English Language and Grammar - Adverbs | Derek Smith | Skillshare

English Language and Grammar - Adverbs

Derek Smith, Experienced and qualified teacher

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15 Lessons (1h 15m)
    • 1. Adverbs introduction

      2:45
    • 2. Adverbs from adjectives

      4:36
    • 3. Relative adverbs

      6:32
    • 4. Comparative adverbs

      4:03
    • 5. Superlative adverbs

      5:59
    • 6. Interrogative adverbs

      5:04
    • 7. Adverbs of certainty

      4:48
    • 8. Adverbs of degree

      7:46
    • 9. Adverbs of manner

      7:22
    • 10. Adverb of place

      4:36
    • 11. Adverbs of time

      3:04
    • 12. Adverbs of frequency

      5:51
    • 13. Adverbs of viewpoint

      4:19
    • 14. Adverbs of opinion

      3:39
    • 15. Adverb overuse

      4:37
18 students are watching this class

About This Class

Adverbs modify verbs in the same way as adjectives modify nouns.
In fact, one common way to make adverbs is to add 'ly' to an adjective and this is the first lesson in this course.

Adverbs add information about what is happening.

They also modify adjectives and other adverbs.

The course continues with relative, comparative and superlative adverbs.

We then look at adverbs that are used to ask questions.

Finally, we look at different kinds of adverbs, namely adverbs of:


certainty,
degree,
manner,
place,
time,
frequency,
viewpoint and
opinion.

Transcripts

1. Adverbs introduction: Hello and welcome to this section on adverbs, generally speaking, and firms modify verbs in the same way in which adjectives modify now owns. But adverbs don't just modify verbs. They also modify adjectives and other adverbs. So in other words, they had information about what is happening. So this section starts off with looking at a common way of making adverbs, which is to derive them from their corresponding adjective. We then carry on looking adverbs in terms off relative comparative and superlative adverbs . And then we look at adverbs, which were used to ask questions, also called interrogative adverbs. And the rest of the section is devoted to different types of adverbs and how we use thumb so specifically. What we've done is we've broken down the adverbs into different sort of functional groups and had one lesson on each group. So the groups we have our to do with adverbs, off certainty, degree, manner, place, time, frequency, viewpoint and opinion, and in each of these individual lessons, you'll see, some commonly use adverbs off that type that would be used in English. We explain when their use and how to use them on also give plenty of examples, so you really see what we mean? But just one word of warning. Please don't get to the end of the section and say Hey and all about adverbs and charge off site using adverbs all over the place. There is a certain ah style that says overuse of adverbs is a bad thing, and the reason for this is is it often if you find your over using adverbs, that usually means you can find a better verb. So I'll give you a very quick example as this is any the introductory, um, part of this section, If you were to say, for example, he ran quickly and ran is the vermin quickly is the adverb, but you could equally assessing ran quickly. You could use a better verb. Maybe he sprinted, and in this way you've conveyed the same information. We haven't just used verbs over and over, just with different adverbs. You've used better verbs that there's a word of warning. Don't over use adverbs, even though you now know all about them. 2. Adverbs from adjectives: this lesson looks at how to form adverbs from their corresponding adjectives. The usual standard rule is to take an adjective and add the letters L y to make its corresponding adverb as this is English won't surprise you to hear there are exceptions to this, but here's a few examples off the ad L Y rule. Here's a quick swimmer. He swims quickly. She paints beautiful pictures. She paints beautifully. The efficient secretary organized The event secretary organized the event efficiently. There are some variations and exceptions which will look at now. So adjectives end in L l. We only add a Why is adding l? Why would give three l's in a row on? We don't do that. Sarah is shrill when she sings. Sarah sings truly on adjectives end in l E depend on the letter before the l. A. So if the letter before the L is a continent, we replaced the L. A. With L y to form the adverb for the medic lifted the injured driver in a gentle way, he lifted the injured driver gently. If the letter before the L is a vowel, i A I o u. This actually follows the standard at l Y rule, the actual girl jumped over the wall. She jumped at shyly over the wall. On the exception to this is whole, the adjective hole becomes the adverb. Holy as we can see, written here on adjectives that ending. Why also depend on the letter before the why? So if the letter before the wires a continent we replace the why with I l Why, when we formed the adverb, but the problem was easy to solve. She solved the problem easily. And there's two exceptions to this, namely shy and sly, which have adverbs shyly and slyly, respectively, with the letter before the wires of vowel. This actually as well follows standard at l Y rule. The Khoi woman answered the question. She answered coyly On the exception to This is Gay, which has the adverb gaily, as we can see written here, objectives that end in I see we form into an adverb by adding a l l Y. They are enthusiastic musicians. They play enthusiastically on for adjectives and then you d replace the U E with you l y to form the adverb. The witness spoke true words, the witness answered truly So this is a slight variation of the ad l y. And that we remove the e first on there are some adverbs that don't end in l Y at all. So we have fast, hard, little much and straight are examples where the adjective and adverb are the same on the adjective Good has the adverb. Well, if you're looking for an example, you could say John is good at football, but John plays football well. 3. Relative adverbs: this lesson is on relative adverbs. Relative adverbs introduce relative clauses. The relative adverbs are where, when and why. And they used to join two smaller but related sentences. And if you have a formal texts in which you get a proposition, plus, which you can replace this with a relative adverb to make the text a bit more informal, Onda the rules for a strict of a non restrictive relative clause is still apply here very important. So we use relative adverb to join to smaller but related sentences. His to small but related sentences. This is a swimming pool. I used to swim in the pool. That sounds a bit simplistic. So we joined the two by saying, This is the pool where I used to swim. Well, I got home from work. I did the dishes again. Sounds a bit simplistic. We can do better. I did the dishes when I got home from work. Steve called me. I don't know the reason. I don't know the reason why Steve called me on. We would usually admit the reason this is why it's in brackets and just say I don't know why Steve called me. If we have formal texts, which uses propositions plus, which we can replace that with a relative adverb to make the text appear less stiffened. Stuff stuffy. But that's the pub in which we first met. Sounds a little bit start stiff, doesn't it? So we say, That's the pub where we first met. Well, there was a bitterly cold winter, the year in which he was born. Better sounding is there was a bitterly cold winter the year when he was born. I will tell you the reason for which Greg is sad again. It sounds very old fashioned and stiff. I will tell you why Greg is sad is really what people would say these days on. The rules for restrictive and non restrictive clauses still apply here. So just a reminder, a restrictive or defining clause that's essential information, which we need to identify and known. And if we removed this clause, the centers either makes no sense or is missing important information. And when we do this, we need no commerce on a non restrictive or non defining clause as additional information toe announed that we've already defined. If we remove the additional clause, the sentence is fine. on. When we have this type of clause, we put commerce around the extra information. We look at some examples of those now. So when we had essential information, the pope where we first met is a special place. If we take hell this essential information that's underlined, we get the pub is a special place. What pub? Why is it special? The thing that makes it special is is the pub where we first met. That's important, or the seventies were a time when many fashion sins were committed. If you remember that time horrible wide trousers, massive jacket lapels, huge white ties, bad haircuts, shoes with platform, horrible, horrible stuff. Hopefully, I'll never come back if we remove the underlined part, which is the restrictive clause we get, The seventies were a time. What kind of time doesn't really tell us anything? Well, I don't know why Paul was late, that we just removed the underlined part, but yet I don't know the reason. What reason for what again, that it's missing important information. Annul the cases where we listed the complete sentence, your notice. There's no commerce anywhere to be seen. If we look at non restrictive or non defining clauses. We'll see that they add additional information. It's a Munich. Where I used to live is a fascinating city. We see the commerce around the non restrictive clause, which, when we remove it, Munich is a fascinating city. The fact that I used to live there, it's just a little bit of extra information. Summer, when it is warm, is my favorite season. I would remove the underlying part. Summer is my favorite season, which is a perfectly legitimate sentence. It tells us what we need to know the big about when it is warm is just a bit of extra information on the relative and for why cannot be used to introduce non restrictive relative clause is. 4. Comparative adverbs: this lesson is own comparative adverbs. The comparative adverbs compare one action with another. We have several different ways. We conform the comparative adverb, and sometimes we omit the thing that's being compared. If it's clear for short adverbs with what only one or two syllables we had er or are to the end of the word and please note the use of then when comparing adverbs on if the word ends in a Y, we usually replace that Why with an eye before adding er So Roy jumped high Boy jumped higher than me. Peter arrived late. Peter arrived later than soup on Please note here that late ends in an E. So we just add an art to it. We don't have to add another eat in an hour. John arrived early, Jonah like earlier than Bob on Dhere. The early ends in a Y replace the why, with an eye and at dia for adverts with for your more syllables, we had more or less in front of the adverb, so Jack drives carefully. Jack drives more carefully than David. Careful, Leah would be unwieldy and sound a bit strange, or stars shine brightly at night. Stars shines less brightly when it's cloudy on as usual in English, we have some irregularities. The Sarah plays tennis well. Sarah Place 10 is better than her brother, so the comparative of well is better. Jim's called badly on the test. Jim did worse than Paul. Badly. The net verb is worse. As a comparative and firm, Tony ran far today. Today, Tony ran father or further than Peter. Now we can use both father and further as the comparative of far. If you want to distinguish between them, you would usually use Father for a distance and further four concepts. But it's up to you, Jenny. Eight Little in the evening Jenny eight less than Fred. Her comparative of little is less on the comparative with much, and many is more, and we do sometimes omit the thing that we're being that's being compared. If it's clear what we're talking about, the teacher speaks more slowly for beginners, nothing is being compared here is fairly clear, and it's the way the teacher speaks for non beginner students. You need to work harder, implied. Then you are now. Jane began to speak more quickly, implied then she was speaking before bill drives more carefully now implied then he used to . So in these cases, we can see that when the comparator is clear, we don't need to state it. 5. Superlative adverbs: this lesson is on superlative adverbs. The superlative adverbs compare an action to three or more others. We have several different ways of forming the superlative advert and as well as comparisons , we also use them as intensive fires. When the context is clear, we usually emit the group. We're looking examples of all of these for short adverbs with what only one or two syllables had e s t or S t to the end on if there's a Y at the end. We replaced that with an eye before adding e S T Roy jumped high. Well, Roy jumped the highest. Peter arrived late. Peter arrived the latest and please note with late. It already ends in E so we don't add another E S t. We're just at an S T to the end and John arrived early. John arrived the earliest. So this one ends in a y. Replace it with I at DST for at first for three or more syllables. We don't do this because it gets too too unwieldy. So we add most or least before the adverb. So Jack drives carefully. Jack drives the most carefully off the mall. If we have said carefully ist it. It's unwieldy or stars shine brightly at night, starshine least brightly on a cloudy night and, of course, is English, So there are lots of irregularities. Her Sarah place tennis. Well, Sarah plays tennis of the best, so the superlative of well is best. Jim scored badly on the test. Jim did the worst in the class, so suppose were badly is worst. Tony ran far today. Today, Tony ran the fathers or furthest. Now, both farthest and furthest, are the superlative of far, and we often use farthest for distances and furthest force of concepts. And I think if you use either most people wouldn't mind or Jenny eight little in the evening. 28 the least in the evening, for the supportive of little is least on the superlatives of much. And many are both most ondas, whereas comparisons, most can also be used as a sort of intensifier on. When we do this, it sort of has the same Meaning is very that the table was most tastefully arranged again. We didn't have a lot of tastefully arranged tables, and that one was the most tastefully arranged. Now the table was most tastefully arranged that was very tastefully arranged, or Josi sang most beautifully during the concert I await for arrival. Most eagerly, I can usually tell when it's being used as an intensifier because the word that is missing and say the first example if we had really a range of tables of Aeltus aced Feli arranged on one of them was deemed to be the best. It was, say that table was the most tastefully arranged. But because the word that is missing this tells us that it's being used as a intensifier. When the context is clear, we usually omit the group. A. Lthough brothers are fast runners. Tony is the fastest implied off the brothers there. But because we've explain the context already, we don't need to repeat it now. The other way in which we omit the group is when we're comparing the same thing of various different situations or times. So if we were to say I work best by myself, I'm comparing myself to other times when other people are around and here again. In the first example we had, Tony is the fastest off a group, but I work best by myself, so there's no they're in these cases, or athletes run fastest after they have warmed up first and again. This is compared to pair in the same athletes toe how they run when they haven't warmed up or haven't warmed up properly or birds sing most actively in the early morning. We're not comparing how active they are, because if you did would be the most actively. We're comparing the birds and how they sink other times of the day. 6. Interrogative adverbs: this lesson is on interrogative adverbs. Interrogative adverbs are used to ask questions. The ones were used today. Are why, where, when and how. There are some old fashioned ones that we really don't use today on. We'll have a quick look of those, and how is a bit more interesting? Because it has several different ways of being used. His interrogative adverbs usually go the start of the sentence. If we look at the adverbs, why, where and when? Why does it always rain at the weekend? Why is my sister dating that guy? On all these examples, the adverb has been placed in italics to make it easier to see. Where should we go on holiday next year? Where did I put my reading glasses? When does the film start? When your parents arriving? In all cases, as you can see, there's all questions and so have a question mark at the end. There are some old fashioned adverbs that we don't use anymore on. These are where to whence and whither. If you do see these in old texts, just replace where to with to what end, replace whence with from where and plays with ER with to wear now. I don't want to spend loads of times giving examples on these, and I really only mention it in case you come across that when reading an older text more important is to look at how we use them today. Now, how has several different uses and it could be used to ask in what way? To what degree We can ask about quantities and we can ask about frequency or intensity. We look at some examples now, So using how toe ask in what way? How can I make my own website? How does this gadget work or be used? Toe asked. To what degree? Calvin at tribute or an adjective? How old is your wife? How tall is your father? We can use how to ask about quantities. How many apples you need? How much do the apples cost? Now? I folded many much and countable and uncountable toe highlight just as a brief reminder, maybe that we use how many for countable items and how much for uncountable items? If you need a bit of revision on this, please check out the countable uncountable lecture in the noun section. We use how to ask about intensity or frequency. How loudly does your husband snore? How often do you go to the gym? And as we said at the start, interrogative adverbs usually go at the start of the sentence. And all the examples we've seen up to now have followed this rule. But with indirect sentences. The verb does not follow the adverb. The dye rate question that we've had before is where is the treasure buried? Or if we use an indirect way, tell me where the treasure is buried? Another example of a direct question. When can we meet? And the indirect version is Let me know when we can meet and you'll notice again. The direct question has the question mark at the end on the indirect version doesn't 7. Adverbs of certainty: this lesson is on adverbs off certainty, adverbs of certainty. Answer the question. How sure. So they tell us how certain or sure we are about something and they're placed after the helper or motile verbs, but before other verbs. And if we look at negative sentences with adverbs of certainty, they can seem a bit strange at first. But we look at examples of all of these. They're usually placed before the verb, as in Jane definitely went toe work today. Ted clearly needs a lesson in manners. I certainly need a shower after going to the gym. In all cases, the adverb is in italics to make it easy to see, but their place after helper or modal verbs and the verb to be so I would certainly be upset if you forgot my birthday. The train will probably arrive late again. Martin is undoubtedly the smartest one here. John has certainly forgotten our appointment. If we look at negative sentences with adverbs of certainty, they can seem to look a bit odd or even break the rules. So have a look at this. So if we take the following sentence, it will definitely rain tomorrow. Now we want to make that and negative. So what do we do? It won't definitely rain tomorrow, or it will not definitely rain tomorrow. Now, first there's two. There's two main problems with this. Firstly, people don't actually say this and also, if they did say it, it wouldn't be what we wanted to say. So the opposite of it will definitely rain tomorrow. Where were certain that it will rain. We want to indicate a certainty that is gonna be dry, not rain. So the meaning of the sentence it will not definitely rain tomorrow actually means it won't definitely rain, but it might, and it's not what we want to say. So we have to do something else and we can't use this construct. They preferred incorrect way would be to say it will definitely not rain tomorrow. But what people will say and people love their contractions. People often say it definitely won't rain tomorrow, which seems to go a little bit against the so rules that we just stated. But it is what people say and it is what you will hear a lot. Now. We've looked at a handful of adverbs of uncertainty. There are really many more on they can be ordered. So if we look at this table, we have some adverbs of certainty arranging from definitely through. Probably maybe probably not indefinitely, not on by definitely. We can attach a certainty of 100% of that. And by definitely not we can attach a certainty of 0%. And we can look at the examples and you can sort of see, maybe you want to pause the video here and just look through the examples and make sure you're happy with them. But the question is, what sort of certainty do we attach to the adverbs? Between zero and 100? Almost put, might say about Maybe is 50 50 so maybe might be 50%. Probably some people might say 70 sometimes 80. So much a 90. In other words, the whole point is it is very subjective between zero and 100. Andi, you really have to take from contexts and know the people to know kind of when they say, probably or maybe how kind of certain they mean it 8. Adverbs of degree: this lesson is all about adverbs off degree, so adverbs of degree. Answer the question to what extent? So they tell us about the intensity or extent of something on adverbs of degree. Also tell us about the completeness of something on the usually place before the item that is modified, and we'll see plenty of examples showing this on. Please do not confuse adverbs of degree with adverbs of manner. And lastly, very is a commonly used adverb it degree that can usually be replaced with a better word. This is maybe a topic for more advanced students. There are many, many adverbs of degree on bacon be sort of ordered, so this rather large table get to you a list of 11 adverbs of degree ranging from absolutely at the highest intensity to scarcely at the lowest intensity. Onders a list in order going from highest down to lowest with some examples as well. So maybe you might want to pause the video and just check the examples for yourself. But here's the thing. It is very difficult to objectively attach. Meaning to these adverbs of degree is a very, very subjective area on one person might say but hardly is less than barely. Why put here barely being less than hardly. But the order is kind of accepted by most people, so quite is less intense and largely on largely to mostly to extremely and so on. What is it's very difficult to attack, sort of a number to this on. What we see here is that all these adverbs of degree are very subjective in the way that they used, so it's worth just bearing in mind when we look are examples, so adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity of something in winter. It is extremely cold here, not just cold. It's like really, extremely cold is very cold. Well, the boss strongly criticized the project manager, so the poor project manager wasn't just criticized by the boss. He was strongly criticised, which kind of makes it worse for him, Or or Jane thinks her new boyfriend is absolutely wonderful. So she thinks the world of him. Now these three examples show how something can be made, Mawr intends, but we can also use adverbs of degree to reduce the intensity. So Peter paid little attention during the meeting. The food in the canteen is quite nice is kind of OK, It's not amazing, is quite nice. It sort of reduces the positive statement of it. And I'm not entirely convinced by your argument, which means again is being used to sort of reduce the expression that is being said on adverbs of degree. Also tell us about the completeness of something they're on has completely finished her report. So all done. Nothing left to do. Jim has almost finished his report, so not much left. Mandy has partly finished her report again. We don't know how far could be 50%. It could be anything, really, between 30 and 70. Again subjective on Bob just started on his report yesterday, So he's really, like 10%. That's another thing. So there we see four different examples showing degrees of completeness. Now, please don't confuse adverbs of degree with adverbs of manner on. For more information on adverbs, off manner, please check out the lesson on that topic. He speaks Dutch fairly fluently. The police treated him fairly both of these adverbs, but they use in different ways. So, as we said earlier, adverbs of degree answer the question. How much so we're talking about how much or how fluently he speaks. Dutch is fairly fluently now, as you learn in the adverbs of manner that answers the question. How so? How did the police treat him? They treated him fairly on just one more example quickly. I'm terribly sorry. I was terribly so, really, I'm very, very sorry. Hope all explained the problem terribly. So in the first example, the I'm terribly sorry is showing to the degree to which he is. Sorry, how sorry he is. How was in the 2nd 1? It's an adverb of manner where it's explaining how he explained the problem. There was not very well on. We go on now to a bit of an advanced topic, so beginners will often use the word very to intensify something on. You can usually replace that with a better word. We'll have a look at some examples of that now, so Peter ran quickly to the other end of the pitch. Have we want to say he ran very quickly to the other end of the page. We can actually replace it with Peter, sprinted to the other end of the pitch. This is a better word. It describes what he did more succinctly, more, more briefly. Well, after the marathon race, John was tired. It's a marathon race, so in order to make it more intense, we say John was very tired, but there is a better word that we can use for very tired. We can say. After the marathon race, John was exhausted. One more example. I'm on a diet and I'm hungry. So if you want to intensify it, we say, I want to diet and I'm very hungry, which again is perfect. All these varies of perfectly legitimate. If you want to improve our English and make better use of the words we could say, I'm on a diet and I'm famished. 9. Adverbs of manner: this lesson is all about adverbs of manner, adverbs of manner. Answer the question. How so They tell us how something happened and they can modify verbs, adjectives or in clauses of a sentence. And they usually formed by adding L y toe adjectives. Of course, the exceptions to this it is, after all, English. Please do not confuse adverbs of manner with adverbs of degree. The placement of adverbs of manner can change the meaning of the sentence, and we look at examples for all of these now. Adverbs of manner are usually formed by adding the letters L Y to the equivalent adjectives . So example. Here's a quick swimmer, quick being adjective describing the swimmer, or he swims quickly. She paints beautiful pictures. She paints beautifully Well, the efficient secretary organized the event secretary organized the event efficiently. Of course, we have exceptions to this. This is, after all, English. So here we have one with two l's at the end of the word, and if we added L, why would get three l's together, which we really never have, So we just add a why to double l. So Sarah is shrill when she sings or she sings frilly we have. I see it The end we add an a l l Y I think this is makes it easier to say that they are enthusiastic musicians. They play enthusiastically. Now, here we have a a situation where we have l e following a continent on In this particular case, we don't add an l Why? Gently, slowly. We just replaced the e with a y. So the gentle medic lifted the injured driver or he lifted the injured driver gently. Now, if he Ellie follows a vowel, as in this case is actually takes a standard rule just at l y. So the child girl jumped over the wall She jumped Agile Lee over the wall on exception to this is whole becomes holy as we can see here if you have why following a continent we change the y two i l Why when we formed the adverb So the problem was easy to solve. She solved the problem easily. Now the exceptions to this are shy and sly, which form shyly and slyly respectively in the adverb form. However, if the Y follows a vowel, then that follows the standard at l Y rule for the Khoi woman answered the question. She answered coyly on the one exception to This is gay We write gaily with an I on if you e we don't add an l y we removed the from the adverb form. So the witness spoke true words. The witness answered Truly So you eat goes to you l y as an adverb on some adverbs. Of course. Don't end in l Wyatt all on his a few here where the adjective and adverb of the same so fast, hard, little much and straight the same word in the adjective and adverb form. So you just have to really make sure your clear which is which, on another exception, is the adjective good becomes the adverb Well, so you would say he is good at football, but he plays football well on another thing to watch out for Is it hard and hardly They almost mean the opposite so hard it means something is difficult or you'll see you're working hard on it. But you're not working hardly on it. Okay, so be very careful with that one. And please do not confuse adverbs of manner with adverbs off degree on for more information on adverbs of degree, please check out the lesson on adverbs of degree in this block. The police treated him fairly. He speaks Dutch fairly fluently, so an adverb of manner answering the question. How how the police treated him. They treated him fairly. All I was saying, He speaks Dutch fairly fluently. That's an adverb of degrees. So it's explain how well he speaks Dutch. And one more example. Paul explained the problem terribly. I'm terribly sorry. So the 1st 1 is terribly is not a problem manner. That explains how Paul explained the problem in this case. No very well. Well, I'm terribly sorry that terribly. Here's an advert of degree. Many like I really very, very sorry on. The placement of adverbs of manner can actually change the meaning of the whole sentence, and we'll look at some examples of this. She quickly agreed to go shopping, so her agreement was quick. Now someone asked her to go shopping and very quickly, she said, of course, or she agreed to go shopping quickly. The agreement wasn't necessarily fast, but the shopping was quick. Perhaps this examples a little bit clearer, he asked me quietly to leave her house, so he didn't shout. He just asked quietly when you leave the house. But this example he asked me to leave the house quietly, quietly refers to how I leave the house, not how he asked me. 10. Adverb of place: this lesson is on adverbs of place, So adverbs of place answer the question where so they tell us where something happened. They can refer to direction, a distance, position or movement. I usually go towards the end of the sentence, how we need to look a adverbs of place and propositions a little bit carefully. Adverbs of place when they refer to direction running up Hill is exhausting. Let's drive down there tomorrow. Save yourself. Run away. The ship sailed south east. The woods are located north of the town. The crowd gazed upwards of the stars. Aled. These cases, Thea and verb, is in italics to make a stand out easier or for into distance. My friend's houses nearby, near a supermarket, is not far away. Glasgow and Edinburgh are about 50 miles apart. The last example is more of a specific distance. The 1st 2 are general distances. When they refer to a position or location, we always go abroad. In the summer, your glasses air. Here. Tom lives above a restaurant. The slow runners started falling behind. They looked around but couldn't find their dog. Look up there. What kind of bird is that? Adverbs of place can refer to movement. The dog walked forwards, close your eyes and walk backwards. After a hard day at work, she was finally homeward bound. Train sped westwards at maximum speed. Soldiers marched onwards, eager to get out of the cold. I will need to look adverbs of place and propositions a little bit closely because they often get confused. The simple explanation is that propositions act on and required object, which is a noun or a pro known adverbs act on verbs, adjectives and other adverbs and have no need of an object. Jim injured his knee when he fell down. He had to use crutches and had problems going down the stairs. So in the first case, it's an adverb, a place he fell down, it says. Where did he fall? On? The second case? Down is a proposition down the stairs. Another example is, if you need some fresh air, you will need to go outside. That's where we need to go, or for young Children, because a young Children often color outside the lines. In this case, outside is a proposition. If we want to get really technical, you can say outside the lines is an adverb beall phrase because it describes where the Children color outside the lines. So outside the lines is the ad verbal phrase, which is comprised off a proposition on a noun. 11. Adverbs of time: this lesson is on adverbs of time, Adverbs of time. Answer the question when or how long So they tell us when something happened or how long it took. Please do not confuse adverbs of time with adverbs of frequency. Adverbs of time are usually placed at the end of the sentence, but we can place him at the start of the sentence to add emphasis to the time moderation so usually place him at the end of the sentence. So I would change my job next month. She left early. Today he's in the office now. It gives is to the win, and they can also use it to show how long. So bomblet in Italy for five years we haven't seen Peter since 2007 or Paul's toothache kept him awake all night. Now why? Why Underlined four. And since in this last examples, a very common mistake is for people to get these the wrong way round and will often hear people say they've lived in Italy since five years, which is wrong. So we used four for a generation and since a specific point. So Bob lived in Italy 45 years. We haven't seen Peter since 2007 is the correct usage off these two words. And we can put adverbs of time at the beginning of the sentence, too. Emphasised the time or the duration. So next year, John Bull run for president. Now we could have put it. John will run for president next year by putting it this way around with them for cited its next year or yesterday. I finished my assignment. I could have written. I finished my assignment yesterday by putting it this way. We emphasize the fact that it was yesterday or 12 years we've been engaged. We really should name the day now again. The 12 years is the thing that's being emphasized here. We could have expressed it differently. In a few minutes we will have the results and it will all be over. We could have expressed it differently. But by putting in a few minutes at the start of the sentence, kind of adds to the suspense and excitement off what the results will be 12. Adverbs of frequency: this lesson is all about adverbs, off frequency, adverbs of frequency. Answer the question. How often they tell us how often or how frequently something happened. Please don't confuse adverbs of frequency with adverbs of time. Adverbs of time. Answer the question when this is how often so please look at the adverbs of time lesson for more details on that so the frequency could be definite daily, weekly, yearly etcetera Like me. Indefinite really, sometimes often on the position in a sentence varies as well, because adverbs of frequency often described habits. We'll see the present simple tents being used a lot in the examples. They got some definite adverbs of frequency. I eat breakfast every day. And as in all the examples, the adverbs are in italics to make them stand out easier. We go to the cinema once a month. They go on holiday twice a year. I drink tea four times a day. We go to a restaurant every other week on never deviates from her daily routine. His salary is paid monthly. There's a definite adverbs of frequency. There's some indefinite had firms of frequency, But even though the indefinite, they can still be put in some sort of order, although is subjective. So if we look at this table and again, you might want to pause the table to read the examples. We've ordered them sort of from always, which is 100% of the time to never, which is 0% on we've got usually frequently, often normally, sometimes on these are all of them. By the way, there are not more adverbs of frequency than this table. This is used to illustrate a point. Now we can assign values of zero to never and 100 toe, always as a percentage. But what percentage value would you give frequently 60 70? It depends. What you give will be different from what somebody else gives. On Dhere. We see that the exact numbers are so subjective. But most people would agree that the order is correct, even though they wouldn't give the same values to the um, accepts. As we said earlier, the position in the sentence convey very for adverbs of frequency, so you usually goes before the main verb. She normally does well in exams. I usually take the bus to work. We occasionally eat Chinese food, but with Mu dolor, helper verbs and the verb to be he adverbs place between these verbs and the main verb. So we are always happy to see you. Bob would never laugh at work. Bill doesn't usually drink on a week day that you can see the motile helper verb on to be the advert next, and then the main verb. Now some adverbs of frequency go at the beginning of the sentence. Always wash your hands before the meal. Sometimes I cycle toe work. Occasionally we like to eat really hot curry. Once a month, we goto our favorite restaurant, and some adverbs of frequency go at the end of the sentence. I drink coffee every day. Judy goes on holiday twice a year. We go to our favorite restaurant once a month. I really am sorry, but there's no hard and fast rule that explains where you put these adverbs. You just have to see it and learn it and use it and practice it. I'm sorry about that and to make it more interesting, some adverbs of frequency. You're actually flexible in their positioning. Sometimes I cycle to work. I sometimes cycle toe work or even I cycle to work sometimes. But they're not that flexible that you can say I cycle sometimes toe work. This isn't an option that we can use. So we put a big red line through it. Fear of force. Not bad again. Reading is will help you practice them. You will find it easier with use in time and practice. 13. Adverbs of viewpoint: this lesson is on adverbs. A few point adverbs of viewpoint tell us whose point of view is being expressed. They also specify what part of something we're talking about And these adverbs a viewpoint usually at the start of the sentence, where they followed by a comma. They could be single words or adverb. You'll phrases will see examples of all of these now for adverbs of viewpoint tellers whose point of view is being expressed. In my opinion, you should accept the job, and then all these examples. As we can see, the adverb has been put in italics to make them easier to spot. This is an adverb. You'll freeze, in my opinion, followed by a comma, you should accept the job meaning here. I think that you should accept the job. According to the writer, the politician is corrupt, so the writer thinks that the politician is corrupt. The politician male moment may not be corrupt. That's not the point here that the writer thinks that he is or she is, to my bosses knowledge. I was sick that day. My boss believes that I was sick that day, whether I really wants sick that day is not the point here. The point is that his boss thinks he waas What I waas on adverbs. A few point could specify what part of something we're talking about as a sort of an aspect . And there are many, many, many possible adverbs here that we can use his viewpoint adverbs financially. It makes no sense at all, so something makes no sense. From a purely financial point of view, there may be other reasons that it does make sense, but financially seen, it doesn't physically. There's nothing wrong with you that might be your doctor saying this from a purely physical point of view. We're perfectly healthy. They might have mental emotional problems, but not physically. Officially, we can't walk on the lawn on our own, according to the rules. We can't walk on the lawn without a member being with us. We can still do it, but there are rules against it now. We said at the start that the adverb viewpoint usually starts the sentence. They really can be placed anywhere wherever we put them. We need to separate them with commerce from the rest of the sentence. We look at some examples here, we'll take the. In my opinion, you should accept the offer. As of the start, we could, of course, put it in the middle. You should, in my opinion, accept the offer on here. We see both before and after, so the whole of the adverb deception is surrounded by commerce. Or if he put at the end of the sentence, you should accept the offer comma. In my opinion, in each of these cases, that will have the same meaning. There's no difference in meaning. It's purely a positioning thing. However, when you place the adverb in the middle of the sentence, it's important to check readability and, if necessary, move it to the start or the end of the sentence if it makes it easier to understand for the reader. 14. Adverbs of opinion: this lesson is on adverbs off opinion, adverbs of opinion, also known as evaluative adverbs. Normally, adverbs describe how or when an action occurs, adverbs of opinion a different. They had information about the speakers of opinion off the events. Adverbs of opinion usually go the start of the sentence and they modify the entire following clause on adverbs of opinion. Have a certain similarity to adverbs of viewpoint. Although they are different, Adverbs of opinion are used to indicate a degree of certainty on In all these examples, the adverb will be in italics to make them easier to spot. Clearly, you have no idea what you're doing. It's clear to me that you have no idea what you're doing. Apparently you will have to do better means there are indications that you need to improve . Surely you can follow my argument. I am sure that my argument is easy to follow. In all cases, you see the comma after the advert of opinion. Well, they used to indicate attitude. Amazingly, he did very well on the test. I am amazed that he did well on the test. If I am the speaker, other people, maybe they expected him to do well. But for the speaker, he is amazed. Sadly, she couldn't come to the party I or the speaker sad that she couldn't come to the party. Surprisingly, the organic vegetables were cheaper. The organic vegetables were cheaper than the non organic. And this surprised me because normally there the more expensive ones. Lastly, we use adverbs of opinion to indicate judgment. Unlike other types of opinion adverbs, These don't go at the start of the sentence and usually follow the subject without commerce . I stupidly forgot my wallet this evening. I forgot my wallet. And I think it was stupid off me, right? Judgment of myself as I was stupid. You carelessly broke my favorite vase. Meaning? You broke my vase. And I think you weren't being careful. Maybe they thought they were being careful. But my judgment is that they were being careless. Julie bravely stood up to the bully. I thought it was brave of Judy to stand up for herself. 15. Adverb overuse: this lesson is on adverbs and the danger of adverb overuse. Adverbs are generally used to modify a Virgo. Other adverbs transcends adverbs of degree. Tell us about the intensity of something adverbs of manner. Tell us how something happened. If you find yourself using too many adverbs when you're writing, this is usually a sign that you could. You look for a news a better verb. Instead, this will improve your writing style to the some examples, Very is a commonly use adverbs of degree that can usually be replaced with something better . So, for example, Peter ran very quickly to the other end of the pitch you could write. Peter sprinted to the other end of the page, where sprinting means to run quickly after the marathon race, John was very tired and here, very tired. We could replace with Exhausted, as in after the marathon race, John was exhausted. Another example. I'm on a diet and I'm very hungry again, very hungry. We can find a better expression for this and say, I want a diet and I'm famished, and what we've done is we've used better verbs. Here, very is not the only adverb like this all of the examples in the previous slide and also be used with these adverbs. So I'm so hungry or better. I'm famished or really Peter, and really quickly, Or Peter sprinted totally. I'm totally hungry. Well, I'm famished. Adverbs of manner can also be overused. The door opens suddenly. How about the door burst open? Much better. Peter walked quickly into the room. I think we can do better than walked quickly. House about Peter stomped or strode into the room, much better writing style. We can also use adverbs in a totally redundant manner that he smiled happily. Well, if you're happy, you smile so you don't need both. It's fine. Just to say he smiled for the music, blared loudly. Well blaring is what music does when it's allowed, so you don't need the loudly. You can just write the music, bled the loudly and happily here, completely redundant and do not add anything apart from word count. And lastly, the word literally should be given special attention literally means there is no exaggeration. It happened exactly that way. This is what we mean by literally. She literally drink all the wine in the house, so there's no wine left in the house now I literally slept for 14 hours. Well, you must have been tired. So lucky you that you could manage it. But people often use literally when they should be using figuratively. So this is what you'll hear. People say. I got up later, Miss Breakfast. I'm literally starving. Well, im sorry, but missing one meal is not starvation. So no, you're not. I was so cross, I literally exploded with rage. No, you didn't. Well, that horror film literally scared me to death. What? No, it didn't. Because in the last two examples, you wouldn't be around to tell anybody. So again, be careful of using literally when you should be using figuratively.