English Writing - Essays, Emails and Exams | Francis Carlisle | Skillshare

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English Writing - Essays, Emails and Exams

teacher avatar Francis Carlisle, IELTS Examiner

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

26 Lessons (2h 22m)
    • 1. Course Introduction Skillshare

      2:07
    • 2. Complex Sentences Video 1 Overview Part 1

      5:18
    • 3. Complex Sentences Video 1 Overview Part 2 Edited

      5:41
    • 4. Complex Sentences Video 2 Noun Phrases

      7:21
    • 5. Complex Sentences Video 3 Adverbial Phrases Part 1

      10:08
    • 6. Complex Sentences Video 3 Adverbial Phrases Part 2

      6:47
    • 7. Complex Sentences Video 4 Adjective Phrases

      9:35
    • 8. Complex Sentences Video 5 Gerund Phrases

      6:39
    • 9. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 1

      5:20
    • 10. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 2

      4:00
    • 11. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 3

      5:04
    • 12. The Passive Voice

      5:38
    • 13. The Rule of Three

      3:19
    • 14. Formal vs Informal Language

      6:33
    • 15. Common Mistakes Video 1 Overview

      1:33
    • 16. Common Mistakes Video 2 Subject Verb Agreement

      6:54
    • 17. Common Mistakes Video 3 Singular or Plural

      4:39
    • 18. Common Mistakes Video 4 Sentence Fragments

      4:12
    • 19. Common Mistakes Video 5 Use of Commas

      7:17
    • 20. Common Mistakes Video 6 Parallel Structure

      7:10
    • 21. Common Mistakes Video 7 It's vs Its

      3:44
    • 22. Common Mistakes Video 8 Use of Referencing

      5:15
    • 23. Common Mistakes Video 9 Order of Adjectives

      4:35
    • 24. Common Mistakes Video 10 When to Capitalize

      4:35
    • 25. Common Mistakes Video 11 Use of Prepositions

      7:36
    • 26. Course Conclusion Skillshare

      1:29
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About This Class

Learn great English Writing skills from an IELTS examiner.

Important question: Can you spot the mistake in this sentence? 

"The boy was happy, he had found his toy."

If you can't see it, you need to take this course!

This course is for anyone who needs good English Writing skills, particularly if you are:

- Writing English essays

- Writing English emails

- Writing English reports

- Writing English articles

- Writing English in exams (IELTS, TOEFL, school/university classes etc)

In this free course, you'll improve your English writing ability by learning writing skills that you need to know.

We will cover: 

- Making Complex Sentences (to make your English writing go to the next level)

- Using Transitional Words and Phrases (to make your English writing logical and coherent)

- Understanding the Rule of Three (to make your English written sentences fun to read)

- Formal vs Informal English Writing (to help you understand the difference between formal and informal English writing)

- Using the Passive Voice (to give your English writing more variety)

And...

- English Writing Common Mistakes (to help you write English with perfect grammar)

So, let's get started!

Meet Your Teacher

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Francis Carlisle

IELTS Examiner

Teacher

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction Skillshare: hello and welcome to the course. I'm very glad that you decided to take this course. This is our last minute English formal writing courts on my name is Francis. I'm from the UK and I'm a former Eilts examiner on this course is designed to help you improve your formal written English. So the goal of this course is to help you improve in all kinds of different formal writing areas. Things like essays and letters, e mails, reports, exams, anything with formal English writing is important. So in this course, we're going to cover a lot of different things. We're going to talk about making complex sentences that will have perfect grammar and will really impress your reader. We're gonna talk about the differences between formal and informal writing so that you don't accidentally right informally in a very formal situation. We're also going to talk about some transitional words and phrases that will help to connect your formal writing together. Make it very logical and easy to read. We're going to look at the passive voice to give your writing more variety. Andi, we're going to look at a lot of different common writing mistakes that people make when they're trying to write a formal. If you enjoy this course, I really encourage you to take our courses about aisles speaking. If you want to take the aisles speaking test, We also have courses about I'll academic writing Andi Ayotte's general writing. So if you're looking to take the aisles test any time soon, you can check out those courses. All right, I think it's time for us to get started with our first video, so see them. 2. Complex Sentences Video 1 Overview Part 1: in this video, let's take a look at complex sentences. Complex sentences are very important to get to a higher level of English writing. Whether you're writing a letter, a report, an essay, you need to be able to use complex sentences. They're going to really impress whoever it is that's reading your right. So let's find out. First of all, what complex sentences up. So in English, there are four types of sentences. The 1st 1 is a simple sentence. I like pizza. Very simple. The next one is a compound sentence, so that's like two simple sentences put together. So I like pizza on and I hate pineapple. The next one is the one that we're interested in a complex sentence. I like pizza unless it has pineapple on it. I was also very impressive. Is a compound complex sentence like, Although I like pizza, I can't stand it when it has pineapple on it, because that is not how pizza should be served. So what is the difference between a compound sentence and a complex sentence? Because they look kind of similar, right? So the differences in the types of clauses that they have on a clause is like a piece of the sentence, part of the sentence. So we have independent clauses, which is like, I like pizza, and that means that it can stand by itself. If we put it in a sentence, just I like pizza. It still makes sense. OK, so that's an independent close. Now you have to remember that because we're going to talk about that a lot in the next five videos. All right, so there's an independent clause. And then also we have dependent clauses. So that's things like, although I like pizza or unless it has pineapple on it Now, those ones dependent clauses can't be a sentence by themselves. That's no a complete sentence. Okay, Independent can be a complete sentence dependent Tom. So he's like the formal explanation of ah, dependent clause. It can't stand by itself. It has to be connected to an independent clause. Okay, so let's take a look at a compound sentence. A compound sentence is to independent clauses connected together, so a compound sentence doesn't have a dependent clause. It's two independent cloths, for example. I like Pizza Way connected with and and I hate pineapple. I like pizza independent. It's its own sentence. I hate pineapple, also independent. It's his own sentence connected the end, and we get a compound sentence. So what is a complex sentence? A complex sentence is a mix off, an independent clause and a dependent clause. So it's a mix of the two. For example, I like pizza. We know that some independent clause it can stand by itself. And unless it has pineapple on it, that one. If we make our own sentence just a single sentence unless it has pineapple on it, it's not complete right. It's not an independent clause. It's not a finished sentence. It's dependent now. If we connect those two together, that gives us a complex sentence. So that's the difference between compound and complex. Now is very good to use compound sentences, but it's even better to use some complex sentences. Now when you're writing an essay or a report or even a letter, try to use a complex sentence at least once in each paragraph, but you don't have to use it every sentence. If you use the complex sentence, every sentence you're writing would be kind of complicated. It would be a little bit boring, probably It's good toe, have some variety. So a mix of simple sentences Compound complex And if you can, one of those long compound complex sentences Variety is going to make your writing really, really good to read on and really high level. 3. Complex Sentences Video 1 Overview Part 2 Edited: So now that we know what complex sentences are, let's talk a little bit about some of the grammar rules that we have to remember when we're using complex sentences. So the 1st 1 is where we can put dependent clauses so we can put them actually, at the start of a sentence in the middle or at the end, let's see an example of each one. So we could say, If you are sick, you should stay home. So they if you are sick, that is the dependent clause in this sentence is at the start. Or we could put it in the middle. Peter, who is sick today, is at home for Finally, we could put it at the end. We can't have the meeting today because Peter isn't here. All right, so we can put them at the start, the middle or the end. And it's good to have some variety. Don't do all of your essay. All of your reports with only dependent clauses at the start of your complex senses, do some of the star some in the middle and some of the end. So another grammar rule that we have to remember is whether or not, we should put a comma when we are making our complex sentence. So we've got a few rules that we can look at. The 1st 1 is if our dependent cause is at the start of the sentence, then we do have a comma after the dependent clause finishes on before the rest of the sentence goes on. All right. For example, even though he had lots of money, he often felt so the even though part that is are dependent clause. And so after that finishes. Now, if the dependent clauses at the end, we usually don't need tohave a comma. Okay, sometimes, as we will see, we do need it. But most of the time we don't Okay, For example, he never pays for dinner, even though he has lots off money again. So even though he has lots of money is our dependent clause. But there's no comma because it's at the end. So what about if the dependent clauses in the middle? Actually, there are two rules here, and this one is a little bit complicated. So festival if that dependent clauses in the middle, and it's not crucial to the meaning of the sentence, then we do use comments. No crucial means. If we took out that dependent clause, the sentence would still pretty much mean the same thing. Okay, so it's kind of like adding extra information. But that information is not really, really import. Let's see an example. So my mother, who was born in Australia, lived most of her life in Japan. So even if we take away that who was born in Australia, the sentence still makes sense. So we should use comments now. The other side of this rule is if that middle information in the dependent cause is really important. We don't use Commons. Okay? For example, the man who committed the crime will go to jail for life. So if we just say the man will go to jail for life, which man we don't know. Is it this guy, you know, Is it me? We don't know which man we're talking about, so that's very, very important information the man who committed the crime. So in that situation, no comments. Now, another rule to bear in mind is when we are starting complex sentences, we can't start sentences with who or which or where, unless they are a question. OK, so let's take a look at an example. This is a very, very common mistake that I see. So the boy gave all his money to the man on the train full stop, which was a bad idea. Now that one's wrong, because which is starting that sentence and that sentence is not a question. So it should look like this. The boy gave all his money to the man on the train comma, which was a bad idea. But if we want to make a question, we can do it like this. Which train should I catch to go to London? So that one's a question. It's okay to start that one with which or who or where. Okay, but it's part of a complex sentence. Don't start your question with which. So this has been kind of an introduction to complex sentences. Now we know what they are, and we know a few of the grammar rules for making complex sentences. In the next few videos. We're going to look at some different ways that we can make really good, really well written Andi really varied, complex sentences. So see you in the next video 4. Complex Sentences Video 2 Noun Phrases: in this video, let's take a look at one way in which we can make complex sentences and that is using something called noun clauses and, in particular, implicit questions. So an implicit question is like when we make a sentence, that sort of asking a question or maybe talking about a question, but no in a direct way. So the question is kind of inside a longer sentence, and we can use lots of different words to make these implicit questions the words like where? Who, whether what, when and if so, let's take a look at some examples of these. So when we're looking at dependent clauses with implicit questions, we know that there no real questions. They're not direct questions. So the way that we form, like the structure of those questions, has to change a little bit. And this is a very common mistake that people make in the writing and in the speaking. So let's take a look at an example. Let's say we're asking the question, Where do you live? A very simple question. Now what if we want to put that as an implied question as part of a sentence when we could started by saying I don't know, how would we finish that sentence? What do you think? So it would be I don't know where you live. So with lost our do when we make it part of a complex sentence, where do you live? Becomes where you live? All right, let's take a look at another example. So who are you? A very simple question. Who are you on? If we want to make that as part of a sentence, what do we have to do? Let's say we start a sentence with I'm not sure. How can we complete that sentence? It should be. I'm not sure who you are. So the who are you switches the order on becomes who you are. So let's take a look at some other words that we can use to make implicit questions. The 1st 1 is where so I don't know where he lives, and we could also say she wants to find out where her mother is working. Now we have to be careful. You have to make sure that we're not saying I don't know where does he live or that she wants to find out. Where is her mother working again. A very, very common mistake, and we have to be careful with it. We can also make sentences with who. So can you ask who the boss is now? That one actually is a question, but it's more like asking if somebody can do something. It's a request. It's not a direct question. OK, so we don't say who is the boss will say. Can you ask who the boss is? All right, And then the other one is. I'm not sure who the buyers are, So if we asked a direct question, it would be Who are the buyers? But we're making a sentence, so it should be who the buyers off. We can also make sentences with weather. So here's an example. We are trying to find out whether the generator is working or the journalist is investigating whether the president knew about the threat. Okay, again, both of those ones are complex sentences with a question that's not direct, but it's kind of inside of that sentence. Another word we could use is what so we could say a sentence like we haven't bean in this situation before, so nobody knows what the plan is not. What is the plan? It should be what the plan is. Andi, another one could be. Do you know what we are going to do next again? It's not What are we going to do next? It's what we are going to do next. Another word we can use is when. So we could say you convey Bet on when the next goal will be scored or you could ask a kind of not direct question. Do you have an idea when the next train will leave under? The last one that we could use is the word. If eso we could say the boy's parents had no idea if he would come back from the war. Very sad, Andi. I had better check if he has arrived. So we're gonna do a challenge now. Andi, this challenge is going to be turning these questions. These direct questions into our complex sentences with the implicit question. OK, so we're going to three. The 1st 1 is where are you from? That what is your job? And finally why are they here? So I want you to do just like we've been doing all through this video turned those questions into sentences haven't trying. So let's take a look at those answers now. There's many different ways to say this, but here are some of them. So you could say I have no idea where you are from. You could ask a question. Could you tell me what your job is? And then finally, we are trying to find out why they are here. Okay, so those are all different ways that we can turn those questions into complex sentences that have implicit questions in CYP. So something that you should know is that it's very important for us to talk about these implicit questions because this is such a common mistake that people make. But when you're doing your writing, then no, really, really attractive that know, very eye catching their useful. But you're not going to make the reader go. Oh, wow, amazing sentence. By using one of these things, they're pretty normal. Okay, so in the next few videos, we're going to look at some ways that you can really impress your reader with your excellent, complex sentences. So I'll see you in the next video 5. Complex Sentences Video 3 Adverbial Phrases Part 1: in this video. Let's take a look at some great ways to make complex sentences using adverb beall closets. Now, don't worry too much about that name adverb. You'll clauses there types of dependent clauses on we remember what dependent clauses are there? There's once that, a constant by themselves. We have to connect them Now there are six different types are adverb viel clauses. So we have time, condition, concession. We also have reason. Goal Andi contrast. Okay, And inside each of those types, there are several different choices that we have for making those complex sentences. So let's take a look at some of those. So the first type offer and verbal closer we're gonna look at is all about time on the 1st 1 I'm sure is very familiar when all right, so when we know talks about a specific time particular time. So, for example, when you hear the tiger coming run away, pretty good advice I think you'll agree on. And then the 2nd 1 is you can start running when the first whistle south. So Whistler's pool like that so you can start running when the first whistle sounds. So what you can see that is that I've put in our first example the dependent clause at the start on because it's up the staff. Remember our rule? We put a comma afterwards, but then in the second sentence, the dependent clause is at the end. So we don't need a car now. The next two are probably also pretty familiar before and after. So the 1st 1 wash your hands before you eat. I'm sure we've all heard that before. Andi. Then the 2nd 1 after seeing that horror movie comma, he never wanted to go to an old house again. All right. So again, you can see we can use our dependent clause at the start or at the end of our sentences. The next one is the word, while so while talks about a long period of time. Okay, Not just It's a longer period, okay? So we can never be safe while he is free. So you can imagine that he is maybe a crazy person and murderer. Someone like that. And he's free for a long time and extended time. Okay, on in that time, we can never be safe. The 2nd 1 while you were sleeping, someone broke into the house and stole the diamonds. OK, so sleeping for a long time and enduring that time something else happens. The next one is as soon as so that's like when something happens, do something else at that time. Okay, so, for example, you should start preparing for the test as soon as you can, or as soon as you find out your grades, call me and let me know. The next one is until so until talks about when something is happening, it's continuing, and then eventually it ends, all right. So, for example, we won't find out our grades until the end off July and then the 2nd 1 until the rain has stopped. You should stay inside, so the rain is coming. It's raining, it's raining when it stops, then you can go outside. So the next type of adverb you'll clause that we're going to talk about our conditions. All right, on the first of those is. If so, let's take a look at an example. The first example is, if we get permission, we can start building next week, so you can imagine that all of the other details are all finished. That'll finalized We're just waiting for that one admission. If we get in waken start next week, okay? And the next one is I don't eat that pizza if you don't want it Now that's a sentence that I have said many times in my life on as we can see with if we can start the sentence or we can put power if clause at the end of the sentence, the next one is unless so, unless is like on when something is true, it's continuing. But if this thing happens, it will stop this thing from continuing. Okay, so let's take a look at an example. Unless you make a huge mistake, you will pass the test so we can imagine that you're pretty confident you know the test pretty well. You're ready. Uh, the only thing that can stop you is a huge mistake. Okay. Another example. He will become all powerful unless somebody stops him. All right. That could be one about politics. Or it could be maybe from from, like, a sci fi movie. So we can see that unless a swell can be used at the start or in the middle of our sentence the next one that we're going to talk about our concession clauses. Concession is like saying Well, yes, that thing is true, but it doesn't change this thing. Okay, so the 1st 1 is even though we can see an example. Even though you stole from me, I still trust you. Now Maybe you took my money or you took my diamonds or whatever you stole from me. So this thing happened. But the main idea is still true. I still trust you on the 2nd 1 Many people prefer buying in store like in the shop, even though the items are less expensive online. So the items are less expensive. You pay less money. But still people like to go to the shop. The next one is all though eso this kind of does a similar thing Teoh even that. So you could say something like Although no one mentioned the problem, everyone was thinking about it. So nobody talked about it. But still, it was in everyone's mind. Everyone was thinking about at another one. He joined me at the table. Although I would have preferred to eat alone. Okay, so I didn't really want him to join me, but he still joined me at the table. The next one, we're going to talk about our reason. Adverb beall Clauses on the 1st 1 is one that I'm sure you're very familiar with. It's a very common word because but there is an important know that which is that we never start sentences with because okay, so when we make a complex sentence with because the dependent clause must come later in the sentence, for example, I chose you because you are smart, Okay? We couldn't say because you are smart. I chose you. It wouldn't be right. Instead, we say I chose you because you are smart and then the next one is a little more complicated . We are going to reduce taxes because we want to stimulate economic growth, stimulated means like encourage or make something start or make it happen. Okay, so you can see in both of these sentences the part that has because is not that the start. It's at the middle and goes to the end the next one that we need to look at our two words. Actually, since and as now these mean the same as because But they're a little bit more flexible because we can use them at the start of a sentence. Remember we because we can't use it at the start of the sentence. So let's see an example. We could say, since the number of companies going bankrupt has increased, the unemployment rate is higher this month. Okay, you can see senses. It starts going bankrupt means that they go out of business on. And the unemployment rate is how many people don't have a job. All right, since is at the start. And then, as we could say, a sentence like this, we are going to buy a lot of food today as we will have a dinner party tomorrow night. Now, in both of those sentences, we could switch the sense of the as and they would still mean exactly the same thing. So since and as are a really good way to give your writing mawr variety make it more interesting so that you're not just using the word because because because because, and it also allows you to start sentences if you want to start sentences with since or as you can do so, 6. Complex Sentences Video 3 Adverbial Phrases Part 2: the next one that we're going to talk about our clothes is that our goals on the 1st 1 of these is so that All right, Andi, something to know is that we don't start our sentences with, so that just like because we have to put them later, for example, we could say you have to study hard in school so that you can get a good job. Another one we could say is Take your mom shocking so that we can organize her surprise birthday party. So the goal is we want to organize her surprise birthday party on what is the action that we do to achieve that goal? It's taking her shopping, get her out of the house so that we can make the plan together. So for sentences like that we can use so that another option that we have, which is a little bit more flexible, is in order to on is more flexible because we can start a sentence with this one. So, for example, in order to have a safe society, we need to have strict rules. And of course, we can also use this one in the middle of a sentence So you have toe enter the password in order to unlock the phone. So if you want to use it, you have to enter the password. Your goal is to use the phone on. What do you have to do? You have to enter the password to do. All right. So those two choices that we have, if we're talking about the goal of something, the next one, we're going to look at our contrast clauses. So contrast is like when we have two things on and we are talking about what is the difference between Why are these two things different on the first word we could use is while So, for example, while I approve of the general idea, there are some details that need to be changed. So the general idea is one thing. The details is the other thing. I like the general idea. Some of the details I don't like so much. So in that situation we can use a while another example. And this is an interesting one that you have to pay attention to is I usually get up at 7 a.m. While my wife gets up around 9 a.m. Now what is slightly different about that sentence differences the common. So when we use while to make complex sentence Onda, we put the dependent clause in the second half. Towards the end of the sentence, we do have to add that comma. Remember, with most other words we don't. But with while we do have to add that another great word that we can use to make a contrast is whereas on this one we don't usually put it at the start of the sentence. Usually we put this one in the middle so you could say something like I am more of a think first do later kind of person. Whereas you are much more impulsive. Impulsive is like you don't think too much before you do something. If you want it, you do it. Another example is one like this. If we were writing a report on some data, we could say the price of oil rose between 1950 and 2000 whereas the price of corn dropped significant. So we're comparing two things that the price of oil and the price. Of course, now that is a lot of information on guy really suggest that you take the time and review all of it. But now it's time for a little challenge. Let's see how much you can remember. So what's going to happen is I'm going to give you one of the adverb Bealls that we've talked about. Andi, I'm going to give you some data, some information, and your job is to make a complete, complex sentence to describe that data. Okay, for example, we have number one, whereas on we're talking about favorite pizza. Andi. For me, it's barbecue chicken for you. It's pepperoni and you have to make a sentence with that information. And then the 2nd 1 is going to be using the word unless on there's a race tomorrow on I am the second fastest runner in the world. Usain Bolt is the fastest. How can we make a sentence with that information, Andi. Then finally, I we're going to use the word until on the only information is the exam ends at 2 p.m. Okay , so I'd like you to take a few minutes and try to write down those three sentences and use those adverb eels. See if you can make grammatically perfect complex sentences, have a try now, so let's take a look at some possible answers. There are many different ways that you could say this, but here the answers that I wrote. So my favorite pizza topping is barbecue chicken, whereas yours is pepperoni. The next one. Unless you saying bolt takes part, I will win the race tomorrow on, then find the number three something that the person who's examining you might say You can keep writing until two PM So what I really suggest you do with all of these different adverb beall words and in all of the different areas, it's a lot of information. And if you just watch this video and they never do anything, it's a waste. You won't remember them. So try to make sentences with every single one off the different words that I've given you . And also look on the Internet, find example sentences with each of them as well. On that way you're going to be able to remember them. And then when you come to do your writing, you'll be much more confident on, and your use of complex sentences will get you a much higher school 7. Complex Sentences Video 4 Adjective Phrases: in this video. Let's take a look at how we can make complex sentences using objective clauses. Okay, So objective clauses usually happen when we haven't now, Andi. Then we want to give a bit more information about that. Now we usually use some connecting words. So there was a words like who who's which? That Andi, where all right and something else to know is that usually we will give them now often, but not always will put a comma on. Then we will use one of these connecting words and a verb on then some details. OK, so we're going to have a look at some different examples with these different connecting words. The first type off add objective clause that we're going to look at is with the word witch on, which gives us information about a thing. Okay, but we have to be careful because it usually gives us information, which is not really, really important to the meaning of that sentence. Let's take a look at an example. For example, the movie Titanic, which was released in 1997 is one off the most popular movies off all time. Okay, so what? You can see that is that we have the movie Titanic. Then we have comma, which some information and common again. Now imagine that we took out that middle part, that which was released in 1997. If we took it away, the sentence would still have pretty much the same meeting right. It would have a little bit less detail, but it would still have the same meaning. So in that situation we used a comma, which some information, another common. And continue with that sense. All right, when the information is no really, really important to the meaning of the sentence, let's take a look at another one. You could say carrots, which are a good source of vitamin A, can be used in all kinds of different meals. Again, If we take a take away the vitamin A information, we still know that they can be used in many different meals. So it's no really, really important information that bit of in a stuff. It's nice to know, but it's no really important Now. There's one other way that we can talk about a thing on that is using the word for that. Okay, so thistle is when we want to give information about a thing which is really important for that sentence. So, for example, the medicine that the doctor prescribed me made me feel worse. Okay, So prescribed means that the doctor said Okay, well, you have this problem. He go have this kind of medicine. Okay, Now, if we take away that the doctor prescribed, does the sentence still have the same meaning? Not really. Right. Because then we're just saying the medicine made me feel ill. Made me feel worse. But which medicine? We don't know. So in that situation, that information is really important. So we don't have a comma, and we use that instead. Off which Another example. We could say the boy that stole the neighbor's car needs to be punished. All right, now, it's not just any boy. It's not just a Let's choose a boy. Let's choose this boy. He should be punished. It's the boy who stole the cup. All right, so he's done something bad. He needs to be punished. No anybody else. So again, it's really important information. So we use that and we don't have comments. The next one we're going to talk about is when we're talking about a person on, we're giving more details and then we can use the word who. So, for example, my friend Henry, who lives in London, is coming to visit me next week. All right, so it's no really, really important information. It's nice to know he lives in London, but the important information is afterwards, so we use commerce. Another example is a J. K. Rolling, who wrote the Harry Potter books, now lives in Scotland again. It is good to know that she read the Harry Potter books, but it's not that important. But we're giving some extra information. All right, so we use those comments of we use the word who to give extra information about a person. The next one is the word whose on that talks about when somebody owns something or it's something belongs to somebody. So, for example, at my dog whose name is Rover loves chasing sticks all right sticks, you throw a stick for the dog. Now the who's means that my dog owns. I guess he owns his name. That is his name. His name is Rover. So we said my dog comma, whose name is Rover comma and meant some more information. So in that situation we use the word who's another example? We could say the Queen of England, whose ancestors have ruled for hundreds of years, is nearly 100 years old. So it's whose ancestors on who did those ancestors belonged to or who were they connected to the queen? So we use that word from the last one that we're going to look at is the word where So where is when we're giving extra information about a place? All right. So, for example, my bedroom, where I spend a lot of time studying, was redecorated by my parents last year. Redecorated is like they changed the color of the walls or they added things that it took things away. All right, But we're talking about a place. So we use where and another example the hotel where I got married will be demolished next year. Demolished is destroyed. Now, what can you see? That's a little different about that sentence in that sentence. We don't have any comments, right? Why? No, we don't have them because that information is really important to the sentence. So if we just said the hotel will be demolished next year. Which hotel are we talking about? This one here, Or like the one in the capital city, or what? We don't know. So because it's the hotel where I got married, the where I got married. It's really important information. We don't include commerce in that sentence. It's still giving information about a place, but no comments. So for your challenge for this video, I'm going to give you some pieces of information and you're going to turn those pieces of information into sentences. Complex sentences. All right, so the 1st 1 is my friend John by new car on and met in high school. The next one is at my company's office building. 10 years working there closed next year, and then number three is a Columbia, a good place to visit located in South America. All right, so take a few minutes and try to turn that information into complex sentences with perfect grandma. Have a try now, so let's take a look at some answers. So, first of all, you could say my friend John, who I've known since high school, has just bought a new car. The number two we could say my company's office building, where I have worked for the past 10 years will be closed next year, all right. And finally, Columbia, which is a country in South America, is a great place to visit on holiday. All right, so you've got a pretty good idea now about the different ways that we can add information at dependent clauses in the middle off our complex sentences. And we can add them about things, about people, about places, on also about ownership. So again, I really suggest that you take the time and make lots of example sentences using all of the different words that we learned. Check online, look at examples as well, and become very familiar with these types of sentences because these will make your writing really good. 8. Complex Sentences Video 5 Gerund Phrases: So in this video, we're going to take a look up. One more way to make complex sentences on this is one of my favorite ways. I really like this one. Thes ones are gerund clauses, so let's find out what that means. So Adjourned is a verb, but it's when it's in. Its I N G form ends with high energy Andi. It acts like a noun, kind of behaves like now. So you could say, for example, dancing is one of my favorite hobbies now, usually, you would say dancing dance that's a verb right on. If we write it, like to dance. It's a verb if we say I am dancing also a verb. But if we just say dancing by itself, it can be a type of now, and that's called a Jerrett. So we usually use a Gerald clause if we want to answer more information or we kind of want to continue the story in some way, and they're very flexible. There's lots off different verbs that we can use in this Gerald fault. Okay, on DSO, I think it's time to have a look at some examples, so let's take a look at first of all, leeching. So that's from the to reach. Like to arrive at something on our sentence. The price of corn rose steadily, comma, reaching $23 in 2000 and five. All right, so we can see that we're adding a bit more information about what the price of corn was doing. And so we can say that at that time it arrived at $23. The next one is becoming. So from become so a sentence, this one is more like a story. He joined the company in 1995 comma, becoming the CEO 10 years later. All right, we're telling a little bit of a story about whoever this guys, the next we're going to look at is ending. So you could make a sentence like this one about history. The last Chinese emperor abdicated in 1912 comma, ending thousands of years off Imperial. Okay, so ending means it stopped abdicated means he gave up being the emperor. An imperial rule means that Theo emperors were in charge for thousands of years, and then the last one is proving. So we could say that the apple fell onto Newton's head, proving that gravity existed. All right, so again, we're telling a story. So these Jeralyn's, as you can see, are really good for all kinds of different writing. You could be writing a novel. You could be writing a report on some data on S a a letter, basically any kind of writing. You can use thes ones, and there's lots and lots of different verbs that we can use to make thes Jared phrases. So for your challenge, I'm going to ask you to be a little bit creative. What you're going to do is to choose a suitable Jerron to complete the sentence that I give you. So let's take a look. The 1st 1 is the soldier panicked his gun off bullets in a matter of seconds. So the question is, what verb in the i N g in the gerund form can we put into that space? The next one is the student finished top of her class, all the tests with flying colors and then that the lion lay silently in the grass. The moments to strike. What should we put in that space on? The last one could definitely be taken from a novel. He lay in his bed all night up blood into his handkerchief. Okay, So what I want you to do is put whatever verb you think is appropriate in the i N G form into those four spaces so that those sentences will make sense, have a China. So let's take a look at some of the answers. First of all, the soldier panicked, emptying his gun of bullets in a matter of seconds. So you can imagine he just gone like that. But suddenly all of his bullets a gone because he panicked, he got too nervous. The next one, the student finished top of her class, passing all her tests with flying colors. So to pass the test with flying colors is actually a great phrase. It means to get really, really great marks in your test. Then the lion lay silently in the grass, waiting for the moment to strike. So the moment to strike is like the moment when the land will jump out and attack. All right, so you can imagine that maybe he's waiting for zebra Teoh come past. And then that will be the moment to strike. And then finally, the slightly sad one he lay in his bed all night coughing up blood into his handkerchief. Okay, so Oh, no. There's blood. One of those sort of things. Okay, so, everyone, that is everything that we're going to do about complex sentences again. This is not something where you can just watch the video on D. Suddenly you know it, and you'll be perfect at writing complex sentences forever. You have to practice, okay. Really important to practice. Go through each of these videos several times. Watch, read, write. And then your ability to run complex sentences will get much better. And you're writing itself will also improve a lot. All right, I'll see you in the next section. 9. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 1: in the next few videos, we're going to be talking about transitional words and phrases. So what does that mean? Those are the words and phrases that connect your piece of writing together, whether you're writing an essay, our report, a letter and email, whatever it is, you need to have good coherence and cohesion. That means that your writing needs to make sense. It needs to be connected together in a very clear and logical way. Now, transitional words and phrases are good because they kind of show which direction your writing is going on so that the reader can very clearly understand what you're saying. But it's also important to use variety when you're using your transitional words and phrases, because that way you show the reader that you have a good command of English on your writing is more interesting to read. So in this video we're going to be focused on time transitions. So the explaining the different parts off your essay on bond the way that time changes if you're writing maybe a letter or report, Okay, so first of all, we can say firstly, first of all, or to begin with, and all of these ones are going to be used in the first body paragraph of your piece of writing. So not in the introduction paragraph that comes after that. The first body paragraph, the first point. The first main idea that you're going to be talking about in your piece of writing. We can start it with one of these three words. So let's take a look at an example. Firstly, there was a large increase in the population of Russia between 1950 1970. And you can see that we could also use either of those other two options to start this same sentence on this would be the start of your first body paragraph. So now we know how to start our first body paragraph. Usually, though, we have three body paragraphs in a piece of writing. So how do we start the second and the 3rd 1? So we could use secondly, uh, next finally Or lastly. So those 1st 2 would be, of course, about the second body paragraph, and then the last two would be about the third and final body parts. Let's take a look at a couple of examples. So, firstly, secondly, or next, we have to consider the effects on the families of the victims. That would be your second body paragraph, the first sentence and then for the final body paragraph Finally or lastly, the price of corn remained steady between years one and four. The next ones. We're going to look at our initially Andi, subsequently, that these are really nice, higher level words. Onda. We quite often used them together so initially is talking about the first of two connected actions and then subsequently talks about the 2nd 1 Let's see how we could use these ones together in a piece of writing so we could say initially, the price of oil rose quickly, reaching $65 a barrel in 1990. Then we could say, however, it subsequently declined consistently until the year 2010. Another great one that we can use is meanwhile now this is talking about when one thing is happening and at the same time something else is happening. Let's take a look at how we could make some sentences with those two so we could say the number of women visiting the doctor regularly fell by 10% between 2010 and 2015. Meanwhile, the amount of men visiting the doctor increased by 5% in the same time period. Okay, so when we say in the same time period, it means we're also talking about that time period from the sentence before 2010 to 2015. And in that kind of situation, we can use that word. Meanwhile, on another example, I was out working hard every day. Meanwhile, he was sat at home watching television. So at the same time that I am working hard, he is sitting at home watching. Okay, everyone. So those are a few time transitions that you can use to connect your essay together in a more coherent way. In the next video, we'll see some different types of transitions. 10. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 2: in this video, we're going to keep looking at transitional words and phrases on. The first time that we're going to be looking at is to add information. So we have four here we have. Furthermore, in addition, moreover, and similar and all of these have basically the same function, they do the same thing that is, that they give more information on the same idea or in the same direction. So, for example, when no going to be giving the other side of the argument or disagreeing with what we said before, all right, these ones are in the same direction. So, for example, we have a wonderful park that you can visit. In addition, there are many superb restaurants in that area, so both of those are talking about good things to do if you visit a different city. At another example, at the amount of people buying brand a toothpaste increased consistently in the 1st 3 years . Similarly, those buying brand be toothpaste increased by 15% in the same time period, so both brand brand A and brand be up increasing, so we can use one of these transitional words and phrases the next time that we're going to look at our changing direction. So we've got five here we've got. However, on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand, onder conversely, so you've got plenty of choice here on these ones are for changing the direction of what we're talking about. So in the first sentence we've been talking about maybe what something is good and then we're going to change direction and talk about why it's bad. So, for example, one that we saw before Thea amount of women visiting the doctor regularly felt between 2010 and 2015. Conversely, the number of women going increased between 2015 and 2020. So what? First it's a decrease, and then it's an increase. So we're changing direction. We use one of these transitional words, and another example at the level of interest in Latin, on the other hand, has decreased a lot in the last 50 years, so this time we've used it in the middle of a sentence and finally, a pretty simple one. I wanted to visit the zoo, however, I discovered that it was closed. Now let's talk about specifying so we've got three here, which are in particular for example off, for instance, which means something Andi, particularly on this, is when we're going to focus in on just one data point or example a year to saw the biggest rise in sales. In particular, the sales of perfume rose by 65%. So in the first sentence, we're talking about sales in general, and then we focus on one data point, which is perfume, and talk about that. Another example. There were decreases in a number of areas, particularly or, for instance, in the DVD business. So those are three areas in which you can use transitional words and phrases, too. Connect your writing in a more logical way so that it's easier for people to read in the next video. We're going to look at a few other areas that we can use transitional words and phrases. See in a minute 11. Transitional Words and Phrases Video 3: So let's keep looking at some transitional words and phrases. Now we're going to look at how we can clarify something that means to make it clear. So we've got to look at, in other words. Or that is to say, and both of these are for when we want to really make something clear by saying it again, either in different words or with more detail. So let's take a look at an example. So you signed the contract and made a promise to complete the work. In other words, you have a responsibility to finish the project. So we are making our position, our opinion particularly clear here by saying kind of the same thing again. But in different words. And another example, I met the CEO on Tuesday that is to say, Tuesday, the Fourth of March. So what we're doing here is being very clear about which Tuesday it is just in case there's any confusion. Is it last Tuesday? Is it Tuesday last month? Just to be very clear, we can use one of these clarifying phrases. Now let's take a look at adding emphasis, so you might know some of these words absolutely, definitely certainly without a doubt and above all and all of these ones are used for when we want to make a really strong point. For example, we could use one of those 1st 3 It is absolutely or definitely or certainly necessary for Children to respect their parents on. And these three we used basically in the same way and they have the same meaning. So you can show good variety in your writing by using more than one of these in a single piece of writing another example. Without a doubt, they have seen a lot of changes to the world over the past 20 years and you can see that this time we've started the sentence with without it down. That's a normal way to use it on then. Above all, we must attempt to improve as people in order to overcome the challenge of climate change. So above all again, we usually use it at the start of the sentence Onda. We use it when we're talking about whatever. The biggest point is the most important point in our piece of writing. Now we're gonna look at a few extra transitional words and phrases that are very useful on this one. I really like. This is a great respectively. On the way that we use, respectively, is when we're talking about two things. Two data points, possibly in the same sentence. So let's take a look at an example. The price of plane tickets and train tickets rose by 10% and 15% respectively. So when we do it like that, we've got our two different types of tickets our two percentages on and the first type of ticket. He's talking about the first percentage. The second ticket is the second percentage okay, and that's a very sophisticated, a very high level way of writing. And that's something that will really impress your reader. And another example, Marion and Geoff chose the red car onto the green car, respectively. So again, it's two people, two colors of cars on the word, respectively. On the last transitional word that we're going to look at is the word nevertheless. And what does this one mean? We use this one when we're going to continue with something, even though there is a strong reason or opposition, that's against us continuing, for example. She was very tired and that eyes were almost shut. Nevertheless, she kept working all through the night. Okay, so there is a strong reason why she would want to stop working. But she didn't listen to that reason. She kept going and worked all through the next. On one more. I'm sick of my major in university, but nevertheless, I intend to finish it on graduate successfully. So that is the last off the transitional words and phrases that we're going to be looking at in this course. I heard that you found this section useful. It's something that will really help your writing to become more logical, easier to read and understand and just in general, take you to a higher level of English. Right? Okay. See you in the next section. 12. The Passive Voice: in this video, we're going to talk about the passive voice. So first of all, the reason that we're doing this is that the passive voice is a great way to show some variety in your writing. And remember, variety is very important now. We don't want to be using the passive voice for every sentence. Just a few sentences in one piece of writing is absolutely fun. Let's find out what it is. I suppose so. First of all, let's look at two types of sentence. The first type is kind of the normal type of sentence. That's an active sentence. For example, I ate the birthday cake and then the passive is kind of when we switch things around and say the birthday cake was eaten by me. So the grammar of this is very important. Let's see how we can make it. First of all, we have the subject. So in our sentence, that's the birthday cake. Then we have to be, and then we have the past participle form of the verb, and then we can also include by and the person who did the thing or the things that I did the thing all right, now something to know is that the verb to be can change and will change depending on the tense, like what time this is happening and also the subject. So let's take a look at a couple of examples of how it could change. So, for example, they were destroyed. You are supported on it. Waas being fixed so all of those ones were on were being are different forms off the verb to be depending on the subject and also depending on the tents. So be very careful when you're making the passive voice. Something else that we have to be aware off is that the past participle form of the verb is not the same as the past. Simple. So, like I go, I went. It's the 3rd 1 It's the have done and it can be irregular. OK, so for example, above, we have our examples destroyed. Fixed on those are regular. It's just adding e d, but words like eaten words like known words like begun, those ones are irregular. It's not just adding an E d, and you're fine, so be careful when you are making this passive voice. Make sure you choose the past participle form of the verb check if it's regular. So let's take a look at a couple of different situations when we might want to use the passive voice. So first of all, when we don't know who did something, something was done, but we don't know who. So, for example, the diamonds were stolen. Andi, we don't know who did it. Okay, so we can't say that guy stole the diamonds. We just say the diamonds were stolen. The second situation is when we know who did it, but we don't want to say maybe we don't want that person to get into trouble. So the glass was broken, but now everything's OK. All right, so we're not going to say John broke the glass. Instead, we can say the glass was broken. We're not saying who, but now everything's OK on the situation. Number three is when the person who's doing this action isn't really important. So, for example, Australia is known for its many unusual animals. Eso who is doing the action here? I guess many people, many people around the world, but it's not really important, right? What's important is Australia that its famous and why it's famous. It's unusual animals on when we are doing formal writing situation three is usually the most common form that will use. So let's take a look at the challenge for today's video. So I'm going to give you these three active sentences. So these are like the normal ones. Your job is to turn these ones into passive sentences. Okay, so remember, you have to have the subject verb to be in some kind of fall past participle, and then maybe some more details as well have it right now. So let's take a look at some answers. First of all, China was protected by the Great Wall. Secondly, the work off Gabrielle got to see it in my case is respected all around the world. And then finally the house Waas being cleaned last shoes. All right, so that's a little introduction to the passive voice. Again, we don't want to make every sentence pass it. Just a couple of examples of the passive voice in one long essay is usually enough. All right, Sue in the next video 13. The Rule of Three: in this video, we're going to talk about the rule off three. So there's a saying in English, which is three is the magic number, Andi, whether it's magic or not, Not really sure. But this is something that we're very, very often used in English writing and in making speeches. And the idea is that we get a list off three things and make a sentence out of it and for some reason, some very deep reason. In our brains. We feel comfortable with lists of three things, and it's a very effective way of making your writing and your speaking more interesting, more attractive for people who are listening or reading. So vegetable, A few famous examples from America life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. There's three things there, Julius Caesar. I came. I saw I conquered Andi some slightly less high level ones, but still also very famous on. We have the three little picks, and they have the three houses Andi, also Goldilocks and the three Bears. Also there, three balls porridge. So this rule of three exists all over the place, from Children's stories right up to famous American political documents. So it's a really good rule on a skill for us to use. So how can we use the rule off? Three. Generally, how we can do it in formal writing on sometime, informal as well is to make sentences that have a list of three things. So, for example, on Sundays I usually watch TV. Call my parents Andi, order a pizza online. So we've got three things, and for some reason that sentence feels very attractive and very natural. As look at a few more examples, the next one there were increases in the price of corn oil and salt between 1919 50. So we've got that very short list there in the middle of the three things whose prices increased. Next one, when you come to visit Weaken, go to the Empire State Building, Times Square and Central Park. Three places that we can visit in New York. The last one. If we want to improve our performance, increase our profits and save this company way, have to make some big changes. All right, so we've got a slightly different order there. We've got the list towards start, but it's still a list of three, and it's still a very effective way of writing. Okay, So what I suggest that you do is next time you're doing some formal writing, try to include at least one list of three and see if that will improve your score a little bit. All right. See you in the next. 14. Formal vs Informal Language: in this video, we're going to take a look at the differences between formal and informal writing. So, first of all, what do formal and informal me so formal is something that's like a very serious situation . Writing a letter to your boss. Something like that on informal would be something like elected to your friends or maybe to your parents. Parents could be formal or informal. OK, so it's sometimes quite difficult to tell the difference between formal and informal writer . It's hard to know whether what you're writing is informal or not. Okay, so we're going to have a look at a few different rules that can help us. So the first rule is informal writing. We don't have any Phillips. So what are Phillips fillers? Are those words that we say that we kind of when we want to think of what we're going to say next? And we make like a meaningless word things like like well, you know, words like that those are fillers and that great for spoken English, but not for formal, written English or even for informal, written English when were writing in English. Don't right, Phyllis. So let's take a look at a very informal example. So I was going to like, tell him about it. But, you know, I just couldn't. So those underlined words there are the Phyllis on. We would absolutely never use them informal writing and almost never used them in informal writing. Maybe if you're sending a message to your friend on what sample we chat or something, you might use it then, but not in maybe a letter or an email. Okay, now let's take a look at what the for formal version of that could be. So the formal version. I was going to tell him about it, but I wasn't able to. So that's much, much more fall. Let's take a look at the next rule then. So the next rule is that informal writing. We don't use contractions now in informal writing. We actually do so if you write a letter to your friends, you can use contractions, but in a formal letter or essay, no contractions. But what are contractions? Contractions are when we shorten two words. Inte one. So, for example, words like hell she'd or he'd she's I'm All of those ones are two words that we have squashed we've contracted in tow. One word there. Great to say the great for informal writing, but not informal. Right on. We could also think about words like Gunnar wanna cause Ghada. All of those are also contractions. And so they're not good for formal. Right? Let's take a look at an informal example of a sentence so he'd wanna go. But he's gonna be busy with work, so you can see there's lots of contractions there. And then the formal version, he would want to go, but he will be busy with work. All right, So remember, Rule number two no contractions for formal right now, those 1st 2 rules are pretty easy to understand and to change. Rule of the three is a little bit more challenging. So generally informal English writing we're going to be using longer words on. We don't use slag. Okay. So, for example, if you are just a writing a letter to your friend, you might say, check out. I'm going to check out that new shop, but in a more formal situation, you would use a longer word. So maybe something like examine or investigate another example there, let me know that would be informal. The formal version would be informed me so in a sentence, I'm gonna check out the situation and I'll let you know what I find out So you can see that we're using those shorter words. And we've also got some contractions in there as well. So this one is definitely inform. The formal version is very formal version. I intend to investigate the situation and I will inform you about what I discover. So we've changed the contractions into the full words on, and we have changed some of those shorter, more spoken words it like, let me know and, like, check out into a longer, more formal, more written English tack of words. So this is definitely a more difficult rule to stop following on the other to a pretty easy right. This one. You need to be able to use a lot of higher level words if you want to write in very formal English in a really kind of high level and sophisticated way. Something else to remember is that our spoken English is not always the same as our written English. There are lots of differences, So a good tip if you want to improve your formal English vocabulary. To improve your writing is to read a lot of high level newspapers. Things like the New York Times, The Guardian, things like that. Andi, if you say, read an article every day, pick out some new high level formal vocabulary. Things like these formal writing activities will end up being much easier for you. Okay, See you in the next video. 15. Common Mistakes Video 1 Overview : Hello and welcome to this section in this section, we're going to be looking at common English writing mistakes. So there are lots off different mistakes that non Native speakers often make when they're writing essays or letters or emails or reports in English. Okay, on in the next few videos, we're going to be looking at a lot of those different common mistakes and showing you how you can avoid those mistakes. So for each mistake that we talk about, I want you to follow a process. And there are four steps. All right, so the first step is Watch the video and try to understand the mistake. Next, I want you to do the challenges. The practice exercises that I give you. Step Number three is when you're doing some writing by yourself. When you finished, read your writing again and watch out for this mistake and see if you made this mistake in your writing and then finally review these mistakes regularly every one or two months and that way, over time, you will retrain your brain and you'll never make these mistakes again. All right, so let's take a look at the first common writing mistake 16. Common Mistakes Video 2 Subject Verb Agreement: The first common writing mistake that we're going to talk about is subject verb agreement. So this one is an extremely common mistake. So many people make it all the time, and it's very easy one to miss when you're checking your writing. But first of all, what is it? Me? So subject is the person who is doing the action in a sentence. On the verb is the action. So, for example, in the sentence I eat ice cream. The subject is I on the verb. The action is eat Andi. The rule is that the subject and the verb have to agree with each other. So, for example, tell me if this sentence is correct, What do you think? So the sentences. I watches the television every day, correct or incorrect. This one, of course, is incorrect. It should be. I watch the television every day. The problem is that I subject and watches the verb. They didn't agree with each other. If we say I watch, they do agree. So it's correct. So let's quickly review the rule. So the rule is when we have a verb in the third person, singular in the present simple, tense then we have toe add on S an E s or an I e. S to the end of that. So a very simple example. Play I play, you play. He she it or someone's name like John plays and then all of the rest of them off play with no s. So it's a very easy one to remember. Okay. As the s when it's the third person singular a couple of other examples. Then he reads, she listens and it hurts. So, no, every verb is a simple as play. If we have verbs that end in certain letters like C H S S h and a few other ones, we add e s all right. So, for example, he watches So it's watch C h at e s. A couple of other examples we could see he misses, she does, and it buzzes. So all of those we have to add E. S. And another rule that we have to remember is when the verb ends in why we add i e. S okay. For example, try becomes tries on some other examples. Cries, marries and flies. All of those end in why? And so we change it to i e s when it's in the third person Singular. So that I have a question for you when in the present Simple tense in the third person Singular, Do we not? Adam s. So the answer is when we add motile verbs. Now, you might be thinking what a modal verbs, modal verbs are the ones like can should must and those other ones there. So, for example, way wouldn't say he can plays the violin. We would say he can play the violin. If we didn't have can, it would be He plays, But we can or we add should or must of will. And so that s disappears. We don't have the s if we have a motor over now, Another rule that we have to remember is if we're talking in the present perfect tense or the present perfect, continuous tense. And we're using the third person singular. So he she it what? Someone's name We change. Have Inter has. So, for example, he has eaten all of his food already, or Sarah has bean doing her homework all evening. It's not half it should be has on then, when we're using the present continuous tense. That's like I am doing. If it's in the third person, we change it to its So, for example, the dog is eating his food at the moment. So let's do a challenge. So I'm going to give you four sentences. You have to tell me. Are they correct or not? For example, I eat salad every day. Is it correct, or is this some kind of problem? Number two. She buys her clothes online, and then the last one is a little bit longer. Well, Dan often watches television in the evening. He usually have time to play with his. All right, so take a look at those four. Andi. If you think that correct, then that's fine. If you think they're incorrect, right? The correct version. Have a try now, so let's take a look at those answers. So the 1st 1 I eat salad every day. Of course, that one is wrong. It should be. I eat salad every day. I eat no best. The next one she buys her clothes online is correct. The next one you has been writing your book for two years is, of course, incorrect. It should be. You have because you is not the third person, so we don't change it. And then the last one is also incorrect. Of course it should be. He usually has time to play with his son. Okay, because it's he. Now, those longer ones are often a little bit more difficult. And you'll have to go back to kind of check who it is you're talking about. And check of those to connect. Do they agree with each other? The subject and the Okay, so it's a very simple problem, but many people make this mistake. I really want you to focus when you're writing on agreeing your subject and a verb when you finished writing, make sure you check it again. All right. See you in the next video. 17. Common Mistakes Video 3 Singular or Plural: in this video, we're going to take a look at something that's connected to subject verb agreement that we've just looked at in the last video. But it's a little bit of a complicated area on it, and it's all about singular versus plural. Okay, so there are certain words in English that you think should be more than one. They should be plural, but actually their single. So let's take a look at this example. So everyone have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. What's the problem there? Can you see it? So let me give you a little tip. So there, everyone, it feels like it should be more than one person, right? But actually in grammar, we think about it as one person. It's singular. So what should the correct version of this sentence be? The correct version should be. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. So that have becomes has because remember, if we're in the third person singular, it's he she, it or someone's name has Now. There are lots of words that have that same rule in English, so here are some of them eso I suggest that you take a look at this list very carefully. You can also find it in our additional materials. All of the ones in this list. In grammar, they are one. They are singular. All right, so be very careful when you're writing sentences with these words. So now we know the rules. Let's take a look at a few correct examples. All right, so one of the boys in the class wants to be a doctor when he grows up. So you might think the boys was more than one, right? But be careful. We're only talking about one of them, so it's one of them once, and one of them grows up. So we have to add. That s the next one. Is Is there anyone here who knows how to speak Japanese? So again, anyone might be lots of people who can speak Japanese. But we're looking for one person. So it's third person singular. And then the last one is a little bit more logical. I think nothing has bean done yet. You might. You might think that nothing is not even singular. It is like zero, but we definitely don't use it. as a plural. It's not more than in grammar. Nothing is also one thing. So in your challenge for this video, I'm going to give you some sentences again. You're going to decide if that correct or not. And if they're not correct, right? The correct version. So here are your three sentences. Have a try now. So let's take a look at the anuses. First of all, nobody want to leave the party so early. It includes lots of people, right? But we think about it as singular. So this one is incorrect? It should be. Nobody wants to leave the party so early the next one. None of the actors know what happened to the director. This is a tricky one. This one actually is correct. Because you might have noticed no one is not on the list that I gave you before. So non actually is floral. We think about it as more than one person, even in the ground. All right, so that one is third person plural. And then the last one, everything are for sale. I think this is a slightly easier one. This one should be. Everything is for sale now. Even though you know, everything is more than one thing, right? We still think about it as singular. We think about it like one thing in the grammar. All right, everyone. So hopefully that's quite clear. I suggest that you review that list very carefully. That list is your very good friend. It's going to help you avoid making this common writing mistake, and I'll see you for another writing mistake in the next video. 18. Common Mistakes Video 4 Sentence Fragments: in this video, we're going to talk about sentence fragments. So first of all, what is a fragment? A fragment is a piece of something that's broken. For example, if you have a cup and you're having to delicious coffee and you drop it on the cup goes all of those different pieces, we can call those fragments now. A sentence fragment is when we have a piece of a sentence and it's not complete. For example, when I was watching TV, so what? When I was watching TV. What? What happened? This one is not a complete sentence. All right, now, this usually happens when we're trying to make a complex sentence. You remember complex sentences, Remember, In a complex sentence, we have the independent clause which can stand by itself, and we have a dependent clause which has to be connected to an independent clause. It can't stand by itself. So very often a mistake happens when we leave a dependent clause by itself. Just like in this example, when I was watching the TV, that is a dependent cause it has to be connected to be correct. So remember the easy way to kind of figure out if something is a dependent clause or not, is if it has one of those words. Although while when? If things like that And if it does have one, that usually means that it's dependent on it has to be connected. All right, so let's take a look at some correct examples. So while she was talking, I took notes. So which one of those is dependent? Which is independent? The independent one is the underlined one. I took notes. If we just said while she was talking full stop, that would be a sentence fragment. It would be wrong. Another one. Although I was impressed by his performance, I don't like him as a person. Okay, so the dependent part. Although I was impressed by his performance, How do we know it has that word? All that. So I'm gonna give you a challenge. And in this challenge, you're going to get three sentence fragments. So remember those are the ones that are dependent clauses. What I want you to do is turn them into fully correct sentences on ideally complex sentences. OK, so here are your three. Turn them into full sentences. Have it right now. So let's take a look at some answers. So first of all, I kept looking at my phone while I was driving. Very dangerous. All right, so with added the three independent clause at the start of the sentence the next one as you know so much about the topic, Comma, why don't you give a presentation next week? So in this in this situation we have put the independent clause after we put it in the second half a percent. And in the last one, I weighed about 10 kilograms mawr before the start of this year s. So I've done very well. I've lost 10 kilograms this year. So everyone, those are sentence fragments. Remember to be very careful when you're making complex sentences. Don't leave those fragments. They're very easy for a native speaker to see and to feel very confused by. All right. Good luck with your writing. See you in the next video. 19. Common Mistakes Video 5 Use of Commas: in this video, we're going to talk about the ways that we can use commas correctly and also some mistakes that people make with comments. So this is one off the most common writing mistakes that people make. So we're gonna look at three different rules that we have to remember when we're using commerce in our writing. Now, the 1st 1 rule number one is common spices. So that is when we connect to independent clauses only with a comma. So, for example, the boy was happy comma. He had found his toy. So both of those are independent clauses. So if we want to connect them, we have to do more than just putting a comma. So if the sentence the boy was happy comma he had found his toy is incorrect, what could be a corrected version? We have a few different choices. Let's take a look at the 1st 1 The boy was happy because he had found his toy. Okay, so that's turned it into a complex sentence, and that's fine. The other way is to replace that comma with a full stop and make two simple sentences. Both of these air fine. Remember variety is good when you're writing. You don't want everything to be a simple sentence. But you also don't want everything to be a complex sentence so you can use both of these options. So here's your first challenge for today's video. First of three challenges. I'm going to give you two incorrect sentences. You have to run them in a correct way. Here you are to have a try now, so let's take a look at some answers. First of all, there is a storm coming comma, so we should go home. All right, so we've turned that one into a complex sentence and then the next one since he always has other dogs to play with Comma, my dog is very happy. So that time we put the dependent clause at the start. So we using variety when we're making a sentence. The next rule we're going to look at is about when we have dependent causes in the middle off an independent clause. Alright on. If that's the case, usually we're going to have a common before and a comma after. But remember what we already talked about? If that information in the dependent clause is really important, then we don't need comments. We only have the Commons when the information is not to import. So let's take a look at an example. Our example could be I like dogs, especially big ones on. My mom says I can get one next year. That's incorrect. Where should we put our commerce? The Commons should be before the especially big ones. All right, so if imagine if we take that information away, the sentence is still the same, right? I still pretty much means the same thing. So we just need to add those commerce before and after that dependent close in the middle of our sentence. But of course, remember like with mentioned, If that information inside off the dependent clause is really important, then we don't need comments. For example, the horse that my mother just bought has a bad leg. So we can imagine that that my mother has maybe three or four horses, and if we just say the horse has a bad leg, we don't know which one. So the important information is that my mother just bought It's a new horse. All right, so no comments. So your challenge, you're going to look a two sentences. Here they are, and you're going to decide whether or not those sentences are correct or not. If they're not correct, right? The correct version. Have a China. Let's take a look at the answers. So first of all, the car which caused the accident was red. If we take away that accident part, we're just saying the car was red, so that accident part is very important information. So that sentence was actually correct. We don't need comments, but the other one when we're talking about some kind of detail like lovely blonde hair, it's nice to know, but it's not really important. So we're adding comments. Last rule that we're going to look out is about commerce in complex sentences. So when the complex sentence starts with the dependent clause and then the independent close comes after we divide them with a common. So let's take a look at an example. Even though they fought hard comma, they still lost the back. So, to be clear, the first half there, even though we know it's one of those words that makes a dependent clause and then the second half they still lost. The battle is independent, so the dependent is first. We separate them with a common and in the correct example, since I'm already here, comma, I will stay for dinner since is one of those words that makes dependent clauses. So we know that we have to add that common. So your challenge. I'm going to give you another three sentences, and you're going to decide whether or not they are correct. All right, If they're not correct, you know what to do. You have to write the correct version, have a China. So let's take a look at the answers. The 1st 1 is actually correct. My month, who is 62 years old, loves action movies so that middle part, it's extra information. But it's not really important. So that one correct the next one. Her favorite actor, an American called Tom Hanks, is from the same town as her is, of course, incorrect because we are missing those comments. So inside the Commons, the dependent clothes should be on American called Tom Hanks and then the last one at rather rude of my mother. She thinks he is fat. He should lose weight. It feels correct, doesn't it? But it's not. There's a number of ways that we could make this one correct. His one of them. We can add so and turn it into a complex sentence. All like we saw before we could make this two simple sentences or a different type of complex sentence. Remember, Variety is very important are at everyone. See you in the next video. 20. Common Mistakes Video 6 Parallel Structure: in this video, we're going to talk about a common mistake which is related to parallel structure. So let's find out what parallel structure is. Basically, it's when you have a longer sentence on in that sentence, you have to use the same style of the same form of verb all the way through. So let's see an incorrect example. We could say something like, I like to watch television, eat burgers and playing computer games. So what's the problem that So the problem is the our verbs don't match. We have two verbs with no i N g and one verb with I N G. So the rule is when we have this kind of list sentence with several verbs, they all need to match each other. They all need to be the same style. So we have a couple of different ways that we could say this. So let's take a look. We could say I like to watch television, eat burgers and play computer games. Or we could say I like watching television, eating burgers and playing computer games. In both of those correct examples, all three of the verbs match, so let's take a look at another incorrect example. So we could say his biggest fears are touching spiders, heights and catching diseases. So what's the problem again? The problem is that we're not matching the style. So we have got verbs for catching diseases, captures a verb. We also have the verb for touching spiders. But heights doesn't have avert, so that list of three actions doesn't match. So let's take a look at what the correct options could be. First of all, you could say his biggest fears are spiders, heights on diseases. So in that situation, we've just had got three now owns, and we've completely got rid off the verbs. We don't have any verbs there. Another option could be that he is afraid off touching spiders being in high places. So we've included the verge on catching diseases. So again, this time all three of the match all this one other option, which is changing the meaning a little bit. We could say he is afraid of touching spiders, snakes and crocodiles because in all three of those, he's afraid of touching. Okay, so the verb way only need to have it one time, and it still makes its let's take a look at another incorrect example. So we could say, I want you to walk quickly, quietly and with a big smile on your face. All right, so it's pretty obvious. The difference there, Right? The 1st 2 are single adverbs. So the end in L why they are adverbs and then the rest of it is an adverb beall phrase so they don't match each other. So what are some correct ways? We could say that first of all, the simple way, and I think the better way is I want you to walk quickly, quietly and happily. We could also say something a little bit longer, like, I want you to walk with urgency without making a sound and with a big smile on your face. So in that second example, they all match. But it's a little bit too long, I think so. If you have to choose, I would choose the first. So let's take a look at another one. So something like, I hope that you stay here that you find happiness. Andi enjoy life. So this one is not quite as obvious. But the problem is that the 1st 2 we've used that you and then a verb. And then the final one enjoy life. We didn't use that. You okay, so again, they don't match. So a couple of correct ways that we could say this one. First of all, we could take away the second that you So we could say, I hope that you stay here, find happiness and enjoy life. All right. So in that situation, the first that you is talking about all three verbs, the other option is that we add another that you I hope that you stay here, that you find happiness and that you enjoy life. Okay, Either one of those is perfectly correct. So your challenge for this video, I'm going to give you a schedule of three things that you have to do in one Monday morning , and you're going to turn that schedule into a sentence. But what I want you to do is challenge yourself turning into two different types of sentences. All right, so you've got three things that you have to do in your schedule. I want one sentence that explains the scheduling in one style. On another sentence. That explains the whole schedule. But using another style, all right on. This will be very good to practice your variety in your language. All right, have a China. So let's take a look at a couple of the answers there. So the first option is a simpler option. On Monday morning, I will speak to the sales team, my husband and Sarah very simple on all of those match. They're all talking about speak and then a second option, which is quite a bit more complicated. On Monday morning, I will listen to a report from the sales team called My Husband about my daughter's grades . School. Andi, discuss new product ideas with Sarah. Okay, so you can see that all of those have the same style. They all have a verb phrase, all right, and there's no i N g here and no I N g that they all match each other. So everyone that is parallel structure, and it's particularly important when you're making longer sentences. There's kind of list sentences where you're talking about several things that you're going to do or several things that you like. Situations like that. Okay, see you in the next video 21. Common Mistakes Video 7 It's vs Its: in this video, we're going to be looking at a very common spelling mistake, which is a difference between its with no apostrophe Andi. It's with an apostrophe, so let's take a look. Usually, this spelling mistake comes because either you've just not checked your writing or you don't understand the grammar completely. So let's take a look is actually pretty simple. So it's with an apostrophe is short, for it is or it has plus a verb. So an example. It's great to meet you, which is it is great to meet you. So we take it is what put them together and use apostrophes. Or if we using it has. It's being great to spend this time with you, and that's short for it. Has Bean great to spend this time with you now the other, its with no apostrophe is when we're talking about the possession of something. So what do I mean? For example, the dog found it's ball in the God, so it's just like saying my ball, your ball, his ball, herbal. It's OK, so it's a pretty clear difference. You just have to think about which type of its you're using when you're writing your sentence and make sure you either add the apostrophe or take away the apostrophe. So I'm going to give you a challenge. I'm gonna give you three sentences on each of the sentences, has one or both off those types of its, and you have to decide if those sentences are correct. If they're not right. The correct version Here are your three sentences. Look at them carefully. Have a try now, so let's take a look at some answers. So the 1st 1 that is almost correct. There's three. It's on. The 1st 1 on the last one are actually correct. But it's just that middle one because it's talking about possession. So we shouldn't have had that apostrophe. It's correct. With no apostrophe the next one. It's time for its dinner on What do we mean by that, for example, were saying that it's time for the dogs did. It's time for its dinner is incorrect because we actually switched them around. So the 1st 1 it should be it is it is time, okay? And then it's dinner is the dog's dinner. So that's the possession one so that one shouldn't have the apostrophe and then the last one is actually correct. It's already arrived, so we should get up. Which type of its is that? That one is the it has. It has already arrived. The verb is arrived. So we should get on. We could think that this is talking about a train or a bus or something. Okay, everyone. So that is the difference between its and it's. It's sort of an annoying one, but it's a very important one. So make sure when you're next writing something in English and you use that word, it's double check and see if you use the right one. Okay, See you in the next video. 22. Common Mistakes Video 8 Use of Referencing: in this video, we're going to take a look at the use off, referencing on some mistakes that can happen when we use referencing. So first of all, what is referencing there are actually two meanings of referencing. The 1st 1 is like when you're writing an essay and you say something like Einstein said that blah, blah blah or William Shakespeare wrote, etcetera. We're not really interested in that kind of referencing here. We're interested in another kind of referencing, which is when in your first sentence, you talk about someone or something, and then in the next sentence or the next sentence, you refer back to the person in that first sentence. And if that's not clear, don't worry. We'll see an example in a minute. But the key is that we're using pronouns to refer back. So what are pronouns? Pronouns are things like he and him on her. She, they them works like that. Let's take a look at a correct example. So we could say John is a great dad. He always plays with his son on. He picks him up from school every day. So he was a great that theme. The pronouns that we've got that are that he and the heat and we've used them very clearly , so that we know that we're always talking about John. We're always talking about the dad said. That sentence, the meaning is clear. But in the next page we're going to see some examples where maybe not so clear. So let's take a look at a couple of off. Incorrect examples. First of all, a simple one. The dog and the cat were looking for its ball at another one, a little more complicated. John and Peter are good friends. He always helps him finish his homework and invites him over to his house. So what's the problem there? What's happening? So the problem is that these sentences are not clear. We don't know who we're talking about. So who does the ball belong to? Is it the dog's bowl, or is it the passport Onda, who is helping who whose house are they going to? It's very unclear because we're not used pronouns in a good way. So how can we correct those two sentences that we saw? So we have to b'more specific. The sentences are not clear, but if we're more specific we can make them clear. All right. So, for example, the dog and the cat, we're looking for the dogs ball. So not just its for its could be cats. It could be the dogs. But if we say specifically that dogs full no confusion, very, very clear. And then the other one, John and Peter, are good friends. John always helped Peter with his homework. Onda invites Peter over to his house, so we've used some pronounce and some names. Andi, it's a good balance now that we have. It's easy to understand the sentence, but we're not saying the names again and again and again because that would be a little strange. Boring. But we're not making our reader very confused by saying him his him, his all the time. We've got a good balance, and now the sentence is clear via challenge. I'm going to give you two sentences that have referencing problems, and you're going to correct them so that they're very easy to understand. OK, but remember, we don't always have to replace all of the pronounce. It's good to try to find a balance, have a China, so let's take a look at some anuses. So the 1st 1 we could say something like, Thanks Sarah and Jessica for coming. Send them home and tell Jessica that she has got the job. So now it's clear who was successful in, Let's Say, this Job interview. And then the 2nd 1 Harry and Barry both wrote great essays, and Harry's arguments about the causes of the war were particularly interesting. Okay, so now it's clear again who were talking about So everyone that is referencing It's something that is quite a high level skill on. It's a very good way off, creating some variety on, making your language seem quite sophisticated when you're right. All right, so be careful of your use of referencing when you next write in English. See you in the next video. 23. Common Mistakes Video 9 Order of Adjectives: in this video, we're going to look at the correct order that we should use objectives when we're using more than one objective to describe something. Okay, so there is a clear order that we have to follow. First of all, I want you to take a look at this sentence. Now, By the way, rock Violet is a type of dark, very big dog. Okay, but what's the problem with this sentence? Can you see What's the problem that we have? The problem is that the objectives in this sentence are in the wrong order. Okay, so let's take a look at what the correct version should be. What do you think? Can you guess what it could be? So the correct version would be there are two big black rock violet dogs in the street. OK, so let's find out what the correct objective order should be. So we always know which order we should put our objectives. So let's take a look at the order. So there is the order. Now. That's a lot of information before we look at that. One thing that you have to remember is that we don't usually include more than three objectives to describe one now, One thing. Usually we have one or two or three, but more than three feels a little bit awkward. It's a little bit too much. So what I suggest that you do is pause the video. Now take a look at that list of 10. Number one is the one that we would put first in. Our sentence on number 10 is the one that would be right next to the now. Okay, so pause the video, have a look through those and then we'll move on and see if you can use those to make your own sentences. So let's take a look at a couple of correct examples first, So the 1st 1 is five. Terrifying black and white killer whales attacked the boat. So here is the order of the types of adjectives that we've used at five is quantity. Terrifying is quality than we have the color, and you might also say that killer as part of killer whales is the type of whale. But some people would say that that's the name of the whale, so that when we're not sure about, but at least we've got those 1st 3 in the right order. Let's take a look at another one. Belong dark. Alaskan winter can be damaging to people's mental health. That's true, apparently. So what type of adjectives do we have? We have long, which is the shape we have dark, which is kind of like the color. And we have Alaskan, and that's the origin. It's where the that type of winter comes from, okay? And we have them all in the right Ford. So your challenge for this video, I'm going to give you three sets of objectives plus a noun, and your job is to organize those objectives to make a correct sentence. Okay, so altogether three sentences in the right order have a trainer, So let's take a look at what the answers could be. First of all, the huge, angry Roman army attacked the city. Secondly, I've just ordered 15 delicious extra large pepperoni pizzas online, and in the last one, a thief stole that big, expensive pink diamond. All right, so what I suggest that you do is keep that list off the order of the objectives. Andi, try to make your own sentences using different connections of the different types of objectives also keep a reference off it. For when you're writing an essay or a letter or something like that, you could always go and look at it again. If you're not sure which order, things should begin. Okay. See you next video. 24. Common Mistakes Video 10 When to Capitalize: and this video, we're going to take a look at some mistakes that happened when we using capital letters. All right, so let's take a look at the first rule. So the first rule is that we use capitals in the first letter of every sentence is a very simple one. We probably already know it, but sometimes it's easy to forget. Let's take a look at an example. He really likes Jenny. She is a great person. That one, of course, is missing the Capitals. And it should be like this. The next one is. We use capitals when we are writing proper now. So what are Prop announce? That's things like at the names, people off brands or like famous specific places like the name of a city. It's also things like songs, movies, books, the names of those things. Andi. It's the names of days of the week, months, famous holidays, events, things like Christmas, but not seasons. That's a mistake that many people make. So, for example, spring is not with a capital. It's a lower case s Let's take a look at an incorrect example, So we could say I really like Jenny. She is a great person, and so are her friends, Helen and Bob. They all live in New York. So which one's there? Should be capitalized. Let's have a look. His the correct version. So all of the names of the people should be capitalized. Also the name of New York. Because that is a famous and specific place. The next rule is related to quotation marks when we're quoting somebody, So the rule is that the first letter inside the quotation marks should be capitalized. So let's take a look. At an example, President Roosevelt famously said, The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. But this one is not correct. Why not? Because that the needs to be capitalized. It's the 1st 1 inside the quote, so that word needs to start with a capital letter. The next rule is about cities and countries and languages and nationalities. All of those should have a capital letter. Let's take a look and incorrect example. So I studied French when I was in school, but I've never visited France. Can you spot the problem there? The problem is with the words French and France. Both of those should have capital letters. OK, now there is. There are many more rules about capitals. These are just some of the most important ones on. You can check out this link if you want. Teoh, study this in a little bit. More debts. You can also find this link in our additional materials challenge in this video. Take a look at this. This is a short paragraph. Andi. I've taken away a lot of the capital letters. So your job is to read this paragraph and figure out. Where should we be? Adding capital. Latin's. Okay, Have a try now. So let's take a look at the answers there. So the 1st 1 I really loved my trip to San Francisco. A city to visit Neal and Natalie. People's names. The next one, we saw the Golden Gate Bridge on the famous Alcatraz Island. So there's a specific places. Andi, I practiced speaking English language with some Americans on nationality, the next one. What's more, Natalie said to me, Come back any time. I think I will go back there sometime soon so you can see what Natalie said. We put it in quotation marks so that one also needs to start with a capital. So when you're writing, you need to make sure that you re read when you finished on and have a little look. Have you used capitals in all of the right places? All right. See, in the next year. 25. Common Mistakes Video 11 Use of Prepositions: in this video, we're going to talk about propositions. So what are propositions? Propositions are those little words that connects all of the bigger ideas in your sentence . Words like for in on at things like that. Okay, so people make many mistakes with these. The 1st 1 we're going to look at is in or at for times of the day. So what I want you to do is look at these four sentences, see if you can see which one is wrong. Have a quick look. Which one do you think the wrong one is? The last one? We don't say in the night. We say at night. The rest of them are correct in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, but instead in the night, it should be at night. The next room we're going to look at is related to days, months, years and things like that. So which propositions should we be using? First of all, if it's the time we say at at 9 a.m. Day is on on Tuesday, and also on is the date. So on the 10th of February, and then if we're talking about months or about years. We say in in January in 2030. Now, one other thing to know is if we're talking with next or last, we don't need to use the proposition. So, for example, here we're not saying next on Tuesday were just saying next Tuesday, The next one we're going to look at is a very common one. It's four or since. Okay, now, this is usually with the present Perfect tense. That's like I have done something. I have eaten something. I have finished something. Okay, so let's see. How we should use for four is for a length of time. All right. So for example, I have lived in Japan for two years, so I started living in Japan two years ago. On that time has gone on. And now I have been living in Japan for two years. That's the length of time on then we could also say it for a shorter period of time. He has bean in his bedroom for three hours. Okay, so again, we're talking about the length of time, and we use that word fourth in that situation. Then, on the other hand, since is when we're starting from a point in time in the past. Okay, So, for example, I have known John since I was 10 years old. So we think back to when I was 10 years old. That's when me knowing John started. I met him then, and I've known him since then. Okay, Another example. He has worked there since he graduated from university. So the point in time went him working there started was when he graduated from university. So remember, four is a period of time. It's how much time and since is when something started. The next one is married with or married to. Now. This is very common, but actually is very simple. The rulers, we never say married with someone. So, for example, here's a correct one. He is married to Julia Roberts. Or we could say she has been married to her husband for 20 years. Again, we're seeing that four for how long they have been married. And when we're talking about married, we have some other correct possibilities that don't need a proposition. So very simply, they are married. They have bean married since 2015 or they will get married next year. So for each of those was starting by talking about both of them. Not just he gets married to her was saying they all right, and in that situation, no proposition needed. The next one is also very common. Andi, that is asked to someone or answer to somewhere. Now what's the rule? The rule is that we never say ask to someone or answer to someone he should say, Ask someone or answer somewhat. But there is a little bit more complication that because we can say something like Ask someone to do something, Ask him to help you things like that and that's okay. But we never put ask, too and someone together like that. Let's take a look at a couple of correct examples. The 1st 1 I asked John for some money, but he said no. The next one. I asked Peter if he wanted to play, but he didn't answer me. So it's not. He didn't answer to me. It's just answer me. And then the last one, I asked Sarah to help me finished my homework, so look carefully at that one. That one does have to. But remember, it's after the person that we are asking. It's no I ask to Sarah to help me. It's just I asked Sarah to help me. So for your challenge, I'm going to give you five sentences and you have to find the proposition mistakes and correct them. All right, have a trying. So let's take a look at those answers. First of all, I have been married to my wife for 10 years, or at the next one we got married on the 31st off March in 2020 or more commonly would actually say the 31st of March 2020 when we're saying the full complete dates, including the day, month and year. We can often take away that in about the year. The next one our wedding was at night on. I asked her to marry me at the top of a mountain, so we're getting rid of that. Asked to her, and then the last one, she answered me straight away. Straightaway means immediately. Okay, and remember, it's not answered to me. We delete that to okay, so those are just some off the common proposition mistakes that people make when they're writing English. You can find lots more online, but I really suggest that you review those ones very carefully because they are very common and very easy for a native speaker to see. All right, I'll see you next video. 26. Course Conclusion Skillshare: So you've done it. You have finished the last minutes. English formal writing course. Very well done. So what? I suggest that you do now you finish the course, but you have access forever. So please come back and review these videos regularly. Make sure that you don't forget any of those things that you've learned. Okay, but good German finishing So just as a reminder here some of the things that you've learned in the last couple of hours of studying. So you have learned about complex sentences formal versus informal writing, transitional words and phrases as well as all of those common writing the stakes and the passive voice, the rule of three, all kinds of different things. You've done very well to get through all of those on. And what I really suggest, if you want to take your writing to the next level, is to regularly read high level newspaper articles, things like the Guardian, The New York Times, things like that. And you can practice your writing by summarising making a summary off what you've read. Put it in your own words. On that way, you'll be able to really take your writing higher and higher and higher