English Grammar for Beginners | Kate Ochsner | Skillshare

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English Grammar for Beginners

teacher avatar Kate Ochsner, English grammar courses

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

18 Lessons (1h 2m)
    • 1. Intro video

      1:06
    • 2. SENTENCE STRUCTURE the SVO( ) formula

      4:56
    • 3. HOW to INDENTIFY A SUBJECT

      2:51
    • 4. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

      2:06
    • 5. A AN, THE or NOTHING

      1:56
    • 6. How to create a Question – the WASV formula

      4:37
    • 7. CAN

      2:15
    • 8. PRESENT SIMPLE

      8:51
    • 9. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

      3:05
    • 10. PRESENT CONTINUOUS & GOING TO

      8:00
    • 11. PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS

      2:51
    • 12. COMPARATIVES & SUPERLATIVES

      8:16
    • 13. TWO VERBS TOGETHER VERB + ING OR TO

      2:30
    • 14. THERE IS THERE ARE

      2:56
    • 15. SOME ANY

      1:44
    • 16. HOW MUCH HOW MANY

      1:25
    • 17. MUCH MANY A LOT OF

      1:53
    • 18. THE POSSESSIVE ´S

      1:09
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About This Class

Learn English grammar easily. Master your English grammar skills with this course.

  • This couse structured in Grammar Packs with everything you need to improve your English easily.

  • I will be adding more grammar classes, so please follow me.
  • Learn grammar topics in a very easy to understand way with subtitled video lectures.

  • You will practise everything by doing review exams at the end of the class.

This “Beginners" Course is focused on learning Basic English structures, grammar and vocabulary equivalent to:

  • The “Starters" level from the Cambridge University in the UK.

  • The A1 level in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

  • 0-56 points at the TOEFL exam (Test Of English as a Foreign Language).

Meet Your Teacher

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Kate Ochsner

English grammar courses

Teacher

Hello, I'm Kate.

I´m originally from Boston, Massachusetts (USA).

I am an ESL teacher with a BS in English Education, with over 20 years´experience teaching English.

I have worked for several companies and language schools, as well as translated books, and online articles.

I have taught Business English classes, English literature, English Theatre classes, and Cambridge Exam Preparation courses.

I created my courses in 4 different levels to perfectly fit your needs. From Beginners to Advanced levels.

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Intro video: 2. SENTENCE STRUCTURE the SVO( ) formula: sentence structure the S V o Formula. Hello. In this video, we're going to explain to you how the sentences are created in English, their order and elements. This lesson is very important. Please pay attention in English. All sentences have the same structure. Subject plus verb plus object. For example, I read a book where I is the subject. Read is the verb and a book is the object. If we want to say when the action happens or where it happens, we can put it at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. For example, yesterday at home I read a book or I read a book yesterday at home, we have the same structure, but we put the time and place at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If we want to say how the action occurs, we put it at the end of the sentence. For example, he speaks English very well. Something more to know. A subject and a non object can have this structure on article plus adjective plus noun. The first thing is a word that we call article. That could be the words in the previous lessons for example, a on the this that it tells us if it is something near one thing, a lot of things, etcetera. The second thing is the adjective. We put adjective in brackets because sometimes we don't use an adjective. An adjective is a word that describes a person or a thing, for example, big the last thing. But the most important is the noun. It could be a person or a thing. Let's put this all together in the morning. I paint this old house. I is the subject. Paint is the verb, and the object has three parts. This is the article. Old is the adjective and house is the noun. Another example. The brown dog. It's a big cookie. In this sentence, the brown dog is the subject. The is the article. Brown is the adjective and dog is the noun. Eat is the verb. A cookie is the object. A is the article. Big is the adjective and cookie is the noun. Be careful. There are some exceptions. Don't use this formula in passive because the order is different in imperative because there is no subject and when you use the verb there is or there are because there is no subject. Please watch this lesson again. If you don't understand 3. HOW to INDENTIFY A SUBJECT : how to identify a subject. A subject is the person or thing that makes an action verb in English. We have I you he she it we you, they This is the most common way to talk about a person or people. But sometimes we can say, for example, my mother, my father, John or Tim and Susan. We have to know if, for example, my mother is the same as saying you, he she or it. Let's see the most common ones. For example, my mother is the same as she because my mother is a woman. Then if we have to create a sentence with my mother as the subject, we say my mother is a doctor, as you can see we use is for the verb to be because the verb to be with the person she goes with is, Let's see another example. If we say my father as my father is the same as he because my father is a man, then we use is for example, my father is a teacher. As you can see we use is for the verb to be because the verb to be with the person he goes with is, Let's see another example. If we say Tim and Susan, then as Tim and Susan is the same as they. Because Tim and Susan are two people, then we use our for the verb to be. For example, Tim and Susan are friends. As you can see, we use our for the verb to be because the verb to be with the person they goes with our check the table in this lesson to learn some other important subjects to identify if they behave like a he she it we you or they 4. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: demonstrative pronouns this that these those Hello. In this video, we're going to tell you how to use the words this, that these those we use this to say something that is near us. And that is one thing. For example, this house, as this is for one thing we have to use is if we are using the verb to be, for example, this is a house we use that to say something that is not near us. And that is only one thing For example, that house again, as that is for one thing we have to use is if we are using the verb to be, for example, that is a house we use these to say some things that are near us and that are more than one thing. For example, these houses as these is for more than one thing, we have to use our if we are using the verb to be, for example, these are houses. We use those to say some things that are not near us and that are more than one thing. For example, those houses again as those is for more than one thing, we have to use our if we are using the verb to be, for example, those are houses 5. A AN, THE or NOTHING: a on the or nothing. Hello. In this video, we're going to show you how to introduce a person or thing in a conversation with the words a, the or nothing and when to use them. We use the words a on the or nothing to introduce things. Or people, depending on which word we use were saying if the thing or person is known or unknown and if it is only one or more. For example, when we say a man, we indicate that it is only one man and that we don't know who this man is. We use a Onley for singular one thing or person, but when we say the men, then we know this man. We can use the for singular and plural, as in the two men. A and a new are the same, but we use a new when the following words starts with a vowel or muted H, for example, un apple or a Nower. We use nothing when we talk about things. In general, for example, cars have four wheels. We're saying that all cars have four wheels. We don't say the cars have four wheels 6. How to create a Question – the WASV formula: how to create a question. The W A s v formula. This is a very important lesson. We created the W A s V formula so you can use it when you need to ask a question. Always used this formula to remember how to create a question because you can use it in all verbal tenses. Let's see the formula W A s v question Mark where w are the interrogative pronouns? Like what? When, Where, How, Why, who? How much How many etcetera it is in brackets, because it can be or not in the questions, when we ask something in a yes or no type of answer, we don't use any interrogative pronoun we call the A in the formula the auxiliary, and it is the word we use when we do a negative sentence, but without the not part. For example, in present, simple, a positive sentence is you speak English, and when we change the positive sentence into a negative sentence, we say you don't speak English. So in this case, the auxiliary or a is due. That is the word we used to change a positive sentence into a negative sentence, as you can see to find the A for R W A s v formula, we first make the negative and then take out the part of the word before the not part or n apostrophe t another example. She plays tennis, then the negative. She doesn't play tennis. So for the w A s V formula, just use does as it is the part next to the n apostrophe T Please remember how to find the A because it is a trick you can use for all Ferb tenses. S is the subject V is the verb. So if you have to create a question, use the W A s V formula and you won't forget any element. And you will put each element in the correct place. Let's see some examples with the W A s V formula. Where do you live? What are you reading? Some examples without the w interrogative pronoun when we ask something in a yes or no type of answer In these questions, the answer is yes or no. For example, do you like the Beatles? Does she speak English? Be careful exceptions in which you don't use this Formula one when you use the verb there is, or there are to for the imperative tense. Three. When you are asking for the subject, for example, who is your brother? Four. When you use the verb to be, for example, when is your birthday? 7. CAN: can in this video, I'm going to explain to you your first motile verb can. Ken describes a new ability that someone has or a permission. Let's see some examples of Ken expressing ability. Sue can play volleyball very well. My car can run very fast. Now let's see some examples of Ken expressing permission. I don't have school today. I can go to the park or in negative. I have school today. I can't go to the park. Ken is a motile verb. So as all motile verbs, we do the negative sentences in the motile verb. Let's see some negative sentences. Jim can't speak German. My mom can't help me now because she is working as we do the negative in the motile. Then this means there is a new auxiliary in R W A S V formula. Let's see some questions. Can you help me with this exercise? Can you open the door, please? Look, that we're using the W A s V formula again. Where Ken is Thea auxiliary s is the subject and V is the verb 8. PRESENT SIMPLE: president. Simple. Hello. In this video we're going to show you how to create and use the present simple tense, The most common verb tense in English. You have to remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. Number one When we use this verb tense we use present simple to say repeated actions like habits or routines. For example, I wake up at 8 a.m. every day. We can use present simple to say general truths and permanent situations. For example, the sky is blue. I am a boy. I don't speak German Number two how we create a sentence in present Simple. There are three groups one if we want to use the verb to be Then we say I am You are he is she is it is you are they are we are and in negatives. I am not. You are not. He is not. She is not. It is not. You are not. They are not. We are not. And in questions Am I Are you? Is he is she Is it? Are you Are they are We remember that when we use the verb to be, we always use the verb to be to do the negative sentences in questions We just put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence to If we want to use the verb have got Then we say I have got you have got he has got She has got It has got you have got They have got We have got for negatives I haven't got you haven't got he hasn't got she hasn't got you Haven't got they haven't got We haven't got And for questions Have I got Have you got Has he got Has she got Has it got Have you got Have they got Have we got in the third group There are all the verbs that are not the verb to be or have got Please remember these three different groups because it is very important When you do the negatives or interrogative sentences let's see how we create the sentences in present Simple with verbs that are not the verb to be or the verb have got Let's start with the positive sentences Let's use the verb play we say I play you play But in he she it we say plays So the subjects he she it make the verb and in s plural subjects we you and they play as you see the different ones Are he she it where the verb ends in s Let's see the negative sentences to create a negative sentence. We need a word called the auxiliary. Look at the examples. I don't play. We add don't before the verb you don't play. But in he she it we say he doesn't play without the s. She doesn't play without the s and it doesn't play without the s. We don't play. You don't play. They don't play as you see again that the different ones are he she it where we put doesn't before the verb and leave the verb without the s. Now take a look at the questions to create a question we need on auxiliary again we say, Do I play do you play? But in he she it we say, Does he play without the s? Do we play? Do you play? Do they play again? The different ones Are he she it where we put does instead of do watch the w A s V lessons For more information on how to create questions and three, which are the typical words from this verb tense. As we use the present simple to tell actions that are repeated. The typical words of the present simple are the words that tell us on action is repeated like always, sometimes usually normally often not often, hardly ever. Never. All these words are called adverbs of frequency because they tell us how frequently on action is repeated. Please watch the adverb of frequency video. Other words that tell us of frequency are every day on Mondays or any other day on the weekends or any word of time ending in s means that the action is repeated at that time. 9. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY: adverbs of frequency. The adverbs of frequency are these words that tell us how frequently on action happens. They tell us if the action happens always or sometimes or never etcetera. We must know two things. The order and the place in the sentence. Let's start with the order, starting with the most frequent to the least frequent. Always normally, usually frequently, often sometimes not often, rarely, hardly ever. Never. Let's see where we put them in a sentence. The adverbs of frequency go before the verb look at the examples. I never played tennis. She often reads books. But there is one exception in the verb to be the adverb goes after the verb to be. For example, you are always happy. They are normally at school in negative sentences. The place is the same. I don't normally play tennis. She doesn't often read books, or, in the verb to be you aren't normally happy. They aren't usually at school. There are other words to indicate frequency, but they go at the end of the sentence. Some examples are every day, every week, two times a day, three times a month, once or twice. Remember, they tell us a frequency, but they go at the end of the sentence and not before or after the verb. Let's see some examples. I go to the gym three times a week. She is at school every day. 10. PRESENT CONTINUOUS & GOING TO: president continuous and going to hello. In this video, we're going to show you how to use the present continuous tense and the most common expression for the future. In present continuous, that is be plus going to remember that in each verb tense we must know three things. One, when we use this verb tense, we use present continuous in three different situations one. When the action is happening now to when we want to describe something. And three when we were talking about the planned and near future to how we create a sentence. In present, continuous all continuous tenses follow the same structure. Be plus verb ending, plus i N g. The present continuous the verb to be goes in present. For example, the boy is playing football. They are eating a cake. We are drinking water as we have a verb to be to create the negative sentences or questions we use the verb to be the same sentences in negative are the boy isn't playing football, they aren't eating a cake. We aren't drinking water. And the questions we just moved the verb to be and put it at the beginning of the question is the boy playing football. Are they eating a cake? Are we drinking water? Remember to use the W A s V formula. When you are creating a question in this example, there isn't a w The A is where you do the negative. In this case, the verb to be the S is the subject that is the boy. And the V is the verb that is playing. There's another important thing to remember. When a verb has only one syllable and ends incontinent plus vowel plus constant, we double the last continent. For example, run running. Stop stopping number three which are the typical words from this verb tense. If we use the present continuous to talk about something that is happening now, the typical words in this tens are the words that tell us that something is happening now, like now at the moment. Or look, listen. If we use the present continuous to talk about the near and planned future than the typical words are tomorrow, Today, tonight, this weekend. Another important thing to remember are the state verbs. There are some verbs that don't make sense in the continuous tense, for example, the verb to want We don't say I am wanting on ice cream right now. We say I want a nice cream right now so the action can happen now, but we don't use this verb in a continuous form. Here are a list of verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form. Verbs of the senses here see smell verbs of the feelings like love, hate, need want wish, care, mind, fear, verbs of prices or measure cost measure way. Contain verbs of possession. Have got own, belong, possess exist verbs of opinion. Believe, doubt, feel forget. Guess hope. Imagine. No mean prefer, realize. Recognize, remember, seem, I suppose. Think, understand. Now let's see the going to structure we use going to talk about the near and planned future , so the same as the present continuous. There are two ways to say an action to do in the near and planned future. The structure is to be plus going Teoh plus verb. Let's look at some examples. John is going to come home for Christmas. You are going to do homework tonight as we have a verb to be. The negative sentences and questions are created with the verb to be the negatives are. John isn't going to come home for Christmas. You aren't going to do homework tonight. And the questions are Is John going to come home for Christmas? Are you going to do homework tonight? Check that. We're using our W A s V formula where r is the eggs, Ilary you is the subject, and going to is the verb. 11. PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS: president. Simple verse President Continuous. I'm going to tell you the differences between the present simple and the present continuous and know when to use one or the other. When you are in an exercise where you have to choose one tense, you have to use thes three methods. One. No, the theory to no the typical words and three Translate the sentence into your native language in the present. Simple verse present continuous case one. The theory is that we use present simple for repeated actions like habits or routines to, say, general truths and permanent situations. We use the present continuous to describe an action that is happening now or when we're talking about the planned and near future to the typical words for the present. Simple. The adverbs of frequency like normally usually often, sometimes rarely, hardly ever never or every day and for the present Continuous. Now at the moment, look, listen or to night Today, tomorrow or next week. Remember the state verbs. So when you find a state verb, it doesn't normally go and present continuous. It probably goes in present simple. Some state verbs are here. See, like love, hate, need, want cost have got believe, Forget, no mean prefer or understand. Three. Always translate this sentence into your native language to check if you are doing the exercise well. 12. COMPARATIVES & SUPERLATIVES: comparatives and superlatives in this video, I'm going to show you what a comparative and superlative is, when to use them and how to create them in English. Let's start with the comparatives. We use the comparatives to compare one thing to another thing. Let's use the adjective fast to create an example. My car is faster than your car. To create a comparative sentences, we have to check first. If the adjective is short or long. We consider short when it has one or two syllables, like in fast, short, thin, big, cheap, easy, funny or old. For short adjectives, we create a comparative sentence by adding E. R at the end of the adjective, and then then look at the example. My dad is older than my mom. My sister is thinner. Then may. There are two spelling rules here that you have to remember. One. When an adjective has only one syllable and ends incontinent plus vowel plus continent, we double the last continent, for example, sin sinner, then big, bigger, then two. When the adjective ends in, why then change? Why, for I e. R like in easy, the comparative is easier than or funny, funnier than let's see how we create a comparative sentence when the adjective is long. We say an adjective is long when it has more than two syllables, like intelligent, expensive, interesting or careful. Then we create a comparative sentence by adding more before the adjective and then after the adjective look at the examples, this house is more expensive than my house. Tim is more intelligent than Susan. If you want to say the opposite than use less, for example, this house is less expensive than my house. Tim is less intelligent than Susan. If you want to say that both things are equal, then use as plus adjective plus as look at the examples, this house is as expensive as my house. This exam is as easy as the previous exam. Now let's see the superlatives to create a superlative sentence. We have to check first if the adjective is short or long. We consider short when it has one or two syllables, like big or fast, and we consider it long when it has more than two syllables like intelligent, expensive for short adjectives. We create a superlative sentence by adding E S T. At the end of the adjective and the before the adjective look at the example. My dad is the oldest person in my family. Tokyo is the biggest city in the world again. Remember that there are two spelling rules. One, when an adjective has only one syllable and ends in continent plus vowel plus continent, we double the last continent. For example thin We add the fin ist or big the biggest two. When the adjective ends in. Why change? Why? For I e s t like an easy the superlative is the easiest or funny, the funniest to create a superlative sentence. We add the most before the adjective look at the examples. The house is the most expensive house on the street. Brian is the most intelligent kid in my class. If you want to say the opposite, then use least for example, this house is the least expensive house on the street. Now there is something you have to remember. There are some exceptions. When the adjective is good, the comparative is better than and the superlative is the best. When the adjective is bad, the comparative is worse than and the superlative is the worst. When the adjective is far, the comparative is further than and the superlative is the furthest. Look at the examples. I am better than my brother at basketball. Manchester United is the best team in the world. 13. TWO VERBS TOGETHER VERB + ING OR TO: two verbs together verb plus I N g or two. In this video, I'm going to teach you what to do when you want to say to verbs together in English, sometimes in a sentence. We want to save two verbs together. I want to go home. I like eating ice cream in English. The second verb always has to go in i n g form Jared and or in the to form infinitive. How do I know which form it has to use? The first verb tells you if the second verb has to go in Geren or infinitive after these verbs. The following verb Haas to go INGE errand or I n g form Like hate, enjoy love mind in positive or negative. For example, she hates reading books. I love swimming in the lake. As you can see, the following verb goes in i n g form. After these verbs, the following verb has to go in infinitive or to form I want or need. For example, I want to start the exam. He needs to go to the doctor. As you can see, the following verb goes an infinitive form. Check the list of verbs to see which verbs are followed by Jarron int or infinitive form 14. THERE IS THERE ARE: there is. There are first check in the vocabulary. The meaning of there is or there are we use. There is when there is only one thing. For example, there is one person on the street. There is one tree in the garden we use. There are when there is more than one thing. For example, there are two cars on the road. There are 10 tables in the classroom when we want to say something that is uncountable like water, gasoline, sand, pollution, money, salt, sugar, fire, music, art, electricity, oil, furniture, milk, everything. Something, nothing. Anything. Everybody. Somebody, anybody. Nobody we use there is. For example, there is water on the table. There is money in my wallet. There is something on my bed. Let's see how we do the negatives as there is, or there are has a verb to be. We just put the verb to be negative. Look at the examples. There isn't a cat in the house. There aren't windows in my bedroom. Now let's see the questions as we have a verb to be. We do a question like we do in the present. Simple. We just put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence. For example, is there a ball in the garden? Are there good restaurants in your town? 15. SOME ANY: some any. We use some and any when we want to say that there are more than one, but not a lot as we use some or any when there is more than one thing, we put the thing in plural. When it is a countable noun, we use some in positive sentences. There are some shops in the street. There is some milk in the fridge. Look that we say shops in plural because there is more than one. We use any in negative sentences and in questions. There aren't any elephants in the zoo. There isn't any cheese in my sandwich. Look that we say Elephants in plural in questions. Are there any museums in the city? Is there any water in the bottle again? Look that when the thing is countable, we put it in plural ending with an S. 16. HOW MUCH HOW MANY: How much How many we use? How much? How many? When we ask for the amount of something, then we only use them for questions. So we use our W A s V formula and put how much? How many in the w column we use? How many when we ask for something that you can count? For example, How many CDs have you got? How many bedrooms are there in your house? Look that we use. There are because it is a countable noun we use how much when we ask for something that you can't count like water. For example, How much water is there in the fridge? How much money is there in my bank? Look, that now we use there is because it is an uncountable noun. 17. MUCH MANY A LOT OF : much, many a lot of we use much, many or a lot of to say that there are a big amount of things we use a lot of for all the positive sentences. For example, there are a lot of people in the restaurant or there is a lot of food on the table look that we use are for accountable now owns and is for uncountable mountains. We use much or money for the negative sentences or in questions. The difference is that we use much for in countable noun like water, gasoline, sand, pollution, money, salt, sugar, fire, music, art, electricity, oil, furniture, milk and we use many for countable mountains. We say there isn't much pollution in my town or there aren't any flowers in the garden in questions. Is there much sugar in my coffee or are there many parks in your city? 18. THE POSSESSIVE ´S: possessive s in this video. We're going to show you how to use the possessive s. We use apostrophe s when we say that somebody has something. For example, if Mary has a blue car, we say Mary's car is blue. But be careful because we only put the apostrophe when the person ends in s, for example. In my cousins, we don't say my cousins is bikes. We say my cousins bikes without the s we use apostrophe s only for people when a thing has something we use of. For example, the capital of France is Paris. We don't say France's capital is Paris.