English Grammar - Pre - Intermediate | Kate Ochsner | Skillshare

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English Grammar - Pre - Intermediate

teacher avatar Kate Ochsner, English grammar courses

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (48m)
    • 1. Intro video

      1:06
    • 2. ENGLISH VERB TENSES STRUCTURES

      4:14
    • 3. PAST SIMPLE

      9:52
    • 4. PAST CONTINUOUS

      6:04
    • 5. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

      7:57
    • 6. FUTURE SIMPLE

      4:15
    • 7. IMPERATIVES

      1:34
    • 8. RELATIVE CLAUSES I – WHO,THAT, WHICH, WHERE

      2:36
    • 9. THERE WAS THERE WERE

      3:32
    • 10. TAG QUESTIONS

      2:23
    • 11. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE

      1:01
    • 12. SHORT ANSWERS

      3:22
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About This Class

Learn English grammar easily. Master your English grammar skills with this course.

  • This couse structured in Grammar Packs with everything you need to improve your English easily.

  • I will be adding more grammar classes, so please follow me.
  • Learn grammar topics in a very easy to understand way with subtitled video lectures.

  • You will practise everything by doing review exams at the end of the class.

This course is focused on learning English structures, grammar and vocabulary equivalent to:

  • The “Flyers" level from the Cambridge University in the UK.

  • The A2 level in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

  • 0-56 points at the TOEFL exam (Test Of English as a Foreign Language).

Meet Your Teacher

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Kate Ochsner

English grammar courses

Teacher

Hello, I'm Kate.

I´m originally from Boston, Massachusetts (USA).

I am an ESL teacher with a BS in English Education, with over 20 years´experience teaching English.

I have worked for several companies and language schools, as well as translated books, and online articles.

I have taught Business English classes, English literature, English Theatre classes, and Cambridge Exam Preparation courses.

I created my courses in 4 different levels to perfectly fit your needs. From Beginners to Advanced levels.

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Intro video: 2. ENGLISH VERB TENSES STRUCTURES: English verb tense structures. This video is a summary of the English verb tenses. It's probably the most important lesson or one of the most important lessons to learn. So please pay attention and replay this video as many times as you need in English. There are three main structures. The simple tenses, the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses. You know the present, simple and present continuous. Let's start with this simple tenses. All simple tenses are created the same way. There are three groups, one the verb to be to the verb to have got and three the rest of the verbs. We know that when there is the verb to be, we always use it to make the negative sentences and questions. We also know that when there is the verb to have got, we always use it to make the negative and questions. And when there is another verb that is not to be or have got, we need another word or auxiliary to create a negative sentence or question. In present. Simple. The word or auxiliary is do or does in past simple. It's did, and in the future it is will. But the structure is the same. Now let's take a look at the continuous tenses. They are all created the same way. A continuous tense is always made with the verb to be plus the verb ending in I, N G or Jarrah and form. The only difference is the time of the tents. In present, continuous the verb to be goes in the present in the past continuous the verb to be goes in the past and in the future continuous the verb to be goes in the future. As we have a verb to be in the structure, we use the verb to be to make the negative sentences and questions. The other structure is the perfect tense. They're used with the third column of the irregular Verbs, or plus e D off the regular verbs. It only changes the time of the verb to have, for example, in present perfect. The verb have goes and present, have or has in past perfect. The verb have goes in the past, had in future the verb have goes in the future will have to create the negative sentences or questions we used the auxiliary have and put it in negative or at the beginning off the sentence in the A position off the formula W A s V. Just remember the three structures when you learn the different verb tenses. 3. PAST SIMPLE: past Simple Hello. In this video we're going to show you how to use the past simple tents, One of the most common verb tenses in English. Let's start. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One, when we use this verb tense, we use past simple to say finished actions that happened in the past. For example, I went to the cinema yesterday. The action of going to the cinema finished yesterday. Look at this other example. She broke her leg last week. The action of breaking her leg finished in the past to now let's see how we create a sentence in the past. Simple The past simple follows the same structure as the present Simple. There are three groups one if we want to use the verb to be Then we say I waas you were he waas? She waas it waas We were they were and in negative. I wasn't You weren't He wasn't She wasn't It wasn't. They weren't. We weren't. And in questions Was I where you was? He was she was it? Were they where we remember that when we use the verb to be, we always use the verb to be to do the negative sentences in questions. We just put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence to if we want to use the verb have got than in past we say I had got for all the subjects in negative and for questions. Three. In the third group, there are all the verbs that are not the verb to be or have got. Please remember these three different groups because it is very important when you do negative or interrogative sentences. Let's see how we create sentences in past simple with verbs that are not the verb to be or to God. Let's start with the positive sentences in English. There are two types of verbs. Regular verbs and irregular verbs. Please check the list of irregular verbs to say a positive sentence in past. Simple. You have to know first if the verb you want is regular or irregular. Let's use two verbs for our examples on irregular verb go a regular verb play to create a sentence in the past, simple. With an irregular verb, we have to memorize the second column of the list of irregular verbs in our case, the second column of the verb go is went. So we say I went to the cinema yesterday to create a sentence in past simple with a regular verb is easy. We just have to add e d. At the end of the verb. In our example. He played in the park last Monday in past simple he she and it are treated as any other subject. Look at our examples in different subjects. I went to the cinema, You went to the cinema, He went to the cinema. She went to the cinema. We went to the cinema, You went to the cinema, they went to the cinema or I played in the park last Monday. You played in the park last Monday. He played in the park last Monday. She played in the park last Monday. It played in the park last Monday. We played in the park last Monday. You played in the park last Monday. They played in the park last Monday. As you can see, the verb doesn't change. Depending on the subject. They are all the same. Now let's look at the negative sentences to creating negative sentence. We need on auxiliary that in the past. Simple is the word Didn't for all subjects. Look at the examples. I didn't play. You didn't play. He didn't play. She didn't play. It didn't play. We didn't play. You didn't play. They didn't play. I didn't go. You didn't go. He didn't go. She didn't go. It didn't go. We didn't go. You didn't go. They didn't go. The auxiliary didn't goes before the verb. And it is the same for all subjects. Notice that when we do a negative sentence we used the auxiliary, didn't before the verb for all subjects. And then we put the verb in present tense. We dont say I didnt went. We say I didn't go so to create a negative sentence. We don't mind if the verb is regular or irregular as we just add the auxiliary Didn't before the verb in present tense. Now take a look at the questions to create a question. Really? Remember always the w A s V lesson in a past simple question. The A or auxiliary is the word. Did look at the examples. What did you play yesterday? What is the w or interrogative pronoun did Is Theo a or auxiliary you is the S or subject and play is the V or verb More examples? Where did you go yesterday? Did you work last night? When did you see my mom watch the W A S V? Lesson for more information on how to create questions. Three. Which are the typical words from this Ferber tents as we use the past. Simple to tell actions that finished in the past. The typical words for the past Simple are words that refer to the past days like yesterday , last night, two days ago or any other words with last last week last Saturday last month, last year or any other words with ago? Two days ago, a week ago, a month ago a year ago? 4. PAST CONTINUOUS: past continuous. Hi, I'm going to show you how to use the past continuous tense, a very useful tense when we want to say things happening in the past. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One, when we use this verb tense, we use past continuous when we want to describe an action ing that was happening in a specific moment in the past. For example, I was doing my homework when you phoned me to how we create a sentence in past continuous, all continuous tenses. Follow the same structure B plus verb ending in i n G. If you remember in the present continuous the verb to be goes in the present. So now, in the past continuous the verb to be goes in the past. Look at these examples the boy is playing. Football is in present continuous because the verb to be is present. So in past continuous the same sentence is the boy waas playing football. Other examples They were eating a cake. We were drinking water. As we have a verb to be in the structure to create the negative sentences or questions, we use the verb to be the same sentences in negative are the boy wasn't playing football. They weren't eating a cake. We weren't drinking water. And the questions we just moved the verb to be and put it at the beginning off the question Was the boy playing football? Were they eating a cake? Were we drinking water? Remember to use the W A s V formula to create questions in our example there isn't a w the A is where you do the negative. In this case, the verb to be the S is the subject that is the boy and V is the verb that is playing. There's another important thing to remember. When a verb has only one syllable and ends in constant plus vowel plus continent, we double the last continent. For example, run running. Stop stopping three, which are the typical words from this verb tense. There is only one typical word in the past continuous tense. And that is, while after a while you have to use the past continuous tense. For example, I saw a nice shop while I was walking along the street. Another important thing to remember are the state verbs. They are some verb that don't make sense in a continuous tense, for example, the verb want. We don't say I was wanting an ice cream we say I wanted on ice cream so the action can happen in a specific moment in the past. But we don't use this verb in a continuous form. Here is a list of verbs that are not normally used in the continuous form. Verbs of the senses here see smell verbs of the feelings like love, hate, need want wish, care, mind, fear, verbs of prices or measures cost, measure, way. Contain verbs of possession. Have got own, belong, possess exist verbs of opinion. Believe doubt. I feel forget. Guess hope. Imagine. No, I mean, I prefer, I realize, recognize, remember, seem suppose, I think, understand? 5. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: present Perfect, simple. Hello. In this video you're going to learn the present perfect, simple tense, your first tense in a perfect structure. First of all, remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One when we use this verb attempts, we use the present perfect simple tents to talk about actions that started in the past but didn't finish. Or we don't know if they finished to say how many times we did something in our lives or to say inaction that just happened moments ago. Look at these examples. I have studied English for two months. The action of studying didn't finish or we don't know if it finished. I have seen this movie three times. I have arrived home a minute ago to now. Let's see how we create a sentence in present. Perfect. Simple as you saw in the last video, we create the perfect structures using have plus the third column of irregular verbs or plus e d of the regular verbs. So we must know the irregular verbs to create a present perfect tense for the positive sentences. Let's use the irregular verb Go. Remember the three columns Go went, gone Let's create a sentence. I have gone to the cinema four times this month. As in all present tenses. The subjects he she and it the verb always finished in s in the present. Perfect simple for these subjects we use has so we say I have gone to the cinema four times this month. You have gone to the cinema four times this month. He has gone to the cinema four times this month she has gone to the cinema four times this month it has gone to the cinema four times this month. We have gone to the cinema four times this month. You have gone to the cinema four times this month. They have gone to the cinema four times this month. Let's see the negative sentences to create the negative sentences we used the auxiliary have and put it in negative. Look at the examples. You haven't gone to the cinema. She hasn't arrived home to create questions We used the auxiliary have at the beginning off the sentence in the a position of the formula W A S V, for example. Have you seen this movie? Where have is the A or auxiliary in R W A s v formula you is the s or subject and seen is the V or verb. The last thing you should know are which are the typical words from this verb tense as we use the present perfect simple to talk about actions that started in the past but didn't finish or we don't know if they finished to say how many times we did something in your life or to say inaction that just happened moments ago. The typical words are four or since that express a period of time. We use four for a period of time, for example, for two days for 10 minutes for 10 years for a long time. So we need a quantity and a word of time We use since for a specific moment in time. For example, since my birthday since Monday since two days ago, for example, I've been in Ireland for two weeks, or I've been in Ireland since May. Other typical or hint words for this tense are just already yet that expressed that the action happened moments ago. For example, they have just arrived. They have already gone. They haven't arrived yet notice that yet is only for negative sentences or questions. Like Have you done your homework yet? But not for positive sentences and noticed that it is placed at the end of the sentence. We use the words ever and never toe. Ask if you have done the action in your life. For example, have you ever been to London? I have never lived in Germany. Check and remember where the word ever goes in a sentence. Notice that all these hint words, except for yet are placed in between have and the verb. Some other words used in the present perfect tense are how long, So far until now. Please review all these words and their meanings in the vocabulary. Lesson six. 6. FUTURE SIMPLE: future simple. Hello. In this video, you're going to learn the future. Simple. One of the most use future tenses in English. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One when we use this verb tense, we use future simple to talk about predictions, promises or offers in the future. We don't use it to talk about planned or arranged actions in the near future, because for that we use the present continuous or going to structure. Look at the examples. People will live in the moon in the next century. Don't worry, I will pay for your coffee to now let's see how we create a sentence in future. Simple. The future Simple tense is the easiest tense in English. Let's start with the positive sentences. We just have to add the auxiliary will between the subject and the verb in infinitive form without too. For example, it will rain tomorrow. I think I will pass the exam. Now let's see the negative sentences to create a negative sentence. We need an auxiliary that is won't for all subjects. Look at the examples. It won't rain tomorrow. I think I won't pass the exam now. take a look at questions to create a question. Remember, always the W A s V lesson in a future simple question. The A or auxiliary is the word will remember that the A or auxiliary in the W. A s V formula is always the word where you create the negative sentence. In our case, the A or auxiliary is the word will. Look at the examples. What will you do tomorrow? What is the w or interrogative pronoun? Will is the A or auxiliary You is the S or subject and do is the V or verb more examples? Where will you go this weekend? Will you study for the exam? Watch the W A s V lesson for more information on how to create questions. Three. Which are the typical words from this verb tense as we use the future simple to talk about predictions, promises or offers in the future, and not to talk about planned or arranged actions in the near future. The typical words are words that indicate that it is not sure the actions going to happen, For example, probably maybe, I think perhaps 7. IMPERATIVES: imperatives. Hi again In this video I'm going to show you how to create a sentence in imperative mode and when to use them. We used the imperative to give a new order or strong advice. Look at the examples. Go to your room. Be quiet. Don't smoke in the car. Do you remember the S V o lesson? Do you remember that all sentences have to have a subject, A verb and normally an object. Do you remember the exceptions? This is one exception. As you can see in the examples, there is no subject. You always start with the verb in infinitive form without too in negative. It's always don't plus verb as in don't smoke here. Don't sleep in class. Don't be silly. The only case where you can see don't plus be together 8. RELATIVE CLAUSES I – WHO,THAT, WHICH, WHERE: relative clauses. One who that which, where in this video you are going to learn the most common relative clauses and know which one you can use. Let's first start with an example so you can see what a relative clause is. A doctor is a person who helps people. We use the relative clause or pronoun to refer to something we are talking about in this sentence, who refers to a doctor, a person, a plane is a machine that flies in this sentence that refers to a machine a thing. The hotel where I am staying is very nice in this sentence, where refers to a hotel that is a place. So in the relative clauses, we have to know if we are referring to a person thing, place or time. If we are referring to a person, we use who or that if we're referring to a thing we use, which or that if we're referring to a place we use where if we're referring to a time we use when look at the examples, a thief is a person who steals things. This is the bus that goes to the airport. This is the restaurant where I have breakfast every day. Today is the day when we celebrate our anniversary 9. THERE WAS THERE WERE: there was. There were this video is going to tell you how to use there was or there were. That is very similar to the there is there are video. First check the vocabulary. The meaning of there Waas there were It means the same as there is and there are but in the past and we use them in the same way we use there is there are but to refer to it In the past, we use there waas When there was only one thing for example, there was one person on the street yesterday There was one tree in the garden last week we use There were when there were more than one thing. For example, there were two cars on the road last night. There were 10 tables in the classroom last month when we want to say something that is uncountable like water, gasoline, sand, pollution, money, salt, sugar, fire, music, art, electricity, oil, furniture, milk, everything. Something nothing. Anything. Everybody somebody. Anybody Nobody we use there Waas, for example. There was water on the table. There was money in my wallet. There was something on my bed. Now let's see how we make the negatives as there was, or there were has a verb to be. We just make the verb to be in negative. Look at the examples. There wasn't a cat in my house. There weren't windows in my bedroom. Now let's see the questions as we have the verb to be. We just put the verb to be at the beginning of the sentence. Was there a ball in the garden yesterday? Were there good restaurants in your town last year? Remember that we can use the quantitative like some any much, many a lot off with this verb, just as we did for the verb in the present tense. If you don't remember, please go back to the lesson to review it, because you need to know this grammar perfectly to pass the exercises. 10. TAG QUESTIONS: tag questions in this video. I'm going to explain to you what a tag question is when to use it and how to create one. We used tab questions to ask for a confirmation about a statement we've just made. Let's see some examples. You are tired, aren't you? They don't like dogs, do they? As you can see, when we use a tag question, we are asking for a confirmation. The way we do a tag question is using the auxiliary from the previous sentence changing from positive to negative or from negative to positive and creating a question. Check these examples. You are tired, aren't you? They don't like us, do they? She is eating pizza, isn't she? You were talking loud, weren't you? They have never been to Asia, haven't they? She can't run, Kenji. You must go now, mustn't you? You shouldn't drink, should you? He will be here, won't he? Let's go for lunch. Shall we listen to me, Will you? So to create a tab Question We must know which is the auxiliary in all verb tenses. To be able to create a negative sentence. As you can see, any tag question has the structure of a question that is Thea auxiliary first and then the subject. Notice that if the top question is in negative, it will always be in the abbreviated form, not in full form. Look at the table. 11. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: infinitive of purpose in this video, I'm going to explain to you what the infinitive of purpose is and when to use it. The infinitive of purpose is the infinitive tents, two plus verb to express on intention. We used the infinitive of purpose. When we are saying why we want to do something. Look at the examples I am calling you to tell you about my birthday party. He is learning English to find a good job. So again, we used the infinitive of purpose to plus verb when we're saying why we want to do something. 12. SHORT ANSWERS: short answers in this video. We're going to teach you how to reply correctly to a yes or no question. Let's see short answers Are the answers to a yes or no question. For example, do you like my new dress? Yes, I do. No, I don't. As you can see, the question is in a w a s v formula, but with no w or interrogative pronoun. Like what? When? Where? And that when we used the A or auxiliary for the answer. So to answer? Yes, in English. We can't say yes. We need to say yes. I do the same for the negative answer in English. We can't say no. We need to say no, I don't. Let's see some more examples. Have you got a sister? Yes, I have. No, I haven't. Did you go to school yesterday? Yes, I did. No, I didn't. Are you happy? Yes, I am. No, I am not. Are you going to the cinema today? Yes, I am. No, I am not. Can you speak Japanese? Yes, I can. No, I can't. Was she reading a book? Yes, She waas. No, she wasn't. Have you been to Paris? Yes, I have. No, I haven't. As you can see, what we do is use the A or auxiliary to answer in, positive or negative. So use the auxiliary in positive to answer in a positive way to a question, and used the auxiliary in negative to answer in a negative way to a question.