English Grammar: Understand the grammar of English through fun and easy ways | Mister Rabiey | Skillshare

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English Grammar: Understand the grammar of English through fun and easy ways

teacher avatar Mister Rabiey, Oxford Tutor & Voice Actor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

20 Lessons (2h 10m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:31
    • 2. 1 will or going to

      11:19
    • 3. 2 present continuous for future

      7:26
    • 4. 3 Linking words Results and Reasons

      8:18
    • 5. 5 Linking words , Contracting ideas

      4:19
    • 6. 4 Linking words adding , organizing and summarizing

      11:32
    • 7. 7 Present Perfect Just Already Yet recently

      5:09
    • 8. 6 Present Perfect Ever&Never

      3:42
    • 9. 5 Linking words , Contracting ideas

      4:19
    • 10. 6 Present Perfect Ever&Never

      3:42
    • 11. 7 Present Perfect Just Already Yet recently

      5:09
    • 12. 8 Present Perfect ,Since and For

      3:54
    • 13. 9 Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect Continuous

      6:19
    • 14. 10 Comparative Adjectives & Not as

      7:56
    • 15. 11 So , neither , too

      8:24
    • 16. 12 Infinitives and Ing verb

      7:55
    • 17. 13 Permission , obligation and Prohibition

      4:46
    • 18. 15 Preposition of Time

      10:31
    • 19. 16 Prepostions of place

      8:11
    • 20. 17 Prepostions of Movement

      5:45
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About This Class

Learn the fundamentals of English grammar & Improve your English communication with knowledge of functional grammar

Welcome to the unique Complete English Grammar Course - from B2 to C1 level class ! 

This class  is recommend to low-intermediate and Intermediate Learners who still have problems using the correct Grammar

This class  is created to help you build your grammar skills. , its aim is to be the one of a kind solution to all doubts in terms of using English structures. 

The English Grammar Course is designed to suit your needs perfectly well.

. If you follow my instructions during the video lectures and practice  on your own after each video,

you will be able to achieve great results at the end of the course.

I will always check on you doing the lessons , 

. If you succeed in completing the exercises on your own, you may be really proud of the progress you've made!

This course is idea for those students who have studies English before, choose your problem areas - start revising, start studying. .

I'm so excited to have you here! 

lectures you will review:

Present Continuous For Future Use……………………………………

  • Will or Going To? ……………………………………………………………

  • Linking Words: Reasons and Results ………………………………

  • Linking Words: Adding, Organizing, Summarizing……………

  • Linking Words: Contrasting Ideas……………………………………

  • Simple Past and Past Continuous …………………………………

  • Present Perfect + Ever / Never …………………………………………

  • Present Perfect + Yet / Already / Just ………………………………

  • Present Perfect + For / Since ……………………………………………

  • Comparative Adjectives: Not as ______ as ………………………

  • So / Neither / Too ……………………………………………………………

  • Verbs + Infinitive or –ING …………………………………………………

  • Permission, Obligation, Prohibition ………………………………

  • Prepositions of Time ………………………………………………………

  • Prepositions of Place ………………………………………………………

  • Prepositions of Movement ……………………………………………

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mister Rabiey

Oxford Tutor & Voice Actor

Teacher

 

-Master's Degree in English Linguistics US
-TV host / Dubber / Narrator
-Lived and studied in Canada,England 
-10+ Years of experience / A1 to C2 Levels
-TESOL and CELTA coach , IELTS 9 Holder
-Cambridge Certified Tutor/ IELTS Examiner

I believe that teaching is an art, like an artist, you need to be creative to be a good teacher. I always look for different things to do to help students get the information in the easiest way possible including animation programs,  Videos and personalized learning activities. I have always tried to focus on the skills of speaking and helping learners change their brain to speak automatically, without needing to think.

My courses and classes will help you:
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Transcripts

1. Introduction : Do you have difficulties making sentences correctly? Are you afraid of making mistakes in English? Do you know when? Where, why and how to use prison? Perfect on other tenses. Do you know how to make future plans? How to make reported speeches? Do you really want to understand the whole grammatical points? Very clearly. So this is the right. Please. We have covered everything and it can take you from B one to see what level. You know. Some students have studied grammar for years, but unfortunately they still can't use of correctly. But don't worry. We have designed this course for all of those students who feel hopeless and frustrated. Actually, we have done many researchers, and I have chosen the most important grammatical structures on points that most of the students need in order to write, speak and communicate better. This course can even be really practically useful for all of those students who want to pass specific tests at school or college. Take this course if you want to master English grammar and take your English to the next level. If you want to speak English more clearly, if you want to sound more native like this course can help you achieve your goal on this Is Amador be really happy and excited to be your teacher? I Holt Eisel, Celta and Delta certificates. I'm Cambre to certify Teacher. So, guys are your rights. Improve your grammar. Let's get started. 2. 1 will or going to : Hello, learners. How are you doing? Will come to this first. Great. Listen. And this. Listen, we will discuss a very important grammar structure, and that is will and going to you probably have a study of these tenses, but this is the time to use it in real life and realize where how and went to use its, you know, we use actually going to and well to speak about future. These are two great ways to speak about future. Remember that American people, instead of going to sometimes they say Ghana, Ghana, we use it in casual and in informal speech is gonna We was going to to speak about plans and arrangements we use going to when we have intentions to do something before we speak. Actually, we have already made decisions before speaking. Okay, everybody. Now let me give you some examples. Are you ready? I'm going to give you lots of examples using going to sentence number one on my next vacation. I'm going to stay in a nice hotel in Paris. Or we can say on my next vacation, I'm gonna stay in a nice hotel in Paris. So, as you can see, we use going to to speak about decisions that we have already made sent us member, too. She's going to look for a nice job after her current contract ends. David's going to meet me at the airports at AIDS so you can see in this sentence that David has already made this plan and he has already made this decision. Number four. We're going to get married next July. Or we can say we're going to get married next to lie. Going to sometimes changes to gonna as I totally before in casual speech is sentence number five. They're going to visit a Me next week. They made plans to meet up on Monday on the last sentences. Peter and Powell are going to share an apartment when they moved to New York. So as you can see Peter and Powell, they have already made this decision and they have already talked about this plan. So as you can see, we use going to here to speak about future plants and decisions that we have already made a very simple and very easy. Actually, you can use the prison continuous for future in these cases too. Okay. For example, I'm traveling to Canada next week. We can use present continuous to speak about future plans in thes cases. So let me give you some more examples. How can we use present continuous to speak about future plans on my next vacation? I'm staying at a nice hotel in Paris. So here you can see we is present continuous to speak about future plans. We can use it instead. Off Going to David is meeting me at the airport at AIDS. Can we say David's going to meet me at the airport at eight? Yes, There is no difference here. And the last sentences We are getting married next July. So here also we can use prison continues to speak about plans that we have already made. Okay, everybody. So we realized how and where to use going to and present continuous. As I told you before, we always going to to speak about plans to speak about decisions that we have already made . Now it's time to speak about Well, many students have problems understanding this word will actually where to use well and how ? Don't worry. I'm going to give you lots of instructions in this. Listen, I'm going to help you understand how to use well and where to use. Will. We was will in different situations. Okay. We're going to speak about the first situation. We was well or won't for promises, promises that you make. Okay, for example, we can say I'll send you an email. I promise you, I'll send you an email or I won't tell anyone your secrets. This is a promise. I won't tell anyone. Your secrets. Don't worry. He will pay you back tomorrow. This is a promise he will pay you back tomorrow. We won't forget your birthday. We won't forget your birthday. As you can see in these sentences, we use actually well to speak about promises. Andi, that's pretty simple. Number two, we use well for offers. When you offer somebody something you can also use. Well, but how? Let me give you some examples to make everything very clear for you. For example, I'll buy you a drink. This is my offer. I'll buy you a drink or my secretary will help you with the paperwork. My secretary will help you with the paperwork. As you can see in the second situation we use will to speak about offers on That's pretty simple. Okay, we can also use will for decisions made in that moment when you are speaking and actually at the time of speaking, you make some decisions we can use. Will remember. Will is different from green to we is going to to speak about decisions that we have already made. But here we was will to speak about decisions that he's made in the time off speaking. So, guys, let me give you some examples to make everything clear for you. Would you like potatoes or rice? I'll have the rice so you can see this is a conversation between two persons on the other person is making this decision in the time of speaking. Which shirt do you like? Well, the red one is cheaper, but I prefer the color blue. I'll take the blue one. I'll take the blue one. So as you can see the guys just making this decision in the time office speaking in that moment, so whenever you want to make decisions, actually, in that moment at the time of speaking, if you can always use well, do not use going to we use going to to speak about decisions that we have already made and we have already spoke about. This is a difference between well, on actually going to you can either use will or won't or going to for predictions and general statements about future. So we can use both whale and going to to speak about predictions and general statements we make about the future. This is a very essential and important point. Okay, let me just give you some examples, actually, to make you understand how can we was will and going to about predictions and general statements. Example. Number one. My company is going to move its headquarters overseas next year. So this is a kind of prediction, actually. The guys making or we can say my company will move its headquarters overseas next year. So we're speaking about prediction Sentence number two. Your wife? Well, Law of these flowers, they are beautiful, actually. Is a prediction that we are making. Maybe she will not love these flowers, but because the flowers are very beautiful, we predict that to your wife. Well, love these flowers. The economy isn't going to improve much this year. Or we can say the economy won't improve much this year. This is my prediction because everything is going bad. So my prediction is that the economic economy is not going to improve much this year on the last sentences. He won't pass the test. He hasn't studied at all. Or we can say he's not going to pass the test. He hasn't studied at all. So, as you can see in this sentence were predicting that the guy's not going to pass the test because he has not studied. He spent all of the day playing and going out with his friends. So that is my prediction on, and I predict that he's not going to pass the test so we can use well, both well and going to to make some predictions about the future. And there is a very important tip here, very important point. Please pay attention to this point. Use I think will And I don't think Orwell to express thoughts about the future. Okay, when you want to express your thoughts about the future, we can use these two structures don't use, I think warned. It doesn't sound natural. For example, don't say I think you won't like this movie. It's very violent. It's wrong. You should say, I don't think you will like this movie. It's very violence. So remember, always we make the first part of the sentence negative. Okay? We don't make the second part. Negative. It's wrong and it's not natural. That's it. Okay, everybody, that's the end off. Listen, number one, which was about going to and will on. I'm sure you have understood these points. These points that I explained for you are very, very important. Please do not forget to do the quizzes. We have 10 questions for every listen on. Do you need to actually do these questions in order to understand and make sure you understand everything? And if you have problems understanding some points, I suggest you to come back at a review and study that Listen again. And there is a pdf. Also, you can actually review the lesson in the pdf from practice it with your friends and at the end, I have to tell you, if you have any questions, please ask me your questions. I will always be there to ask your questions. Grammar is easy. You just need to practice. That's it. Thank you. And goodbye. 3. 2 present continuous for future : Well, everybody will come to this. Newell is um here There is a very essential grammar that many English students do not understand. And this is about present, continuous for future use. Yes, Sometimes English and American people use President continuous for future use. And in this listen, I'm going to explain for you how and where and when. Actually we are talking about the future in English. We use present continuous to speak about the future in English. Too many students use Onley will or going to in order to speak and talk about the future. However, it's very common to use the present continuous to talk about the future in the case, off arrangements that are planned. So guys do not forget that we use present continuing is to speak about the future that is arranged and planned. Okay, let me give you some examples here, for example, we are giving. We're going to give you some positive sentences like I'm having dinner with my friends tonight. So we're speaking about the future and this future has Bean planned. I'm having dinner with friends tonight or she's meeting David at the train station tomorrow . So this arrangement has been planned, and this is Bruce and continuous or some negative sentences. He isn't coming to the party. It isn't coming to the party or we are in seeing our family this weekend. We aren't seeing our family this weekend for questions. We can say, What are you doing on Saturday? Which means, What is your plan on Saturday? Arrangements that have already being planned? Or is Mary arriving at seven or eight tomorrow morning? Is Mary arriving at seven or eight tomorrow morning so you can see in these sentences we use, actually present continuous to speak about the future and arrangements that's have already being planned? Okay, you can use the president continues for future plans with these actually words. There are some words that we usually use to speak about future. And do not forget we is present continuous year. These words are tonight, tomorrow, ah, this weekend, next week, next month. Or we can say next year, this summer, this fall, this winter and this spring, or we can use the days like on Monday on to use Day on Wednesday. It's that's wrong so we can use Brazen continues for future plans, with these words, And because they next Monday, next Tuesday, next Wednesday, it's That's wrong. For example, I'm meeting my friend tonight. I have a plan, and this plan has been already arranged. A meeting, my friend tonight. Or she's having a party this weekend or this week, or he's traveling to Germany on Tuesday next week. So you can see we used these words to speak about future with prison. Continuous tense. But you should be careful. We use the present. Actually, the present present is used when a future event is part of a program or timetable. Do not for against We use simple present just for future. That is part of a program or timetable. So So you should notice the difference between these two sentences. A. We're having a staff meeting next Monday. So this is about plan. Just happens once. Okay, we're having a staff meeting next Monday. So we have talked about this before, and this arrangement has been planned. Um, so this is different from sentence. Be like we say we have a staff meeting every Monday. So in this sentence, numb part B, you can see that the future event is part of the program or timetable, but in sentence. AIDS camp little different. We're speaking about arrangement, so be careful. We usually use the present continuous when the activity has been arranged. We usually use going to for a plan which hasn't been arranged. This is a difference between going to imprison continuous. For example, a meeting Emma after school. It means I have talked to her and organized the time to meet. But like I said, I'm going toe watch TV after school. It means that this is my plan. But I haven't. Erica. Nice tits. So you should be careful when you are using present, continuous and going to to speak about the future. This is the difference between present, continuous and going to and do not forget we say we say my grandma is visiting us next week . Nuts. Mike Ramaa visits us next week because we're speaking about the future plan. We say we are going to Spain for our next holiday. Nuts. We go to Spain for our next holiday. We say. Is he helping his mom tomorrow? Not. Is he tomorrow helping his mom? This is completely wrong. So we should understand the correct way to use prison continuous here when we are speaking about the plans in the future that have been already arranged. Okay, let's use some of these tents, as in real situations. You can see here, The symptoms says is going to New York for his next holiday. He's going to New York for his next holiday. This arrangement has been already planned, or you can see that they are having an important meeting next week on Monday. They are having an important meeting next week. On Monday, you can see that we use President continues to speak about specific future about specific plants that have already be arranged. So do not forget to use. Present continues to to speak about your future. Perfect. Now it's time to do the test and move to the next part. I hope you have understood the point. If you didn't touch adjusted to come back and review of it, Listen 4. 3 Linking words Results and Reasons : Hello, guys. I hope you have enjoyed the previous listen, because in this listen, we are going to learn something very essential again. The grammar in this part is about linking words linking words play a very important role in actually communicating in writing in English language a minute. Students confused. Um, so and this. Listen, we're going to speak about reasons and results. What? Linking wars we can use to give reasons and to give results. Let's find out. Okay. Here we were going to speak about the linking course for just reasons. Okay. There are many linking cores. We use actual to give reasons. So linking words help you connect the ideas in sentence. And in this listen, you will learn some common linking words to express reasons and results. Are you ready? Let's get started. Do not forget to focus. Understand the points one by one. Okay. The first linking words are because and because off because and because up. But the difference between these two words is that because it's followed by a subject on verb and because off is followed by just and now. So this is a difference. Do not forget after because we have just subject over. But because off followed by an hour, because off is followed by a noun because there is an off here. In most of the cases, we use noun after off, so but let me give you some examples. The game was canceled because of the rain, so the rain here is the noun. The second example. The game was canceled because it was raining because it was raining subject there. But in spoken English, many people say cause as a short form off because yes, in most of the movies or daily English and American conversations, they say, cause, for example, I didn't come to the class cause I was a little bit sick because I was a little bit sick or I couldn't study last night because we had less off guests. Okay, so we use cause here because it's very short and people use it in the spoken language. Next, parties due to or owning, too, maybe use to Dems on. Many people have never seen such thing due to or owning, too due to and owning. Two are also followed by a noun. These words are a little bit more formal do to owning too. They are very little, actually more formal. There is a lot off traffic today due to the upcoming holiday because of the upcoming color day. There is a lot of traffic today due to the coming holidays, so we use a noun after due to so holiday. Here is a noun yous or, for example, the after school program was canceled, owning too lack of interest from the students. So here lack he's a noun, so do not forget. We use these linking words to give raisins due to and owning too. And they are a little bit more from Alden because the next linking words are due to the fact that owning to the fact that actually we used these phrases before a subject and verb again, these praises are a little bit more formal. And mostly we use them in writing due to the fact that owning to the fact that, for example, many people are still unemployed due to the fact that economic recovery has been slower than anticipated. So after due to the fact that do not forget, we use a subject and for and we used these linking words mostly in writing the publisher rejected the author's latest work due to the fact that sorry owning to the fact that the mini A script was full of errors, that many script was full of errors. So do not forget these two great raises, due to the fact that on owning to the fact that the other linking words are since and as since and as our more formal and they are followed by a subject and verb again since. Or as, for example, I'm going to bed at 10 PM since I need to get up early morning since I need because I need to get up early tomorrow morning or I didn't go to the gym today as I had a lot off homework to do. So we use since and as here actually to link the words and sentences and to give reasons linking words for results. Here we're going to learn some linking words to give results. Delinking wars for results are therefore consequently, and as a result, these wars are more formal and they are more commonly used in rate in English. Do not forget that we use them in a raid in English in most of the time therefore, consequently as the results for example, our company's profits have increased 150% in the past. Your therefore we're going to convinced in a new equipment and training programs. So therefore we use it to link era results. The next sentence is the tennis player had knee surgery mid October. Consequently, she took the rest of this season off. This is a result that we connect to the first sentence. Can Sequent Lee. She took the rest of this season off next one. There have been heavy rains throughout the interior of the state. As a result, several areas have experience flooding. So you can see in all of these sentences we use therefore consequently and as the results actually to Kinnick, that results to the sentences and we use them mostly in hurried in English. Do not forget that. What about spoken English? Don't forget there is another linking word that is so so so is more informal and more commonly using a spoken English so people don't say therefore consequently, as a result, when they are speaking in movies, maybe they readily use these kinds of words. They are mostly using redone English, for example, here. We say we were hungry, so we stopped at a cafe for a snack so you can see that we use so here as a linking words for results in a very informal language. I hope you have understood the Lincoln Wars for results and reasons. If you didn't, I suggest you to come back and review the listen. Don't forget to take the test right now. 5. 5 Linking words , Contracting ideas: Hello, guys. In the previous listen, we talked about different linking words for adding information, organizing information, summarizing information and this. Listen, we're going to speak about linking words for contrasting ideas. How do we contrast the ideas using linking quartz? Let's find out. But and however we use, but and however actually, but is more informal than however you can use, however, at the beginning of a sentence, but you cannot use. But at the beginning of the symptoms on and actually in red, in English, I try to lift the box. But it was too heavy for me. It was too heavy for me. I try to lift the box. However, it was too heavy for me. You can see that actually here we can use, however, at the beginning of this sentence. But we cannot use but at the beginning of the sentence and read in English, and the next one is despite and in spite off, despite in spite off these linking words are the same, and they are followed by a noun or a Gironde I engine form of the verb, which can function as a noun. So do not forget that despite and in spite off our plane arrived on time in spite of the delay during takeoff. In spite of the delay during take off, we won't sorry we won the game despite having to fewer players. We want the game despite having to fewer players so you can see after despite and in spite off, we can use the noun or Geron's next. Phrases are despite the fact that in spite the fact that these phrases are followed by a subject for subject for Andi, these phrases are mostly using an academic way. In a written language, for example, they arrived on time in spite of the fact that they left on our relates in spite the fact that they left an hour late or we won the game despite the fact that we had to fewer players. This is a difference actually between despite the fact that on despite or in spite, the fact that or in spite off while whereas and alike, these linking words are used to make contrasts while and whereas are usually used between two complete phrases, unlike is typically used with Onley, a subject so we use a while and were as between two complete phrases but we use, unlike actually only with the subject. For example, I like tennis while my brother prefers bowling. This cell phone plan costs five cents per minutes, whereas that one gives you up to 800 minutes per month for a fixed price. His bus allows him toe work from home A like me so you can see how, like is typically used with on Leah subjects. That's it. So we learned these prices, and we used these phrases as linking words to actually contract ideas. 6. 4 Linking words adding , organizing and summarizing: Hello guys will come to listen Number four and the previous. Listen, we talked about the linking words for reasons and results and this. Listen, we are going to continue our lissome and we are going to speak about the linking words about adding, organizing and summarizing. What are the linking worst toe? Add information, organize information and summarizing formation. These grammatical rules are really essential and important. So please guys do not forget to focus on understand all of this temps and listens. Let's get started with adding linking quartz, adding information and examples. What linking words we used to adding formations and examples. Let's see. The 1st 1 is for example, for instance, for example, for instance, these are actually the linking horrors we used to add information. So used these words to give one example of the idea you are talking about. Both of these expressions can go at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. Do not forget we can use both at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. There are a number of problems in this school. For example, many of the classrooms don't have ideal visual equipments, for example, it comes at the beginning here, for example, many of the classrooms don't have audio visual equipments. So, for example, is a linking words here to give an example. She has a lot off good ideas for our business opening an online store, for instance. So here, for instance, comes at the end of the sentence opening an online store, for instance. So in read in English, we have these two actually words I E and E G i E and E G. But many people and students do not understand the meaning and the difference buried in English. We can use i e to give it further explanation or clarification. It means that is our in other words. For example, our last marketing campaign failed i e. We spend $50,000 didn't make many sales. So here we use IE to give further explanation or clarification, but we can use e G to give examples. It means, for example, I enjoyed radical sports DJ rock climbing, hang gliding and Wayne serving. So here E G means, for example, to give examples informal writing. These expressions always appear inside parentheses. Do not forget this point. So this is a difference between i e and E g. Other linking words namely and such as namely, and such as. We also use these linking words to give an ad information. There's a difference between namely and such as Namely is followed by all of the examples you're referring to, but such as gives Onley one or some of the examples, not all of them. So this is a difference. This is the main difference between namely and such as, for example, if you have the students, namely Brian Thomas and JAG failed the course, so we use namely here to give all of the examples. A few of the students, such as Brian failed the course, but we use such as to give just one or some of the examples. This is a very essential point that many English students miss. Namely, such as also to we can use also, actually also can go in the middle of the sentence always, but whereas two is typically used at the end, so you actually two, is used at the end but also comes in the middle of a sentence. This is a difference. We did a lot off sightseeing on our vacation. We also bought a number off souvenirs, so you can see that also comes in the middle of the sentence. We did a lot off sightseeing on avocation. We bought a number off souvenirs too. So here to comes at their actually at the end of the sentence. So we use also to and also to give examples to add information as well, as well as why do we use as well and as well as we use them to adding for mission to what These are great linking words as well goes. This is a difference. Try to understand the difference between as well and as well as as well goes at the end of the sentence. Similarly to to but as well as must be followed always by another words. This is a difference between as well and as well as let me give you some examples. She's not on Lee extremely successful. She's beautiful as well. Tweet comes at the end of the sentence, and it's finished. But look at the next one. She is beautiful as well as being extremely successful, but after you can see in this sentence after as well as we also use the work. In addition, moreover, and fair there more, we also used these lay. Actually, worst linking these are linking words. We use them to add information. These linking wars are usually used at the beginning of a sentence to add another idea or further developed the previous point. For example, people who exercise regularly have more energy during the day and sleep better at night. In addition, they tend to live longer. Actually, these linking words are a little bit more formal and use mostly in read in English. Next one is ah, construction on the new subway has been delayed for months due to the budget shortfalls. Moreover, the workers are threatening to go on strike. The workers are threatening to go on strike ourselves are expected to rise 30% in the next year. Furthermore, purchase off new equipment will help cut manufacturing costs and increase profits. So note, in addition, moreover and furthermore are more formal in English. As I told you, an informal spoken English, we usually use the expressions like plus what's more and besides, so guys don't forget that we don't use. In addition, moreover, and further Maurin are spoken in from all English. We use them mostly in written English. So the next linking words we use them for organizing and ordering information. Firstly, secondly, firstly. Secondly, when you are going to make a series of points you can use firstly and secondly, for the first and second points after that's, you can use the third point the fourth point it sets raw. Or we can say, In addition, when you when when we are speaking about actually different points. Lastly, and finally, for your final point, you can begin the sentence with lastly or finally, these words show your audience that you are almost finished. So do not forget this. The former a ladder, the former the latter. You can use the force to refer back to two examples previously mentioned. Our company has two factories, one in Detroit and one in Atlanta. The former A's operating at 95 capacity, the latter at 65. So in this case, the former here is the factor in Detroit we talked about, and the latter is the fact serene Aunt Atlanta. So now we understand the difference between the former the ladder. That's how we refer to the examples that have bean previously mentioned for summarizing information. Actually, here are some English phrases you can use to give a summary of the information you have already said or reading. In general, these phrases go at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by a comma. So do not forget this point. These phrases go at the beginning of the sentence and they are followed by a comma. This is how actually summarized the information and these phrases are in short in summary to summarize in conclusion and the last one is in and not show. So these are English phrases you can use to give summary of the information you have already said or Reagan and they go at the beginning of the sentence so you can see this. Listen, we learn lots of great phrases to add information, to organize information and to summarize information. And these phrases are both using rating and formal language. Sometimes we use them in informal and spoke a language too. But we have to understand the difference. As I explained for you in this listen. So do not forget that. Take the tests and you could have a better understanding off this grammar for any questions . Please contact us. Thank you. 7. 7 Present Perfect Just Already Yet recently: Hello, everybody in the previous Listen, we talked about prison perfect using never and ever. And there were lots of points that I explained for you and this. Listen, we are going to speak about present, perfect using yet already and just so how can we use yet already and just with president, perfect when and where? Let's get started present. Perfect Yet already and just the words already yet recently, lately and just they all referred to a recent a non specific time. Do not forget this point. A specific time would be yesterday or three hours ago or last Friday, and in these cases we would use this simple past. But in other cases, like already yet recently lately and just that we speak about a recent and non specific time. We usually use present perfect already and yet already can be used in positive statements and questions. So do not forget in positive statements and questions. For example, I have already Durant today's newspaper. Have you already paid the electric bill? She's finished the test already. She has finished the test already. Note already can go in between have and has and the past participle do not forget this point, as in the 1st 2 examples you can see or at the end of the sentence, yet yet is different, yet can be used in negative statements and questions. For example, we haven't cleaned the house yet, so yet can be used in negative statements and questions. Do not forget this point. Has he told you the good news? Yet? Has he told you the good news? Yet? Have they booked their tickets yet? So on. Be careful yet usually goes at the end of the sentence or phrase at the end of sentence or phrase alike already, which actually comes between heaven has. Or sometimes it comes, the first or the beginning, or at the end of the sentence. Okay recently, recently, recently and lately can be used in positive statements, negative statements or sometimes questions. For example, he's recently lost some weight. I haven't seen hair recently. Have you spoken to Beth recently so it can actually be using positive or negative or question? Actually, we can use it everywhere. Lately, I've got in a lot off spam emails lately. Adam and Jessica haven't bean to church lately. Have you seen any good movies lately? you can see lately comes at the end of the sentence, and phrases in most of the cases just just usually means very recent. And this is typically Onley using positive state man's and questions. Do not forget positive statements and questions just for example, Don't touch the walls. I've just painted them. They are still with. So here just means that something happened very recently something very recent. Or what book have you just finished reading? So in American English spoken American, English often uses the simple past with their already yet. And just when we are speaking about American people, for example, did you book the tickets yet instead of have you booked? I already replied to the email instead, off, I have already replied, We just got back from the gym instead of we've just got so you can see that in spoken American, English often uses the simple pass with already get and just not the present perfect 8. 6 Present Perfect Ever&Never: Hello will come back. Actually, in this listen, we are going to speak about one of the most important tenses in English. And that's present perfect. Unfortunately, many English students don't know how to use present. Perfect. And they always have problems using present, perfect in their speech. But in this listen, I'm going to explain the most important things about this tense. Actually, we use present perfect and use the prison perfect and ever to ask questions about experiences in somebody's life. For example, have you ever taken dance classes? Yes, I have. I took six weeks off lessons before my wedding. Has your brother ever bean to India? No, he hasn't. Have your friends ever helped your move to a new apartment? Yes, twice. So you can see in these questions we use present perfect and ever to ask questions about experiences in somebody's life. Don't use ever in the answer on Lee, use it in questions. If you want, you can use before in the answer. So don't say I have ever taken dance classes. No, this is wrong. You should say yes, I have. Or I've taken dance classes before. Or simply Yes, I have. If you want to answer very short. Okay, so this is one of the most important part about prison. Perfect and ever use present. Perfect never to talk about things you have not done at any time in your life. For example, I have never failed a test. I have always gotten 80% or more. He's never heard of Michael Jackson. I can't believe he doesn't know the King of Pump. Samantha has never bean surfing. She's afraid off the ocean. We've never studied Italian. We started French and Spanish in school, but Italian wasn't available. They have never told a lie. I know we can trust them so you can see in these sentences we use present perfect and never to talk about things you have never done at any time in your life. So there's a conversation tip menaced. Many conversations began with the question in the prison perfect, and then continue with more specific questions about the experience in the simple past. For example, have you ever taken dance classes as I have? I took six weeks of Listen before my wedding last year. You can see the answer. It continues with, actually ah, simple present or simple. Sorry. Simple past sometimes. Next one. Wow. So, did you dance well on the big day? No, I didn't. I forgot everything I'd learned in the in the classes. And I stepped on my wife's feet many times. Oh, no. What? Was she angry? No, She said she still loved me. Like him, actually. So you can see in these conversations that questions began with present perfect and then continues with more specific questions about the experiences in the simple past. 9. 5 Linking words , Contracting ideas: Hello, guys. In the previous listen, we talked about different linking words for adding information, organizing information, summarizing information and this. Listen, we're going to speak about linking words for contrasting ideas. How do we contrast the ideas using linking quartz? Let's find out. But and however we use, but and however actually, but is more informal than however you can use, however, at the beginning of a sentence, but you cannot use. But at the beginning of the symptoms on and actually in red, in English, I try to lift the box. But it was too heavy for me. It was too heavy for me. I try to lift the box. However, it was too heavy for me. You can see that actually here we can use, however, at the beginning of this sentence. But we cannot use but at the beginning of the sentence and read in English, and the next one is despite and in spite off, despite in spite off these linking words are the same, and they are followed by a noun or a Gironde I engine form of the verb, which can function as a noun. So do not forget that despite and in spite off our plane arrived on time in spite of the delay during takeoff. In spite of the delay during take off, we won't sorry we won the game despite having to fewer players. We want the game despite having to fewer players so you can see after despite and in spite off, we can use the noun or Geron's next. Phrases are despite the fact that in spite the fact that these phrases are followed by a subject for subject for Andi, these phrases are mostly using an academic way. In a written language, for example, they arrived on time in spite of the fact that they left on our relates in spite the fact that they left an hour late or we won the game despite the fact that we had to fewer players. This is a difference actually between despite the fact that on despite or in spite, the fact that or in spite off while whereas and alike, these linking words are used to make contrasts while and whereas are usually used between two complete phrases, unlike is typically used with Onley, a subject so we use a while and were as between two complete phrases but we use, unlike actually only with the subject. For example, I like tennis while my brother prefers bowling. This cell phone plan costs five cents per minutes, whereas that one gives you up to 800 minutes per month for a fixed price. His bus allows him toe work from home A like me so you can see how, like is typically used with on Leah subjects. That's it. So we learned these prices, and we used these phrases as linking words to actually contract ideas. 10. 6 Present Perfect Ever&Never: Hello will come back. Actually, in this listen, we are going to speak about one of the most important tenses in English. And that's present perfect. Unfortunately, many English students don't know how to use present. Perfect. And they always have problems using present, perfect in their speech. But in this listen, I'm going to explain the most important things about this tense. Actually, we use present perfect and use the prison perfect and ever to ask questions about experiences in somebody's life. For example, have you ever taken dance classes? Yes, I have. I took six weeks off lessons before my wedding. Has your brother ever bean to India? No, he hasn't. Have your friends ever helped your move to a new apartment? Yes, twice. So you can see in these questions we use present perfect and ever to ask questions about experiences in somebody's life. Don't use ever in the answer on Lee, use it in questions. If you want, you can use before in the answer. So don't say I have ever taken dance classes. No, this is wrong. You should say yes, I have. Or I've taken dance classes before. Or simply Yes, I have. If you want to answer very short. Okay, so this is one of the most important part about prison. Perfect and ever use present. Perfect never to talk about things you have not done at any time in your life. For example, I have never failed a test. I have always gotten 80% or more. He's never heard of Michael Jackson. I can't believe he doesn't know the King of Pump. Samantha has never bean surfing. She's afraid off the ocean. We've never studied Italian. We started French and Spanish in school, but Italian wasn't available. They have never told a lie. I know we can trust them so you can see in these sentences we use present perfect and never to talk about things you have never done at any time in your life. So there's a conversation tip menaced. Many conversations began with the question in the prison perfect, and then continue with more specific questions about the experience in the simple past. For example, have you ever taken dance classes as I have? I took six weeks of Listen before my wedding last year. You can see the answer. It continues with, actually ah, simple present or simple. Sorry. Simple past sometimes. Next one. Wow. So, did you dance well on the big day? No, I didn't. I forgot everything I'd learned in the in the classes. And I stepped on my wife's feet many times. Oh, no. What? Was she angry? No, She said she still loved me. Like him, actually. So you can see in these conversations that questions began with present perfect and then continues with more specific questions about the experiences in the simple past. 11. 7 Present Perfect Just Already Yet recently: Hello, everybody in the previous Listen, we talked about prison perfect using never and ever. And there were lots of points that I explained for you and this. Listen, we are going to speak about present, perfect using yet already and just so how can we use yet already and just with president, perfect when and where? Let's get started present. Perfect Yet already and just the words already yet recently, lately and just they all referred to a recent a non specific time. Do not forget this point. A specific time would be yesterday or three hours ago or last Friday, and in these cases we would use this simple past. But in other cases, like already yet recently lately and just that we speak about a recent and non specific time. We usually use present perfect already and yet already can be used in positive statements and questions. So do not forget in positive statements and questions. For example, I have already Durant today's newspaper. Have you already paid the electric bill? She's finished the test already. She has finished the test already. Note already can go in between have and has and the past participle do not forget this point, as in the 1st 2 examples you can see or at the end of the sentence, yet yet is different, yet can be used in negative statements and questions. For example, we haven't cleaned the house yet, so yet can be used in negative statements and questions. Do not forget this point. Has he told you the good news? Yet? Has he told you the good news? Yet? Have they booked their tickets yet? So on. Be careful yet usually goes at the end of the sentence or phrase at the end of sentence or phrase alike already, which actually comes between heaven has. Or sometimes it comes, the first or the beginning, or at the end of the sentence. Okay recently, recently, recently and lately can be used in positive statements, negative statements or sometimes questions. For example, he's recently lost some weight. I haven't seen hair recently. Have you spoken to Beth recently so it can actually be using positive or negative or question? Actually, we can use it everywhere. Lately, I've got in a lot off spam emails lately. Adam and Jessica haven't bean to church lately. Have you seen any good movies lately? you can see lately comes at the end of the sentence, and phrases in most of the cases just just usually means very recent. And this is typically Onley using positive state man's and questions. Do not forget positive statements and questions just for example, Don't touch the walls. I've just painted them. They are still with. So here just means that something happened very recently something very recent. Or what book have you just finished reading? So in American English spoken American, English often uses the simple past with their already yet. And just when we are speaking about American people, for example, did you book the tickets yet instead of have you booked? I already replied to the email instead, off, I have already replied, We just got back from the gym instead of we've just got so you can see that in spoken American, English often uses the simple pass with already get and just not the present perfect 12. 8 Present Perfect ,Since and For: Hello. Guys will come to this. Newell is, um and the previous listen, we talked about present. Perfect using just already. But in this listen, we're going to speak about four and sentence essential parts of grammar. Let's get a start. It present Perfect. So present. Perfect Using four. And since the present Perfect is also used with four and sense to talk about actions that begin in the past and continue to the presence. So do not forget something that's began in the past and continue to the presence. For example, I have lived or I've lived here since 2004. I've lived here for eight years, so you can see the difference in these two sentences since is used with a point in time and means from the from that time in the time used until the present. So from that point in the time until the presence. But we use since, with dates like 2011 January to use a, it's it's wrong on. We use it with times like 6 15 known this morning. It's that's wrong and past events like I was a child. He graduated from college, etcetera. So in these kinds off cases we use since, since it's always used with a present perfect and not this simple past, this is a really important point. So we use always since, with the present perfect. For example, I've gone to the beach every year since I was a child since I was a child. So I was a child in the past event. So this is a repeated action that continues until today. I went to the beach when I was a child, so this is finished action at a specific time in the past. I don't go to the beach nowadays, but when we say I've gone to the beach every year since I was a child, this is a repeated action that continues until today. So this is a difference between present perfect on the simple past Here, Phil is used with a time, period and means for that period of time until the present. So do not forget that we use just for for time period alike, since so use for with times of any length, like we can say five seconds. Eight hours, two days, six weeks, nine months, 10 years, a decade and centuries that sits rock so we can use It's for any time period. So be careful with four because using the present perfect or the simple pass can change the meaning. This is a really important point essential point that many students actually ignore or do not understand. For example, we have lived in Berlin for six months and we live in Berlin now. Okay, but if we say we lived in Berlin for six months, it means that we don't leave in Berlin now. So this is a difference between present perfect and simple past here using for so you should be very careful. 13. 9 Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect Continuous : Hello Guys will come back and this. Listen, we are going to actually speak about the difference between prison perfect, simple and present per for continuous. Actually, some students do not understand the difference between President Perfect and Prison Perfect continuous. So let's find out and let's see, how can we use it actually present perfect continuous, which plays a very important role in English. And many English students have problem understanding thes tents how to form the present perfect, continuous positive and negative statements. Let's see, So we use actually the subject on the auxiliary verb bean and Ainge a form. So, for example, we say I have bean working since actually 1992. So I, the subject we always use, have or has here as an ox deliver being and the idea form or he hasn't bean Sleeping Quay lately. And in questions we most of the time we use How long? How long have you been studying English? How long has she being playing tennis? So this is how we make questions. How long? Always In most of the time we use this question worth and dogs deliver, have or has the subject and the bean and the I N g form pretty easy. How long have you been studying English? We can say I have been studying English for, like six months. Okay, so this is how we make positive and negative state men's for present. Perfect. Continuous. In some cases, either the present perfect, simple or the present perfect. Continuous can be used with the same meaning. We often do this with the verbs. War can live. For example, I have worked here since 1992 or I've been working here since 1992. Okay, there is not a big difference here. We're going to use both. Or actually, we can use its for a live too. However, we often use the prison. Perfect continues to emphasize the action. Don't forget, we use present. Perfect continues to emphasize the action, but we was the present. Perfect simple to emphasize the results. This is a big difference that many English students do not understand. Between present perfect continue ists and present. Perfect. Simple. I've been working on this report for three weeks. I've been working on this report for three weeks. What does it mean? So here we emphasize the action off working the action. But when we say that I have finished or I finish the project, it emphasizes that the project is done and finished. So this is a big difference the emphasis on the action or the emphasis on the results. We've been cleaning the house all afternoon, so it emphasizes the action off cleaning. But when we say I have sorry, we've cleaned the bathroom and the kitchen, it's emphasizes the fact that the bathroom and the kitchen are done. So now we understand the difference between actually present perfect, simple and present perfect continuous. But remember that state verbs are never used in continuous form. For example, we never say I've been knowing my best friends since elementary school. No, no, no. This is completely wrong. We say I've known my best friend since elements were school, so we never use state verbs actually in continuous form. Do not forget this part, or we never say she's being understanding everything in the advanced class. So far. No, this is wrong. And do not make this mistake. Please say she's under stewed. She has understood everything in the advanced class so far. This is a very important point, and we use them, actually, at this point, sometimes in different English tests. And you must understand it if you're going to have an English test in the future. Another point in spoken English we often use the present perfect continuous to talk about ways you have Spend your time recently. Okay, So when we speak about something that has been done recently, the way you have spent your time, we use present. Perfect. Continuous. Let me give you some examples. Hi, Jonah. What have you been Opta lately? I've bean training for a karate competition. Wow. Good luck. And how is your son? He's good. He's been studying a lot lately because finals are coming up next week so you can see in spoken English. We was present perfect, continuous to speak about the ways you have spend your time recently. That's it. So I wish you have understood the point on the difference between present Perfect continue ism prison Perfect. Simple. If not, I suggest you to come back our view. Okay. If you already you can take the test and actually test yourself and see how maney questions you can answer 14. 10 Comparative Adjectives & Not as : Hello, guys, and this. Listen, we are going to speak about comparative adjectives, not as as and quantify. There's three important and essential elements of grammar. Let's start with comparative adjectives. I think many of you don't know what are comparative adjectives. For example, look at the word bigger, which is a comparative adjective. We are trying to compare two apples here. Okay, bigger. You can see the second apple is bigger than the first apple. So do not forget that we always add e are too short. Adjectives adjective with one usually syllable like tall, taller, old, older, fast, faster. So we always add e r. For example, My house is bigger than yours. This is the first rule about short adjectives. The second rule about short adjectives that we add e r. And we double the final constant f Actually, the final constant the reserve al before that, like for example, big there is a vowel before final constant and that's I. So we double the final constant like it becomes bigger, hot, hotter, thin, thinner. So pretty easy. Number three actually the third role about short adjectives is that we remove why and we add i e R like easy changes to easier. So we change, actually. Why? To i e r friendly, friendlier, pretty prettier. That's pretty easy. Number four. When we are speaking about long words and long adjectives, we ADM or or less to the long worked like, more expensive, less expensive, more interesting. For example, my house is more expensive than your house, or this movie is less popular than your favorite movie. So we always add more or less before these long adjectives. And sometimes we can use some irregular comparatives, like better, farther or worse. Yes, better is, ah, irregular comparative adjective E for good and father, actually Forfar and worse for bet. So we not. We need to memorize these adjectives. Comparative adjective, which are irregular there, is normal for that. For example, this summer was worse than last summer, so this is actually some rules about comparative adjectives. There's another structure that you can use, and that's not as addictive as, for example, a running is not as fast as biking, which means that biking is fast. Sir Tham running or Canada is not as hot as equator, which means equator is hotter, then Canada. Helen is not as friendly as her husband, which means Helen's husband is friendlier than she is. Movies are not as interesting as books, which means books are more interesting than movies, so we call them not as adjective as or playing video games is not as good as exercising, which means exercising is better than playing video games. Actually, in this structure we don't use E. R or more with the adjective. For example, we never say this shirt isn't as prettier as that blouse. We say this shirt isn't as pretty as that blouse, so we never use a comparative adjective in as as structure or, for example, we never see. Last week's tests wasn't as worse as the previous one. No, no, this is completely wrong. We usually say last week's test wasn't as bad as the previous one. This is how we use as as adjective. Comparative adjective is quantify Ares. Using quantify IRS, you can see the dark. The dog is slightly bigger than the cats, or the elephant is much bigger than the cat, so you can see the quantify IRS here are slightly and much you can always use lightly much and other quantify IRS with comparative adjectives. Actually, let's understand them. Comparative adjectives are used to camp for two things. Quantify. IRS show. If the difference is big or small, so on the left you can see that in this table quantify IRS showing a big difference. We can say a lot, but we use it tonight. And for a model weight, we can say a great deal far, much significantly considerably. And way Way also is very informal, and we mostly use it in movies. And then in the next part, I'm going to actually explain it for you. How kind of you is these quantify errors with comparative adjectives on your right. In this table, there are swim quantify air. They are showing a small difference, for example, a little a bit, which is informal, slightly marginally and a shade a hair, a tat, which is also using from away Okay, any to memorize thes quantify ears and used them with comparative adjectives. Let me give you some examples. These quantifies can be used both to show a more difference and a less difference. For example, this car is obits more expensive than this motorcycle, or this motorcycle is a bit less expensive than this car so we can use these quantify errors to show them or difference or a less difference. This is another one. This house is way bigger than that apartment. That apartment is way smaller than this house. So, guys, as you can see ah, these quantify IRS can be used both the show and more difference or less difference. These quantify IRS cannot be used with not as ass structure. For example, we cannot say my brother is much not as old as me. We say my problem is much younger than me. Okay? Or we cannot say gel is a little not s tallest. Kim, This is wrong. I usually say Jill is a little shorter than Kim. We used these quantify IRS just in comparative adjectives. This is another point. 15. 11 So , neither , too: welcome, guys. Let's understand another important and essential dramatic whole point about so neither and to that's how American and English people agree with actually positive and negative sentences in different ways. We are going to understand these different ways that we can agree with people actually who used negative or positive statements. Me, too. And me neither. The easiest way to agree in English use to say me too. Okay, trickery with the positive statements, actually, or meaning there to agree with the negative statements. For example, I lost robbery ice cream. Me, too. Or I don't go to the gym very often mean either. So here, as you can see when we say me too, it means that we agree with the positive statements, and when we say many there, we agree with the negative statements. So in both sentence says we agree with somebody. Actually, the case here is negative or positive statements, so a negative statement is any sentence that uses a negative auxiliary, for example, Don't doesn't didn't can't haven't hasn't hadn't won't wouldn't isn't, aren't I'm not, and never so. These are negative statements that's we use a negative auxiliary for here, so you can say me too or mini there in response to statements in any tenses. Present, past, future. Present, perfect, continuous present. Perfect past. Perfect, etcetera. So we can use me, too. And me neither. In all of these tenses, it's all OK. For example, I've been traveling a lot for work lately. Me, too, or I haven't seen the new movie yet. Me neither, or I'm going to the beach tomorrow. Me, too. I can't drove very well. Me neither. The phrase actually me either, is not technically correct. But many people say it's in spoken English, so we can sometimes use the phrase me, either instead off me neither. But it's not technically correct. But many people he was a teen spoken English. This is another important point about me either or me neither. So do I. Neither do I. Let's see how people agree and disagree. Using these actually phrases. You can say so do I, and neither do I to respond to simple present sentences. For example, I always sleep late on Saturday. So do I. I don't think that's a good idea. Me there, do I? So that's how we agree with positive, simple presence, intense is and negative. Simple prison sentences. So, um, I neither on my you can say so am I. And neither am I to respond to simple presents. Sentences with the for B. Do not forget or president continuous sentences. Let me give you some examples. I'm from Moscow. So am I. I'm not very outgoing. Neither am I. I'm studying. This is present. Continuous. I'm studying for the tests next week. So am I. So we can use So am I. And neither am I. For both, actually, simple present sentences and present continuous sentences. It's all OK. So did I. Neither to die, you can say so did I. Or neither to die to respond to simple passed sentences. For example, I studied chemistry in college. So did I. I didn't like broccoli when I was a kit. Neither did I. So that's how American and English people. Sometimes I agree in negative and positive statements, and we need to understand these structures. So as I neither was I you can say so was I. And neither was I to respond to simple passed sentences with the verb be our past continuous sentences. For example, I was very athletic when I was in high school, so was I. Yes, because we have actually hear the verb waas. I wasn't happy about the new company policy. Neither was I. Yes, because we are actually agreeing with the negative statement and that's waas. So that's why we say neither was I. So have I neither. How, by you can see so ally. And neither have I to respond to present perfect sentences and present perfect continuous sentences because we use have so alibi to agree with the positive sentence and neither Hawaii to agree with the negative statements. For example, I've been married for over 20 years. So have I. I haven't had much free time this week. Me there, have I? I have been thinking about learning a new language. So have I. I haven't being feeling well lately. Neither have I. You can see we can use. So have I. And neither have I. In present, perfect sentences on prison. Perfect, continuous statements. Pretty easy. So can I. Neither can I. You can say so can I. And neither can I to respond to sentences with can and can't. For example, I can Iran a mile in six minutes So can I. I can't seem very well. Neither can I. Pretty using. So will I. Neither will I. You can say so will I. And neither will I to respond to statements with Will and won't. For example. I'll be in the office until 8 p.m. Today. So will I. So that's how we agree with their sentences about future. I won't be able to go on the trip. Neither will I. Because the statements negative and future, we say neither will I. That's we. That's how we agree with the negative statement about future. So would I. Neither would I. You can say so would I. And neither would I to respond to statements with boot and wouldn't. For example, I'd like to learn how to cook. So would I. I wouldn't recommend that restaurant. Neither would I. That's pretty simple. I think you have learned the structures to agree with negative and positive statements using different structures. The general here is that, as you can see from the examples the general for So I and neither I is that the verb matches the verb tense use in the original sentence pretty easy 16. 12 Infinitives and Ing verb: Hello, guys. Welcome to this new listen and this. Listen, we're going to speak about the verbs infinitives or I n g or we call them Geron's as you all guys. No. Sometimes we use the verb infinitive way. Sometimes we use the herbs in i N g. And sometimes we use the both. But how we're going to understand in this Listen lots off stuff about this grammar, the verb infinitives. So here are some common verbs in English that are followed by the infinitive Decide help. For example, she decided to study biology, not physics. Decided to study. You can see the ver Pieris infinitive help. Can you help me to carry these boxes? Help me to carry these boxes. It's very common to remove the word to like Can you help me carry these boxes so we can remove the actually per position to here in this sentence? Can you help me carry these boxes? I hope we hope to hear from you soon. I hope it doesn't rain this weekend. Learn She's learning to swim. She's learning to swim. It's very coming toe. Add the word. How if you are learning a new skill for example, I'm learning how to cook. I'm learning like how to speak English. I'm learning how to later on my own. I'm learning how to find Ah, good friend. And lots of other examples need I need to go to the supermarket. We don't have any eggs, so we can use the infinitive here offer. My friend offered to take me to the airport. Offer to take me to the airport plan. We're planning to have a big party when our son graduates from college planning to have there is an infinitive pretend he pretended to be sick so that he didn't have to take the test. Pretend to be I promise a promise to call me back as soon as possible. Promise to call me infinitive. Try. I'm trying to read this book, but it's too difficult. Try to treat infinitive. Want I want to learn English so that I can study in the US one Tuller. Okay, you can see we use infinitives with these verbs. Okay. There's always two and the base form of the verb in thes verbs would like or we say I'd like instead of I would like very short. I'd like to travel toe Hans someday. Sorry, France. French people say phones. I'd like to travel to France someday. There's a special case here, remember and forgets these two verbs. There's something special about them we use. Remember infinitive and forget infinitive to talk about the future. To give a reminder. Do not forget this point. We use them to talk about the future to gave a reminder. For example, Remember to bring your dictionary tomorrow so we are speaking about the future. And actually, we are giving a reminder to a person to remember to do something for us. Or don't forget to pay the rant next week. Don't forget to do something. This is a reminder about the future, very mangy. And here's are some common verbs in English that are followed by I N G. That we call them. Actually verify Ng's like avoid. You should avoid eating after 10 PM Enjoy. I enjoy skiing, surfing and playing tests, so we should always use the verb I n g after enjoy. Ah, we cannot say I enjoy to a ski are I enjoy to play football? I enjoy playing football. That's ah actually grammatical important point about Enjoy and other herbs finish. Have you finished reading the newspaper yet? Can't stand. Which means hate. I can stand going to parties where? I don't know anyone. Which means, actually, I hate going to the parties. Don't mind means I have no problems. I don't mind working overtime. Yes, I know mine working overtime. Look forward to when somebody is very eager to do something we use. Look forward to. I look forward to seeing you next week. I look forward to playing football with my friends. Practice. I need to practice speaking English more often. I need to I need to practice dancing. Yes, that's my favorite activity. Spend my roommates pans hours watching TV. Myrow made spans, hours watching TV. I spend three years learning English so we can use it in different structures. Stop. He's topped smoking. 10 years ago, he's topped smoking. 10 years ago, he's topped learning French because it was boring for him. Suggest I suggest taking some time off. I suggest taking some time off. I suggest watching English movies again. There is a special case here about start like love and hate. Start like love and hate can be used with the infinitive. Ryan G. both are correct. Do not forget Start like love or hate. The baby started to cry. The baby started crying. I like to Iran. I like running. I hate doing laundry. I hate to do laundry. We love reading and we love to read So you can see these verbs can be used with both infinitive and I n g Perfect. This is a grammatical, important point about some verbs that take I N g and suburbs that are using infinity way and some verbs take both. And we need to understand them when we are speaking English when you are communicating with English people. 17. 13 Permission , obligation and Prohibition: So in this Listen, we are going to speak about permission. Obligation on Prohibition. We was different kinds of phrases when we are speaking about permission obligation on Prohibition and we are going to understand this essential grammar, let's start with permission. Permission means it's OK as when you give somebody the permission you give somebody that allow ones to do something. English words used for permissions are ken. Allow May and permitted can allowed Mayim permitted. What's the difference? There were two is used after allowed and permitted, but not after can or may so do not forget. This is a difference that after allowed and permitted, we always use the word to. So we can say you're allowed to smoke in here. You may smoking here on Did you can smoke in here but can is more informal. May and permitted are more formal and allowed is both formal and informal. Do not for against. So the only words that is informal is kem and sometimes allowed. So we use May and permitted in a formal wait to Africa at this point. So for the past and future off Ken, you can use could or was allowed to and will be allowed to in the future. For example, when I was a kid, I was allowed to stay up until 11 p.m. On Friday nights will be allowed to check two suitcases on the flights. Perfect. So this is a passed up can, which is could and allowed, which is was allowed to or will be allowed to about the future. When you are speaking about obligation, obligation is something that is necessary and must be done. We can use actually these words so English words used for obligations are have to need to maust and required what's the difference? Must and required are more formal and actually then have to an e too. So don't use to after must we never use two after must so do not forget to use Mawston required in formal situations supposed to and not supposed to. You can use these words for light requirements and provision, for example, rules that are often not followed. For example, you are supposed to arrive on time, but it's OK if we are a little late. Our bosses pretty relax so you can see we use supposed to are not supposed to for lights requirements and provision. The other example ease. The employees aren't supposed to eat launch at their desks, but a lot of them do so anyway. Exactly for heavy Shin Prohibition means it's not OK. Something is prohibited, something that is not okay. English words that we use for provisions are can't moss and mustn't not allowed and not permitted? Can't is more informal, mustn't and not permitted, are more formal and not allowed is both formal and informal. And as I totally before, don't use to after, mustn't or must, the pronunciation of the first tion mustn t silent? So say muscles muscles not must and mustn't. Don't forget this point. No obligation. It's not necessary. English words used for no obligations are don't have to don't need to not necessary, not required. And there are some optional words. The difference is that as I told you before, I don't have to and don't need to are more informal, not necessary, not required and optional arm or formal as we mentioned and talked about this before 18. 15 Preposition of Time : tell everybody you will come to this new listen and this. Listen, we're going to speak about that propositions off time. There are less supper positions about time that we need to understand when we are speaking about the time, let's get started. The first proposition about time is after and later, which is very simple, and most of you guys know it. We use after plus phrase, and we use later alone. This is a difference between after and later and at the end of a sentence or phrase. We always use them in most of the time at the end, off their sentence or phrase, for example. I'll call you later. So later comes at the end of the sentence. I'll call you after I get home so you can see I get Tony's a phrase we use after So first he bought a new car. Two weeks later, he bought a new motorcycle he bought in new motorcycle two weeks after he bought a car. So use after plus phrase, and we use later alone at the end of the sentence, you can say later plus time period to refer to an unspecific time in the future For example , I'll finish the project later this week or will go on vacation later this year. So we can use a time period after later to refer to a nun a specific time in the future, a very essential point never and a sentence with after. Instead, you can use afterwards So we can say, Did you go straight home after the baseball game? We don't say no. We went out for drinks after No, no, no, This is wrong. We usually say no. We went out for drinks afterwards, which means after that activity, so don't use after we use after words. Actually, the next one is about a go. And before we used to go to talk about past times in reference to the current moment, for example, you can see here the sentence on the right. It says I graduated from college three years ago, so I graduated from college three years ago. So in this sentence, we are referring to actually the past, which is actually we are speaking about the current time to. So when we want to talk about the past times in reference to the current moment, we use it. Go here we used before to talk about past times in our friends to another moment in the past. For example, I met my girlfriend two weeks before I congratulated. So you can see this sentence. Actually, we're using the past times in reference to another moment in the past. I met my girlfriend two weeks before I graduated. Something happened before. Something girls in the past, By and until these are another confusing time for position that many English students have problems using so use by for one specific event that will happen before a certain time in the future. Don't forget, we used by for a specific event that's will happen before another on a settled time in the future. But we use until for a continuous event that will continue and then stop at a certain time in the future. Please send me the information by Monday. You see, we used by here. We're speaking about the specific event that will happen before a certain time in the future. He's staying in London until the 30th. So again you can see here. Please send me the information by Monday. You see, there is a specific event that will happen before a certain time in the future by Monday means before Monday, you should do this. So by here is a single event until is continuous. But when we are saying he's staying in London until the 30th it means that it is continuing and it will continue and then stop at a certain time in the future. This is a difference between by and until in thes two sentences on. I'm sure that's now you understand that Perfect. The next proposition is about during and while during and while both during and while mean that something happens at the same time as something else we used during plus now, always, for example, she cried during the movie. She cried during the movie, so there's always a now after during, but we use while with subject and verb or while live Gironde, for example. She cried while she was watching the movie or she cried while watching the movie. Do not forget this. We always use Gironde or the subject verb after, while the Knicks per positional actually phrases are from two and until or we can say, till we was from to tail until to define the beginning and the end of a time period. For example, the museum The museum is open from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Jack will be on vacation from tomorrow until next Friday. I studied English from 2001 till 2004 so we are defining the beginning, which is 2001 and the end of the time end of the period, which is 2004 on in and adds. These are another proposition we use in for centuries, for decades, for years, seasons and months. For example, in the 18th century, in the 19 sixties, in 2001 in the summer in October. So you can you see that we use in for centuries, decades year, season on months we use at four times, like at 3 30 at noon, at quarter past four, and we use on for days like on Friday on March 15 on my birthday on their weekends, so on aim, and that's do not forget that we use these propositions in different places and do not confuse them. Please be careful with the morning, afternoon, evening and night. We say in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, bots at night. So we use at for the night. This is the correct proposition, past and to We can use these per position with minutes in relation to the hour. For example, we say 10 to 4. So 10 to 4 or actually, this is 3 15 How do you say 6 15 quarter past six quarter past six, for instance for is used for a period of time and since is used to re friends a specific point into the time. For example, I've been waiting for three hours. I've been waiting since 10 o'clock. You can see 43 hours we uses for a period of time. But we use sense here at a point to a specific time. This is a difference between four and since we've lived here for four years, we have lived here since 2008. She's been working there for six months. She's been working there since she graduated from college. So this is a difference between these two propositions or and since as soon as as long as very nice and important propositions. These phrases actually using different cases as soon as means immediately after another event immediately after another even for example, will call you as soon as we arrive. It means if we arrive at eight, will call you at eight, maybe five, as long as means for the period of time or on the condition that, for example, I stayed awake for as long as I could. So we speak about the parade of time Here. I'll take the job as long as I have the freedom toe work from home a few days a week. So this is a condition here. The first intends. It was a period of time in the second sentence. It was a condition so we can use as long as and for a parade of time or for defining a condition. 19. 16 Prepostions of place: Hello, everybody and the previous. Listen, we talked about the propositions off time and this. Listen, we're going to speak about the propositions off places, a very actually important point about propositions off places. Actually, there are lots of propositions about places that many English students do not snow. Let's first speak about above. On top of and of some students actually misunderstand that difference and confused the difference between above On top, off and on we was above. When the two objects are not touching, they are not touching to not forget this point. But we use on or on top off when the two objects are touching. This is a difference between above and on top of and on. For example, the pictures are above the couch. But we say the pillows in this picture are on the couch. Okay, This is a difference between these two and these three per positions. The difference between honor and top off. What is the difference? Generally, we use on when it is a normal place to put things, for example, the keys are on the table and we use on top off when it is an unusual place to put something. For example, the keys are on top of the refrigerator. So this is a main difference between on and on top up. The next one is about under below, underneath and beneath. But what's the difference between under below under neath and beneath you can see in these two pictures we use under when one object is covered by another. Okay, for example, the ball In this picture you can see the ball is under the box but we use below when one object is in a lower position than the other and there is no touch here. And in this picture you can see the ball is below the bucks. So here we can understand the difference between under and below. We use underneath and beneath. Actually they are more firm all wars for under and below. This is the only difference underneath and beneath they are the more formal words for under , underneath and below beneath Okay, behind and in front, off we use behind when the objects a ease you can see it's farther away from you than object B and in front off. When the object a is closer to you than object, be so you can see in this picture the mouse is in front of the box, and actually the next mouse's behind the bucks. And the first picture of the mouse is in front of the boxes I told you in the second picture of the mouse is behind the bucks pretty easy. What about in back off came back off. Some people saying Back off for behind. Note that it's always impact off. Not never. We never say back off. We can also say in in the back Hove to describe the back parts of the space. For example, Jonas and Gabriel like to sit in the back off the classroom so that the teacher can see them. So in the back off here describes the back part of the space a very important point of our essential point about in the back off between besides and next to beside a next to are the same. But besides is a little more formal in everyday English. We usually say next to and between means that the object is in the middle off to other objects, so you can see here the ball is between two boxes on, and that's Bali's. Beside the box or next to the bucks. So do not forget that, besides, is a little more formal. Near, close to and by near close to and by these words all mean the same thing. That, actually the distance between the two objects is a small Be careful not to confuse them. Close to is the Onley, one that uses the words to close to close to so you can see the ball is by the barks knee of the box and close to the bucks. The ball is near to the box. The ball is close to the box, the ball is near the barks and the ball is by the box. Nearby is used without a direct objects. It is generally used at the end of a sentence or phrase. For example, I can see my house is nearby, which means that my house is near here. So it comes at the end of the sentence and we uses a phrase. For example, the ball is nearby the box or there is a box with the ball nearby, in, inside, within and into, in and inside mean the same thing. In most cases, for example, the mouse is in the box. The mouse is inside the box. But the word into is actually a proposition off movements, not location. It means something is moving into a space. So you can see the ball is going into the box so into. Actually, this is a per position off movement, not location within the word within means inside a limits. The limit can be in in place time or some other scale. For example, there are five malls within 10 miles off here. So this is a limit off place. Or we can say she has writing three books within the last year. So you can see this is a limit of time. And the law didn't pass because off disagreement within the within the government. So this is a limit of area class off people. So the word limits. Sorry. The word within here means inside a limit. Do not forget this and this can be a place time or some other scale out outside and out. Off outside refers to location. In this case, we cannot use out. The dark is outside the doghouse. We don't say the dog is out the doghouse, so we cannot say that out and out of usually suggests movements, not just location. Out off must always be followed by a noun. For example, she ran out of the room. I am bored. Let's go out so we usually use out on out off for movement, not just location. 20. 17 Prepostions of Movement : Hello, everybody in this. Listen, we're going to speak about the propositions, off movements and the previous listen. We talked about the per positions off place, but let's understand some great expressions we use about moving. The 1st 1 is about across and throw across and throw. So what is the difference between across and throw across is going from one side of an area surface relying to the other side's. This is the meaning of across. For example, I drew a lying across the paper. I drew a line that cross the paper, so this is the meaning goff across. So when we speak about throw, it is movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other side so you can see this window. The baseball went throw the window so we can understand the meaning of throw year the movement from one side of an enclosed place to the other side. So this is the meaning of throw perfect. Sometimes either cross or throw can be used for areas. For example, we walked across the park. It means that we worked through the park so we can use both in the same areas, or they drove across the city, which means they drove throw the city so they both have the same meanings here. Let's speak about a long and around a long and around along is it is to follow a line, for example. You can see in this picture on the right. Actually, ah, we walked along the road we walked along the road so along means to follow a line But around is to go in a circular direction around some obstacle may be, for example, you can see this picture The blue one. We walked around the lake. The blue one is the lake. We walked around the lake So this is the difference between along and around Perfect. So into and out, off, into and out off which sometimes we say it like out off on some American people just say it like outta very fast. So into is to go from outside a space to inside a space So this is a meaning off into but out off he's to go from inside that plays toe outside a place you can see. There are two pictures here. The pictures on the left. The cat jumped out of the box so going from inside a space to outside of space. But in the second picture on the right, you can see the cat went into the box, which means to go from outside a space to inside a space. So this is a difference between into and out off that some students confuse the differences . They cannot understand it. The next one is about onto and off. So what is the exact difference between onto and off? Onto and off? Refer to surfaces differently from into and out of, So they are completely different. Do not confuse these propositions. So onto and off, for example, the dark jumped onto the table. We don't say the job, the dog job into the table. I took the picture off the wall so we don't say I took the picture out of the wall, so onto and off refer to surfaces. They are different from into and out, off, which refer toa enclosed spaces. So this is the exact difference between onto on off. Next one is up and down there very simple, But some students confuse they. They cannot understand the difference between these two. So going up this terrors going down the stores so you can see the guys going up the stir. The other guys going down the store in addition to physical movement, go up and go down can also be used for increase and decrees. For example, the piece off food has gone up in the past two years. The price of food has gone up in the past two years. So here go up means to increase or the number of Children per family has gone down. So going down here me is decreasing so we can use both go up and down for increasing and decreasing.