English Language and Grammar - Tenses and Aspects | Derek Smith | Skillshare

English Language and Grammar - Tenses and Aspects

Derek Smith, Experienced and qualified teacher

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14 Lessons (56m)
    • 1. Tenses intro

      1:58
    • 2. Simple present

      4:34
    • 3. Present continuous

      4:44
    • 4. Present perfect

      3:58
    • 5. Present perfect continuous

      4:14
    • 6. Past simple

      4:48
    • 7. Past continuous

      4:29
    • 8. Past perfect

      3:04
    • 9. Past perfect continuous

      3:02
    • 10. Future simple

      5:26
    • 11. Future continuous

      3:52
    • 12. Future perfect

      3:52
    • 13. Future perfect continuous

      3:01
    • 14. Reported speech

      5:10

About This Class

Learn all about tenses and aspects. Each lesson looks at once tense/aspect combination, showing how to form it, when to use it and plenty of examples.

We also cover reported speech.

Transcripts

1. Tenses intro: this section is on aspects and tenses on. We have three tenses past, present, future and we have four aspect, namely simple, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous. And when we combine each of these aspects and apply them to each of the tenses, we end up with 12 tense aspect combinations, which we called tenses as well, really, just for lack of a better word if we're honest and these tenses and aspects are very important when we're writing, because we'd never use just the same one tens all the time, we mix it up a lot, and it's very natural to do this. I'll give an example. If you're, say, introducing a colleague, you might say something like this. This is Mike. He finished his marketing degree two years ago and has been working with us since then. So in this very short one or two centers introduction we have This is Mike present? Simple. He finished his degree two years ago past simple and has been working here ever since. Present. Perfect, continuous, and it sounds very natural. There's nothing strange about this introduction, Andi. I would really say it's It's almost to say that it would sound strange if you didn't mix it up of these 12 lessons. Ah, one freak aspect. Intense combination on day. Look at when you would use it. We show you how it's formed on this plenty of example, so you can see how it's used in a real situation. If you do have any questions or anything is unclear, please use a Q and A, and you will get your answer. 2. Simple present: This is the lecturer on the present Simple tents present simple is usually the first tense that has learned, but it does not mean that is only used in simple situations. President Simple has many uses, even in advanced language. Strangely, this is not used for describing actions that are happening right now. For that, we need the present continuous present. Simple is used for habits, repeated actions, unchanging situations, instructions, general truths and fixed arrangements. So how do we form the simple present? We have four options in the positive case, the subject plus conjugated verb. And as an example, I like ice cream. I lie. I is a subject, like is how to Life is conjugated for first person singular. And so yet I like ice cream. Negative statement. We need the help of Herb to do so. Subject placid do or does not, plus infinitive without, too. So we don't like ice cream, which is the abbreviated form of we do not like ice cream on like is the infinitive without too, as a question do or does the subject plus infinitive without, too. So does she like ice cream? That is a negative question. Do or does not plus subject plus infinitive without, too. Doesn't he like ice cream? Some look at some examples for habits. I drink coffee at breakfast, so every day I have a cup of coffee with my great first. I smoke cigarettes, presumably again to habits for repeated actions. Every year we go on holiday to Spain. Where we go is the present simple part. I get the bus to work every day I get is the present simple part and for unchanging situations. He works in Washington. That's his permanent job, not a temporary situation. They speak fluent French by. They're not gonna suddenly forget how to speak. Frankly, it's an unchanging situation, and they speak. Is this present simple part for instructions? If somebody is asking the way, some way, consider what go to the end of the road and then you turn right. So you has comes up twice the present simple Ugo, and then you turn, or what you might typically see on the back of a packet of foodstuffs. Pour the contents into cold water and stir for two minutes. There's no subject here cause they're using the sort of command or imperative form, and it's pour the contents of poor is the verb and stir is the verb both present simple for general truths and also zero condition. Als weaken Say the earth goes around the sun. My goes is the Ferb. It's a general truth on for zero condition. ALS, we can say If you heat ice, it's melts, you heat on it. Melts are the present simple parts and lastly, fixed arrangements. The exam starts of 1400 so 20 clock in the afternoon the exam starts. This is known in advance and it's a fixed arrangement or we leave tomorrow at six o'clock again. The arrangement is known in advance on We are saying that a six oclock tomorrow we will leave. 3. Present continuous: this lecture is all about the present continuous tense present. Continuous is also known as the present progressive and is often used to describe things that are happening right now and for this reason, verbs that refer to emotions and desires that usually have a progressive form. So, for instance, fear love, hate because if you if you fear something, you don't just fear it now you fear that yesterday in last week and last year and you're probably fear it tomorrow as well. So for these things that are generally true, we would use the present simple on. Many students actually find the continuous aspects to be the most difficult ones, because their native language will always have a continuous form. So the president continuous is used for an action that is happening right now for temporary situations, for future planned events, for describing annoying habits and for describing trends. And we formed the present continuous in the positive case with the subject, plus a conjugated form of to be for that subject, plus the base verb. Plus I envy. So to give an example, I am eating ice cream, so if we break that down, the subject is I conjugated part of to be for that subject is M The verb we're talking about is to eat so you take the verb plus I in dream you're eating and something object wise ice cream. So I say I am eating ice cream. In the native case, it's similar we have subject as conjugated to B plus, not plus verb, plus I n g. So we aren't eating ice cream. So subject is we. The conjugated verb of to be is our then add not we contracted are not too aren't you're eating ice cream. If we take the question form, we have the conjugated to B plus subject plus verb plus thing. So is she eating ice cream? And lastly, as a negative question conjugated to B plus subject plus not plus verb plus ing. So isn't he eating ice cream? Some examples for an action that is happening right now, you are learning about the present continuous good example that I am using the Internet or for temporary situations. He is working on a building site. If we compare this with a simple present, um, he works on a building site that would be his normal job but he is working on a building site implies that it's something temporary. Well, it is raining. Oh, and this raining, you know, temporary. We hope it'll stop soon or for future planned events. We're going on holiday next week. So the holiday is being planned. It's in the future. We are going or I'm leaving early today. So you were at work and you're telling a colleague or your boss that you're going home early. You've planned this. I am going early today or for describing annoying habits, eyes always forgetting his phone. You're constantly complaining about my family, and you notice that words I always and constantly often appear in this type of sentence. Oh, for describing trends many people are becoming vegetarian on. Lastly, heavy metal is making a comeback. 4. Present perfect: This is the lecture on the present perfect tense. The present perfect is used to link the present to the past, so an action was performed in the past. The exact time is not important and usually not specified, and the action is not as important as the results of the action. So we use the present perfect for finished actions, with a result in the present or finished actions during a person's lifetime or finished actions in the continuing period of time or finished actions that happened recently. We also using for unfinished actions that continued into the present and for past actions that occurred multiple times. Present Perfect is formed as follows. The positive sentences subject has Havel has that's past participle example. I have eaten ice cream, the negative case subject plus half, or has not plus past participle. We haven't eaten ice cream as a question have all has plus subject plus past participle. Has she eats and ice cream? It was a negative question. Have all has not plus subject plus past participle. Hasn't he eat an ice cream? We look at some examples, so for finished actions, with the result in the present, I've lost my keys, and the result is so now why I can't get in my house. She has missed the train, but the result being so now she will be late. Whole finished actions during a person's lifetime. I've never been to Portugal, but I can still go there. He has seen that film already, but you could watch it again. And for these is worth pointing out that the person still has to be alive or finished actions in a continuing period of time. So she has changed jobs twice this year, but the year hasn't finished so she could change again. I haven't seen Bob today while the day hasn't finished, so I might see him later. Well finished actions that happened recently The president has announced new tax reforms. I've just seen Susie or unfinished actions that continue into the present. I've known Peter since we were Children, and I still know him now. Well, he has lived in Manchester for five years, and he still does, or for past actions that occurred multiple times. I have seen that film 10 times. We have bean to that pub many times 5. Present perfect continuous: this lecture was on the present. Perfect, continuous. The present perfect continuous is a combination of the present perfect on the present continuous. And it focuses on the action itself rather than the results of the action. Andi, if you compare this with the present perfect which focuses more on the results tojust very quick example the present perfect continuous is I've been reading the book you suggested on the present. Perfect is I've read the book you suggested. Now if we talking about focusing on the action, I've bean reading the book. You suggested it sort of means I haven't finished it yet. I'm enjoying it. The reading is the thing that's important. Thank you for giving to me. I'm enjoying. I'm still reading it. And the present perfect focuses more on the results that I've read the book you suggested. So I finished it. Now now we can talk about it now that is clear. The present perfect is used for unfinished action that are still happening in the present temporary situations or habits, actions that have recently finished with relevant results For us now, formation of the present perfect continuous is in the positive case subject plus Havel has plus Bean plus verb plus thing. So I have bean eating ice cream. So subject is I. I take have not has bean on then eat is the verb plus i n G. So I've bean eating ice cream in a negative one. Similar to above after have has we had or not? So we haven't bean eating ice cream as a question have all has plus subject plus bean plus verb plus ing Has she bean eating ice cream? There's a negative question similar to the question, but after have or has we haven't not so the example, hasn't he bean eating ice cream? Let's look at some examples unfinished actions that are still happening in the present. I've been living here for three years and I still live here now. I've been waiting for two hours. I'm still waiting now. In both of these, we could have used the present Perfect on the first example would be I've lived here for three years, Onda. We can sort of almost into change the to. In this particular example, the meaning is is almost the same. In the second case, we would have said I have waited for two hours, and by using the perfect continuous form, it's sort of emphasizing the waiting for temporary situations or habits. So I've bean jogging a lot recently, which is something I don't normally do. If it was something I did normally do would say present simple, I joke, or I've been reading that book. You suggested I haven't quite finished it, or for actions that have recently finished with relevant results now. So it's been raining, which is why I'm wet or I've been studying late this week, which is why I'm tired. 6. Past simple: this lecture is on the past. Simple. The past Simple is the basic form of the past tense in English, past, simple or simple past. That the same thing past simple often uses finished time words such as last week, two days ago yesterday. Those sort of things, and it doesn't really matter how long ago things happened. The duration is also not important on the simple past might look like a tense in your native language, but be warned that the usage could well be different. We used a simple past in English for completed actions that happened previously or completed states that happened previously or completed feelings that happened previously for news details for unlikely or impossible situations where we use the second conditional on for reported speech, we formed the past simple as follows for positive cases because the subject and the verb Anat E. D. This is the regular case, as in, I liked ice cream. But please be aware there are many, many irregular past forms. The negative case We need a helper verb, so subject plus did not plus infinitive without too. So we didn't like ice cream as a question. We also need the help of Herb to do did plus subject plus infinitive without too, as in, Did She Like Ice Cream? Was a negative question. Did not plus subject plus infinitive without too, as it didn't he like ice cream. Some examples off completed actions that happened earlier. I watched the film. Yesterday. The Romans invaded Britain. Now you'll notice the first example has the word yesterday in it, as we mentioned at the start. But the second example doesn't. And this is because events or actions that happened in history that a well known about don't need to be referenced with the time frame or completed states that happened earlier. Her dog died last year, or for certainly happier one. Their second child was born last week or completed feelings that happened earlier. He never wanted Children when he was a teenager. As a child, she wanted to be a ballet dancer again. Those last two. We have a time reference for news details so we can say we've been visiting family. We stayed with my sister and uncle. Well, I've just come back from a great holiday. I went to Rome and Venice for the detail. Part is in the second sentence of each of these examples, We just use the past simple to flesh out the details of what we've just said. We also use the past simple to form the second conditional. This is used for unlikely or impossible situations. For example, if it wasn't raining, we will be playing outside while it is raining, so we're inside. If I had more time, I would do more sport. Well, I don't have more time on. That's my excuse. We'll see. Is the past simple for reported speech? Now, if you remember in reported speech, we always go back one tense from what the person said when we reported. So if somebody said I like pizza when we reported, we would say she said she liked pizza or if somebody says I play cricket when we report this, we say. He said he played cricket 7. Past continuous: this lecture is on the past continuous tense. The past continuous expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past. In the past, continuous is also known as the past progressive on verbs that refer to emotions or desires . Don't usually take the continuous form. Things like fear, love, hate, etcetera. If you fear something, you always fear it, so you use. You wouldn't use a continuous form for that. Andi, please bear in mind that your native language may not have a continuous form. The past continuous is used for incomplete actions that happened earlier to describe a stories. Background indicated. Change of mind to emphasize duration for old habits that no longer happen. And in reported speech, this is how we formed the past continuous in positive cases. Subject Plus was a were plus verb plus i n g as a I waas eating ice cream. That's a negative subject. Plus was over, plus not plus verb. Plus i n g. We weren't eating ice cream as a question. Wasa were subject plus for plus ing. Was she eating ice cream? It was a negative question was a were not plus subject plus for plus i N G wasn't he eating ice cream? So there's some examples for incomplete actions that happened in the past. I was shopping when you called. He was working yesterday evening. In both cases, they carried on shopping or working. They haven't finished to describe the stories background. As the sun was setting, he took out the ring and proposed. I was having such a lovely green when the alarm went off. So we use the past continuous to form the background, as as the sun was setting, not indicated change of mind. I was going to watch a film, but I cleaned the house instead or I was going to clean the house but ended up playing on the computer. Which one matches you the best. Let's emphasize duration. I was working on that new project all weekend. You could, of course, said I worked on that project all weekend. But by saying I was working on that project, it emphasizes the duration, as does they were playing cards all night old habits that no longer happen. He was always forgetting his keys. She was always singing in the shower on. For this context, we often use words like always, often frequently on. The thing to bear in mind is that he now he remembers his keys or she no longer sings in the shower and for reported speech. So with reported speech, we were brought back a tense when you report what somebody said. So if somebody said I am saving to buy a new car When he reported we say he said he waas saving to buy a new car or we are planning on holiday, and when we reported, we would say they said they were planning their holiday. 8. Past perfect: this lecture is about the past. Perfect tense. The past Perfect makes clear the order of events in the past. This is one of the less frequently used tenses, some examples of usage the past Perfect is used for, referring to a point further in the past from a past point in time for unlikely or impossible past situations. As in the third Conditional on for reported speech, Past Perfect is formed as follows. The positive case you have subject Plus had plus past participle example. I had liked ice cream Negative subject Plus had not plus put past participle. We hadn't liked ice cream as a question had plus subject plus past participle. Had she liked ice cream as a negative question? I had a knot plus subject plus past participle. Hadn't she liked ice cream? So some examples when we're referring to a point further in the past from a past point in time. So we're looking in the past and from that perspective, looking further back into the past, I had saved my files before the computer froze, so some point in the past the computer froze, but before that, I'd save my fails. So all is good. We were late. The film had started by the time we arrived. So by the time we got to the film previously to that the film had started. We have third conditional, which refers to unlikely or impossible past situations. If I had worked harder, I would have passed the exam. This is the impossible bit because you didn't work harder. You can't go back in the past and change that. So you didn't work hard enough and that's why he didn't pass the exam. But if I had worked harder, I would have done, uh, too late now. Well, if I had known you were visiting, I would have baked a cake. Unfortunately, I didn't know you were visiting on, so I didn't bake a cake or lastly reported speech, though somebody says in present, Perfect. As a quote, I have already eaten. When we report this, we would say he said he had already eaten. If somebody says I have finished my homework when we report this, we would say She said she had finished her homework 9. Past perfect continuous: this lecture is on the past. Perfect, continuous tense. The past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous but refers to a point of time in the past. The past perfect continuous is also known as the past perfect progressive, and with this tense, the process is more important than the results of the process. Past perfect continuous is used for something that started in the past and continued upto another time in the past for something that finished just before Another thing in the past and for reported speech past Perfect Continuous is formed as follows. The positive case subject plus had bean plus verb plus i n g. I had bean eating ice cream that's a negative subject, plus had not bean plus verb. Undine G. We hadn't bean eating ice cream as a question had plus subject being plus ever, plus I n g Hadfi bean eating ice cream. Ondas. A negative question hadn't plus subject plus Bean plus Verbund i n g. Hadn't he bean eating ice cream? Here's are examples of something that started in the past and continued upto another time in the past, he had Bean having a lunchtime sleep when his boss walked in. I had been working as a software developer before switching to sales, or something that finished just before another point in time. It had been snowing of the roads were slippery. I hadn't bean sleeping very well. That's why I was so tired on. We say that the effects Hey are seen here. It had been snowing. Now it stops snowing, but the roads are still slippery. Well, I hadn't bean sleeping very well where Maybe I'm sleeping better now, but I'm explaining why I was tired in the past. In reported speech, we dropped back a tense. When we report what somebody has said So, for example, if somebody said I have been working all weekend, when we reported, we would say she said she had been working all weekend. But if somebody says we have been talking for over an hour reported, they would say they said they had been talking for over an hour 10. Future simple: this lecture is on the future. Simple tents. The future simple is very easy to learn because there are no exceptions, which is something quite unusual for English. Language usually fall with will but shall is also used, especially in questions. Using shell in a non question context could sound a little bit sort of stiff and old fashioned on the future. Simple is also formed with Be going to Look. It's, um, usage. The future Simple is used to stake future facts to make predictions to make promises offer to do something to express unwillingness to make a suggestion. To ask for advice or instructions to give an invitation has also used in the first conditional in likely or probable situations the formation of the future. Simple is in the positive case subject plus Will or shell plus infinitive without too. I think I will eat ice cream That's a negative subject, plus, well, shall not plus infinitive without too. We won't eat ice cream. Well, we shall not eat ice cream as a question. Well, shell plus subject plus infinitive without too. Will she eat ice cream as a negative question? Well shall not plus subject plus infinitive without too won't eat ice cream on. As we said at the beginning, we can use be going to instead. So if we look at these examples, you'll see how how easy it is to swap out. So instead of I will eat ice cream. I am going to eat ice, cream said. If we won't eat ice cream, we aren't going to eat ice cream. Will she eat ice cream? Is she going to eat ice cream on? Won't he eat ice cream? Isn't he going to eat ice cream? And then the examples that come up we will interchange well and be going to and you can see they really are interchangeable, so we use it to state future facts. The sun will set a six oclock This evening. Charles will succeed Queen Elizabeth. He's a just future faxes. No debate, no uncertainty. France. Well, to make a prediction, I think it will rain tomorrow. I think they will win the election well to make promises. I will help you with your homework. He will help you with the dishes. We also use it to offer to do something. Shall I help you with your homework? It's hot in here. So I open a window and in some places in England, they will still use will here as a question. And for me it sounds a little bit strange. If someone says, Will I help you with your homework? I think shall in a question form is better or to express unwillingness. I won't pay until the manager. Here's my complaint. He won't go to work on his day off or to ask, will make a suggestion. Shall we watch a film tonight? What we going to do during our holiday? Ask for advice or instructions? I broke her favorite vase. What? My going to tell my mom? Shall I tell the boss that the customer is unhappy or two given invitation. Will you be my prom date? Will you marry me? Be quick or we use it in the first. Conditional for likely or probable situations. If it rains tomorrow, we will play in sight. No, the rain tomorrow looks quite likely. If you reduce surprise by 10% I will buy the kitchen today. I could well reduce the price and then I will buy it. Please see the lesson on first conditional for more details on this 11. Future continuous: this lesson is on the future. Continuous tense. The future continuous is also known as the future progressive. It is used to refer to an unfinished action that will still be in progress in the future. On as with other continuous forms, firms that refer to emotions or desires don't usually take the continuous form. Many languages do not have a continuous form, which might make it difficult for people who speak that as a native language. The future continuous is used to project ourselves into the future, not literally. More metaphorically is used to make predictions about future events to ask information about the future and for things that are happening now. I will continue for some time so that the formation in a positive case subject plus will be plus verb. Plus I N g. Example. I will be eating ice cream in a negative case subject. Plus will not be plus Verbund I envy. We won't be eating ice cream again, will not being shortened Toe won't as a question will plus subject plus verb plus Verbund ing. Will she be eating ice cream? And it's a negative question won't plus subject plus B plus Verbund. I N G. Won't he be eating ice cream? So consider examples when we project ourselves into the future. This time next week I'll be skiing in Switzerland By the end of the year. I'll be running marathons in under three hours. You will be working in your job next month and in all of these your notice. There is a time component. Auto. Make predictions about future events. You'll be missing English beer. When you moved to Germany, I expect I'll be seeing Susie at the meeting. When I go to London, I will be staying with friends on. These ones. Don't require the time component. We'll see. Use it to ask for information about the future. Will they be joining us for lunch? Will you be going to the party tomorrow? Will you be bringing your new boyfriend to dinner? And these were sort of this a polite way of asking. Is this a bit more indirect? If you wanted another way of asking, you could say, Are they joining us for lunch? Are you going to the party tomorrow? Are you bring your new boyfriend to dinner, but by using this sort of will they or will you it makes it certainly more indirect and therefore, but more polite. Er well for things that are happening now and we'll continue for some time. The stock prices will still be falling tomorrow. While you're sleeping, I'll still be doing my assignment. Will the sea level still be writing in 10 years? 12. Future perfect: this lecture is on the future. Perfect tense. The future perfect is not often used, but you should still know it and it's usually used with time expressions. The future Perfect is used to refer to actions that are not yet completed but will be in the future and also used to make predictions. The future perfect is formed as follows in the positive case, subject Plus will plus have plus past participle. As an example, I will have eaten ice cream was a negative subject. Plus will not plus have plus past participle. We won't have eat a nice cream where will not is agree on shortened toe won't as a question will plus subject plus have plus past participle. Will she have eaten ice cream and is a negative question? Will not plus subject plus have plus past participle. Won't he have eaten ice cream? And if your examples to refer to actions that are not yet completed but will be in the future So by six oclock tomorrow I will have completed my assignment, so I haven't finished it yet. But if I look, go forward to six oclock tomorrow on then look back. It will be finished. We don't know when, but by six oclock in September we will have lived here for 20 years now. We could, of course, say we have Bean living here for 19 years and seven months, assuming September's five months away. But it's very awkward to sort of remember and to explain. So it's easier to say in September Will will have lived here for 20 years that the 20 is a lot simpler than 19 years and seven months. By the end of the year, she will have completed five marathons. So again, we're sort of we haven't done five years or she hasn't done five yet. Sometime during the year, she will do the number she needs to make five in total or for predictions. Will they have read your email before the meeting? So we have a meeting and they want to know if between now and then they would have completed reading the email. You will have heard by now that the company will close. So somebody is writing, say letter in the past and they send it out, say, a week later. And in that intervening time, the message has gone out that the company will close. So they're writing in the future. You will have heard by now on. The last one is why we're leaving now. Their flight won't have arrived yet. So now we're thinking of leaving. But if we look forward to the time where we would arrive at the airport they haven't arrived yet. Yeah, they look back. We said nothing has happened, so we don't need to leave so early. 13. Future perfect continuous: This lesson is on the future perfect continuous tense. The future perfect continuous is also known as the future perfect progressive. And it is one of the lesser use tenses in English. However, it can be tricky for learners to master. And it is usually used for the time expression is used to protect ourselves forward and then look back. And it can be formed with will or be going to interchangeably. And we'll see that in the examples. The future perfect continuous is used for describing the duration before something in the future and the cause of something in the future. And look at quickly the formation of this. And the positive case. Subject plus will have been plus verb and ING. Example. I will have been eating ice cream. As a negative. Subject plus won't have been plus verb and I-N-G. We won't have been eating ice cream. And as a question, will subject plus have been plus verbing, ING? Will she have been eating ice cream? And there's a negative question. Won't plus subject, plus have been plus verb and ING. Won't. You have been eating ice cream? Okay, some examples now, for the duration before something in the future. How long will he have been studying when he gets his PhD? When the company closes? I will have been working there for 20 years. When you arrive for dinner. I will have been cooking for five hours. And in all of these cases, we sort of imagine ourselves in the future looking back to see how long something is taken, which hasn't finished yet. The cause of something in the future. I will be tired tomorrow because I will have been studying all night. She will be exhausted because she will have been training so hard. He will have been studying in England for 5-years. His English will be perfect. And so again, we're projecting ourselves a little bit forward and looking back as to the cause of something in the future, both of which haven't happened yet. Since what I mean when I said the feature perfect continuous is little bit difficult. 14. Reported speech: this lesson is on, reported speech reported. Speech is used to report what somebody said, and we know directly quoting them but rather paraphrasing what they said on the tense changes. When we use reported speech, you also need to pay attention to pronouns. Modal verbs are an exception to this rule on reported questions needs. We looked at a little bit more closely. Let's look at some examples when reporting what somebody said. These examples show the back one tense rule when reporting what somebody said, and I've underlined the verb so you can see this. I like coffee. When reported, he said he liked coffee. I go running every day. We reports by saying she said she went running every day. He has bean to room. She said that he had bean to room. I will be running for president. He said he would be running for president. We also mentioned that pronouns can change, and it depends on who is talking to whom. I like coffee, he said he liked coffee. I go running every day, she said. She went running every day. I like your shirt. She said that she liked my or her or his shirt, probably depending on who she said it to. She said it to me. She liked my shirt. If you said it, too. A friend of a female friend of hers, then she liked her shirt. Or if she said it's a male person, then that she liked his shirt. I like your shirt, Jim. He said that he liked Jim's shirt, so I have to take the possessive form here. And if they're talking to us, your house is lovely. She said that our house was lovely on modal. Verbs tend to be an exception to this back. One tense rule. So the quote. I would like a coffee, he said he would like a coffee. It might green tomorrow, she said, that it might rain tomorrow. John could help you. I say that John could help him. I should see the doctor. She said that she should see the doctor. You want to lose some weight, he said. I ought to lose some weight and reported questions. Do not need help of herbs. Remember, with help of herbs is a very quick recap. If I would just say I like coffee as a question, they wouldn't say like you coffee? They would say. Do you like coffee? And is to do? Is the help of Herb on Report to questions? Don't need thumb as we'll see. Where do you live? He asked me where I lived. Why do you care? She asked him why he cared. Do you own a talk? He asked them if they owned a dog on the last one is like a yes. No question on these Usually need an extra word. For example. Do you speak French? She asked me if I spoke French. Did you drive here? He wanted to know whether I drove here. Is this your first time here? They inquired if this was my first time here on in this last block, you can see we don't always need, She asked. I asked. He asked. You can say asked, wanted to know. Inquired. There are lots of different words we can use when using or when reporting on questions.