English Language and Grammar - Adjectives | Derek Smith | Skillshare

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English Language and Grammar - Adjectives

teacher avatar Derek Smith, Experienced and qualified teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (30m)
    • 1. Introduction to Adjectives

    • 2. Adjectives - Different Types

    • 3. Adjectives - Comparing Equal

    • 4. Adjectives - Comparing Unequal

    • 5. Adjectives - Superlatives

    • 6. Adjective Order

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About This Class

Learn everything about adjectives. These can be seen in a number of different ways and this course looks at them in detail. Clear explanations and lots of examples help the learner.

The following adjective aspects are looked at in detail:

  • different kinds of adjectives
  • comparing equality
  • comparing inequality
  • superlatives
  • adjective order

Meet Your Teacher

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Derek Smith

Experienced and qualified teacher


Hello, I'm Derek - a qualified and experienced English trainer.

I have an IT background and have been teaching English to adults for over 10 years.

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1. Introduction to Adjectives: hello and welcome to this skill share course on adjectives. Adjectives have a fairly boring definition. It just says adjectives modify, announce and pronounce. This doesn't really convey the whole story about how important objectives really are, because they have a sort of a descriptive function on without them. We really can't convey information very clearly, and I'll give you an example to show you what I mean. Imagine we're with an art class and there are 10 people with their colors and their paper, and I asked them to draw a picture, and I say to them the cat sat on the mat on they go in for the picture. There will be 10 very different pictures that result from this because there's no real clear information about what I'm trying to tell them. For for use adjectives are made the description a lot Mawr precise and clear. I could, for instance, say the small black cat sat on the round green Matt. Then you would have 10 pictures are much more similar because some detail has been added. Some description has been added, and what I was trying to say to them is a lot clearer now because we've used adjectives. This isn't a huge long courses about half an hour on the first part to do with different types of adjectives. We then move on to quality for adjectives and then inequality of adjectives. And then we move naturally onto superlatives On the last lesson is to do with adjective order on. In this last thing, you will learn why we say, for example, there is a big blue bus and not a blue big bus. There is a class project with this where you have a chance to practice what we've learned that if you send me your answers, you can get some feedback and answers answers to your answers. I'll give you corrections and feedback. So I hope you enjoy the course. Please ask any questions you have Onda a good luck with the project. 2. Adjectives - Different Types: This lesson is on different types of adjectives. We can group adjectives into six common types. And these are descriptive, quantitative. Demonstrate active, possessive, interrogative, and distributive. And we'll look at examples of all of those now. Descriptive adjectives are probably the most common in use. And when you think of adjectives are things that describe nouns and modify nouns. The ones that usually spring to mind are these descriptive ones. For example, the dog is hungry. Tom is exhausted. Feels paintings are amazing. Pulls a comedian. He's funny. The flowers are lovely and have a wonderful smell. Now in this example, we can really see where adjectives are useful. If we didn't have them, we just say, flowers have a smell. Doesn't really tell us much. But send their lovely, Have a wonderful smell gives us much more information. And even better example is this next one. The red sofa has green cushions with blue stripes. And you can really sort of picture that in your mind. If we didn't have the adjective, you just say, the sofa has cushions with stripes. And you ask ten people, ten different ideas about what this so far looks like. What were the adjectives? You get a sort of a similar idea because it tells you much more detail what it really looks like. To quantitative adjectives. Tell us about a number or a quantity. And answer the question how many or how much. And just as a reminder, we use how many for countable nouns and how much for uncountable nouns. There are some counter examples. 27 people are swimming in the pool. My brother has three children. Please go to the shops and buy eight apples and seven bananas. Or we have some width. How much? I think your plants need more water. Did you really eat the whole cake? The old woman has many grandchildren. The demonstrative examples pointed out nouns or pronouns. And they always come directly before the word that they're referring to. And the four common demonstrative adjectives are this, that these and those, and they all have specific uses so that this and that are for singular items. And these, and those are for plural items. And then this, and these are for things close to us. And that, and those are for things further away. So that gives us the four. This is one thing close to me. That is one thing far away. These are many things close and those are many things far away. And we'll see examples of those. Would you like this cake or that cake? So this cake is nearby or that one is over there. I would like to buy that shirt at someone pointing to a specific shirt over there. Why did you buy these pairs to already rotten? Observe you have them in their hand or close by in a basket. And I wonder who owns those horses, they're magnificent. Someone's seen some horses further away in a field and they're referring to those horses over there. Possessive adjectives show ownership or possession. And the possessive adjectives are my, his, her. It's our y4. And they're, and they're all followed by a noun. For example, whose biases that it's my bike. Pizza sold his Carter Susan, it's her personnel. And the Hearst Now is not a possessive adjective is possessive pronoun. If you think, our houses grand, you should see there's. And so C is the possessive adjective because modifying house and last was theirs, and that's a possessive pronoun. Your cake is delicious, so much nicer than mine. And again, your is the possessive adjective and mine is the possessive pronoun. And as you can maybe tell by the name, interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions. And they are what, which, and whose. And they are always followed by a noun. And this is important. What film do you want to watch this evening? And here we see what followed by a noun. So it is an interrogative adjective. What do you want to do this evening is a very similar question, but what is not followed by a noun and so is not an interrogative adjective. It's actually an interrogative pronoun, which is why it's not in italics. Which tied you like with this suit. Do you know whose car that is? In this examples of the three types of interactive adjective in use and distributive adjectives are used to single out one or more things as nouns, pronouns, that type of thing. In common distributive adjectives are each, every, either, neither, and any. And again, they're always followed by a noun. And Linda wore a bracelet on each ankle. Every employee will receive a bonus this year. I don't mind what we watch either film is fine by me. Neither Bob nor Andy is qualified for the position. You can choose to music put on any CDU like I'll hope you noticed by the either and neither. We can pronounce them how you wish. Can either pronounce it either or either, and neither or neither. There's no preference as no one is correct, the other is incorrect as purely as you wish. The bride receive each and every present on her wishlist. And this is a slight sort of exception to the usage here. Because by using each and every, it emphasizes the fact that she received every single present on her wishlist. And it's a fairly common expression that you would use when maybe talking to somebody, but he may be not. You wouldn't use it in formal writing. 3. Adjectives - Comparing Equal: this lesson in the adjectives block is about comparing equality for objectives, so the comparisons could be positive or negative. When we compare adjectives, we use the form as something as and if two adjectives are not equal, we say not as something as we can use comparisons when asking questions. So good. Some examples. When we compare adjectives, we use the form as plus adjective plus, as so as something as Andy is as tall as his father. Now Liz is as pretty as her sister. Bob is passionate about films as Jim. In the first case, we're comparing the heights of the father and son in the second case, the looks of the sisters on 1/3 case, what they think about films and all has the same format as something as the comparisons and also be negative. Steve is as tall as his mother, but he's not as tall as his father again, it's still the same as something as it's in a negative case. It has a not in front of it. Jenny is a smart as her sister. She's not as smart as her brother, the new flat isas Bigas, the old one. My old car is not as expensive as my new one. See some examples with positive and negative together. We also use comparisons when asking questions. Do you think Suzy is as pretty as her sister is your new house as big as your old one is, Paula's tall is you? Did you find Rome as interesting as Paris? Is your new sofa as comfortable as your old one? Are the sales figures as bad as predicted and in all cases, the same former as something as but this case using questions? 4. Adjectives - Comparing Unequal: this lesson is on adjectives on how we compare them when they're unequal. Comparisons could be positive or negative, several different ways to form the comparative adjective. We use comparisons when asking questions. So that's how we form the comparative for short adjectives of one or two syllables at E. R. Or are to the end on If the world ends in a y replaced the wider than I before adding er and words that end in a vowel plus a single continent often double the constant in the comparative form. But we'll see examples of all of these Now the film is long. The film is longer than I remember. So long is the adjective and longer is the comparative form. Sandra is pale in comparison Sounders paler than her friend. Please note here that pale ends with an e so we don't add an e. R. We just haven't are. John is funny. Joan is funnier than Andy. And here we see the example where Funny ends in a Y on is replaced with an I before e. R. The house is big. Your house is bigger than my house. This is an example where we have a vow. With a single continent on we make two G's to make bigger fat goes to fatter and so on. And for adjectives with three or more syllables, we ADM or before the adjective the dress is beautiful. This dress is more beautiful than that one. This car is expensive. This car is more expensive than the one I bought last year. If we try to say expensive a or beautiful Earth, it gets a bit unwieldy. That's why, after three syllables, we just Adam or in front of it to make the comparative throughout. Of course, as his English irregular versions, the imperative form of good is better. So here we see the example. Sarah is good at tennis, sir is better than her brother on the comparative, for bad is worse. So Jim is bad at football. Jim is worse than Peter Tony Enron. Far Tony Ran Father than yesterday. Some people use further, but the general consensus is to use father for distances and further first of abstract concepts on the comparative form of little is less so. Jenny. Eight Little food in the morning Jenny a less in the morning in the evening, on the comparative versions of much, and many is more so good. Some examples when we compare unequal adjectives whose comparative form of the adjective plus then Andy is taller than his father. Now Liz is prettier than her sister. Bob is more passionate about films than Jim. Your house is bigger than my house. When we're comparing equality, we can have the positive or negative so it can be equal or could be not equal. Steve is taller than his mother. He's not taller than his father. Jenny is smarter than her sister. She's not smarter than her brother. The new flat is bigger than the old one on my old car is not more expensive than my new one on Dhere. We see the formation in the positive. We have comparative plus then than a negative form, not comparative Preston. I think it's quite straightforward with news comparisons when asking questions. Do you think Suzy is prettier than her sister? Is your new house bigger than your old one is pulled taller than you? Did you find Rome or interesting than Paris? Is your new so for more comfortable than your old one? Are the sales figures worse than predicted? So all of these questions we do, the format is still the same. We use the comparative adjective plus, then, when asking our questions. 5. Adjectives - Superlatives: this lesson is on superlative adjectives. We use superlatives, adjectives to compare three or more items in several different ways in which we formed the superlative adjective. And if the context is clear, we often omit the group when talking about superlatives. So how do we form this? Or for short adjectives of only one or two syllables we had e s t or s t to the end of the adjective. If the word ends in a why we replace the why with an eye before adding years t on adjectives that end in a vowel plus a single continent often double the continent when forming a superlative. We look at examples of all of these. Now the film is long. The film is the longest one ever made because we're talking about only one we usually use there in front of a superlative. So is the longest. Sandra is pale. Sandra is the pay list one on the beach. Because pale ends in an E, we only add an esti to form a superlative. We don't add another e to it. John is funny. John is the funniest person I know because funny ends in a y. We replaced the why with an eye before forming a superlative. As we see here that elephant is big. It is the biggest elephant I have ever seen. This is an example where we have a vow on a single continent on when we formed the superlative, we make two G's out of big to form biggest A similar with factors to teeth to form fattest and so on for longer adjectives with three or more syllables. Having e s t would be unwieldy, so we had most in front of the adjective to form the superlative. The dress is beautiful. The dress is the most beautiful of them all. Well, this suit is expensive. This suit is the most expensive I have ever bought. If we try to say the dress is the beautiful list or the expensive ist, it's unwieldy. That's why we use most in front of the adjective to form a superlative on. Of course, this is English, so there are some irregularities with supportive adjectives. So superlative of good is best. Sarah is good at tennis, sir is the best in the tennis club. Supportive of bad is worst, so Jim is bad at football, Jim is that the worst in the team support of far sort of farthest or furthest. Some people use them interchangeably. If you really wanted a distinction, you could say that farthest is used for measurable distances, and furthest is used for more abstract concepts so Tony can run far. Tony ran the furthest on. The supportive of little is least Jenny. Eight Little Food In the evening. Jenny ate the least food and even and the supportive of much, and many is most. And if the context is clear, we can omit the group when we're comparing. So all the brothers are fast runners. Tony is the fastest implied off the brothers. But because it's clear we're talking about the brothers, we don't need to repeat it again. When we're making the comparison. We all drink at the same time. Let me drink the quickest. So if you imagine this Ah, 123 Go on. You will try and drink that bears quickly as possible. On Lenny was the one who finished first. So we all drink at the same time. Let me drink the quickest off us. We don't need it again on the whole team played well Paul played the best. So in this case, with the best off the team. So I don't need to repeat the team. Is it clear from the context that that is what we're talking about? 6. Adjective Order: this lesson in the adjectives block concerns the order in which we use them. But when several adjectives are used to describe a noun, the order is not random. And if it's put in the wrong order, the sentence really sounds unnatural. Because native speakers have been hearing the correct order off all their lives instinctively get it right. But as a language learner, you won't have this experience available to you to fall back on. But here is the generally accepted order of adjectives. Okay, you may want to pause the video here to read thumb. I was see basic order starts with quantity, an opinion, size, quality, shape, age, color, material, origin and purpose. And unfortunately, I know no pneumonic, which will help you remember those Some people actually print the list out and stick it somewhere s so they can see it. Onda should point out it is very unusual to have more than three adjectives in a row. You have a beautiful old Swiss clock, which is opinion, Asian origin. Opinion is beautiful. I think it's beautiful. It is old and it comes from Switzerland. 12 shiny red apples. 12 is the quantity, the shiny. That's a quality adjective on their red as the color off, um, or a big brown wooden bridge, the size, color and material a lovely big metal frying pan that actually do have four. So have opinion. I think it's lovely. It is big, is made of metal, and it's used for frying this pan. A lovely big metal frying pan. And if we tried to put those wrong way around any off them, they would really sound unusual. So if you said red shiny 12 Apple's just to sound so weird 12 red shiny apples it just doesn't quite sound correct. And, um, I'm afraid just have to accept this on day. Try and get the order. Correct. Now, if we have two adjectives from the same group we actually put, and between them we'll see what we mean. Here the shop sells old and new books, so you have to from the age category. We put an end in between or the blue and Orange House we have to from the color category, Um, all we can have, of course, different categories as well. So our old black and white television. So we have an age in color in color. So we write it like this. Our old black and white television on another one with different categories. A big wooden and metal bridge, so have size with two material groups. Now, if we have three or more adjectives in the same group, we treated almost like a list, and many adjective groups are not suited to this type of use. So if we had say shape, you couldn't describe something as being round on DTI triangular and rectangular on DFLers at It just doesn't make sense. But groups like color and material does make sense as we'll see that the red, white and blue house toe red, white and blue all come from the color group, and we treat it like a list red comma white, no comma on blue. If we have other groups with it will have the big old wooden plastic and metal bridge. The old, big and old come from different groups, so we just have that with blanks as usual, and then the wooden plastic and metal we treat like a list. We have the big old wooden comma, plastic and metal bridge, so no comma between big old old and wooden and then at the end before and might look a bit strange, but it is the way it's used. If you read lots of books and things, you will see that this is how it's used.