English Grammar: Upgrade your speaking and listening | Anthony Kelleher | Skillshare

English Grammar: Upgrade your speaking and listening

Anthony Kelleher, Bachelor of Arts TESOL - English Teacher

English Grammar: Upgrade your speaking and listening

Anthony Kelleher, Bachelor of Arts TESOL - English Teacher

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
65 Lessons (6h 1m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:24
    • 2. Had better (Learn)

      7:33
    • 3. Had better (Things to Note)

      7:12
    • 4. Had better speaking practice (Master)

      4:17
    • 5. Had better listening practice (Master)

      5:56
    • 6. Enough and too (Learn)

      4:47
    • 7. Enough and too (Things to Note)

      7:39
    • 8. Enough and too speaking practice (Master)

      4:25
    • 9. Enough and too listening practice (Master)

      6:39
    • 10. So and such (Learn)

      5:43
    • 11. So and such (Things to Note)

      3:30
    • 12. So and such speaking practice (Master)

      4:20
    • 13. So and such listening practice (Master)

      5:24
    • 14. Used to (Learn)

      8:15
    • 15. Used to (Things to Note)

      2:44
    • 16. Used to speaking practice (Master)

      4:17
    • 17. Used to listening practice (Master)

      6:25
    • 18. Present continuous (Learn)

      6:24
    • 19. Present continuous (Things to Note)

      3:06
    • 20. Present continuous speaking practice (Master)

      4:23
    • 21. Present continuous listening practice (Master)

      5:55
    • 22. Present simple (Learn)

      6:27
    • 23. Present simple (Things to Note)

      2:44
    • 24. Present simple speaking practice (Master)

      4:33
    • 25. Present simple listening practice (Master)

      6:45
    • 26. Past simple (Learn)

      4:11
    • 27. Past simple (Things to Note)

      3:49
    • 28. Past simple speaking practice (Master)

      4:28
    • 29. Past simple listening practice (Master)

      6:27
    • 30. Present perfect (Learn)

      12:42
    • 31. Present perfect (Things to Note)

      5:40
    • 32. Present perfect speaking practice (Master)

      4:17
    • 33. Present perfect listening practice (Master)

      5:17
    • 34. Going to (Learn)

      7:17
    • 35. Going to (Things to Note)

      4:30
    • 36. Going to speaking practice (Master)

      4:15
    • 37. Going to listening practice (Master)

      6:05
    • 38. Will (Learn)

      5:10
    • 39. Will (Things to Note)

      2:50
    • 40. Will speaking practice (Master)

      4:17
    • 41. Will listening practice (Master)

      6:22
    • 42. Relative clauses (Learn)

      4:11
    • 43. Relative clauses (Things to Note)

      4:06
    • 44. Relative clauses speaking practice (Master)

      4:00
    • 45. Relative clauses listening practice (Master)

      5:46
    • 46. Verb + -ing (Learn)

      7:02
    • 47. Verb + -ing (Things to Note)

      4:26
    • 48. Verb + -ing speaking practice (Master)

      5:06
    • 49. Verb + -ing listening practice (Master)

      7:10
    • 50. Both, neither and either (Learn)

      14:45
    • 51. Both, neither and either (Things to Note)

      5:26
    • 52. Both, neither and either speaking practice (Master)

      5:24
    • 53. Both, neither and either listening practice (Master)

      5:47
    • 54. Even (Learn)

      8:48
    • 55. Even (Things to Note)

      2:24
    • 56. Even speaking practice (Master)

      4:44
    • 57. Even listening practice (Master)

      7:13
    • 58. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' (Learn)

      8:33
    • 59. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' (Things to Note)

      3:10
    • 60. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' speaking practice (Master)

      4:50
    • 61. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' listening practice (Master)

      6:54
    • 62. Must (Learn)

      9:55
    • 63. Must (Things to Note)

      2:25
    • 64. Must speaking practice (Master)

      3:18
    • 65. Must listening practice (Master)

      6:15
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

129

Students

--

Projects

About This Class

English Grammar Launch is an intermediate English grammar course taught by me, Anthony, a native British English speaker. You will learn the target grammar structures at a deep level, so that you can sound more native-like when you speak English.

This course includes: 

  • Lectures for the target structures
  • Listening and speaking practice for every single grammar structure
  • Future updates - this course will continue to grow and grow
  • PDF transcripts
  • And MP3 downloads so that you can learn anywhere, any time.

Each section focuses on one, two or three target structures so that you can master each one and produce it accurately in your spoken English.

If you want to speak English more clearly, if you want to sound more native-like, or if you simply want to take your English to the next level, this course can help you achieve your goal of improving your English.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Anthony Kelleher

Bachelor of Arts TESOL - English Teacher

Teacher

Hello there.

My name is Anthony, and I’m from London, England. I am living in Canada.

I have a bachelor’s degree in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and Linguistics, and I have taught thousands of students all over the world for the past 10 years. My teaching has brought me from London to China to South Korea to Canada. I have now returned to Canada where I run a successful language school.

Send me a message if there are any particular topics you would like me to focus on for future courses in the English as a second language field. I look forward to hearing from you.

See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
    0%
  • Yes
    0%
  • Somewhat
    0%
  • Not really
    0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

phone

Transcripts

1. Introduction: welcome to English grammar Launch. Thanks for joining me on this course. Here's just a little introduction. So you know what to expect and how to get the best out of this course for he is a basic structure of each section. We're going to learn to understand fast in this part. You will learn the meaning off the target English structure. In the second part of each section, you will learn the things to note these things are other important things related to the target structure. So you will refine your understanding. And finally you will master the English. You will practice the English through speaking and listening exercises to try and go through each section so that you really start to master the English. You don't just understand it, but you master it. You train your brain to absorb the English so that you can use it naturally. That's the key. Now, each section also has MP threes for you to download. I suggest you download thes and listen to them as much as you can not just once or twice listen many, many times because each MP three targets a particular grammar structure. So when you listen to the MP three again and again and again, you'll train your brain to absorb the grammar. And this will really help you in both listening and speaking when using the target structure. There are also PDFs off the MP three so that you can read what you listen to. So I suggest you download all the materials available to you. Let's get started with this course. 2. Had better (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is had better. So first of all, let's look at the example centers and the meaning. Four had better look at this example. Your sickness is getting worse. We had better go to the doctor today. So what's the meaning? Off had better in this example had better means that you should do something. If you don't do this thing, there will be a problem or danger in the future. Had better is very similar to Should we use should to give advice to people okay, to say what we think someone else should do. So I think you should buy this dress because it looks pretty. However, had better is different, too. Should because if we give someone advice, using had better. If they don't follow the advice, there will be a problem or danger. Do you understand? So that's the difference. Should is for general advice. If I say to my friend, you should try this chocolate bar, it's delicious. If he doesn't follow this advice, there's no problem or danger. It just means he doesn't eat the chocolate bar. But if I say to someone, your sickness is getting worse, you had better visit. The doctor in this case had better means. If you don't follow this, there is a problem or danger that could happen. So if you don't go to the doctor, what is the problem or danger that could occur? The sickness could get worse. They might develop another illness on day. Could, God forbid die? So there are many problems or dangers. If you don't go to the doctor when you have a sickness now, the problem or danger doesn't always have to be very, very serious, like death or sickness. Another example I'll give you is this one. Imagine there's a very, very busy Italian restaurant that I want to visit. I say to my friend, Let's visit the Italian restaurant. However, it's very, very busy, so we had better book a table in advance. So why did I use had better? Because there is a problem or danger that might happen if we don't book the table now. The problem is quite small. It just means we won't be able to eat at the restaurant if we don't book in advance. But a small problem is OK. We can still use had better in this situation. So let's move on to the structure off this grammar. So the structure for had better in the positive is simply had better, plus a basic verb like walk, see or go to the example sentence that you can see below reads. We had better leave now. Otherwise we will be late so you can see had better plus leave. Leave is the basic verb. Now look at the negative structure for had better. The negative structure is had better plus not plus a basic verb. So the example says you had better not be late for work. There is an important meeting today, so you can see the structure. It's highlighted in Bold had better plus not plus B, which is the basic verb. And finally, the question structure this is quite rare we don't often use had better in a question form , but we sometimes use it. So here is the structure structure for had better in The question for me is hadn't plus I he she etcetera, so you can put a pronoun here or name of the person, plus better plus a basic verb. So the question below says, hadn't we better drive? It's quite far to walk. Let me highlight one thing about the question form for had better. It's usually used as a negative. So you saw the structure hadn't plus pronoun or name plus better. So hadn't we better drive? Now the negative actually means positive. It's strange, but this is the way English works. Sometimes English is a strange language, so if I say to my friend, it's very, very cold outside. Hadn't we better drive to work? I've used the negative. Hadn't we better drive? But I'm saying I think it's a good idea to drive. I'm not saying I don't think we should drive. I'm saying we should drive, So just remember that if we use had better in the question, it's usually negative. But the negative means positive. It means I think we should do this. Let me give you another example to make it clearer for you. If I see some Children playing on a busy street, which is very, very dangerous, I can say to those Children, Haven't you better go to the park? It's much safer. So I used the negative hadn't knew better go to the park. But this negative means you should go to the park. I think it's a good idea. If you don't follow this advice, there will be some dangerous situation or problem that could occur. So let's move on to the next lecture. See you there. 3. Had better (Things to Note) : So now that you understand the meaning off had better and the structure off had better, your level of understanding should have risen. Now we're going to look at some things. You need to note just some other things about the structure that are important to know. So let's look at the first thing that we should note had better is usually contracted in spoken English to I'd better You'd better She'd better, etcetera. So contracted means to make shorter. So instead of saying I had better go to the doctor, we contract I and had to become ID. I'd better go to the doctor, or I can say you had better go to the doctor, usually in spoken English. This will be contracted to you'd better go to the doctor. So we contract the subject Andi had, especially when it's a pronoun like I he she. But we can also use it for names. So if I say imagine my friend John or Antony, let's say Antony, which is my name. If I say Antony had better visit his parents because he hasn't seen them for a long time, Anthony had better visit his parents. I can say Aunt need better. Can you hear that? And to need better. So I'm contracting Antony and had to become onto need and to need better visit his parents so we can even contract names. This is quite common, especially in spoken English. Let's look at the second thing to note, as I mentioned in the first lecture had Better is similar to should, but not exactly the same. Use had better for saying this is a good thing to do now and use should to say this is a good thing to do in general. So look at these two example sentences. It's going to rain soon. We had better take an umbrella, so this is a good thing to do right now in this particular situation. It's happening in this moment. But look at the second example Wet rains. You should always take an umbrella. Now, this is not talking about a particular situation right now. This means it's a good thing to do. In general, you should always do it. Whenever it happens, you see, to the first example is a particular situation. The 2nd 1 is a general thing. Let's look at the third thing that we have to note had better is always used to talk about the present or the future. So look at these two examples. Come on, we'd better go now or else we'll be late. So this is talking about the present. You can see the word now it's a We'd better go now. This means in the present we should go. We should go in this moment. The second example is talking about the future. We haven't seen my parents for months. We better visit them tomorrow. So the time word tomorrow indicates it's talking about the future. So this is an important thing to note because had better, even though had is a past tense verb on its own. Had is the past tense off have, but had better is not the past tense at all. It never talks about the past. It's always talking about the present or the future, so don't get confused by the verb hat. It's actually nothing to do with the past, always present or future. Now let's look at the last thing that you have to note. We often use oh, or else or otherwise to say what will happen if we don't follow the advice. So look at this example. You had better stop eating junk food every day, or you will get fat. You can also say, or else you will get fat. Yeah, otherwise you will get fat. So they're trying to say, If you don't follow my advice, this will happen. So this is a really important thing to note because using these words can extend your sentences when using had better so use or or else or otherwise to say what would happen if you don't follow this advice, let me give you one more example just to make everything clear. Imagine there's a new movie coming out next week and I say to my friend, We'd better book a ticket, Ali. Otherwise we won't get a seat, you see, So the bad thing that might happen is we won't get a seat, so I used. Otherwise I could also use or or else so we'd better book a ticket early or else we won't get a seat. The meaning is the same. So use these words to extend your sentences when using had better 4. Had better speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for had better listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master had better. Let's get started. It's going to be very hot and sunny later. We'd better bring some sun cream and our sun hats. You'd better set two alarms. Otherwise you won't wake up early tomorrow. Who else shall we invite to the wedding? We'd better invite. Aren't Joan Otherwise she will be really upset. The new Marvel movie is released tomorrow. ID better book the tickets now. Otherwise we won't get a seat at the cinema. My toothache is getting worse and worse every day. ID better book a dentist appointment as soon as possible. You'd better eat a large breakfast. You need lots of energy for your performance today. Hadn't you better call your mother? You promised you would call her today. You'd better close the windows and lock the door when you leave the house. Everyone is tired after the long journey. We'd better stay in today and relax. Sam had better not borrow my car without asking again. Otherwise I'll be really angry. Can is extremely busy in there. You'd better not disturb him for a while. You haven't paid the house rent for last month. You had better pay soon. Otherwise the landlord will be annoyed. The new Turkish restaurant is so popular. We'd better book a table early. George, your classwork and homework are not good enough. You'd better try harder. Otherwise you won't get into university. This meat looks bad. We'd better not eat it. Your car is absolutely filthy. You'd better clean it before you pick up Uncle Lee. The computer keeps crashing and deleting all my work. We'd better get it fixed. We haven't seen your parents for a few months. We'd better visit them soon. 5. Had better listening practice (Master): listening practice for had better listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master had better. Let's get started. My eyesight is getting worse and worse. I'd better get my eyes checked and buy some new glasses. My eyesight is getting worse and worse. I'd better get my eyes checked on by some new glasses. Leela is really angry with you. You'd better hide. Leela is really angry with you. You'd better hide. Hadn't we better put a bigger lock on this door? I'm worried about thieves in the area. Hadn't we better put a bigger lock on this door? I'm worried about thieves in the area. This president has promised so much for the people of the country. He'd better not break his promises or else there will be huge public anger. This president has promised so much for the people of the country. He'd better not break his promises or else there will be huge public anger. This movie is so boring, it had better finish soon. Otherwise I'll just walk out before the end. This movie is so boring, it had better finish soon. Otherwise, I'll just walk out before the end. I'd better throw this broken ladder away. Otherwise someone will get hot. I'd better throw this broken ladder away. Otherwise someone will get hurt. Mike had better pick up that broken glass. It's dangerous with these kids running around. Mike had better pick up that broken glass. It's dangerous with these kids running around. I'd better start cooking now. The guests will arrive in two hours. I'd better start cooking now. The guests will arrive in two hours. Michael, you are rushing your classwork. You'd better slow down. Otherwise you'll make lots of mistakes. Michael, you are rushing your classwork. You'd better slow down. Otherwise you'll make lots of mistakes. Sorry, pool, but we'd better not by the new car you want. It's too expensive for us now. Sorry, Paul, but we better not by the new car you want. It's too expensive for us now. You'd better not sit too close to me. I have a cold and I don't want you to catch it. You'd better not sit too close to me. I have a cold and I don't want you to catch it. Your novel is fantastic, but you'd better rewrite this chapter because it's not exciting enough. Your novel is fantastic, but you'd better rewrite this chapter because it's not exciting enough. 6. Enough and too (Learn): the target structures for this lecture are enough, and to so let's look at the example sentence for the first structure. Enough. Here's the example. Sentence. I'm 18 years old now. I am old enough to drive. So what does old enough mean in this sentence? The words in bold indicate that the person is the necessary age to drive. It means the person is the age needed to drive. Now let's move on to the meaning off to Here's the example sentence Joan, you need to slow down. You were driving too fast. So what, to the words too fast mean? The words in bold indicate that John is driving faster than is needed or necessary. He needs to slow down, so enough and two are related because they talk about a quantity off something. So in the first example, sentence the quantity waas about age, how many years someone has lived. So if I say I'm old enough to go out on my own, this means I have the necessary years in my life to go out alone. I'm 18 1920. I'm old enough to also talks about a quantity or an amount off something in the example, sentence. We saw the person was driving too fast. The speed that he was driving was Mawr than necessary or was needed. He should slow down, you see, so it's usually talking about quantity off something enough means it's good. It's sufficient to usually means more than sufficient. More than enough. Let's look at the structure for these two words. The structure for enough is like this. We use an adjective or an adverb, plus enough. Let's look at the first example. I think I am strong enough to lift this on my own, so that's an adjective. Plus enough. On the second example, the zebra ran quickly enough to escape from the lion. This is an adverb, plus enough. There is a second structure that we can use for enough, and it is enough plus noun. So I can say I have enough money to buy the car I like so you can see enough, plus the noun money. It means I have a sufficient amount of money to buy the car I like. Now the structure for too to is usually used with an adjective so two plus an adjective. The example is this car is too old Let's buy another one. So the car is older than is necessary. It's older than I like, so I don't want it I want and new a car. So I hope the meaning and the structure is clear for you. Now let's move on to the things we need to note for enough and to see you in the next lecture. 7. Enough and too (Things to Note) : So let's look at the things we need to note when using enough. And two, Let's bring your understanding off these structures to the next level. Let's look at the first thing, so I'd like you to compare enough and to just so that the meaning is even clearer for you. So first of all, enough, this bed is big enough. What does it mean? It means it is a good size for me. That's what I'm trying to say. This bed is big enough. It's a good size for me. It's perfect. Let's use the negative form. Now. This bed is not big enough. What does this mean? I'm trying to say it needs to be bigger. It's not sufficient for me because I'm big. The bed is small. It's not big enough. Now let's use to. This bed is too big. This means it needs to be smaller. It's too big for me. It's more than is necessary, so it needs to be smaller. So that's a comparison off enough, and to just so that you can understand them better. Let's move on to the second thing that we should note we can use enough without and down if we mentioned the noun before or if we know what the person is talking about. So one of the structures remember is enough, plus noun. But if we know what the noun is, we can leave it out. Look at this example off Jane and Paul talking to each other, Jane says, I'm going to buy some more wine for the guests. Pull replies. No, we have enough. So here he's just used enough because he's just trying to say we have enough wine. Jane mentioned wine, so Paul doesn't have to repeat it. You can mention wine if you like. Paul could say No, we have enough wine, but it's not necessary. We can delete it if we wish. If the meaning is clear, let's look at the next thing we should note for these two structures we can use much on many with two. Much is for uncountable knowns. Many is four countable now owns. Look at these examples. I ate too much ice cream today. I feel really sick now, So here I've used much to mean the quantity was a lot. An ice cream is an uncountable noun. We cannot count it, so we should use much the second example. There were too many people at the beach today. We couldn't sit down anywhere. So here I've used many because people is accountable. Now we can say to people three people, four people. That means it's countable, So use many. Here's the next thing that we have to note very often we use for somebody or fourth something which is a noun with enough and too. So look at this example Using enough. Our school doesn't have enough space for the Children, so four is talking about who the problem effects. It effects the Children. Second example way using, too. That T shirt is too big for you. Who does the problem effect? It effects you. That T shirt is too big for you, So when using four, it can be omitted. It's not necessary, but it makes the meaning much, much clearer. If I say our school doesn't have enough space, this means the problem is affecting everyone. But if I want to focus who the problem effects. If I'm thinking about the Children, the students, I can say our school doesn't have enough space for the Children. So I'm thinking about the Children it's affecting them more than anyone else. Similarly, if I say that T shirt is too big, we probably know who it's affecting. If I'm talking to my friend face to face and he's wearing a T shirt, I say that T shirts too big. The meaning is clear. But if I say that T shirt is too big for you, the meaning is even clearer. It means for your body for your shape. The T shirt is too big. Get a smaller one. Let's look at the last thing that we have to note very often we use to do something a verb with enough and too. Look at this first example. The weather isn't warm enough to have a picnic today, so you're giving the reason why you said the weather isn't warm enough. It isn't warm enough to have a picnic today. Look at the second example. She is too young to drink alcohol, so if I just say she is too young, the person won't know what I'm talking about. Two young for what? Too young to do what? So I say she's too young to drink alcohol, so I hope those things to note have made everything much clearer on developed your understanding off enough on day two. Make sure you move on to the practice exercises the speaking on the listening. And don't forget to download the MP threes. Listen to them as much as you can. This will help you to really understand and master all these grammar structures. See you in the next lecture. 8. Enough and too speaking practice (Master) : speaking practice for enough onto listen to this sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master enough onto Let's begin . Come on, Robert. You're not working quickly enough. But these questions are too difficult for me. What do you think of the interviewee? I don't think he has enough experience for the job. He's too young. The cake I baked isn't sweet enough. It needs more sugar. The famous author, C. S. Lewis famously said. You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream. Sorry, there aren't enough chairs for everyone to sit down. Sorry, I'm too busy to talk now. Can you call me back later? The piano was too heavy to move, so we call a company to help us. Do we have enough time to visit my parents on the way home? No, it's too late. Let's visit them tomorrow. I need to buy a new suitcase. This one isn't big enough for all my stuff. I'm going to buy some things from the shop. Shall I buy some milk or do we have enough? This road is too dangerous to play on. Go to the park, but the park is too far away. Do you ever want to run your own business? Definitely not. I'm not patient or determined enough to run a business. James is an excellent student, but his work is too messy. Sometimes it's not clear enough. This curry is too spicy for me to eat. My mouth is on fire. Jane and Emma saw Johnny Depp at the movie premiere, but they couldn't get close enough to take a picture with him. Michael speaks some Spanish, but not enough to have a conversation. How is the food? The pizza is too salty for me. Brazil beat Mexico for nil. The Brazilian team was too strong for the Mexicans. 9. Enough and too listening practice (Master): listening practice for enough and too, listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master enough and too let's get started. How was your trip to Canada? Did you enjoy it? It was amazing. There are so many beautiful places to see. We didn't have enough time to see everything we wanted. How was your trip to Canada? Did you enjoy it? It was amazing. There are so many beautiful places to see. We didn't have enough time to see everything we wanted. This file is too large to put onto my USB drive. I'll have to find another way. This file is too large to put onto my USB drive. I'll have to find another way. What do you think of my painting? It's very good, but it could be better. There's not enough color over here, and this part is too white. What do you think of my painting? It's very good, but it could be better. There's not enough color over here, and this part is too white. Wow, this house is perfect. There is a pool, a large driveway and enough space for the kids to run around. Wow, this house is perfect. There is a pool, a large driveway and enough space for the kids to run around. Do you have enough wine or would you like some more? No, thanks. We have enough. Do you have enough wine, or would you like some more? No, thanks. We have enough. Let's go to the beach this weekend. It's not warm enough to go to the beach. Let's wait until the weather against warmer. Let's go to the beach this weekend. It's not warm enough to go to the beach. Let's wait until the weather gets warmer. If you're determined enough, you can do anything in life with enough dedication, anything is possible. If you're determined enough, you can do anything in life with enough dedication. Anything is possible. There are too many cars on it, Too much pollution in this city. I'm thinking about moving to another place. There are too many cars and too much pollution in this city. I'm thinking about moving to another place, Mohammad Ali once said he who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life. Mohammad Ali once said He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life. I'm really sorry, but I'm too sick to go to work today. No problem. Make sure you get enough rest. I'm really sorry, but I'm too sick to go to work today. No problem. Make sure you get enough rest. I'm going to paint the bedroom today. Is this color bright enough? Oh, no. That color is too strong. Let's choose a softer color. I'm going to paint the bedroom today. Is this color bright enough? Oh no. That color is too strong. Let's choose a softer color. Nowadays, phones are small enough to carry around with us, but they weren't always so small. In the 19 eighties, they were too big to carry easily. Nowadays, phones are small enough to carry around with us, but they weren't always so small. In the 19 eighties, they were too big to carry easily 10. So and such (Learn): the target structures for this lecture are so and such. Okay, let's look at the first structure. So have a look at this example Sentence. The restaurant was great. The food was so delicious. So what's the meaning off? So in this case, the word in bold so makes the meaning stronger. The food wasn't just delicious, it was very delicious. Let's move on to the meaning off such Let's look at a very similar example Sentence so you can compare the restaurant Waas Great. They served such delicious food. So what does such mean? The world in bold such makes the meaning stronger, just like so. The food wasn't just delicious, it was very delicious. There we have so and such the meaning off these two words is this same. They just make the following words stronger. So what's the difference? The difference is in the structure how we use the words in the sentence which will go over in just one minute. But let's go back to the meanings of the meaning off so and such make words stronger. So instead of just saying, the weather today is beautiful, I can make this meaning stronger. I can say the weather today is so beautiful. Can you feel the difference? Notice how I pronounce the word as well. So don't just say the weather is so beautiful in a flat tone. Emphasize the word so the weather is so beautiful. This this gives the meaning. So much more strength. Andi. It gives it more passion and feeling the same with such. If I have a really delicious meal at a restaurant, I could say that was a delicious meal. But if I want to show passion, Andi, give more emphasis to the meal. I can say that was such a delicious meal. Notice the pronunciation again that was such a delicious meal. Make it stronger. Give it more emphasis and passion. Now let's look at the structure. This is the important difference between so and such. First of all, let's look at so the structure for so is so plus an adjective or an advert. So the first example sentence shows an adjective. John is so slow at driving, so you can see we're making the meaning stronger. We're not saying John is just slow. He is so slow. A driving the second example shows an adverb. John drives so slowly. So that's the structure for so now let's look at such such, actually has two structures. Here's the first such plus an adjective plus and noun. So this is one of the big differences between so and such very different structure. So look at this example. It's similar to the one we just looked at. John is such a slow driver. Can you see the structure? So I have used such plus the adjective slow. But in this case we have to use a noun as well. It's the now now used is driver John is such a slow driver on the second structure for such is simply such plus a noun. For example, Einstein was such a genius. So here we have such plus the noun genius. So I hope you understand the meaning much, much better now the meaning between so and such is actually the same. The difference is in the structure to just remember that. Now make sure you move on to the next lecture the things to note and don't forget to complete the practice exercises as well. They're listening. And the speaking this will train your brain to master the structures. See you in the next lecture 11. So and such (Things to Note): So let's look at the things that we have to note for so and such. Actually, there's just one thing we're going to focus on, one of thing that we have to note, but it's very, very important because it can expand your sentences to make them longer and more interesting and descriptive. So let's look at the thing we have to note we often use so in. Such with that to express how we feel or what we're going to do to look at these examples. The weather is so beautiful that I'm going to have a picnic. So in this example, I used that to say what I'm going to do because the weather is so beautiful. I'm going to have a picnic, so that extends the sentence. Look at this next example. It's such a rainy day that I'm going to stay inside again. I used that to extend the sentence. I explained what I'm going to do because it's such a rainy day. It's such a rainy day that I'm going to stay inside now. You can also leave out that it's not necessary to use it. So look at these sentences. The meaning is exactly the same as the two we just went through. But we left out the word that the weather is so beautiful. I'm going to have a picnic. See, I left out the word that but the meaning is exactly the same. Similarly, with the second sentence, it's such a rainy day. I'm going to stay inside. So this is a very important thing. I want you to note listen as well to the intonation off the sentence when we use that with so and such. Listen to my intonation with this example sentence. It's such a rainy day that I'm going to stay inside. Can you hear? The intonation is rising up and then it's falling. It's such a rainy day, but I'm going to stay inside, listen to another example. The weather is so beautiful that I'm going to have a picnic. Can you hear the intonation? The intonation is how the language moves like music. It goes up and then it goes down. Listen once more. It's such a rainy day. I'm going to stay inside to the intonation. For this structure is also very, very important to move on to the next lectures, which are the practice exercises. See you there 12. So and such speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for so and such. Listen to the sentence, then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master so and such. Let's begin. The iPhone was such an amazing invention. It really changed the world. The food was so bad that we complained to the manager of the restaurant. Nina and I had such a wonderful time in Vietnam. We didn't want to come home. It only took us 10 minutes to get to your house. I didn't realize you lived so close to us. The 9 11 terrorist attacks in New York were such a shock that most people remember exactly what they were doing at the time. Gina, you're such a sweet little girl. Paul is so strong that he can lift me above his head. He's got such big muscles. Oh my God, it's so late. Let's go home now. Mahatma Gandhi was such an inspirational man that he peacefully led his country to independence. Tim just got back from Las Vegas. He lost so much money on gambling that he is worried about telling his wife, London is a great city to live in. But It's so expensive. Hussein Bolt sprints so quickly that the other athletes have almost zero chance to win. As a doctor, you can earn so much money. But it's such a stressful job. Our dog died last week. Phillip is so sad that he can't stop crying. The neighbors are driving me crazy. Their music is so loud, the walls are starting to shake. Your English is so fluent now How did you improve so rapidly? Hi, Mike. I'm so sorry, but I'm going to be late. There is such a lot of traffic on the roads today. Kevin, it's so nice to see you again. Hi, Roy. I haven't seen you for such a long time. 13. So and such listening practice (Master): listening practice for so and such. Listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master So and such. Let's begin. Shakespeare was such a masterful writer that his work is still studied and celebrated today . Shakespeare was such a masterful writer that his work is still studied and celebrated today . The movie was so boring, I fell asleep halfway through. The movie was so boring, I fell asleep halfway through. Russia is such a vast country that it takes days to cross it by car. Russia is such a vast country that it takes days to cross it by car. We went to a Rolling Stones concert last night. They were so energetic and impressive. We went to a Rolling Stones concert last night. They were so energetic and impressive. The roads were so icy and so dangerous that the government issued a warning. The roads were so icy and so dangerous that the government issued a warning. I haven't eaten since breakfast. I'm so hungry I could eat a horse I haven't eaten since breakfast. I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. The new Spider Man movie is incredible. It's so good that I went to see it twice. The new Spider Man movie is incredible. It's so good that I went to see it twice. Leonardo da Vinci was such a genius that some experts believe his i Q to be one of the highest ever. Leonardo da Vinci was such a genius that some experts believe his i Q to be one of the highest ever. What have you got in this bag? It's so heavy, I can't lift it. What have you got in this bag? It's so heavy, I can't lift it. The ballet dancer moved so beautifully that the audience were silent in amazement. The ballet dancer moved so beautifully that the audience was silent in amazement. Some parts of the world's oceans are so deep that we don't even know what's down there. Some parts of the world's oceans are so deep that we don't even know what's down there. Some fans was so excited to see Brad Pitt that they fainted. Some fans were so excited to see Brad Pitt that they fainted 14. Used to (Learn): The structure that we're focusing on in this lecture is used to the first thing I want you to notice is the pronunciation off this structure used to the spelling u S E d used Andi t 02 Because we have a D at the end of used on a T at the beginning of tube thes two sounds merged together in English. They almost become one sound, and what we do is we delete. We omit the dirt the D sound at the end of used, so it just sounds like used to use two. Can you hear that? Used to. That's just something you can note in terms of pronunciation. Let's move on to the meaning off used to. There are two main meanings. Let's look at the 1st 1 nowadays. I don't play sports, but I used to play sports every day. I used to play football, tennis, rugby and badminton. So what's the meaning of the words in bold? The words in bold indicate that something happened often in the past an action, but doesn't happen now. This meaning shows that I played lots of sports before, but now I've changed. Now I don't play lots of sports, so something has changed from the past to now. Let's look at meaning to Hong Kong used to be a British colony, but it was handed back to China in 1997. So there was in bold indicate that something was true in the past but isn't true now. This meaning shows that Hong Kong belonged to Britain before. But now it has changed. Now it isn't true because it belongs to China, so you can see the meaning off years two. There are two meanings there quite similar. The first meaning is to do with an action something we do. For example, in the example I gave used to. I used to play football, but now I don't. So this is an action. The second meaning is something that was true before but isn't now Something has changed. You see, Hong Kong used to be British, but now it isn't so used to basically means something has changed from the past. Let me give you another example. When I was younger, I loved Pokemon. Now I'm a bit older. I don't love it as much. It's still fun, but I don't love it as much so something has changed in this case I can use used to. So I will say I used to love Pokemon when I was younger, but now not so much so you can see something has changed in my life. So used to is a perfect structure to use. Another example is I used to eat lots and lots of chocolate, but now I don't. So there's something changed. That's when we use used to. Now what's the structure of used to? Let's have a look. So the structure for the positive off used to Is I we he she etcetera. So a pro down or name or a noun plus, used to plus a basic vab be go play etcetera. So I can say she used to love chocolate, but now she doesn't eat it so you can notice the structure she plus used to plus a basic verb love she used to love. And the thing that's changed is she's the love chocolate. But in the present time, she doesn't now the negative structure is I you, he she etcetera, plus, didn't plus used to plus a basic verb. So, for example, we didn't use to enjoy baseball but now we love it. So this is the opposite. You see, it's talking about something in the past that you didn't used to do or you didn't enjoy. But now you do. And there is another negative structure which is very, very common. I we he she etcetera, plus never plus used to plus basic verb. So instead of using, didn't you can use never? For example, I never used to eat spicy food, but now I really enjoy it. And finally, the question structure for used to we always use the past tense did never used do just use Did did. Plus you he she plus used to plus a basic verb, for example, did you use to live in New York? So there you have it than meaning and the structure for used to. So go over this lecture again. If you want to refresh your memory for the meaning or the structure, always move on to the things to note and always move on to the practice exercises. These are the most important exercises you can do because you can train your brain to master these structures. Listen to them as much as you can repeat after me and listen to the MP threes as well. You can listen to them as you go out. When you're exercising on the bus on the train and master these structures train your brain to master them. See you in the next lecture. 15. Used to (Things to Note): Now there are two important things we need to note when we use used to. Let's look at the first thing used to is always to talk about the past. There is no present tense or future form off this structure. If you want to talk about the present use, the present simple used to, as I said, is always to talk about the past. Okay, just remember that always in the past, the equivalent off the present is the present simple tents which we will learn in the following lectures. So always use used to talk about something in the past. Just remember that the next thing we need to note is something to do with the spelling off used to. So when using the negative I didn't use to or the question did you use to notice that there is no d at the end of used to Can you see this is because the past tense is marked with Didn't Andi did so? There is no need for the D in this case, So if you didn't notice the spelling, just go back and read the text on the screen so that you can see the spelling so used to is generally spelled U S E d to t o. So you used U S E d. The e d indicates the past tense. So when we use did in the sentence, there's no need for the D toe. Omit the dese spelling. When using did in a sentence, for example, a question Did you use to live in New York or negative I didn't use to live in New York, So that's just a small little thing that you can notice in the spelling. So make sure you look at the next lectures. The practice exercises. They're very important. Train your brain to master the structure and the pronunciation. See you in the next lecture. 16. Used to speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for used to listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master used to Let's get started. People used to believe the Earth was flat. My wife used to spend so much money on shoes. Now she has calmed down. My son didn't use to read very much, but now he loves it. I never used to like coffee, but nowadays I drink two or three cups a day. Albert usedto watch TV a lot. Thankfully, he is watching it less now. Did you used to work at the supermarket near Vine Street? I think I recognize you. We used to live in a tiny town, but we moved to a big city a few years ago. Gary bought a car recently. He used to ride a motorbike, but it was so dangerous. There used to be so many restaurants on this street. Now there are just clothes shops. When you lived in Japan, did you use to eat lots of sushi? My cat doesn't play much anymore because it's getting old. It used to be so playful and energetic when I was a university student. I used to live with three flatmates. It was so much fun. You used to be such a kind and generous person. What happened to you? Nice camera. Do you often take photos? Not anymore. But I used to be a keen photographer. I didn't used to enjoy exercise, but now I am addicted. I run for an hour every morning. Bob used to wear glasses, but he recently switched to contact lenses. He prefers them. Lisa used to be a really party animal, but she rarely goes out now. Do you like sport? Not anymore. I used to love watching and playing sport, but I don't have time nowadays. 17. Used to listening practice (Master): listening practice for used to listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master Used to Let's begin. Where is the supermarket that used to be here? Did it move to a new location? Where is the supermarket that used to be here? Did it move to a new location? Did you use to visit the beach often when you lived in Hawaii? Did you use to visit the beach often When you lived in Hawaii? Ryan used to have curly hair. As a child. He used to look so cute. Ryan used to have curly hair as a child. He used to look so cute. Let's visit Green Park. No, let's try a different one. Green Park used to be nice, but now it's full of litter. Let's visit Green Park. No, let's try a different one. Green Park used to be nice, but now it's full of litter. It used to take me more than an hour to get to work by car because of all the traffic. Now it only takes 30 minutes because I cycle. It used to take me more than an hour to get to work by car because of all the traffic. Now it only takes 30 minutes because I cycle I didn't use to like the countryside and nature. But as I get older, I'm appreciating it more and more. I didn't used to like the countryside and nature, but as I get older, I'm appreciating it more and more. I didn't use to speak English very well. But after listening to a lot of English content and practicing speaking, I'm getting much better. I didn't use to speak English very well. But after listening to a lot of English content and practicing speaking, I am getting much better. London never used to be famous for food, but now it's restaurants are considered some of the world's best. London never used to be famous for food, but now it's restaurants are considered some of the world's best. Many African countries used to be French colonies, but they are now independent nations. Many African countries used to be French colonies, but they are now independent nations. My two sisters used to argue a lot when they were younger, My two sisters used to argue a lot when they were younger. Did China usedto have a royal family? Did China usedto have a royal family? Nokia used to be the number one phone manufacturer in the world. Now it's declined massively. Nokia used to be the number one phone manufacturer in the world. Now it's declined massively. 18. Present continuous (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is the present continuous, So the present continuous is a tense in English. Let's look at the meaning off the present continuous. There are three main meanings that we're going to look at. They're similar but slightly different. So let's go over the first meaning. Look at the example Sentence. John is on the plane. He is on his way to Hawaii. John is flying to Hawaii, so the words in bold indicate the present continuous. This meaning shows that John is flying right now at the time. Off speaking, the action is continuing and isn't finished, so that's meaning one. Let's look at the second meeting. Look at this example. Sarah is talking on the phone, she says to her friend. I'm reading an amazing book. At the moment, I highly recommend it. The words in Bold indicate the present continuous. This meaning shows that Sarah is reading a book nowadays. She has started it, but she hasn't finished it. She isn't reading it at the time off speaking, so it's slightly different to meaning. One, meaning one, is talking about something at the time of speaking, meaning to is talking about something happening nowadays, but not necessarily right now. At the time of speaking Andi, let's look at meaning three. Frank is talking to the CEO off the company, he says to the CEO. The company is growing rapidly. This year we are having an amazing 12 months, so the words in bold indicate the present continuous. But this meaning shows the company is doing well around this time period, which is one year it is changing over this long time period. Those are the three meanings off the present continuous so you can notice they're similar. They're related, but there are little differences between each one. The 1st 1 is talking about right now at the time. Off speaking, the 2nd 1 is nowadays around this time, and the 3rd 1 is over a longer period. For example, This year I'm getting better and better at playing football, so it's over a longer period on its changing over this period. So this year I'm getting better and better at playing football. Now let's look at the structure off the present continuous tense. The structure is quite simple for the present continuous we use, um is, uh, plus an I N G verb. For example, I am eating dinner. He is walking to the shop and they are shouting very loudly so you can notice. AM is our plus the i n g verb and the negative structure is also quite simple. Just add not in between and his are on the i N g verb. So, for example, I am not studying at the moment. It is not working very well. They are not watching the football match. So this is the negative structure. And the question is, um, is our plus the subject. For example, he's she you or someone's name, plus the i n g verb. Am I doing it properly? Is he sleeping yet? Are you looking in the right place? So there you have the three meanings on the structure for the present continuous tense. As always, make sure you complete the practice exercise, lectures, listening and speaking. Train your brain to master the structure. So as you train your brain, you'll start toe really understand the meaning on the structure, so you'll in grain it in your brain. Don't just listen once or twice, listen as many times as you can and download the MP threes so that you can listen wherever you are. Put them on your MP three player or your phone and listen as many times as you can see you in the next lecture. 19. Present continuous (Things to Note): So let's look at the thing that we need to note for the present continuous. There's just one thing I want to bring your attention to. It's how we contract this tense. We make it shorter, especially in spoken English. So have a look at this note that we often contract, which means to make shorter the subject and the verb. So instead of saying I am going, we can say, I'm going, for example, I'm going to the shop similarly, with he she it is going. We can say he's going, she's going or it's going to the shop. And with we you and day, we can say we are going, you're going or they're going to the shop So we contract the subject and the verb, and here's the negative contractions. So instead of saying I am not doing, we usually say I'm not doing, for example, I'm not doing that. He she it is not doing becomes he's not or he isn't so. In this case, we can contract either the subject and the verb he's or we can contract the verb Andi not to become isn't so. We can say he's not doing that, or he isn't doing that. The meaning is the same. Similarly, she's not or she isn't Or we can say its not or it isn't doing something. And finally, with we you and they are not doing, we can contract them in the same way we're not or we aren't. You're not all you want, they're not or they aren't doing something. That's the main thing that you need to note the contractions for the present continuous go to the practice exercises. You'll see some of these contractions so that you can master them and train your brain toe listen, and to use them naturally, see you in the next lecture. 20. Present continuous speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for the present. Continuous. Listen to the sentence, then pause the video on. Repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master the present continuous Let's get started. Please turn down that music. I'm walking. Hello. Is Simon there? Yes, but he's taking a shower. I'll tell him to call you back. Sarah is having so much fun in Thailand. She's relaxing on a beautiful beach right now, soaking up the sun. Your baby is growing up so quickly. Is she doing well at kindergarten? Are you watching the new series of game of Thrones? It's so exciting! What a beautiful day! The weather is getting better and better. Look at that lion. It's eating a huge lump of meat. Come on, it's getting late. We should go home now. Common, Paul, we're going to the bar to watch the football match. Ouch! Sally, you're standing on my foot. The world's population is increasing and will probably continue to rise for the next century. Unfortunately, you can't see the crocodile today. It's sleeping and is hidden away from view. Well done, Tommy. You're working very hard today. Keep up the good work, Nick. was sick a weekend. He isn't feeling better today, so he won't be able to come to the party. I'm not dating down anymore. We broke up last month. I'm taking a course on child care. I go to college in the evenings to study. What's Anthony doing? He's watching TV in his bedroom. Gemma had to go home early. She's not feeling too good after eating that spicy food. 21. Present continuous listening practice (Master): listening practice for the present. Continuous. Listen to me. Say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master the present. Continuous. Let's begin. Come on, let's go outside. It's not raining anymore. Come on, let's go outside. It's not raining anymore. You're getting more and more fluent in English. Are you studying hard? You're getting more and more fluent in English. Are you studying hard? Dan? How are you? How is your new business going? Done? How are you? How is your new business going? Will you Children, please be quiet. We're not talking, sir, will you Children, please be quiet. We're not talking, sir. You're not throwing the ball properly. Watch me. You're not throwing the ball properly. Watch me. This has been a fantastic few years for the company. Profits are rising, The company is growing and we are starting to become known internationally. This has been a fantastic few years for the company. Profits are rising, the company is growing and we're starting to become known internationally. These baby hamsters air. Not much fun. They're not doing anything. These baby hamsters, air. Not much fun. They're not doing anything. Welcome to London. Are you enjoying your trip? Welcome to London. Are you enjoying your trip? Is that poor driving a new Ferrari? Is that Paul driving a new Ferrari? Frank is working extremely hard, but he's not getting any recognition from the boss. Frank is working extremely hard, but he's not getting any recognition from the boss. They are building a gigantic skyscraper in the middle of the city. Have you seen it? They are building a gigantic skyscraper in the middle of the city. Have you seen it? Nowadays the world is changing dramatically. The Internet is connecting people. Smartphones are changing the way we communicate, and cities are offering opportunities like never before. Nowadays, the world is changing dramatically. The Internet is connecting people. Smartphones are changing the way we communicate, and cities are offering opportunities like never before. 22. Present simple (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is the present simple. The present simple is a tense in English. Let's look at the meanings. There are two main meanings for the present. Simple. Let's look at meaning number one. Have a look at this example. Jane teaches at a private school. She teaches science to secondary school students. So the words in bold indicate the present simple. This meaning shows that Jane teaches This is her job. It doesn't mean that she is teaching at this moment. This is something that happens regularly. She teaches regularly. She isn't teaching right now, but she teaches at a private school just to clarify the first meaning. We use the presents simple in this way to talk about something that happens regularly, not something we're doing right now necessarily, but something that happens regularly every day or every week. For example, John plays football every Wednesday. This is the present simple tents. John plays noticed the S at the end of play. John plays football every week. I can say I play football every week as well. This is the present simple notice. There's no s at the end of play in this example I play football every week. This is a rule off the present simple which will go over in just one second. Now let's look at the second meaning for the present. Simple. Have a look at this sentence. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. So the words in bond indicate the present simple. This meaning shows factual information. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is always true and is factual. For the second meaning we use the present simple When something is always true the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is always true. It's not going to change. So we use the present simple tents. Now let's look at the structure because the structure for this tense is very important. This is the structure for the positive. So we use I we you or they plus a basic verb. But when we use he she and it, we use a basic burb plus s so notice the difference. I walk home from work every day. He walks very quickly. Can you see the s at the end of walks? Use the s at the end of the verb when you use he she or it. So when you use the name as well, for example, Antony, use the S at the end of the verb. Antony walks very quickly because Antony is Ah, he a boy, a parson. So it's just the same as he Antony walks very quickly. The negative structure is like this I, we you they plus don't plus a basic verb. He she and it remember, before we added s to the basic Bob. Well, now we use doesn't plus a basic verb. So we add s to do. Can you see that instead of saying Do not we say does not he does not, plus basic verb, for example, they don't watch television very much or she doesn't play outside too often. Remember, if you use someone's name, for example, Jane, use the second form. Doesn't Jane doesn't play outside too often? Finally, let's look at the question structure. We use this form do. Plus I we you or they plus a basic Bob. And for he she in it we use does as the question word can you see, does does is basically do plus s so does. Plus, he she it plus basic verb. For example, do they usually work hard or does he often go to the park? So that's the meaning and structure off the present simple. Let's move on to the things that you have to note for this structure. See you in the next lecture. 23. Present simple (Things to Note): So let's look at what we need to note for the present Simple. This is very important. There are some particular phrases that we can use with the present simple. This will make you sound much more fluent and will add more meaning to your sentences when you use the present simple. Let's look at the thing we need to note for the present simple meaning one, which was talking about things that happen regularly. We often use words and phrases to say how often we do things, phrases such as every day, twice a week, once a year, very often etcetera, so we can change thes phrases. We can say instead of saying every day we can say every week, every month, every year, instead of saying twice a week, which means two times a week, we can say three times a week or four times a month. Instead of saying once a year we could say twice a year, three times a year, four times a year, and so one. So, for example, Jane teaches at the school five days a week, so five days a week is giving us more information about how often Jane teaches at the school. We could just say Jane teaches at the school, but when we add five days a week, we have more information. I visit my parents once a month. So again you can see how often this person visits his or her parents. And finally, Sam goes to Frantz very often for his job. So this means Sam goes to France quite a lot. He goes quite regularly, So those are some really important phrases that we use for the present simple. You'll see these phrases in the practice exercises in the next lectures that listening on that speaking exercises to go and start those listen to them, practice speaking and train your brain to master this tense. 24. Present simple speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for the present. Simple. Listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master the present. Simple. Let's get started. Do you drink beer? Oh, wine. Michael speaks four languages. He speaks English, Russian, Japanese and German. I only speak one. This library opens at 7 a.m. and closes at 6 p.m. Wild animals caused many car accidents. Drivers accidentally hit the animals or panic when they see the animals. A lexicographer is someone who writes dictionary entries. Harry doesn't go to university. He works as an online language tutor. How often do you take your dog to the park? Where does G son come from? He is from South Korea. The's kittens are so tiny and cute they are staring at me with their lovely little eyes. Cows produce milk. We use the milk to produce cheese, butter, yogurt and other things. What time does this bank shut? The World Cup takes place every four years. The Olympics are the same. Nature is incredible. I always watch nature documentaries to learn more about wildlife. Where do you work? I work for a large north ERM in London. The firm specializes in labor law. Simon, you don't go outside enough. I suggest you go out and get some fresh air. What do you do? Well, that makes you a good fit for this company. I always put in 100% effort, and I promised to do the same if you give me the job. People in England drink a lot of tea. They usually drink that tea with milk. Vegetarians don't eat any meat or fish. Vegans are the same, but also don't consume any dairy products. 25. Present simple listening practice (Master): listening practice for the present. Simple. Listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master the present. Simple. Let's begin. What kind of movies do you like? I love action and horror movies, but I hate romance movies. What kind of movies do you like? I love action and horror movies, but I hate romance movies. Does your husband know pool? Yes, they met before. He knows Paul through a mutual friend. Does your husband know pool? Yes, they met before. He knows Paul through a mutual friend. Teacher. What does inquisitive mean? Good question. Inquisitive means curious or interested in learning things. You are an inquisitive boy teacher. What does inquisitive mean? Good question. Inquisitive means curious or interested in learning things. You are an inquisitive boy. How many times a day does the bus go on the tour? How many times a day does the bus go on the tour? There are three flights to New York daily. The first leaves at 9 a.m. The second leaves at 3 p.m. And the final one at 9 p.m. There are three flights to New York daily. The first leaves at 9 a.m. The second leaves at 3 p.m. And the final one leaves at 9 p.m. I am selling my car. I bought it last year, but I don't drive it very much. Do you want to buy it? I am selling my car. I bought it last year, but I don't drive it very much. Do you want to buy it? What do you do? I'm a novelist. I write short novels and published them through my own small publishing company. What do you do? I'm a novelist. I write short novels and published them through my own small publishing company. How does a penguin protect its egg from freezing? It protects the egg under a flap, which keeps it warm. How does the penguin protect its egg from freezing? It protects the egg under a flap, which keeps it warm. Katie said that the new restaurant is wonderful. She recommends that we go and try it. Katie said that the new restaurant is wonderful. She recommends that we go and try it. Ian travels so much he goes away five or six times every year. I really envy him. Ian travels so much, he goes away five or six times every year. I really envy him. My mom is a fantastic cook. She cooks Italian, French and Japanese cuisine Very well. My mom is a fantastic cook. She cooks Italian, French and Japanese cuisine. Very well. It takes around six hours to get from London to New York by plane. It takes around six hours to get from London to New York by plane. 26. Past simple (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is the past simple. The past Simple is an English tents. You may know it. It's not so difficult, but it's very good to look at in detail so that you can master the tents. Let's have a look at the meaning. There's just one meaning. Have a look at this example. Shakespeare was a famous playwright, poet and actor. He wrote well famous plays such as Romeo and Juliet. He got married at the age of 18 and later moved to London, where he began a successful career. The words in Bold indicate the past simple. This meaning shows that the action is finished and complete. It is in the past, so the meanings quite easy, right? It just means something that is finished over in the past. So you can say, Last week I went swimming. Two years ago, I visited Japan. This is the past simple, tense. Easy, right. Let's look at the structure for this tense again. The structure is extremely easy. It's a subject. For example, I he she it we you, they plus the past tense verb. For example, I visited the zoo yesterday. He ran really quickly they bought a new car. It's very, very simple. The negative structure is the subject. I he she you etcetera plus didn't plus a basic verb so didn't indicates the past tense. For example, I didn't visit Paul yesterday because he was sick. She didn't go to school. We didn't enjoy the movie. So noticed that the verbs in these examples are basic verbs. Because the past tense is indicated by Did not didn't this indicates the past tense. And here is the question structure for the past. Simple did plus the subject. I, he she they etcetera, plus a basic verb. For example, Did I perform well on stage? Did pull find his keys? Did your family have a good time in Italy? So that's the past simple, quite easy, right? But it's very important to master this tense because it's one of the most common tenses in English. So if you master this tense, you'll take your English fluency to the next level because it's very, very common to make sure you go on over to the practice lectures that practice exercises. Make sure you practice speaking on listening so you can really train your brain to master the past simple. See you in the next lecture 27. Past simple (Things to Note): Let's look at a couple of things that we need to note for the past simple tents. The first thing is that in English, many past simple verbs end in E. D. I'm sure you know this. For example, stopped, jumped, visited etcetera. These are called regular verbs, so they're easy to make construct. Just add e. D to the end of a basic vote. However, other verbs in English are irregular, and their past tense form is different. For example, drove, went heard, etcetera. So these irregular verbs need to be learned. They're not easy to just construct by adding an ending to so you need to learn them. For example, the past tense off drive to drive a car is drove. The past tense of go is went, so these are quite easy ones. Then there are slightly more complex ones. For example, the past tense off by to buy a chocolate bar is bought. The past tense off eat is eight said. These are all irregular verbs. You need to learn them, and you can learn many of them in the practice lectures, the practice exercises that you can move on to next. Let's look at one more thing that we need to note for the vab be which is, um is on our the past Simple tents is formed with WAAS or were for example, I was born in 1985. So Waas is the equivalent off am AM is the present The basic form of the verb and waas is the past tense The next example is using were Lee and Fiona were at the party last night so were is the equivalent off Our are is the present basic form and were is the past form And here are a couple of question examples Waas Sam upset when you saw her while you naughty when you were a child. So that's just another little thing for you to note I am and is become waas in the past So for example, I am happy is happening right now But if I want to change it to the past Simple I say I waas happy Similarly if I say Jane is happy if I want to change that to the past Simple Jane Woz happy If we use Ah they are happy in the past Simple it becomes they were happy waas and were are used in the past Simple. See you in the next lecture 28. Past simple speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for the past. Simple. Listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master that past simple. Let's begin. Where did you go during the summer holidays? We went to Greece. It waas fabulous. It was roasting, so I took off my coat. The party lasted 10 hours. We got home at around 3 a.m. and slept straight away. Where did you learn how to play the guitar? My older brother gave me lessons last year. Then I found a private tutor. Did you visit the Statue of Liberty in New York? Of course we did. It was incredible. Steve Jobs created Apple in 1976. He started the company in his garage. Daniel is extremely busy, so I didn't disturb him when you were at school. While you a good student, Laura spent so much money last weekend, she bought a really expensive dress on new shoes. The lady fell over and broke her arm. She went to the hospital in an ambulance. As we relaxed on the grass, the birds flew above us in the clear blue sky. It was so peaceful. Did you see Tony today? He borrowed one of my books but didn't return it to me. In many people's eyes, Mohammed Ali was the greatest boxer ever. How was the weather in Barcelona? Did you see any of Gowdy's gorgeous architecture? The meal we had at the new Italian restaurant was delicious and it didn't cost much. The roads were so I see this morning, so I didn't drive to work. I walked instead. What did you do at the weekend? Jack and I took a short trip to Cornwall. We stayed there for one night and then came back the next day. Man first landed on the moon in 1969. It was an amazing feat off human ingenuity. 29. Past simple listening practice (Master): listening practice for the past. Simple. Listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master the past. Simple. Let's begin for now, though. Shot from outside the penalty box and scored an incredible goal, which won the match. Ronaldo shot from outside the penalty box and scored an incredible goal, which won the match, I wonder. Was Shakespeare a good English student at school? I wonder. Was Shakespeare a good English student at school? Did you remember to give the camera back to Mark? Oh, no, I forgot. I'll drive to his place and give it to him now. Did you remember to give the camera back to Mark? Oh, no, I forgot. I'll drive to his place and give it to him now. I just remembered Gary told me that he can't come today because he has a doctor appointment . I just remembered. Gary told me that he can't come today because he has a doctor appointment. The Mona Lisa Waas, An impressive painting to see, but I imagined it to be much bigger The Mona Lisa was an impressive painting to see, but I imagined it to be much bigger. Bill Gates set up his foundation in 2000 which donates huge sums of money to the poor and needy. Bill Gates set up his foundation in 2000 which donates huge sums of money to the poor and needy. Bella ate a huge breakfast this morning. She didn't eat lunch or dinner because she was so full. Bella ate a huge breakfast this morning. She didn't eat lunch or dinner because she was so full. We are so sorry we didn't have time to visit you. We were extremely busy. We are so sorry we didn't have time to visit you. We were extremely busy. People say that Christopher Columbus discovered America. In reality, he was simply the first European to visit. People say that Christopher Columbus discovered America. In reality, he was simply the first European to visit. The show we went to last night was quite dull. The singer's didn't sing very well on. The dancers weren't very impressive. The show we went to last night was quite dull, the singer's didn't sing very well, and the dances weren't very impressive I want skied down a very difficult slope and I fell and broke my leg. I didn't go skiing for a long time After that. I once skied down a very difficult slope and I fell and broke my leg. I didn't go skiing for a long time after that. Ryan and Chris climbed a mountain yesterday. They were exhausted this morning, so they didn't want to come. Ryan and Chris climbed a mountain yesterday. They were exhausted this morning, so they didn't want to come. 30. Present perfect (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is the present perfect. So the present perfect. This is an English tents, and it's one of the most challenging tenses in English. It causes the most problems for students off English. But in this lecture we're going to clarify the meaning and the structure so that you can understand it much, much better. Let's go to the first meaning off the present. Perfect. It has different meanings. Let's focus on number one first. So look at this example. Situation, William asks. Have you traveled much? Tina? Tina replies. Yes, I've visited over 10 countries in Europe, but I haven't visited the USA yet. That is next on my list. So the words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that Tina has visited all these countries in her life. Up to now, the present day, she will visit more countries in the future. But up to today, she has visited over 10 in Europe. Think of this meaning as in my life up to now, so that's meaning one. It's important to clarify the meaning. Think of it as in your life up to now. So imagine your life from when you were born this year up to now the present day. So everything that happens in between Aled the events in your life When you describe all these events, you can use the present Perfect. I'll give you one example. I have visited Japan three times in my life. So in my life since I was born up to today I have visited Japan three times 123 to the present. Perfect is the perfect tense to use. I can say I have visited Japan three times. This means in my whole life. Let's look at meaning to now. Look at this example. Robert has eaten so much food today he has had two burgers, half a pizza and a huge slice of cake. So the words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that you have done something over a period off time. In this example today, up until now, Robert has eaten all this food so far. Today he will eat more, but so far he has eaten this much, so that's meaning to it's very similar to meaning one, remember? Meaning one is from when you were born up to today, but meaning to is talking about a shorter time period, for example, one day today or one week, So I can say so far this week. It's a very short time period. I have eaten three hamburgers, you see, So I'm talking about a much shorter period. I can also talk about my whole life in my life. I have eaten hundreds of hamburgers, but this week I've eaten three hamburgers, you see, so we can change the period of time. Now there's one more meaning that we need to look at. Meaning three. Look at this example. This is really scary. I've never driven before. This is the first time I've ever driven a car. So the words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that it's the first time you have done something in your life. This person is driving a car for the first time ever and notice the words never means not in my life. It means I've never done something in my whole life and ever is the positive form it means in my life. Those are the three meanings off the present perfect that we're going to focus on in this lecture on the following lectures. Now the structure is also very, very important for the present. Perfect. Let's have a look at how we form the present perfect. So we use I we, you or they plus have plus a past participle verb, for example, Eaten, gone, driven, lost, etcetera. When we use he she or it we use has plus a past participle verb. So he, she and it remember, can include a person's name. For example, Jane or Antony. If we use a name, we also use has plus past participle verb. So look at these two examples. I have eaten many kinds off food. She has one lots off awards, so that's the positive structure. Just a note on the past. Participle verbs. The's verbs are usually found in the third column off a textbook verbal list. So, for example, the verb to eat has the basic form eat. It has the past form eight, and it has the past participle form eaten. We need this form for the present perfect. I have eaten many kinds of food in my life, so we need to use the past participle with the present perfect. Let's look at the next structure with negative structure. This is formed in a similar way. So I we you they this time we use haven't have not plus a past participle verb for he she and it we use hasn't plus a past participle verb. For example, I haven't been to a football match this year. He hasn't eaten any food today. Now there is another negative structure that we're going to look at using never. So we use I we you they plus have plus never plus past participle. It sounds very confusing and long, but when we get to the example sentences, you'll know how to use them. He, she and it uses has plus never plus a past participle verb. For example, you have never bean to a football match. He has never eaten meat, Remember, never means not in my life. It's always talking about your whole life. So if someone says to you, I've never eaten meat, they're talking about their whole life from when they were born. Up to now, that means in their life they haven't eaten any meat. If I say I've never bean to Australia, that means I've never visited Australia in my life. Always remember that never means in my life, Not in my life. Here is the question structure we formed. The questions like this have plus I we you they plus the past participle verb. Another form is has Plus he she it plus a past participle over, for example, Have they spoken to John Spoken? Is the past participle off the verb to speak on? The second example says, Has she broken a bone broken? Is the past participle off the verb to break? So that is the question structure. That was a lot of information to take in. I know there were three different meanings and lots of different structures. But just remember, the present perfect is to talk about a time period in my life or a shorter time period, for example, today, this week, this month, and always remember the time period is continuing. So in my life, I have done this this and this. But my life is continuing, So maybe I will do even more the same as the short time periods this week is continuing. It hasn't finished, so just keep that in mind. The present perfect always means that the time is continuing. Something else could happen soon as well. So if I say I've eaten three hamburgers this week, it means I might eat more tomorrow or the next day. I might not, but I may. That's the key off this tense. Let's move on to the things we have to note for the present. Perfect. See you in the next lecture. 31. Present perfect (Things to Note) : Let's look at the things that we have to note for the present. Perfect tense. As I said, it's one of the most challenging tenses in English, so there are a few things we have to look out for and keep in mind. Let's look at the first thing we can use many time words with the present. Perfect. For example, today, this week, this year, this morning, etcetera. When we use them, we always mean that the time period is continuing now and will continue in the future. You can think of it like the phrase so far or up to now. So, as I mentioned in the previous lecture, this is one of the key things you have to remember for the present. Perfect. The time period we're talking about hasn't finished. It's continuing, but the present perfect describes the time period so far up to now, things might change in the future, but so far I've done this. That's the difference between the present perfect on the past. Simple. The past Simple is talking about a time period that's finished in the past, but the present Perfect is talking about a time period that's continuing started in the past. It's continuing now and will continue in the future. So think of it as like so far up to now. Okay, let's look at the second thing in the present. Perfect we can contract has and have with the subject, for example, He's is he has. She's, she has. I've I have you've you have etcetera. This is another small thing that you can note the contraction off the subject Andi has or have. So if I say I have visited Japan three times, I can contract I and have to become I've I've visited Japan three times. This is much more common in spoken English. We contract I and have to become I've. Similarly, if I say he has visited Australia twice, I can contract he and has to become he's. He's visited Australia twice. Look out for these contractions when you use the present Perfect. Let's look at the next thing that we have to note as I mentioned in the previous lecture we use ever to mean in your life. For example, have you ever met a famous person? This means in your life? Have you ever met a famous person? Whoever is always talking about in your life. Similarly, never is the negative version we use never to mean not in your life. For example, I have never seen the movie Toy Story. This means in my life I have never seen Toy Story to never means not in your life. Finally, we use bean to mean visited or went in the present. Perfect. For example, I have bean to Mexico three times or we've bean to three weddings this week. So being is the past Participle off. Go! There you have it. Those are the things you need to note for the present. Perfect tense. Move on to the practice exercises The speaking on the listening for this tense. This will take your understanding to the next level. Don't forget also to download the MP threes on and the pdf which has all the transcripts off the MP threes. Downloadable that. Listen as much as you can on train your brain to master the present Perfect 32. Present perfect speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for the present. Perfect. Listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master the present. Perfect. Let's get started. Have you ever bean to Greece? I highly recommend you go. I haven't eaten any fruit today. Experts recommend we eat five pieces a day. I've never tried caviar, but I really want to. Where is the most interesting place you have ever? Bean? My car is broken down. It's the third time it has broken down this year. Has William worked hard this term? Has he done all his homework? Well, Brian is incredibly fit. He has run in 20 marathons, and he plans to do another one next month. This is the most peaceful place I have ever visited. It's like paradise. I've never seen that woman before. Is she the new employees? Is this the first time you visited London? No, I have bean him many times before. Warren Buffett and Bill Gates have donated billions of dollars to charitable causes. Edward made a New Year's resolution to read more. He has read 20 novels so far this year. Who is the most famous person you have ever seen or met. Is this new Marvel movie Good? I don't know. I haven't seen it. Shall we go and watch it? Sorry I am really bad at tennis. This is the first time I have ever played. Let's plan something special for Mike's birthday. Has he ever bean to Paris? Can you play a polka? Yes, but I haven't played for over a year. I have never won any money on the lottery, but I have spent so much on it over the years. 33. Present perfect listening practice (Master): listening practice for the present. Perfect. Listen to me. Say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master the present. Perfect. Let's get started. Can you believe it? Andrew has never traveled by plane. He is terrified of flying. Can you believe it? Andrew has never traveled by plane. He is terrified of flying. I haven't eaten any chocolate this year. I'm on a diet. I haven't eaten any chocolate this year. I'm on a diet. Recently, I have studied hard for the test. I haven't slept much recently. I have studied hard for the test. I haven't slept much. Pamela has worked so hard this year that I think she deserves a bonus. Pamela has worked so hard this year that I think she deserves a bonus. Chris has won a writing award for the second time this year. Chris has won a writing award for the second time this year. Wow, This is the first time I've eaten Korean food and I am impressed. Wow, This is the first time I've eaten Korean food and I am impressed. Over the last few days, we have bean to three parties. We are completely exhausted. Now. Over the last few days, we have bean to three parties. We are completely exhausted now. Have you heard anything from James recently? I haven't seen him for a long time. Have you heard anything from James recently? I haven't seen him for a long time. Sorry, sir. I didn't do my homework. That's the second time this week. You haven't done it. Sorry, sir. I didn't do my homework. That's the second time this week you haven't done it. We can go horse riding when we visit Germany. Have you ever ridden a horse? We can go horse riding when we visit Germany. Have you ever ridden a horse? I've drunk five cups of coffee so far today. I'm trying to stay awake after the late night. I've drunk five cups of coffee so far today. I'm trying to stay awake after the late night. I cannot believe Natasha missed the flight. That's the second time she has done that. I cannot believe Natasha missed the flight. That's the second time she has done that. 34. Going to (Learn): Here's the target structure for this lecture. Going to going to is another English tents that were going to master. Let's look at meaning one. There are two meanings. He is the first look at this example. We are going to visit New York next month. We're going to see the Statue of Liberty and the Empire State Building. So the words in bold indicate that something is decided. It means that this person intends to do this in the future and is a plan that the person definitely wants to happen. Think of this meaning as a future plan, something that is definitely 100% going to happen in the future. He has an example. Next month I'm going to visit Italy. Why did I use going to visit? Because it's a future plan. I've planned to visit Italy because I've booked the flight. I've paid for the flight I booked the hotel, paid for the hotel, and I've planned all my trip in Italy. So I can say I'm definitely going to visit Italy in this case I use going to I'm going to visit Italy next month. When I say this, the listener knows it's definitely going to happen, so that's meaning one. Let's look at the second meaning. Look at the grey sky. It's going to rain soon, so the words in bold indicate that something is going to happen in the future. We have some evidence, and we believe that something is going to happen in the future. That's meaning to It's very similar to meaning one in that it's talking about the future. Something is going to happen in the future. But there's a difference. The meaning one is something that I planned. I arranged myself, but meaning to is something that's just happening elsewhere. But based on some evidence based on something that I can see, I guess something is going to happen in the future. It's a prediction, in my view. I can see that this is going to happen. So if I look up at the sky and I see lots of dark clouds, gray black clouds, what is going to happen in the future? I guess it's going to rain. This is my guess. My prediction for the future. Another example might be if I see a man climbing a broken ladder. This is a very dangerous situation. What do I think, is going to happen in the future. I can say he's going to fall off and hurt himself. Based on the evidence. The ladder is broken. It looks very dangerous. I think he's going to fool and heart himself. So in this case, I can use going to now the structure for going to let's have a look. Here is the positive structure. The first structure is I plus um, plus going to plus a basic verb like walk see visit on Go. So when you use, I always use the verb. And for he she and it, we use is plus going to plus a basic verb. And for we, you and they we use our plus going to plus a basic verb. For example, she is going to study hard to become a doctor. Here is the negative structure. We simply add not to the structure. So I plus, um, plus not plus going to, plus a basic verb. It sounds very long and complex, but it's actually quite simple for he she and it, we use is plus, not plus going to plus a basic Bob. And for we, you and they we use our plus not plus going to plus a basic verb. For example, we aren't going to see that this week because he's on a business trip notice. The contraction, as well are not becomes, aren't well. Look, Atmore contractions in the next lecture. And finally, here is the question structure. So the question structures are like this is plus, he she it plus going to plus a basic Bob. And we use our for we you they plus going to plus a basic verb. For example. Are you going to tidy your room soon? I asked you twice already. So there you have it that is going to It's the future tense in English to move on to the things to note the next lecture and always always practice that speaking and listening exercises so you can take your level of understanding to the next level. See you in the next lecture 35. Going to (Things to Note): before you move onto the speaking and listening practice exercises. Here are a few things to note when using going to we're going to focus on the contractions when using going to Let's have a look. It's a note that we often contract this subject, and the verb to be the verb to be is, um, is on ah, when using going to. So, for example, I am going to contracts to I'm going to. So, for example, instead of saying I am going to visit Italy next month, you can simply say I'm going to visit Italy next month so you can contract I and, um when you use he, she and it with going to you can contract. The subject with is so you can say he's going to She's going to or it's going to. For example, he's going to visit Japan. She's going to go swimming or it's going to fall on. When you use we, you or they are going to You can contract thes two. We're going to you're going to or they're going to. Now, when using the negative, we can also contract some words. When you use the subject, I we can say I'm not going to similar to the positive contract. I and, um, with the other subjects. We have two options. Have a look at these for he she and it is not going to. We can either contract he and is to become he's not or we can contract is on not to become He isn't. For example, he's not going to visit Japan or he isn't going to visit Japan. So the two options mean the same thing. Similarly, we can say she's not or she isn't going to. It's not or it isn't going to, and it's very similar with we you and they are not going to weaken contract we and our or we can contract are and not when using. We, for example, we're not going to or we aren't going to with you. We use you're not or you aren't going to and they're not or they aren't going to. That's the only thing you need to note for going to. So use these contractions in your spoken English. They make you sound much more fluent on much more natural. Instead of saying every single word, I am not going to go to school today. Contract I and M, I'm not going to go to school today, so it makes you sound really, really fluent and natural. Make sure you move on now to the speaking and listening practice activities and download the MP threes to train your brain. 36. Going to speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for going to listen to this sentence. Then pause the video on. Repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master. Going to Let's get started. Hi, James. I'm stuck in a huge traffic jam. I'm going to be around 30 minutes late. I want some money in a competition last night. Fantastic. What are you going to do with it? Some species of animal are down to the last few. They are going to become extinct soon. Are you going to visit your parents tonight? This T shirt is really poor quality. I'm going to return it to the shop I bought it from. I think you boys should stop playing football on this dangerous road. You aren't going to hurt yourselves. Julie ate some bad food yesterday. She's going to vomit. The car engine is making a really strange sound. It isn't going to survive for much longer. I finally reached my savings target. I'm going to buy a nice new car this weekend. Ken and I are going to play badminton this week. Do you want to join us? Unfortunately, the world is going to become more and more polluted in the coming years. Jesse found a tiny kitten in the front garden. What is she going to do with it? What are you going to wear to the party on Friday? The service in this restaurant is really poor. I'm going to complain to the manager. The company had some trouble last year, but sales are doing well now. Things are going to get better. Is Oscar going to accept the new job? No. He's going to refuse it because it's too far to travel. I bought a brand new grand piano. Are you serious? Where are you going to put it? Chris, I need that report by 2 p.m. Today. It's going to be on your desk before midday. 37. Going to listening practice (Master): listening practice for going to listen to me. Say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master. Going to Let's begin. We should rearrange our trip this weekend. The weatherman said There is going to be heavy rain on Saturday. We should rearrange our trip this weekend. The weatherman said there was going to be heavy rain on Saturday. Hi, Paul. I can't talk for long because my battery is going to die. Hi, Pool. I can't talk for long because my battery is going to die. Your presentation is next Friday, right? What are you going to talk about? Your presentation is next Friday, Right? What are you going to talk about? China is getting richer and richer. It's going to be a huge power in the coming years. China is getting richer and richer. It's going to be a huge power in the coming years. I'm going to buy a few things from the shop. What are you going to buy? I'm going to buy a few things from the shop. What are you going to buy. The kids are going to be so excited when we tell them about our trip to Disneyland. The kids are going to be so excited when we tell them about our trip to Disneyland. I'm so skinny. I'm going to join the gym tomorrow and start building some muscles. I'm so skinny. I'm going to join the gym tomorrow and start building some muscles. Okay? This is the plan. We are going to set up a new business and you are going to be the managing director. Okay? This is the plan. We're going to set up a new business and you are going to be the managing director. Are you going to see Nina later? No. I'm going to meet her tomorrow. Are you going to see Nina later? No. I'm going to meet her tomorrow. Your kids are going wild. They are going to be worn out later. Your kids are going wild. They're going to be worn out later. Look at that man standing at the top of the ladder. He's going toe. Hurt himself. If he isn't careful. Look at that man standing at the top of the ladder. He's going to hurt himself if he isn't careful. Are you ready for the World Cup final today? It's going to be such an exciting match. Are you ready for the World Cup final today? It's going to be such an exciting match. 38. Will (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is will. Here we have another future tense in English very, very similar to going to, but different. Of course. Let's look at the meaning off will. Here is an example, Wayne says. I'm going to play football at the park, Neil replies. That sounds great. I'll join you. The worst in bold indicate that Neil just decided in that moment to do something. He didn't plan it before. He decided, in the moment. We use will when we make an instant decision based on new information. Note the difference between will and going to in this example. Going to is used for something we decided to do before Will is used for something we decided in the moment in the example above Wayne used going to because he had already planned to play football at the park. Neil used will because he just heard about this information on decided right in that moment to join Wayne. Can you see the difference between will and going to going to is for a future plan Something that you decided beforehand well is also for the future. But it's about something you decided in the moment right then, based on some new information. So imagine my friend called me one day and says, I'm going to the cinema to watch the new action movie. This is new information for me. So if I say I want to go, I can use will because it's new information. And I just decided in that moment when he called me so I can say that's great. I will join you because I didn't plan it beforehand. I just decided Right then, that's the difference between will and going to. Now let's look at the structure for will. It's quite easy. It's basically I he she it we you they etcetera plus will, plus a basic verb. So even if you use a name like Antony or Sarah, you can just use will, plus a basic verb. Here's an example. Your luggage looks very heavy. I'll help you. Here is the negative structure. It's I he she it etcetera, plus will plus not plus a basic verb. The example says I told Paul to visit the doctor, but he won't listen to me. Notice the contraction off will not its won't won't means will not. And finally, here is the question structure. It's will. Plus I he she it etcetera, plus a basic verb. Will you help me carry this sofa, please? There we have it. That's will so remember. It's a future tense, but it's different to going to. So look at the next lecture. The things to note Andi, make sure you practise the exercises in the speaking and listening lectures so you can understand will at a much deeper level. See you in the next lecture. 39. Will (Things to Note): here are just a couple of things that you need to note when using will. The first thing that I mentioned in the previous lecture is that we usually contract will not to won't. This is the contraction will not becomes, won't. So instead of saying she will not help me, we can simply say she won't help me. She won't help me notice the pronunciation as well. Won't I won't. She won't help me. This is more natural in spoken English to use the contraction. The second thing that we need to note is that we often use I think I'll do something and I don't think I'll do something to talk about what we have just decided. In that moment, for example, I'm hungry. I think I'll order a pizza. This means I just thought off on decided to order a pizza in that moment. Here's another example. Using the negative, we are feeling a little tired. I don't think we'll go to the party tonight. This means we just thought about this and decided to not go to the party later so you can use this phrase. I think I'll or I don't think I'll do something it makes you sound much more fluent. So use this when you decide something right there in the moment. Here's an example in every day. Typical example. If I go to the coffee shop with my friend, he asked me, What will you have? I can use this phrase. I can say I don't think I'll have a coffee because I don't want to stay awake all night. I think I'll have hot chocolate, you see, So I don't think I'll have a coffee. I think I'll have a hot chocolate. This is a very typical phrase when using will just note those two things. See you in the speaking and listening practice lectures. 40. Will speaking practice (Master): speaking practice. Four will listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master will. Let's begin. It's getting hot. I think I'll turn on the air conditioner to cool the place down. Did you remember to send that email to Simon? Oh, I forgot. I'll do it right now. Are you coming into the shop? No. I'll wait out here for you. I need to go to the shop, but it's dark outside. Will you come with me? That was a fantastic meal, Ricky. I promise. I'll cook next time. Thanks for lending us the money. We will pay you back next month. Have a wonderful time in India. Thanks. I'll send you an email as soon as I arrive. Oh, no. I left the baby's toy at home. It's OK. You keep walking. I'll go back and get it. Did you hear the good news? Laura is pregnant. That's amazing. She'll make a fantastic mother. James is feeling really sick. I don't think he will be better for the performance tomorrow. Are you still coming out for a drink later? I don't think I'll go out tonight. I have so much work to finish. It's freezing in here. I'll turn on the heating. Lisa, will you please swap places with Gary? Will you promise not to tell anyone about this secret? I've asked Anthony to clean his room 10 times, but he won't listen to me. Well, you kids, please be quiet. I'm trying to concentrate here. Daniel and I have got next week off work. I think we'll go somewhere nice for a short break. What would you like, sir? I'll have the steak and potatoes. Oh, and I'll also have a glass of red wine. 41. Will listening practice (Master): listening practice. Four will listen to me, say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master will. Let's get started. It's too late to walk home now. We'll take a taxi. It's too late to walk home now. We'll take a taxi. Andy, can you give Michelle this pass? Certainly. I'll give it to her tomorrow when I see her. Andy, can you give Michelle this pass? Certainly. I'll give it to her tomorrow when I see her. Welcome to the party. Tom. Will you have beer or wine? I'll have a beer, please. Welcome to the party. Tom. Will you have beer or wine? I'll have a beer, please. I'm feeling really sleepy now. I think I'll have a coffee to wake myself up. I'm feeling really sleepy now. I think I'll have a coffee toe wake myself up. The baby's crying again. I'll go and give her a bottle. No, you did it last time. I'll feed her. The baby's crying again. I'll go and give her bottle. No, you did it last time. I'll feed her. Hello, Miss Smith. We are very sorry to inform you that your delivery won't arrive before 2 p.m. Today. Okay. Thank you for letting me know. When will it arrive? Hello, Miss Smith. We are very sorry to inform you that your delivery won't arrive before 2 p.m. today. Okay. Thank you for letting me know. When will it arrive? Will you be attending the Christmas party next week? Yes. I'll definitely be there. Will you be attending the Christmas party next week? Yes. I'll definitely be there. Please tell Chris about the meeting tomorrow. It's very important that he comes. Okay? I'll send him a message right now. Please tell Chris about the meeting tomorrow. It's very important that he comes. Okay? I'll send him a message right now. Billy has tried to teach that dog so many tricks, but it won't learn anything. Billy has tried to teach that dog so many tricks, but it won't learn anything. Hi, Neil. I'm running late. I'll meet you at the office at 10 o'clock instead of 9 30 Hi, Neil. I'm running late. I'll meet you at the office at 10 o'clock instead of 9 30 Sarah says that she has a big surprise for my birthday. She won't tell me anything. Sarah says that she has a big surprise for my birthday. She won't tell me anything. I think I'll skip the gym today. I'm feeling a bit tired from yesterday. I think I'll skip the gym today. I'm feeling a bit tired from yesterday. 42. Relative clauses (Learn): the target structures for this lecture are relative clauses with who on that relative clauses sounds very confusing and complex, but actually quite simple and very, very good for improving your English. Let's have a look at the relative clauses. Here are the examples The boy who broke his arm went to the hospital. The jacket that we found belongs to John the words in bold our relative clauses. They give information about the person. Oh, thing we use who for people and that for things. So relative. Clauses using who? Andi that give some extra information about a person or thing. Usually the information is very important to identify the person or thing that you're talking about. His an example. If I simply say the train leaves in 30 minutes, which train am I talking about? How do I identify the train? Imagine there are 10 trains. The train leaves in 30 minutes. Which train am I talking about? Now I can use a relative clause to identify the train. I can say the train that goes to the theme park leaves in 30 minutes. Now I've identified what train I'm talking about. So this is what a relative clause is it identifies the personal thing that you're talking about to make the meaning much clearer. So now let's move on to the structure for the relative clauses. Here's the structure for the who relative clause. We use a possum plus who? Relative clause, for example. The woman who we saw today looked very strange. This is Ah who Relative clause. If I simply said the woman looked very strange, people wouldn't know what woman I was talking about. So the who relative clause identifies which woman I'm talking about. Here's the structure for that relative clauses. We use the thing plus that relative clause, for example, the red Ferrari that we saw today. Waas beautiful. So the red Ferrari is the thing and the relative clauses that we saw today. So I'm identifying which red Ferrari I'm talking about. So that is relative clauses using who and that move on to the next lecture the things to note and of course, as always, make sure you complete the listening and practicing exercises. See you in the next lecture 43. Relative clauses (Things to Note): now there are a number of important things that we need to note when using relative clauses with who on that. Let's look at the first thing that we should note notice that it is possible to leave out the relative clause and still have a complete sentence. So the woman who we saw today looked very strange. You can see the relative clause with who, but if we delete that relative clause, we still have a good sentence. The woman looked very strange, But can you see the difference between the two sentences? Sentence one is identifying which woman it's making them meaning much, much clearer, that that's why we use relative clauses to enhance meaning to make everything much, much clearer. Even though we can delete it, it's better to have it in the sentence. He is just another example off deleting a relative clause. The red Ferrari that was speeding down the road today was beautiful. If we delete that relative clause, the sentence becomes the red Ferrari was beautiful. But again, the second sentence is lacking some meaning Which red Ferrari am I talking about? So the relative clause identifies which one I'm talking about. Here's the next thing that you need to note the type of relative clause that we are studying in this unit is needed to define things. Look at this example. The man was so funny. So a relative clause could be used here to say more about the man to define him, to explain which man I'm talking about. So the relative clause I could add is Ah who? Relative clause. Look at the sentence with the relative clause. The man who was at the party last night was so funny. Now you can see there's much more meaning and we know exactly which man I'm talking about. Let's look at another example for things this time using that relative clause. So look at the example. The wine was really flavor Cem. But what wine am I talking about? If I want to give more information and define the wine I can use and relative clause, I can say the wine that we drank at the wedding was really flavor Cem. Now the sentence has much more meeting, so I hope that's helped you understand relative clauses much, much better. Use them in your speaking to really define things on people move on to the practice exercises next. And make sure you download the MP threes so that you can train your brain to master relative clauses. See you in the next lecture. 44. Relative clauses speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for relative clauses with who and that listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied and train your brain to master relative clauses with who and that. Let's begin. The lady who helped us today was so kind. An architect is a person who designs buildings and bridges. I'm looking for someone who I can practice English with. I know someone who can help you. My friend John is an English teacher. I hate watching movies that go on for more than two hours. What do you work as I run a company that sells sports equipment? Do you remember the name of the street that we used to live on? A shoplifter is someone who steals from a shop. The man who served us at the bar was really handsome. What's the name of the man who painted the Mona Lisa? Leonardo da Vinci? He's also the man who painted the Last Supper. These cakes look delicious, but a few aren't cooked properly. What should I do with the ones that aren't cooked? The fans who were fighting in the stadium were taken away by police. What happened to the art gallery that was on the corner. So Alexander Fleming was the man who discovered penicillin. A thesaurus is a book that gives you similar meanings off words. Synonyms. Parts of the castle that were damaged in the fire have bean restored. The book that we are reading at school is really interesting. It's about a man who escapes from prison. The train that goes to the theme park leaves in 30 minutes. Hello, I would like to complain about the waiter that served me at your restaurant today. 45. Relative clauses listening practice (Master): listening practice for relative clauses with who and that. Listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master relative clauses with who and that. Let's get started. The kitten that Jane found has been adopted by my sister. The kitten that Jane found has been adopted by my sister. Have you ever spoken to the woman who lives next door? Never. I don't even know her name. Have you ever spoken to the woman who lives next door? Never. I don't even know her name. Obsolete is a word that means no longer in use or outdated. Obsolete is a word that means no longer in use or outdated. What's this movie about? It's about a boy and girl who fall in love and run away together. What's this movie about? It's about a boy and girl who fall in love and run away together. The police found the man who broke into my car. The police found the man who broke into my car. Do you know where I can find a shop that sells smartphone batteries. I need a new one. Do you know where I can find a shop that sells smartphone batteries? I need a new one, Samarai, where Japanese warriors who used a special sword called a samurai sword samurai were Japanese warriors who used a special sword called a samurai sword. The man who invented the early Internet is called Tim Berners Lee. The man who invented the early Internet is called Tim Berners Lee. Where are the photographs that we took in South Africa? Where are the photographs that we took in South Africa? The new giant TV that we bought last week is broken. We're going to get it fixed today. The new giant TV that we bought last week is broken. We're going to get it fixed today. New Orleans is the city that's known as the home of jazz music. New Orleans is the city that's known as the home of jazz music. The movie that we watched last night was so scary that I had a terrible nightmare. The movie that we watched last night was so scary that I had a terrible nightmare 46. Verb + -ing (Learn) : the target structure for this lecture is verb plus i n G. So this is the verb plus i n g structure in English. There are many, many verbs that can take this structure because it's a very common one, but we're going to focus on 10 particular Bob's that take this structure. One example is love. Love can be followed by an i N G. Bob. So, for example, I can say I love reading. This is the verb plus i n g structure. Let's have a look at all the examples. First, Joanna is a book lover. She reads at least one novel per week. She really enjoys reading books. I love sitting outside in the summer. It feels so nice. I hate watching horror movies. They make me so scared that I can't sleep after. So enjoy. Love and hate are verbs, which can be followed by an I N G verb. Tom Stop smoking last year. He hasn't smoked for 10 months. Try to avoid eating dairy products if your skin is having problems. Whenever I'm angry, I imagine walking along a beautiful beach. My anger quickly disappears. So here are three more verbs that can be followed by an i n g verb. Stop, avoid and imagine. Have you ever considered moving to the countryside? Mary spends lots of time helping poor people spend time doing something is the phrase. If you want to become a guitarist, you need to practice playing every day. These are three more verbs we can use, followed by an iron Jeeva. Consider spend and practice. Here's the final example. Have you finished cleaning your room yet? Mark? So finish is another verb that can be followed by an i N G Ferb form. So all of these examples we just went through enjoy, love, hate, stop, avoid imagine consider, spend time, practice and finish ALS. The words in Bold of UBS, which can use an i N g vod form after them. Those are the 10 verbs we're going to focus on in this lecture and noticed that you can change the I N G form after. It doesn't have to be enjoy reading all the time that I can say I enjoyed reading books, but I can change reading for any other verb. Plus, i n g. I can say I enjoy playing football. I can say I enjoy swimming. I can say I enjoy sleeping any I n g form can go after these verbs. It was very, very flexible and very useful for your speaking. Let's look at the structure. So the structure is simply like this by he she it etcetera. Plus one of the verbs. Enjoy love, hate Stop, Avoid Imagine Consider spend time, practice or finish. Plus an I n g verb form, for example, Walking, watching, visiting, traveling, etcetera. Look at this sentence. My daughter used to hate studying, but now she loves going to school. So we have hate. Plus i n g and love. Plus i n g Here is the negative structure. I he she it etcetera plus one of the verbs from the list plus not plus in i n g verb form, for example, the summer holidays are here. I enjoy not waking up early every day. And here is the question structure that the question structure is like this question word. For example. Why? Where Who how Plus i he she it etcetera plus a verb from the list. Plus in i n g verb form. Here are a few examples. Do you enjoy eating out Can we practice playing here? Why did you stop taking ballet lessons? There? We have the verb plus i n g structure. This is a very, very common structure and really useful for upgrading your English level very, very quickly and move on to the next lecture. I'll see you there. 47. Verb + -ing (Things to Note): Here are some things that we have to note for the verb plus i n G structure. Let's look at the first thing so you can follow these verbs with a noun if you wish. It doesn't have to be an i n g form. For example, I enjoy watching romance movies on action movies. This is a verb, plus I n g structure. Enjoy, plus watching I n G. However, we don't need the I N G form. We can simply say I enjoy romance movies and action movies. The meaning of these two sentences is very similar, but the first is emphasizing that you enjoy watching these movies. Can you see the difference between the two sentences? Imagine if I say I enjoy tennis. What does this mean? Doesn't mean I enjoy playing tennis doesn't mean I enjoy watching tennis on television. What does it mean? I enjoy tennis? We're not sure, But if I add an I n g form, it's much, much clearer. I enjoy playing tennis or I enjoy watching tennis. Can you see? So adding the I N G after the verb can clarify Andi enhance the meaning. Let's look at the next thing that we should note the tense off. The verbs can change, but the I N G form must still be used after, For example, I loved eating chocolate when I was a child. I love eating new cuisine from around the world. She loves eating at expensive restaurants, notice the tents, loved love and loves. It's different in each sentence, but the I N G form always comes after, so it doesn't matter about the tents, whether it's past or present. What matters is the actual word. Love. Love can be followed by an i N G form in any tense. Here is the final thing to note the verb plus I N G structure is different to the present continuous, which we looked at in a previous lecture. It's very similar. It looks similar, but the meaning is different. Have a look at this example the verb plus I n G. Example. I enjoy traveling around France. This means generally I like traveling around France, but the present continuous form is I am traveling around France. This means I am traveling around France now, so that last thing to note was just to make sure that you understand the difference between the verb plus i n G structure and the present continuous. They both used an i N g bob, but the meaning is very different. Sometimes they can be confused. Just make sure you are aware off the difference. Now let's move on to the speaking and listening practice lectures. 48. Verb + -ing speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for the verb plus i n g structure. Listen to the sentence. Then pause the video on. Repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master the verb plus i n g structure. Let's begin. Tony and I enjoy hiking together. We love experiencing nature while exercising. My dog loves racing around the park. He's so energetic that he can run for hours. Many people hate flying, but I'm a bit strange because I actually enjoy flying. Well, you kids stop shouting so loudly you're giving me a headache. Please avoid walking on the grass. Imagine living on a Paradise Island without any stress or worries. That would be heaven. My friend Barry is considering moving to Australia. He has always wanted to live there. Artists need to spend lots of time thinking so that they can come up with creative ideas for their work. Do we have any homework, Miss Ashley? Yes. I want you to practice writing the present. Perfect. Write five sentences using this tense. Hi, Ray. Can you help me with this idea that I'm walking on? Yes. Just give me one minute to finish doing this. John, have you finished painting the bedroom yet? Not yet. I'll be finished doing it in about 30 minutes. You should always practice using the English that you learn as much as possible. Simon. You are spending too much time watching TV and surfing the Internet. Do something more productive with your life. But, Mom, I love watching TV. Some cultures consider burping and eating allowed as a sign of enjoyment. In some other cultures, these are considered rude. Now it's time to relax. I want you to imagine walking in a beautiful Greenfield, feeling the warm sun on your face, listening to the birds and smelling the flowers. When you visit Beijing, avoid taking the subway. It's always packed full of people. That movie we watched last night was so scary. I loved it. Can you stop talking about that movie? I had nightmares because of it. Steve Jobs was a very passionate man. He hated seeing poor design, and he made sure every product he created was his idea off perfection. 49. Verb + -ing listening practice (Master): listening practice for the verb plus i n g structure. Listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master the verb plus I n g structure. Let's get started. I'm glad I quit my job and started working from home. I love being able to do what I want when I want. I'm glad I quit my job and started working from home. I love being able to do what I want when I want. Do you enjoy being a pilot? I love being a pilot. Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to fly planes. Now I do it as a job. Do you enjoy being a pilot? I love being a pilot. Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to fly planes. Now I do it as a job. Would you consider accepting $8000 for the car? Sorry, that's too low. Why don't we consider meeting halfway at $9000? Would you consider accepting $8000 for the car? Sorry, that's too low. Why don't we consider meeting halfway at $9000. People used to spend lots of time reading. Nowadays, people prefer to surf the Internet or play computer games. People used to spend lots of time reading. Nowadays, people prefer to surf the Internet or play computer games. Today we're going to have football class. We're going to practice passing, shooting on, dribbling with the ball. Today we're going tohave football class. We're going to practice passing, shooting on, dribbling with the ball. Dad, I finished doing my homework. Can I go out to play now? Dad, I've finished doing my homework. Can I go out to play now? What kinds of music do you enjoy listening to? I love listening to rock and classical. What kinds of music do you enjoy listening to? I love listening to rock and classical. I hate giving presentations. Do you have any advice for me? Try to avoid talking quickly. When you slow down, you will relax. I hate giving presentations. Do you have any advice for me? Try to avoid talking quickly. When you slow down, you will relax. Have you stopped dating Ryan? Yes. We stopped dating last month. He spent too much time walking instead of being with me. Have you stopped dating Ryan? Yes. We stopped dating last month. He spent too much time walking instead of being with me. Can you imagine traveling to space? It would be wonderful to float around on. Look at earth from up there. Can you imagine traveling to space? It would be wonderful to float around and look at Earth from up there. You need to relax for a couple of weeks. Avoid doing heavy exercise. You should also avoid drinking alcohol while you take this medication. Okay. Thank you. You need to relax for a couple of weeks. Avoid doing heavy exercise. You should also avoid drinking alcohol while you take this medication. Okay. Thank you. If you have finished reading, you can spend the rest of the time completing your story. If you have finished reading, you can spend the rest of the time completing your story. 50. Both, neither and either (Learn): the target structures for this lecture are both neither, and either we're going to target three structures in this lecture, so make sure you have your pen and paper ready to take notes. The reason I'm putting three structures together is because they are very, very related, so it makes sense to learn them all together at once. So the first thing I want to bring your attention to is the pronunciation of neither. And either they have alternative pronunciations that you might hear native speakers using. You can say neither or neither. These are the two alternatives, and you can say either or either slightly different. These are the alternative pronunciations just to let you know. Let's go to the example. Sentences Andi. The meaning for each structure. Have a look at these three examples. Both books are really interesting. I highly recommend them. Neither book is boring. You can borrow I the book. The words in Bold are to talk about two things or people in this case, two books. That's why I grouped thes three structures together because all of them talk about two things or two people. That's why they're so related. They're always talking about two things or to people. Just remember that. Let's look at each one in more detail. Let's start with both to going back to the example that we saw earlier. Both books are really interesting. I highly recommend them. Both is positive and means that the two books are really interesting. So that's both. Both is positive. Just remember that it's always talking about two things. So imagine. I see two cars that I like. I can say both cars are really beautiful. That means the two cars are beautiful. Both is similar to all. We use all to talk about many, many things. If I see 10 cars that are beautiful, I can say all the cars are beautiful. But if there are just too all sounds strange because there are not that many just to so we use both. Both cars are beautiful, so both is positive. Let's look at the next one, neither so going back to the original example. Neither book is boring. Neither is negative and means that the two books aren't boring. Neither, as I said, is negative again. It's always talking about two things or to people always, and it's a negative word just like not or never. So it's a negative. Remember the N in neither signifies negative. That's a good way to remember. So imagine now I have two more cars. These cars are very old and ugly. I can say I like neither car. I like neither car. What does this mean? It means I don't like the cause. There are two cars, and I don't like any of them. I like neither car. Neither is a negative. So it means I don't like them, you see, So it always negates the words that you use in the sentence. Now let's look at either in more detail, you can borrow either book. Either is a choice off the to, and means that you can borrow this one or this one again. Either is to talk about two things or to people. This time, we're talking about a choice between two things. You can choose this one or this one, not both this one or this one, either to either means a choice. Just choose one, this one or this one. So if I say to my daughter, you can have either spaghetti or pizza for dinner. Can you hear that choose either spaghetti or pizza for dinner. I'm giving her a choice. Choose either this one or this one. Either is always a choice between two things. Now let's look at the structures for these words. There are a few structures, so again, make sure you have your pen and paper ready to take notes. Here is the 1st 1 we can use both. Neither Oh either, Plus, And now here are some examples. Both movies waas so boring that we stopped watching after 20 minutes. So remember, both is positive. It's talking about two things. So they watched two movies, and both of them were boring. The next example reads. Neither car is expensive now, remember, neither is negative, so it means the cause of both cheap. So expensive means lots of money. But because we use the negative neither it means both cars are cheap. Neither car is expensive. And the last example John says. Which city shall we visit for our trip? Madrid or Barcelona? Fiona replies. I the city is fantastic. I don't mind. So Fiona is saying between Madrid and Barcelona she doesn't mind, either she can choose either Madrid or Barcelona. She doesn't mind one or the other. Now here is the next structure we can say both off, neither off or either off, plus the so when you use the you can say any now the dog or the camera or the chair, or you can use a pronoun, for example, he she it's or you can use a possessive. A possessive is something that belongs to someone, for example, Allen's or Mary's. So look at these examples to make everything clearer both off. These dogs belong to my uncle, so you can see the structure both off. Plus these the's is a pronoun. Dogs belong to my uncle. So both of these dogs means there are two dogs and they both belong to my uncle. The next one teacher says. Which one of you to wrote this on the board on the two students? Reply. Neither of us. It waas another boy to the structure, neither off plus the pronoun us. And finally, are either of Tina's sisters tall like her. So the structure we have either off plus the possessive Tina's to the questioner is asking out of Tina's two sisters. Are any of them tall like her now, the next structure is a bit more simple, but it's very, very useful. The structure is both something plus and something. For example, both China, Andi, India are becoming more and more powerful, so you can see we've used both. Before the two things were mentioning, I mentioned China and India. These are the two things I'm talking about and remember both is positive. The second example says, I played both football and rugby. So again, the two things I'm mentioning our football and rugby. This structure is very common in English, and it's really, really good for making yourself sound more fluent and upgrading your English. The next one is very, very similar. The structure is neither something plus nor something. So it's similar to both on and but this one is negative. Remember, neither is a negative form. So look at the first example. Neither Jane nor Sally came to the party last night. I was disappointed, so this means Jane and Sally didn't come to the party. So remember it's negative, so neither means they didn't come. Nor is basically the negative version off. And the second example says, For me, baseball is neither fun nor exciting. So remember Neither is negative. That means for me, baseball isn't fun and it isn't exciting. So I don't like baseball and finally, either something plus or something. So this is similar to the previous one. Neither Nor. But this is positive. So the husband says, What shall we do today? The wife replies, We can either visit my parents or go and watch a movie. So remember, either is a choice of two things. The choice is visit my parents or watch a movie. And the second example says, I think either Germany or Brazil will win the World Cup. So the two choices that I'm making, Ah, Germany or Brazil one of them will win the World Cup. In my opinion, there we go. Both. Neither and either. It was quite a long lecture, lots of information to take in. But if you learned these three structures, your upgrade your English very, very quickly and significantly to move on to the next lecture. I'll see you there 51. Both, neither and either (Things to Note): These are some of the things that we need to note when we're using both. Neither and either. So we're targeting three structures, remember? So there are a few things we need to note again. Have your pen and paper ready to take some notes. Let's look at the first thing when you use both off, you can also simply use both. Remember, both off was one of the structures that we looked at, but we can simply use both. Look at these two sentences both off. The smartphones are using the latest technology. This is a good sentence. We can also omit off if we wish. We can simply say both the smartphones are using the latest technology. Both of these sentences are good now. The next thing we have to note is that you can use both neither and either alone if your intended meaning is clear. So this means we don't have toe use. Ah, whole sentence. Using these words, we can simply say the word if the meaning is clear. Here's an example, the dad says. Do you want a chocolate bar or an ice cream? The child simply replies both. That means I want both of them, do you see? So the dad gave the child a choice. Do you want a chocolate bar or an ice cream? So he gave him a choice of two things. But the child says both. In other words, he wants the chocolate bar and the ice cream. And here is another example, using neither. So Jill says, Will you have a glass of wine or a beer? Henry replies. Neither. I'm driving, so I'll just have a glass of juice. Thanks. So originally, he simply said neither. That means. I want neither Off them Remember, Neither is negative. So he's saying, I don't want wine or beer. Thank you. And here's one more example Using either, Tom says, I'm booking the hotel for our trip. Which one shall we stay at this one or this one? And Carol replies, either, I really don't mind. So this simply means I have the roof. Them is fine. She's trying to say, You can choose this one or this one. I don't mind. I will let you choose, because remember, either is a choice between two things. So Carol is trying to say you choose. I'm happy with either one and The final thing to note is this either is positive and neither is negative. We can use a negative word with either to mean neither, so it sounds a bit confusing. But have a look at this example. It will make it much clearer. I can say I was invited to two weddings, but I couldn't go to either of them. So this means that I couldn't go to any of the weddings. Now the second sentence is exactly the same meaning it says. I was invited to two weddings, but I could go to neither of them. The's sentences mean the same thing. It means I couldn't go to any of the two weddings. Those are the things that you need to note now. You should move on to the speaking and listening practice lectures. They will take your level of understanding higher on. You will train your brain to master these three structures. See you in the next lecture. 52. Both, neither and either speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for both. Neither and either listen to this sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to Mosca Both neither and either. Let's get started. I neither watched the news nor read newspapers. There are too many negative stories. When do you leave? Is it Saturday or Sunday? Neither. I leave on Monday. We can either go swimming or ice skating. Which do you prefer? It's both hot and humid. Here in France. I am constantly using the air conditioner. Hi, Gary. I try to visit you twice last week, but both times you were out. Neither I nor my wife drives. We use the public transport to get around. The puppy we found was both hungry and cold. We looked after it, and now it's that full strength. When I visited Spain, I stayed with a Spanish couple, but neither of them spoke English, so it was very difficult to communicate. Jack and Tony said they would meet us here, but I can't see either of them. Perhaps there late. The new boss is fantastic. He's both kind and hard walking, so he already feels part of the team. Thankfully, neither of the girls was injured, but both of them were taken to the hospital to be on the safe side. The strange man we met today really scared me. He neither said anything nor smiled. What's the name of the new guy at work? I've forgotten? I've for gotten to. I think his name is either Michael or Matthew. Hi, John. Both Linda and Tina are on Holiday this week, so we need to cover their work. Do you prefer doing lenders or Tina's work, either? I don't mind what I do. It's so hot. Please turn on both fans so we can cool this place down. Sarah and Paul's baby twins were born last night. Both of them are very healthy, and neither of them has their fathers. Gray hair. I tried on the two wedding dresses, but neither off them fitted. I'll have to choose another. We don't have much time before the movie starts, so we can either quickly eat a sandwich now or eat at a restaurant. After Mom is really sick today and I have some work to do, either you or your brother has to cook dinner. Why don't we both do it, then it will get done quicker. Lee looked at both cars, but he didn't like either of them. 53. Both, neither and either listening practice (Master): listening practice for both. Neither and either listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master Both. Neither and either. Let's get started. Hi, Neil. Hi, Fiona. Let me get both of you a drink. What will you have? Hi, Neil. Hi, Fiona. Let me get both of you a drink. What will you have? So let's talk about your skills. Do you speak any other languages? Yes. I speak both French and Arabic fluently, and I also speak a little German. So let's talk about your skills. Do you speak any other languages? Yes. I speak both French and Arabic fluently, and I also speak a little German. Do you want anything from the shop? Yes. I want something sweet for dessert. By either a chocolate cake or some strawberry ice cream. Do you want anything from the shop? Yes. I want something sweet for dessert. By either a chocolate cake or some strawberry ice cream. North and South Korea fought a devastating war. Both countries have now stopped fighting but still remain enemies North and South Korea fought a devastating war. Both countries have now stopped fighting but still remain enemies. We aren't going to the party next week. Neither are we. We are so busy with work. We aren't going to the party next week. Neither are we. We are so busy with work. I'm not sure if I will have Children in the future. I have neither the patient's nor the energy to look after them. I'm not sure if I will have Children in the future. I have neither the patient's nor the energy to look after them. I think either the yellow dress or the green dress would be the best choice. You're right. Actually, I'll take both. I think either the yellow dress or the green dress would be the best choice. You're right, Action E. I'll take both. Neither of you did your homework again. I'll have to call both your parents. Please don't call our parents. Either give us detention or make us do double homework. Tonight. Neither of you did your homework again. I'll have to call both your parents. Please don't call. Our parents are either give us detention or make us to double homework tonight. I'm so bored that I really want to go out somewhere. I'm either going to visit my friend Jack or go to the gym. I'm so bored that I really want to go out somewhere. I'm either going to visit my friend Jack or go to the gym. 54. Even (Learn): The target structure for this lecture is even even is a word that has different meanings. We're going to focus on one particular meaning in this lecture. It's a very, very useful meaning. It's one that can improve your English very, very quickly. Let's have a look at the example sentence on the meaning. Amy has traveled a lot. She has even visited the Antarctic on North Korea. The word in bold even is to show surprise or something unusual or not normal. Someone visiting the Antarctic and North Korea is both surprising and unusual. That's the key. With this structure. It's to show your feeling to show that you're surprised something is unusual or that something is strange, not normal. Okay, so it can be very positive. Or it could be slightly negative, depending on the situation on the sentence. Let me give you an example. My friend has met many, many famous people. He has even met Bill Gates. So this information is quite surprising because to meet Bill Gates is quite unusual. Onda Quite rare. So it's very surprising and interesting information, so I can say my friend has even met Bill Gates, So when we want to show some surprising information we can use. Even so, it's surprising, unusual or strange notices. Well, the emphasis I give behind the would. Even we don't say he has even met Bill Gates in a flat tone. We emphasize the word even because we're showing emotion. We're showing that the information is surprising or unusual. So listen again. My friend has met so many people, so many famous people. He has even met Bill Gates. Can you hear the emphasis he has even met Bill Gates for? Use your your voice to show emphasis and emotion behind the world. Now let's look at the structures for even festival even should be used before the words that you want to show our surprising. It could be used in a variety off places in the sentence. Here are a couple of examples. Mary loves singing. She even sings when she's sleeping so you can see the surprising information is that she sings when she's sleeping. So put even just before the surprising information you see, the first sentence Mary loves singing is not surprising. The second sentence is surprising, she sings when she's sleeping. So then we use even before the verb sing. She even sings when she's sleeping. The second sentence says Patrick, works every day, even on Sundays. So here we're trying to say that someone who works on Sundays is a very hard worker. It's quite unusual. Sunday is usually a day off rest. People usually take at least one or two days off per week. But Patrick walks every day, even on Sundays, so the speaker is trying to emphasize this is surprising. Here is one more example off Even, Michael says, What's the capital off the U. S. A. And Paul replies, It's Washington, D. C. Even I know that, and I'm terrible at geography. So why did Paul use even in this position? He's saying, even because if he knows the answer to this question, it's surprising because he's very bad at geography. He's very bad at locating places on the map. So if he knows the answer, that is very, very surprising. He's trying to emphasize that his friend is a bit silly because even Paul knows the answer . And finally, the negative structure for even even is usually placed after the negative word to Here are two examples. Nobody knows who stole Alka We don't even know if it's still in this country. So here you can see, even comes after the negative. Do not don't. So why is this information surprising? Well, someone stole their car and they have no idea where the car is or who stole it. They don't even know if the car is still in the country. Perhaps the person who stole the car drove to another country and has escaped with the car . So that's quite surprising information. We don't even know if it's still in the country. The second example reads. I am the worst cook in the world. I can't even make toast. So this person is saying that they are a very bad cook, that terrible at cooking food. And what's surprising about the second sentence? I can't even make toast because toast is extremely easy to make. You just put a piece of bread in the toaster. Andi, you wait for it to toast. But that just joking. They're trying to say, I'm so bad at cooking. I can't even make toast. So it's surprising if someone can't make toast that's really bad. Just remember, even is always used to show surprise or something unusual, something strange. So you're giving some in motion to the following words that you say Now the next lecture is very important. The things to note. Make sure you watch it because there are really important things about even that. You need to make sure you understand. See you in the next lecture. 55. Even (Things to Note): There's one really important thing we need to make sure we understand when we use even. Let's have a look at this note. We usually say a sentence or statement before using a sentence with even. It would be strange to simply say I even visited North Korea. We need to give some context on information before using. Even this is much better. I visited some interesting places last year. I even visited North Korea. It's important you understand this thing to note when you use, even don't just say a sentence with even and nothing else. So it would be really strange if I just said my friend has even met Bill Gates. If that's the only thing I said, it will be strange. We need to have some context before hand. We need to give some information about what I'm going to say before, So if I want to use that sentence, I would have to say something like my friend has met so many famous people. He has even met Bill Gates, do you see? So I gave some context or information before I use the sentence with even this is really, really important. Otherwise you will sound strange? Just saying a sentence with even. Okay, that's important to note. Important to remember when you move on to the speaking and listening exercises, you will start to pick this up on start to train your brain to master thes rules. So I'll see you in the next lectures. 56. Even speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for even listen to the sentence. Then pause the video and repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master, even let's begin. After the accident, the man's memory was erased. He couldn't even remember his wife. I usually hate art, but even I enjoyed the gallery. It was quite interesting. We saw so many wonderful animals on our trip to Africa. We even saw a rare rhino that his almost extinct Gemma loves pink. She has a pink room, pink, close and pink shoes. She even has a pink car. Lisa's child is so clever, she's so smart that she could even read when she was two years old. The man next door always wears a coat. He even wears it. During the summer, The hotel we went to was incredible. We even had a sauna and hot tub in our suite. My new smartphone is really advanced. It can even tell me how many calories I have burned today. The staff at the restaurant were really bad. They didn't even ask us if we wanted a drink. I want to join the gym because I am extremely unfit. I can't even run for one minute. The woman disappeared without telling anyone. Not even her husband. Some has met so many famous people. He has even met Bill Gates. The dog chewed all the stuff in my room and ruined everything. It even bit my smartphone and broke it. Sir, Richard Branson is so rich that he even has his own private island. The guests are arriving soon and you haven't done anything. You haven't even prepared the food. The Internet is rapidly changing the way we study and learn. We can even take university courses online. Five years ago we had no money. We didn't even have enough money to buy new clothes. Jack, thes answers are all wrong. Even a baby could answer these questions correctly. 57. Even listening practice (Master): listening practice. Four even. Listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master even. Let's get started. The view from our new apartment in New York is spectacular. We can even see the Statue of Liberty from our window. The view from our new apartment in New York is spectacular. We can even see the Statue of Liberty from our window. The weather really ruined our trip. We couldn't even go outside because of the heavy rain and storms. The weather really ruined our trip. We couldn't even go outside because of the heavy rain and storms. Tim, you are always eating food even when you aren't hungry. Tim, you are always eating food even when you aren't hungry. Anthony has tried so many interesting and unusual foods. He has even eaten insects. Anthony has tried so many interesting and unusual foods. He has even eaten insects. You're very brave and daring doing a skydive. Is that anything you won't do? No. I'll try anything once I have even swam with sharks before you're very brave and daring doing a skydive. Is there anything you won't do? No. I'll try anything once. I have even swam with sharks before the curry you cooked was amazing. Even Daniel liked it. And he usually hates curry. The curry you cooked was amazing. Even Daniel liked it. And he usually hates curry. Neal loses everything. He even lost his wedding ring. Once Neal loses everything, he even lost his wedding ring once. My son is so ambitious, he wants to become a scientist. A firefighter. Andi, an astronaut. He even wants to become the president of the U. S. A. My son is so ambitious. He wants to become a scientist. A firefighter Andan astronaut. He even wants to become the president off the U. S. A. My wife forgets so many things that I sometimes can't believe it. She even forgot my birthday last week. My wife forgets so many things that I sometimes can't believe it. She even forgot my birthday last week. Paul's cooking is so bad that even the dog didn't want to eat it. Paul's cooking is so bad that even the dog didn't want to eat it. This room is really strange even in the summer, or even with the heating on, it's cold. This room is really strange, even in the summer, or even with the heating on. It's cold. We had a fantastic meal today at the Chinese restaurant. We even got some free food and drinks because I know one of the staff. We had a fantastic meal today at the Chinese restaurant. We even got some free food and drinks because I know one of the staff. 58. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is Fraser verbs with In and Out. We're going to look at some phrase Alvar herbs in this lecture. Now, before we start. If you don't know what a phrase Alvar verb is, it's a phrase which contains a bob plus a proposition. For example, the phrase sit down is a phrase over Bob, because sit is a verb and down is a proposition. So whenever you see this structure, verb and proposition, it's probably a phrase Alvar verb. In English, there are hundreds and hundreds, for example. Sit down, stand up, go out, look up, look down! These are all Fraser, Bubs Thes are quite easy ones, but there are also some more challenging ones, which are difficult to figure out what the meaning is. We're going to look at a few in this lecture. We're going to look at Fraser bulbs that contain in and out. Let's look at the first ones that these two contain the proposition in. So the first phrase of Bob is move in. MoveOn means start to live in a new house, for example. I've just bought a new apartment find moving in on Friday, so this means that person is going to start living in a new house on Friday. The next phrase of up is drop in droppin means go to see someone or go somewhere for a short time. For example, let's drop in to see Chris on the way home, so this means let's visit Chris on the way home for a short time. These are the next phrase of verbs. Plug in. This means connect an electrical supply to a machine, for example, the husband says the washing machine isn't working, the wife replies, because it isn't plugged in silly. The next phrase will verb is break into, which means to illegally enter Andi steal something. For example, someone broke into my house while we were on holiday. The next phrase of herbs join in means start playing in an activity or sport, Greg says. Hi. Can I join in with your game? Wesley replies. Off course, you can play on our team. Joining means to start playing an activity or sport. Eat out means eat at a restaurant, not at home. I'm too tired to cook today. Let's eat out. Here are the next two phrases verbs drop out. This means stop going to school or university before you complete your studies, so it means stop going to school or university early. Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg dropped out of university before becoming hugely successful businessman. So Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg stopped going to university before they finished. Their studies. Fill out means to complete a form. The example is, Please fill out this document so that you can open your new bank account so fill out means to write on a document. Write your name, address, phone number, etcetera fill out. And here are the last to phrase ALS Verbs cut out means eliminate or stop doing something. I am going to cut out chocolate for a few weeks to try and lose weight. So cut out usually refers to a food or sometimes something bad that we should stop doing and finally figure out this means find the answer to a problem. I finally figured out this puzzle. It took me hours, So those are the phrase of herbs we're going to focus on. There are 10 Fraser verbs. Some of them are easier than others. So, for example, eat out. This means to eat at a restaurant instead of eating at home. It's quite logical when you think about the structure, eat and out. Other phrase of verbs are a bit more tricky to solve. For example, figure out figure out means to solve a problem. To get the answer and cut out. Cut out has two or three meanings in English. One meaning is to use the scissors and to cut out a picture. But the meaning we're focusing on is something different. It means to stop doing something bad. For example, I'm going to cut out chocolate because I'm getting fat or I'm going to cut out junk food because it's too unhealthy. So you'll start to train your brain to master these phrase of verbs in the speaking and listening section. Now let's quickly look at the structure off Fraser verbs. So I mentioned earlier. The basic structure is a verb plus a proposition, so propositions could be, for example, in out on down, up etcetera, for example, everyone stood up and walked out off the room. That's the basic structure, But remember, we're focusing on the phrase all bulbs that contain in and out so that we can just start a master. The structure and train our brain to understand the meanings off thes Fraser verbs and move on to the next lecture. I'll see you there. 59. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' (Things to Note): Here are some things to note for the Fraser verbs with focusing on and Fraser verbs in general. Remember, I said, there are hundreds and hundreds in English. These are some things that you have to note. So, as I said, there are hundreds, probably thousands off raisel verbs in English, some more common than others. The ones in this lecture are very commonly used. Some Fraser verbs in English are very logical and easy to understand. For example, stand up sit down, but some are more difficult to understand without knowing the meaning. For example, drop out and figure out. Remember, dropout means to stop studying at school or university early, and figure out means to find out the answer to a problem. Here's the next thing that you should note a phrase. Alvar Bob can also be followed by another proposition, depending on the following noun. So the basic structure of a phrase Alvar biz verb plus proposition. But there could be another proposition after, for example, sit down on the chair on is the extra proposition because with sitting on the chair, another example is run away from the man. So sometimes, depending on the following noun on the meaning. We can add another proposition to the phrase of UB. And finally, Fraser verbs can change tents just like other verbs. You only need to change the first part. The verb off the phrase a verb. For example, the phrase Alvar Bob pick up can change tents to picking up picked up Andi have picked up. Those are just a few things for you to remember. Andi note for using phrase ALS verbs. Now the speaking and listening practice is next. Make sure you complete those lectures and download the MP threes so that you can train your brain to master Fraser verbs within and out. 60. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' speaking practice (Master): speaking practice for these phrases. Verbs. Listen to the sentence. Then pause the video on. Repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master thes phrase. Alvar verbs. Let's get started. The company is moving in to its new offices next month. It's going to be a really busy period. Hi, Jack. Can I drop in to talk about something later? Sure. What time do you want to come? Don't plug in the hair dryer. I think it has a problem. So it could be dangerous. Paul didn't want to join in with class activities today. Is he feeling OK? The professional criminals broke into the bank and stole more than $1 million in cash. What would you like for your birthday dinner tonight? Let's eat out at the Chinese buffet restaurant. Studying at university and working at the same time is very tiring. But I'm not going to drop out. I'm determined to finish my studies. Hello, madam. Please fill out this form and we can open your account today. My daughter has a skin allergy. So we decided to cut out dairy products from her diet. It might help, sir. I can't figure out the answer to question four. Could you please help me? John and I are having some problems with the business, but we're figuring out how to solve them. I told Jane to cut out Facebook because she's using it too much. Sir, would you please fill out this short questionnaire? It will only take one minute to complete. I dropped out of school when I was just 13 but I managed to turn my life around and start my own business. We need to stop eating out so often. It's costing too much money. Oh, my God. Call the police. Someone is breaking into that car over there. Hey, Matthew, don't just sit on the side. Come and join in our game. Can you plug in my phone? The battery is dead. 61. Phrasal verbs with 'in' and 'out' listening practice (Master): listening practice for these phrase Alvar verbs. Listen to me say the sentence. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master thes phrase. Alvar verbs. Let's begin. We dropped into the library to return the books. We dropped in to the library to return the books. Tina is moving in with me next week. Wow, your relationship with her is getting serious. Tina is moving in with me next week. Wow, your relationship with her is getting serious. I am taking night classes at the local college, but I'm thinking about dropping out. It's not a very useful course for me. I am taking night classes at the local college, but I'm thinking about dropping out. It's not a very useful course for me. Brenda is being really strange lately, but she won't tell me why. I just can't figure out what's wrong with her. Brenda is being really strange lately, but she won't tell me why. I just can't figure out what's wrong with her. Look at this funny story. The thieves broke into a bank but got locked inside. The police came an hour later and arrested them. Look at this funny story. The thieves broke into a bank but got locked inside. The police came an hour later and arrested them. We are going toe. Have a big housewarming party at our new house. After we move in, will you come? We're going to have a big housewarming party at our new house After we move in. Will you come? When I lived in Thailand, I often ate out because it was so cheap compared to London. When I lived in Thailand, I often ate out because it was so cheap compared to London. How was marks? First day at school. He really loved it. He joined in with all the class activities and made lots of new friends. How was marks? First day at school. He really loved it. He joined in with all the class activities on made lots of new friends. Would you like a cup of tea or coffee? Coffee, please. But no sugar. My dentist told me to cut out sugar. Would you like a cup of tea or coffee? Coffee, please. But no sugar. My dentist told me to cut out sugar. I need an adapter to plug in my laptop. Do you have one? I need an adapter to plug in my laptop. Do you have one? Excuse me, sir. You filled out this section incorrectly. Please do it again. Excuse me, sir. You filled out this section incorrectly. Please do it again. Hi, Terry. Can you drop in sometime today? For a few minutes. I have got a present for you. Hi, Terry. Can you drop in sometime Today? For a few minutes. I have got a present for you. 62. Must (Learn): the target structure for this lecture is Must. I'm sure you've heard this grammar structure before. It's not the common meaning. It's the other one, the less common one. So when we say must there are two meanings, the 1st 1 means something similar to have to. If I talk to my child, I say you must finish your homework. This is similar to have to. You have to finish your homework. It's an imperative, however, The focus of this lecture is another meaning off must. It's not the one I just said. It's another one. Let's look at the meaning right now. So look at this example. Paul works from 8 a.m. until 10 PM, 14 hours a day. He must get so tired. So the words in bold indicate that you believe something is true or certain you could be wrong. But your belief is that it's true. This meaning off must, as I said, is very different to the meaning we mentioned earlier. It doesn't mean you have to do something. It means, I think, I guess this is true based on some evidence that I can see. So in the example I just gave I said. Paul works from 8 a.m. To 10 p.m. That's a very long time, and then I said he must get so tired now this is what I think to be true. Maybe it's not true. Maybe Paul doesn't get tired. Maybe he's a very energetic person. Maybe he likes work and doesn't get very tired. But when I heard the information, he walks from 8 to 10. I guessed that he gets tired so I can say he must get tired. This really means I think it's true that he gets tired, but I could be wrong. You see, let me give you another example. Imagine. I see someone who looks very, very fit on healthy. They have a good body. They're very muscular. What do I guess from this evidence? Imagine I've never met them before. Well, I can guess. This person exercises a lot. I can guess. He eats good food like fruit and vegetables. I can guess he's generally a very healthy person. So with this evidence, I can use must so I can say, Wow, you must exercise every day. You must go to the gym a lot. You must eat healthy food all the time. You see, all these things are really guesses. I'm guessing that this is true or I think that this is true. Okay, to remember, this is not to say you have to do something. It's to say I think that this thing is true based on some evidence that I can see Now let's look at the structure for this particular grammar. We use a subject. For example, I he she it we you they plus must plus B plus an adjective, for example. You must be hungry. Let me make you a sandwich. So in this example, you must be hungry again. I'm guessing I'm assuming that this is true. So imagine I sit down with my friend and I hear his tummy making a noise. His tummy is rumbling. What can I guess? Based on this evidence, I can guess that he's hungry. So I can say you must be hungry. Let me make you a sandwich. Here is another structure for this grammar. We use a subject again. I he she it etcetera plus must plus B plus in i n g vub, for example. Look, there's John driving his car. He must be going to work. And another very common structure is like this. The subject again. I he she it etcetera, plus must plus a basic verb. So I can say you are from England. You must drink lots of tea. In this example, I meet someone for the first time and he tells me that he's from England. I say, Wow, you're from England. You must drink lots of tea. So this is my guess, based on the information that he's given me. So he told me He's from England. I know in England lots of people like to drink tea. So I say, You must drink lots of tea, you see. So it's a guess, based on the evidence that I have now there's another structure that we can use its the past structure. Let's have a look at that. Now. If we want to talk about the past, we use this structure a subject. I he she it etcetera, plus must plus have plus bean plus an adjective. For example, John must have bean asleep. When I called him, he sounded very tired. This is the past structure. So in the example I just gave, I said John must have been asleep when I called him because he sounded tired. So based on the evidence, he sounded tired. I can guess that he must have bean asleep when I called him. So we use the past tense like this must have bean plus an adjective. There's another structure as well that we can use here it is So we can say I he she it plus must plus have class bean Plus in i n g Bob. So, for example, I must have bean sleeping when you knocked on the door because I didn't hear it. And there's one more past structure. It goes like this. I he she it last must plus have plus a past participle verb such as gone, eaten, known etcetera for example I feel so sick. I must have eaten something bad yesterday. That's the meaning and structure for must just remember the present form we use must The past form we use must have on the meaning is based on some evidence. I believe this is true. It means I could be wrong. But I guess and I think that this is true Now move on to the next lecture the things to note, and then you can move on to the speaking and listening practice exercises. I'll see you in the next lecture. 63. Must (Things to Note): just a couple of things to note for this structure. Here's the 1st 1 The very important difference between the two meanings off must. So don't confuse this meaning of must with the other meaning. Notice the difference. You walked so hard today you must be really tired. This meaning is I believe that this is true. Look at the second example You worked so hard today you must take a rest Right now This meaning is you have to do this. So it's very important to distinguish the difference of meaning between the two versions off must 1st 1 that we're covering in this lecture is I believe this is true. Based on the evidence, the other meaning of must is have to okay to make sure you keep this in mind. Now there's one more thing we need to note. Have a look When we use the past structure, we can contract it like this must have can become must have. For example, I lost my scarf today. I must have left it on the bus When we use the past form off Must we can contract must and have two must of must have we use this in spoken English, especially now. Move on to the practice exercises. Start to train your brain to master this grammar structure. See there. 64. Must speaking practice (Master): speaking practice. Four must listen to what I say. Then pause the video on. Repeat after me. Think about the structure we studied. Train your brain to master must. Let's begin. The heating is off. You must be so cold in here. Let me turn it on. That restaurant is always full of people. We should visit sometime. Yeah, it must have accident food. Paul seems really stressed these days. What's wrong with him? He must be going through a hard time with his business. I think it's having problems. The neighbors must have gone on holiday. Their house has been empty for a week now. This meal is wonderful, George. It must have taken a long time to prepare it. I couldn't see the meteor shower in the sky last night. I must have been looking in the wrong place. Lisa and I just got back from Poland. You must have had a wonderful time there. I heard it's beautiful. Where's the credit card? I can't find it. You must have it. I gave it to you when we left the house. Do you know this song? You must have heard it before. It's so popular. Readers. New house is right next to a busy airport. It must be so noisy that 65. Must listening practice (Master): listening practice for must listen to what I say. Then pause the video and write down what you hear. Press play to see the text on the screen and check your answer. Train your brain to master must Let's begin. Harry is 30 minutes late. He must be stuck in traffic. Hurry is 30 minutes late. He must be stuck in traffic. How old is the new employees? He looks very young. I know. He must be less than 20. I think he is still at university. How old is the new employees? He looks very young. I know. He must be less than 20. I think he is still at university. You arrived here quickly. You must have driven very fast. You arrived here quickly. You must have driven very fast. Bob and Sally are always traveling and spending lots of money. They must be quite rich. Bob and Sally are always traveling and spending lots of money. They must be quite rich. I didn't seem Michael at the party last night. I thought he was coming. I thought so too. He must have bean doing something else. Last night I didn't see Michael at the party last night. I thought he was coming. I thought so too. He must have been doing something else last night. The neighbors are putting suitcases into their car. They must be going on holiday today. The neighbors are putting suitcases into their car. They must be going on holiday today. It rained almost every day on our holiday. Oh, no. That must have bean. Terrible. It rained almost every day on our holiday. Oh, no. That must have bean. Terrible. I wonder if Tony is at home. His lights are on it home, so he must be in. I wonder if Tony is at home. His lights are run at home, so he must be in. Joe, You have so many books in your house. You and your wife must read a lot. Joe, you have so many books in your house. You and your wife must read a lot. My friend Paul has two degrees, one from Oxford and one from Cambridge. Wow. He must be so smart. My friend Paul has two degrees, one from Oxford and one from Cambridge. Wow. He must be so smart.