English Language and Grammar - Nouns | Derek Smith | Skillshare

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English Language and Grammar - Nouns

teacher avatar Derek Smith, Experienced and qualified teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 4m)
    • 1. Nouns - Introduction

    • 2. Common and proper nouns

    • 3. Plural nouns

    • 4. Capitalisation rules

    • 5. Concrete and abstract nouns

    • 6. Collective nouns

    • 7. Countable and uncountable nouns

    • 8. Pronouns

    • 9. ... and I or and me

    • 10. Possessives

    • 11. Compound nouns

    • 12. Gerunds

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About This Class

Learn everything about nouns. These can be seen in a number of different ways and thisĀ course looks at them in detail. Clear explanations and lots of examples help the learner.

The following noun aspects are looked at in detail:

  • common and proper nouns
  • singular and plural nouns
  • capitalisation rules for nouns
  • abstract and concrete nouns
  • collective nouns
  • countable and uncountable nouns
  • pronouns
  • possessives
  • compound nouns
  • gerunds

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Derek Smith

Experienced and qualified teacher


Hello, I'm Derek - a qualified and experienced English trainer.

I have an IT background and have been teaching English to adults for over 10 years.

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1. Nouns - Introduction: welcome to this short skill share lesson on now owns now, in addition to the normal things we think off with now on, such as tables and chairs I things we couldn't really see in touch but also other things such as things we can feel and taste. So this course looks at all the different ways in which we can categorize and subdivide now owns. So we look at, for example, common and proper now owns with concrete and abstract now owns. We also look a countable and uncountable knowns and how this changes the way in which we look at them and how we how we use them. And we also look at how we formed the Pru rules of knowns. We look a collective noun which are different from florals. We look at the capitalization rules for nails. We also look at pronouns, compound knowns, possessive and finally we look at Darren's, which are like verbs. Behaving is now owns in the sentence. There's a project associated with this course, so please check out the project below. There's lots of questions for you to answer. If you get stuck on any of them, please go back and check out the lessons. Um, maybe it'll become clearer at any rate. If you upload your project work, I'll check it out and give you some feedback on it. Hope you enjoy the course by Finnell. 2. Common and proper nouns: The selection denounced section is about common and proper now owns one way of dividing announces into common now owns and proper knowns. Common noun are people places things and feelings. Some examples of common now owns of people Lady men, teacher, pupil, Children, child nephew, niece, father, mother, Grand parent. As you can see, these aren't the individual people. They're just the types of people or places again. Not specific places but general plays, as in town City Village pub, restaurant, cafe, library, cinema park, country Hill Valley, things that are common knowns. Taxi car, lorry van table fare, bench, apple, pear, PIF, carrot book magazine, leaflet, mels cat dog, horse or common noun. Schools to be feelings. Love, hate, fear, anger, happiness, sadness, truth, trust and proper knowns. Uh, names, places, friends, titles proper Now always start with a capital letter, no matter where it pays in the sentence. Some examples of names that a proper knowns Joan John Elizabeth, Lisa Lee's Betty, Susan Su, Susie, James, Jim, Jimmy Love it, Real Bob will be and proper. Now owns can also be places on by this women. Really, the concrete instance. Off a place such as Windsor Castle or the White House. We can mean streets, as in Downing Street or Wall Street. Come in towns and cities. But is London Washington or peeking? Welcome in countries. This is England, America, China, more continents, that is. Africa, Europe or Asia. Why stop with their best do planets as well? Jupiter, Saturn, Venus or Mars? All of these are examples off proper now owns on brands of the proper knowns. For instance, Pepsi, Coca Cola, Red Bull, Apple, Dell, Microsoft, Nike added US, Puma, Mars, Nestle, Kellogg's Metro, Tesco, Aldi, Walmart or titles. Also, proper knowns. Fences. Dr. Brown. Now we mean the person. Dr Brown, Not a doctor or Mr President. Captain Smith. We mean the Captain Smith, not a captain or Lady Chatterley for Lord Mountbatten. 3. Plural nouns: plural knowns. There are several regular ways to make clue rules. There are many irregular plural forms. Some florals are treated as a single item. Regular nails cool for several regular ways to make florals, and they depend on the ending of the word. So most downs have one particular form. Noun ending in s ex zed C H and s A have a particular form noun ending. Why have a particular form as denounce ending in F or F E. Most knowns are made pool just by adding a letter s some examples. One cat, two cats, one dog, three dogs, one boat, many boats, one house, several houses, one cup, two cups Announce ending in s ex zed C H O S, H and S s. I make plural by adding e. S. And this is purely done to make pronunciation easier. So it's a one bus. Two buses. No, not buzz. It wouldn't work. One box, three boxes, one walls to wall says. Although it should be noted, that quiz in the plural form of quizzes has to Zed's one beach, many beaches. And also please note that if the CH is a heart sound, as in stomach. We just add a nest to make stomachs and not stomach is one bush several bushes, One boss Too many bosses now owns any. You know why they have two possible ways. If the letter before the Y is a vowel was simply add a nest as in one key two keys One boy , three boys. Otherwise we replace the why with i e s one bury two Berries, one fly, many flies announced any and F four f e also have two options. If there are two vowels before the last f we usually Adan s so one chief two chiefs. But there again, one thief, two thieves or one roof, three roofs. Otherwise we usually replacing the air Force F E with ves as in one knife, two knives, but again, one safe to safe's or 1/2 several halves. Unfortunately, there is no firm rule and you just need to know which one is to be used and just remember it on. You'll be fine. Now look at some irregular plural forms for knowns. There are many irregular plural forms. Some have different plural forms. Some have the same plural form as a singular. So we look at. Those have different forms in one man. Two men, one woman, three women, one child, four Children, one mouse, many mice, one goose, several geese, one foot three feet, one tooth, several teeth. These are just some examples. There are many, many more that are irregular in the pearl form. Some have the same prole us a singular one. Sheep, two sheep, one fish, 3/5 one aircraft, many aircraft, one dear several dear. One bison to bison. And again, these are just examples. There are many more. Lastly, we come onto verb agreement. Normally, a pool will have a plural verb form, as in, the peasants are revolting. Many roads lead to Rome. Your trousers are too tight. However, some pools are used in a singular verb form. The news is on at nine oclock in the evening, Darts is a popular pub game. In England, mathematics is not always hard. The singular forms is not all of them, their arm or on. Sadly, there is no hard and fast rule. The exceptions that take the singular form. You just have to see them and learn them 4. Capitalisation rules: this lecture is on capitalization rules. Capitalisation rules for knowns. This could be divided into two main categories. The standard rules on all other places where capitals air used standard capitalization rules for knowns the start of a sentence. So the first word in a sentence is always upper case. The only real exception to this is brand names that start with a lower case. For example, eBay or iPhone. Andi, if it bothers you starting a sentence with a lower case letter, the advice I can give you is to restructure your sentence so that this brand LEEM is not the first word in the sentence. So you can either put it saying that passive form. So instead of saying iPhones are expensive, you can say expensive phones include iPhones is that type of thing and all proper noun czar upper case. Tom Jupiter, Wall Street, Buckingham Palace, Tuesday, June New York is or just examples on. Please refer to the lecture on Common and Proper nails for more details. The first person pronoun I is always uppercase. It doesn't matter where it appears in. The sentence is always upper case. No exception. There are other places where now is a capitalized, for instance, in letters and emails in poetry entitles and headings. We look now at letters and emails, so a letter or email generally starts like this. Diem is drown, comma or no comma. Many thanks for your letter. How the M in many is upper case, even though it doesn't look like it's a start of a sentence. Is is just a convention that is used for informal males or letters. You would say, Hi, Bob, Did you also have a great time yesterday and again that did starts with a capital letter by convention, even though it looks like it's not the start of a sentence in poetry, especially traditional poetry, each line starts with a capital letter, irrespective of how the previous line was punctuated. So here's a classic example of a Valentine's poem. Roses are red, violets are blue, sugar is sweet and so are you, and it was C. There's only really one full stops as one sentence. But because it's in a traditional poetry format, each line starts with an upper case. Now, in modern poetry, this convention is no always held. For those of you who like alternative versions of these poems is a couple for you. My favorite one is this last one. Roses are red, violets are blue. Some poems rhyme, but this one doesn't. And also in poetry and literature, the letter O is often capitalize as it uses a form of address. So, for example, in The Odyssey, tell me, Oh, news of that ingenious hero who traveled far and wide capitals, entitles and headings. There are several options for titles and headings. You can capitalize the first word only. So here it says titles and headings only titles has a capital. You can capitalize every word, so titles and headings each word has a capital letter. Or you can capitalize these significant words, as in this example, titles and headings. So titles headings have capital letters, the little words like an or on it they would be left lower case. Important thing is, is to be consistent. So if you're doing a group of headings, make sure you use the same format and it doesn't really matter which one. I personally prefer the significant words, and that's what you generally see here. But again, don't mix and match randomly. Keep it consistent within a document 5. Concrete and abstract nouns: this lecture looks at concrete and abstract knowns, another way of dividing noun XYZ into concrete and abstract knowns. Concrete now owns are tangible things, things that you can see or touch or have some physical aspect. They could be common or proper knowns. They could be singular or plural. France's Table Country Book Fares England Lisa Abstract Nails are intangible things, things that you cannot see your touch. They are more like concepts or feelings or ideas, for instance, love, hate, misery, fear, trust, knowledge. 6. Collective nouns: the short lecture looks at Collective Mountains Collective now owns Announce that refer to a group or collection of things people or animals. For example, a school of fish, a bunch of bananas, a flock of birds or a flock of sheep. A band of musicians, a gang of thieves. Now there are many Mawr collective. Noun is these are just examples. Collective noun are not the same as Purell. Knowns. Collective now refer to a group of individuals with act as a single unit, for example, an orchestra. Pools just refer to a group of independent individuals, for example, musicians to show an example of musicians and orchestra could say the musicians are playing well, but you would say the orchestra is playing well. Collective Nelms are treated as if they were a single now because they refer to a group. So Friends is a school of fish, a bunch of bananas, a flock of birds or sheikh, a band of musicians, a gang of thieves 7. Countable and uncountable nouns: This short lecture is on countable and uncountable nouns are. Nouns can be divided into countable nouns and uncountable nouns. And we use different words when we compare them. Countable nouns are individual items that can be separated and counted. So one share two chairs. A country. Many countries, an apple, 12 apples. Uncountable nouns are items that cannot be separated, encountered, and they have no plural form. For example, beer, milk, equipment, information. And you may hear people going into a pub an ordering two beers. And you've said there's no plural form. But what the people are doing here is they're abbreviating two pints of beer or two glasses of beer, as in two beers. And things that are countable in this case are the pints or the glasses. The beer itself still remains uncountable. Protists like to mention at the difference in verb form, the uncountable and countable have to plural countable nouns. Use the plural verb form. I think my show examples where you'll say, oh yes, I see this. But uncountable nouns always use a singular verb form. If we look at the cow is in the field, so it's a countable noun with this one. So the cow is, in the plural version. The cows are in the field. Again, that's probably straightforward for you. This is the bit where the uncountable comes in. So your information is correct. So information is an uncountable noun. And here we see using the singular verb form as uncountable nouns do. We can compare countable and uncountable quantities for equality. With countable nouns. We say as many as and as few as. With uncountable nouns, we use as much as and as little as. My sister has as many children as I do. And it doesn't say whether it's locked so little, but it's, the number is the same as accountable. And John has as few books as Paul. Now in this case I have the same number. But by using as few, it's an indicator. It's not very many. With uncountable nouns, p to drink as much beer as James last night. Again, we're not sure how much it was, but it was probably quite a bit. Well, Emma has as little patience as Jane. Again. They both have not much patients. That beer and patients of course, being uncountable nouns. We can compare countable and uncountable quantities for inequality. Now for both cases, we use more something then. For countable nouns, we use fewer then. And for uncountable nouns we use less than. And we'll look at some examples. To my brother has more children than my sister. So children are countable and use more children than or when inequality for countable nouns, as in books. We would say John has fewer books than Paul. Now if we look at some for uncountable nouns, we'll see again, Peter drank more beer than James last night. So again, we have more than and Emma has less patients than Jane. 8. Pronouns: This lecture is all about pronouns. Pronouns are words that are used in place of other nouns. They are used to avoid unnatural speech and repetition. They can be divided into definite pronouns and indefinite pronouns. As we said, pronouns are used to avoid unnatural speech and repetition. Let's have a look at an example sentence. John said that John was looking for John's had. So John comes up three times. It's repetitive and it doesn't sound natural. We can change this through use of pronouns. John said that he was looking for his hat. Or if, if I'm John, I said that I was looking for my hat. And in all of the examples, you'll see that the pronouns are in bold italics, and this will be the case throughout this lecture. Definite pronouns replace specific nouns and can be further divided into subject pronouns, object pronouns, possessive pronouns, personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, intensive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and interrogative pronouns. Subject pronouns replace nouns that are the subject in a sentence, and we replace a name to avoid repetition. The subject pronouns are I, he, she, it, we, you, they look at some examples. I am a teacher. The car is damaged and it needs to be repaired. We are hungry. You drink might be object pronouns replace a direct or indirect object in a sentence or clause. The object pronouns are me, him, her, it us. You. Then look at some examples. You gave the book to me. I can't find it. Invite them to dinner tomorrow. Susie works for him. Possessive pronouns replace possessive nouns. They can be either the subject or object in a sentence or clause. The possessive pronouns are my, mine, his, her has, its, how're hours, you're yours. That there's we need some examples. The bag is mine. It's my bag. Have you done your homework? This is our house. This house is ours. That is their car. That car is, there's the personal pronouns are used to represent or replace a person or people in a sentence, but they're also used for animals, objects. So even ideas, again, can be the subject or object in the sentence. The personal pronouns are I, me, P0, C0, it, him. It, we, us, you, they, and them. And here are some examples. You drank my beer. He bought two ice creams and gave one to her. They told him he had not been kind to her. Reflexive pronouns. These are used in place of a person or a thing that is both the subject and object of the same verb. I think we need some examples to show what we mean there. I saw myself in the mirror. We heard ourselves singing. So as we can see in both of these cases, the same person in the first one, I I was the one who is doing the seeing, and I was the one who was seen. In the second example. We the people singing. And we're the people who heard the singing. However, he heard ourselves singing is incorrect because there's a different subject and object. The subject is he. And we were the ones who were singing. Correct? Would be he heard us singing. The full list of reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. And reflexive pronouns are never used as the subject. They only acts as the object, and only when the person or thing has been used as the subject. So here are some incorrect examples. Myself saw me in the mirror. You can't do this. You have to have the reflexive part as the object. So correct would be I saw myself in the mirror. Ourselves heard us singing. Again. We have to change this to we heard ourselves singing. Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize the subject in a sentence. They are not the object of an action. And they look very similar to reflexive pronouns that we've just seen. Some examples. I made that Kate myself. I could just say I made that take by saying I made that Kate myself is emphasized the fact that I did it. You told me the location yourself. Again, we could just say you told me the location. But in this particular case it looks like something went wrong. And I'm saying, you told me the location yourself. I mean, you told me the president himself wrote me a letter, so emphasizes that the President wrote me a letter. Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace nouns that are close by. So this, all these. Or they used to replace nouns that are far away. That, and those usually require contexts to identify the nouns that they're replacing. So here are some examples. This is the cake, the time made. These are the tastiest cookies I've ever eaten. That is Susie over there. Those are the houses that will be demolished. Interrogative pronouns. These are used in questions to replace nouns. They can be the subject or object in a sentence or clause. That can be used in direct, indirect, or reported questions. The main interrogative pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, what. Some examples. Who is coming to the party tonight? As a direct question. Could you tell me Who's these are? There's the indirect question and a reported question. She wants to know which is correct. And an indirect question to give emphasis. You're wearing what to their party. Someone has decided what they're going to wear to the parties. Not a good idea and they're kind of emphasizing your way what we'll now take a slightly closer look at the differences and similarity between which and what. And we'll see that they actually have similar uses. And there are cases where either will do whether there can be subtle differences in their use. But generally speaking, we use which if we only have limited options and we use what if there are many possible options? There has some quick examples that show where either is okay. And these are usually to do with two days of the weeks and for some reason transport arrangements. And we can say what flighty you're taking or which flight to you taking. And both are ok here they have the same meaning. Similarly, we can say what days your appointment or which days your appointment. Both are fine and have the same meaning. Or another travel-related one. What boss goes to the town center or which bus goes to the town center. Both a fine, no difference in meaning. And we do have some examples here with a clear difference. What is your favorite pizza topping? There's a wide range of different pizza toppings. Were not limited to just a few. What did you do today? In a very open question, it can be dozens, hundreds of different options of what someone did today. Or similarly, What is your favorite color? Again, hundreds of different colors. Which is your favorite one out of this large range of options. Or which of your children graduated last year? And presumably you don't have hundreds of children and maybe you have 2345. So we're talking about our limited number here. So which is better here? Or which leg Did you break during our skiing holiday? Again, choice of two here. And the last one week shoes would he be wearing to the party tomorrow? Obviously, depending on the person, you might argue that what might be better here if there's someone who has loads and loads of shoes, but normally people have a limited number of options when it comes to shoes that they own. But now look at an example where the difference is sort of subtle. And we take the question, which is your native language, and what is your native language? They're both essentially asking the same thing as they're asking what they native languages that they grew up with and their first language. But there is a difference in the freezing of these by using which it implies that we have some sort of previous knowledge and we've narrowed down the answers based on maybe a previous conversation. But when we use what, we don't have the benefit of his previous knowledge. And it gives us room for much, much larger range of possible answers. So, which we might have narrowed it down to French, German, and Italian. And by watts, we can expect an answer for any of the hundreds of languages and dialects are spoken on planet earth. You will notice in the previous examples, there's no examples with whom. What does explain this quickly? Why? The difference between who and whom? So who is used for the subject in a sentence and whom is used for the object. And as an easy trick to decide which is, which is your associated. Who with he and whom to him. So you see the M on whom and him, they match. So here's some examples. Who is coming to the party tonight? He is coming. To whom do the shoes belong? They belong to him. So the first example is he is coming, so is a. And the second example, they belong to him. So he have to say whom. However, the use of whom sounds very archaic, an old fashion these days and strange. And linguists are in agreement that whom we'll probably disappear entirely within the next 100 years. And there were just use who for both cases. So it will say who did these shoes belonged to? And people say that now. So a 100 years is probably quite a sort of a long SM estimate of the time it would take to disappear. It could be a lot shorter. Indefinite pronouns are placed in the same location as the noun it replaces. And they do not refer to a specific noun. And can be formed with variations of any, sum. Every, and know. And we'll look at each of those in turn. Indefinite Pronouns with any. These refer to indefinite and incomplete quantities and are used in questions where the answer is generally not known. And I use with not to emphasize negative sentences. So here's some examples. Do they have any children? But he going anywhere nice on your holidays? She doesn't want any cake. It doesn't want anything to do with him. Indefinite Pronouns with some nice refer to indefinite or incomplete quantities and are used in questions where you think you know the answer. And also using questions to ask for offer something. And we'll see some examples. We drink some beer last night. We don't know exactly how many. Someone's being sleeping in my bed. Great quote from Goldilocks and the Three bats. Going somewhere nice on your holidays. Would you like some tea? Definite pronouns with every refers to plurals, but are treated and considered to be singular. Referred to a group of people, things, or places. So the group is the singular part. Here are some examples. We can start, everybody is here, please. Not everybody is here, not everybody are here. We are talking the group, every body. It will be a big party. Everyone is invited. Again. Everyone is invited. They lost everything in the fire. I can't find my phone. I've looked everywhere for it. Definite pronouns with no. Again refer to plurals, but are considered singular. And they've refer to an absence of people, things, or places. And here are some examples. She's very lonely. Nobody visits her. Again, it singular, nobody visits, not nobody visit her. We made all that food and no one came. No one here is spelled as two separate words. You can hyphenate the two, but please don't put them together. This town is dull. Nothing ever happens here. There was nowhere to park the car. Indefinite pronouns placement. So they are placed in the same location as the noun or nouns that they replace. And here are some examples to illustrate this. I won't tell Paul what did I won't tell anyone what you did. So the same location is used. He gave me a present. He gave me something. We bought the food that we bought everything there. 9. ... and I or and me: the short lesson will look specifically at the question off something, and I or someone and me, and we'll see there's a simple trick to working this out. This is actually quite common problem among learners. So I say someone and I or someone and me. And if you look into this a lot of the explanations you'll find they're going to a lot of unnecessarily complicated detail about subjects and objects and direct objects. At the end of it, you're not really sure what the answer is. But the good news is, there's a really simple trick that you can use toe work it out. You can get it right every time. Let's look at two example sentences. My wife and I, or me, visited the neighbors. The neighbors visited my wife and I or me. So which one do you use in each case? I or me? The trick here is to think of the sentence without the other person. You then work out your what you would say if there was nobody else involved. And then when you got that sorted out, you had the other person back in again. So would you say I visited the neighbors or me visited the neighbors. I think we'll agree that meet visited the neighbors is not correct to the correct version. Here is I visited the neighbors, so when we had the other person back in again to the original sentence, we have my wife and I visited the neighbors. Now, if we look at the other example, the neighbors visited I or me and again, I think we're all fairly clear that the neighbors visited. I is not correct. That should be. The neighbors visited me. So when we then add the other person back in again, we get the neighbors, visited my wife and me. And this is also correct on this trick is a lovely trick, and it works every time. So please use it on this. Confusion will be something that you can put behind you. 10. Possessives: this lecture is all about possessive knowns. The possessive form indicates ownership, thus differing opinions on how to form the possessive possesses can apply to concrete and abstract mills. Multiple owners need to be looked at closely, and they can refer to places by using the owner's name or functional title. A Z said. The possessive form indicates ownership, and here are some examples. Susie's horse is the horse belonging to Susie Pulls Motorbike is the motorbike that belongs to Paul and Mary, and Mike's car is the car belonging to Marry and Mike. There are several opinions on how to form the possessive as the old fashioned method on the modern approach. If we look at the old fashioned formation first we see that the rules are relatively simple at Apostrophe s to the known So Susie's horse friend's motorbike. But if the word ended in s, we just had the apostrophe. So Thomas trousers the bus driver. The modern possessive formation is more in line with the way in which the words are spoken . This only affects words ending in the letter s on the letter s after the apostrophe is spoken more like a letters ed so Here's some examples. Thomas's trousers, the bus's passengers. An exception to the previous rule and is a bit awkward is when the owners, a plural on the plural form, is formed by adding an S to the singular form, we'll see some examples. The cars engines are trained to perfection. If we just said the cars is engines, it would sound really weird or the dogs ate the cat's food. If we said the dogs ate the cats is food. This will sound really odd enforced. Also, Please note here that dogs doesn't have an apostrophe because we're just talking about the plural form of dog. There's no possessive here. All other plural zehr treated normally, for example, the Children's book arrived today. The fishes tank is dirty on needs to be cleaned. Up until now, we've only seen examples with concrete downs, but possessive forms can also apply to abstract. Now owns an abstract noun are things like feelings and emotions and ideas. And here are some examples. Jenny's mood isn't getting any better. John's integrity is above question. Sues. His sense of humor is very dark pulls. Knowledge is impressive. With multiple owners. We need to look carefully so if more than one person owns a single item and only the last one in the list gets the apostrophe. So you say here, Mary and Mike's car. So is one car and two people own it in a Meet Mary and make. If several people each have their own items, they all get the apostrophe. So it's a Paul's and John shoes are black, so both Paul and John eat own their own pair of black shoes. We also use possessive formation to talk about places by using the owner's name or functional title. For example. I have an appointment at the doctors tomorrow, and the doctors here is used as a functional title were invited to the neighbors for drinks next week, similar to the other example or using a name. So William Perkins is School is for girls between 11 and 18 years old. On the school is named after Sir William Perkins or Gino's makes the best pizza in town. So presumably Gino is the guy who makes the wonderful pizza on his restaurant is called Geno's, and we use the apostrophe to show this 11. Compound nouns: this lecture is all about compound knowns. Compound knowns announce consisting of two or more words for a single item, person or place. And they mean something different than the individual words. The first part tells is the kind of object or its purpose. The last part tells us what the object or person is. Compound nails have three different ways of being written. It can be a combination of many work types I usually pronounced with the stress on the first syllable compound. Noun is consists of two or more words for a single item, person or place on means something different than the individual words. For example, bread bin. We know what bread is, and we know what have been is, however, a Brit been is not a been made off bread because they bin or container for storing Brent when we form compound Now owns the first part tells is the kind of object person or its purpose. The last part tells us what the object or person is. Here's some examples. A black bird is a bird that is black, a greenhouse, the house that is green. A washing machine is a machine for doing the washing. When we write compound now owns, we have three possible ways of writing them open, closed or hyphenated. Unfortunately, there are no rules for which form is used, and some compound now have more than one acceptable way of being written. Workers have opened compound nails or sometimes called space to compound mounds. These are written as two separate words. For example, washing machine water bottle swimming pool, public speaking, driving license, bus stop website. Closed compound or solid compound nails are written as a single word boyfriend. Toothpaste, haircut, rainfall drool back software greenhouse website Check out on hyphenated compound mountains written with a hyphen between the words Mother in law, check in held check up. Take off passer by compound. Noun is could be a combination of many work types. The most common forms are too now owns or adjective and a noun. Many other combinations of possible. You've got some examples with two knowns boyfriend, water bottle, printer, cartridge baked room 50. Think football handbag Tablecloth on. As we can see, the way of writing the compound down is independent off the parts that form it because of adjective noun combinations, Blackbird greenhouse, redhead, mobile phone hardware and software. Six. Pack blackboard or whiteboard and again, the writing form, whether it's open, close or hyphenated, is independent of the parts used. Look at some other combinations, and please bear in mind. This is not an exhaustive list. We can combine a noun and a verb, for example. Rainfall, haircuts, train spotting, being a violent now with an adjective spoonful, comfortable combined adjective and a verb public speaking dry cleaning, we can make a verb and a noun combination washing machine driving license. We could make compound now adverbs and prepositions. Look out, drool back, makeup proposition and a noun underpants upstairs, onlooker and again, I would like to emphasize that there are many other combinations that a possible. This is not an exhaustive list. When we pronounce compound knowns, they're usually pronounced with the stress on the first syllable. This enables us to distinguish between the compound known, for example, an adjective noun combination. Here are some examples. A black bird was, ah, adjective noun combination. A black bird, a greenhouse, a green house. You hear the difference between black bird and a black bird? When we formed pools of compound knowns, we usually formed them by making approval of the last part, using all the rules that apply to pools. But there are some exceptions. If in doubt, use a good up to date dictionary and check it out for yourself. Here are some examples Blackbeard's house Flies full moons. These three examples take the standard rule where the second parties made a plural using the normal rules of florals. Some exceptions to this are, for example, mothers in law passes by secretaries general, and again, these are just some examples. 12. Gerunds: This is the lecture that concerns Germans. Sharon's looked the same as a present participle. They used the in verb form, although they looked like verbs have actually treated his knowns. They could be the subject in a sentence. Be a direct object. They could be an object of a proposition. It could be a complement of the verb to be, and they could be used to form compound melons. The Germans looked like the present participles off herbs using the in verb form, and here are some examples eating, swimming, painting. However, they're treated his knowns because it Jared is a noun. You can replace it with a pro known. You can try replacing it with, for example, something or it. Hondurans also require a possessive form. So here's some examples. Swimming is good for you because it's a now and we can say something is good for you or it is good for you. So that's good. Yet it's adjourned. These are confusing instructions. These are something instructions or these. Are it instructions? No, that makes no sense. And this is because confusing here is not adjourned. It's describing the instructions. So in this case, confusing is an adjective on adjectives cannot be replaced with the pronoun. And that's why the second sentence just looks and sounds odd on, because the journalists require a possessive form was a Peter's. Playing has improved a lot lately, not Peter playing repeaters. Playing Karen's, as we said, can be the subject in a sentence or clause. Pierson Examples. Swimming is good for your health. Smoking is bad for your health. Reading is one of my hobbies. Eating too much will make you fat. Jones could be the object off verbs proposition and freeze all verbs. And here's some examples I really enjoy. Swimming. Swimming is the direct object off the verb. Enjoy. Suzy is very good at growing, and here drawing is the object off the proposition at I look forward to hearing from you as the object of the freeze Alvar verb. I look forward to Sharon's and to be they could be the complement of the verb to be, and here are some examples. One of my duties is attending meetings. One of my guilty pleasures is sleeping in late at the weekend. My favorite thing about Germany is drinking beer. My favorite thing about Japan is eating sushi all of these examples, the is to be conjugated to be in this case is on the gerund are shown in bold italic to make them clear. And because Jared's Arnoun is they can be used to form compound knowns. So here are some examples. I'm having a driving lesson tomorrow. The working conditions here are terrible. Don't give you a helping hand.