learned in the previous two lessons on using IR or yada, yada to talk about obligations in necessity and add or audio data to ask for and to give permission. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say you are not allowed to do something in Korea and see you soon again. Bye-bye. 47. 5.4 면 안 되다 (should not, must not): Hi everyone. In today's lesson, we're going to learn the verb suffix Myanmar and which corresponds to shouldn't or mustn't. Now, because man underdamped means shouldn't or mustn't, we generally use it to talk about what someone is prohibited from doing, which may be because of some rules and regulations. We can also use it to highlight something that goes against what is considered the right thing to do. Similar to how we use Shouldn't to say something is not the right thing to do. However, we can also use it to talk about not giving permission. So when someone asked for permission and you want to say, No, you cannot, we can use this structure. Okay, so let's first take a look at some example sentences that use Mian and data. Annia, Yogi and Gibeon and they are No, you cannot sit here on your yoga and Gibeon and they cook Jang SR, hand upon Simeon and they are, you mustn't use your mobile phone in the cinema. Cook Genghis or handed polynomial and they are Armani untag could not care by ramyeon han, you shouldn't talk to your mother like that. Ammonia anti-clock Kmart. Okay, let's first consider how we add Mian and data to verb stems. First, if the verb stem doesn't end in Potsdam, we add Mian and data to the verb stem. And this is what we did in the second, third sentences. However, if the verb stem ends in pats him, we add neon and data. Just like in the first sentence. There are also other irregular patterns and these will be listed in the lesson worksheet in terms of how young and dead-on is used in the sentences, the meaning can vary depending on the context. However, the first sentence can be used to not give permission to someone. If someone was asking, if they can sit here. And this is a question we saw in an earlier lesson on odd or odd Ortega. And if you want to say no, you can use and dead-on in say, yogi and Gibeon. And you cannot see here, the second and the third sentences are similar in that they describe what's prohibited. However, the second sentence is more about rules we have to keep at a particular place, as in the rule of not using phones in the cinema. And the third sentence is more about something that goes against what is considered to be rite, As in the person's way of speaking to his or her mother is not right. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Ie, pen Simeon and they are, you cannot use this pen e, penicillin and they are also Guan SR, Milgrom yarn. And they are, you mustn't eat food in the library. Also gone. So michigan, imago Mellon de chore meter Dang BMI and you shouldn't waste paper. Two-meter Nang BI mandate. So to reiterate, we add Mian and if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him. But we add Bu Mian Andromeda if the verb stem ends in patch him. And these sentences are about not giving permission, rules that state was prohibited, and actions that are considered incorrect. Ok, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use Mian and dead-on. Yogi and Jimmy. And they could Jang SR hinge upon Simeon and they are ammonia intake could not care about. And they are also Guan SR. And they are that was great, well-done, less now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add beyond and dead-on or Umea and under that, depending on how the verb stem ends. Ok, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Igor by Simeon and they are ego by Simeon on there. Hukou ASR Tommy on and they are hacked us autonomy on under Chinese are handed pawn Simeon and they are Chinese are handled consumer and their torso Quine ASR yay Qian Mian and they are tos Hogan SR. Jag Yemen and she had shot as our cook and she had solders are cook em out. Excellent efforts at a well-done. Okay, so in today's lesson that we learned to use a median and dead-on to talk about not giving permission and to talk about prohibitions related to rules and social conventions. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to say, don't have to in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 48. 5.5 지 않아도 되다 (don't have to): Hi everyone. In today's lesson, we're going to learn how to use the verb suffix ci and adult Hadar to mean I don't have to. Now, we've already learned that I_1, I_2, that means have to or must. So it's used to talk about obligations and necessity. And we also learned that I adore our Doherty. That means can or may, and we use it to ask for and give permission. However, to form the phrase, don't have to. In Korean, we actually combine the negative structure T and tau with UDL, outdoor teta. So this combined phrase means don't have to rather than cannot or may not. Additionally, instead of using T and theta, we can also just use an ad or audio data to form negative verb structures. And in both verb structures have the same meaning. Don't have to. Now, just like the English phrase, don't have to. We use these phrases to say that something is not an obligation, not a necessity. You can do it if you want, but you don't have to. It's not an obligation. Let's take a look at two example sentences. Will first look at the use of CI and adore teta, soup, charity and adult AR. You don't have to do homework. Suggested another tale. Egos, shitty antidote, Haha. You don't have to watch this ego. Should Jana detail first in terms of adding t and adult Hadar, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in Apache more naught, we add T and adult head-on to the verb stem. And as mentioned before, we use CI and adult header to say that something is not an obligation or necessity. So you can do homework or wash whatever this is, but you don't have to. It's not an obligation. Now, let's form two sentences that have the exact same meaning using an which means not. Sub j and their daughter a soup Jan adult ego. And she's although their ego and she's although to air. Now, these sentences are easier to form As we simply add an Which means not in front of the verb in the positive statement. And these sentences still mean you don't have to do homework and you don't have to watch this. So there is no difference in meaning. Let's take a look at few more examples. Sentences TO noon, edgy and adore tail. You don't have to pay money towards a net o tail. They are cagey on adult Haha. You don't have to go tomorrow there and Godot tail. So again, we can use either an adult data or use an in front of the verb structure that uses ad or outdoor tie that to say, don't have to do something. And the sentences we have seen in this lesson did not use any subjects. The meaning of u would be inferred from the context. But you can add the subject if you want to specify who the sentence is about. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences we have seen in this lesson. Repeat after me. Suture Hatti are Nadeau tail, tail, tail, ICA, toner, Deci and adult L. Toner and net o tail. Data catchy antidote. There and Gatto tale. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see two types of sentences. If you see a sentence with verbs in the infinitive forms, I'd like you to add CI and adore teta. But if you see a sentence with a phrase that users are adore our daughter, then add and to form the verb phrase, that means I don't have to. You will see the two types of sentences in a consistent pattern. So it shouldn't be too confusing. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Basilar touchy and adult AR. Basilar touchy and adult AR. And ta-da. Basilar untitled haha, literally put to the UN EBITDA. Ebitda. City are not all tale. Muj either a city antidote to hell. Bo Jagger and Sadat, hail Magellan, Sadat AR. Fantastic efforts today, well-done. Okay, so in today's lesson, we learned to use CI, an adult head-on and, and adore Otto, take that to mean don't have to. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we'll review what we learned on the use of man and data. And what we learn today on Tiana door to adopt and adore our dough teta. C you sin again, bye-bye. 49. 5.6 Review Lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the two previous lessons on using Neon and dadda and T antidote eta n and add all outdoor tie that. Let's begin with man and data. Two lessons ago, we learned to use Ambien and to talk about not giving permission and to talk about something being prohibited. Now, when we say that something is prohibited, it can be due to certain rules or due to doing or saying something that is considered not right. So the use of man and the die is similar to should not, must not, and cannot in English. Okay, so lets first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use Ambien and data. Ego by Simeon and they are hacked go ASR champion and they are Chinese are hand upon Simeon and they toss out Guan ASR yea ganglion. And day. She had shot as our cookie. And they are That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive form. And I'd like you to add the polite form of man and beyond and appropriately, depending on whether the verb stem ends in Patsy may not. Remember that if the verb stem doesn't end in patch him, Then we add me on and data. But if the verb stem does end in by Tim, then we add the moon and data. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Yogi and Gibeon and data. I need yolk. Cooked Jang ASR hand upon Simeon, and they are cooked Jang as our hand upon someone on their Armani and tag could not care about. And they are ammonia and tear could not care about torso Guan ASR, Michigan. And they are tos one SR, musical Milgrom Hernandez. Show me the Neng Ba Mian and they are Chongyang BMI and they are excellent job well-done, less now review the use of CI and adore teta and add all outdoor data. In the previous lesson, we learned to use CI and adult EDA and an ad or audio data to say that something is not an obligation or a necessity. Similar to don't have to in English. To use these verb forms, we add ci antidote Hadar to verb stems, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in Potsdam or not. And in terms of an ad or audio data, we already covered how we add, add or auto trader in an earlier lesson. And all that we have to do is add an in front of the verb structure to make it into a negative form, which means I don't have to. Okay, so let's first do a listener repeat practice of using CCI and adult header. And an adult, although data to mean I don't have to. Postorder Tati antidote AR. Postorder untitled haha quoted G antidote AR coated Animoto tail. Both city and adore tail. And sotto tail. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see