English Grammar: Learn the most important English grammatical rules | Mister Rabiey | Skillshare

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English Grammar: Learn the most important English grammatical rules

teacher avatar Mister Rabiey, ‚ú™ Cambridge Certified Tutor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (1h 49m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:06
    • 2. 1 Relative Clauses

      9:40
    • 3. 2 Asking Questions Orders

      6:12
    • 4. 3 Directandindirect

      11:28
    • 5. 4 used to

      4:53
    • 6. 5 too and enough

      4:25
    • 7. 6 some and any

      7:51
    • 8. 7 Subject verb agreement

      7:15
    • 9. 8 First Condition

      5:46
    • 10. 9 Second Condition

      4:57
    • 11. 10 Difference between should could and Would

      6:48
    • 12. 11 Past Perfect

      8:27
    • 13. 12 present perfect and past perfect

      6:06
    • 14. 13 Passive voice present past

      9:33
    • 15. 14 Reported Speech

      8:01
    • 16. 15 Reported Speech

      5:14
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About This Class

Learn the fundamentals of English grammar & Improve your English communication with knowledge of functional grammar

Welcome to the unique Complete English Grammar Course - from B2 to C1 level class ! 

This class  is recommend to low-intermediate and Intermediate Learners who still have problems using the correct Grammar

This class  is created to help you build your grammar skills. , its aim is to be the one of a kind solution to all doubts in terms of using English structures. 

The English Grammar Course is designed to suit your needs perfectly well.

. If you follow my instructions during the video lectures and practice  on your own after each video,

you will be able to achieve great results at the end of the course.

I will always check on you doing the lessons , 

. If you succeed in completing the exercises on your own, you may be really proud of the progress you've made!

This course is idea for those students who have studies English before, choose your problem areas - start revising, start studying. .

I'm so excited to have you here! 

lectures you will review:

you will learn many useful English rules about

Relativ clauses

Questions orders

Direct and indirect speeches

Subject verb agreements

Present and past perfect

Passive voice

Reported speeches

Conditional sentences

And many other principles

Which can help you speak and write correctly

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mister Rabiey

‚ú™ Cambridge Certified Tutor

Teacher

 

✪ Master's Degree in English Literature UK
✪ Englishvid Founder & CEO.
✪ TESOL and CELTA Holder, IELTS 9 Holder
✪ Cambridge Certified Tutor

I believe that teaching is an art, like an artist, you need to be creative to be a good teacher.I always look for different things to do to help students get the information in the easiest way possible including animation programs, activities
I have more than 10 years of experience Teaching different Classes such as IELTS , TOEFL , CPE I have always tried to focus on the skills of speaking and helping learners change their brain to speak automatically, without needing to think.

My courses and classes will help you:See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello everybody. How are you doing? This is I'm not driving your English teacher and this class, regular learn some great grammar rules. So stay tuned. You know, guys, grammar rules are the building blocks of a language learning and understanding why some sentences are constructed in a certain way. We can also learn how to conjugate a verb position, adverbs, forum tenses that can help you to achieve fluency in a fastest way than just speaking English. I'm sure if you understand the principles of English, you can apply these principles in any concept that you learn. So my dear friends in this class, we're going to help you understand many different grammar rules. So are you ready? Let's get started. This class will help you to speak English more confidently. Better understand spoken English. Have a deeper knowledge of the structure of English grammar, produced the target structures confidently and accurately. You will learn many useful English rules about relative clauses. Question orders, direct and indirect speeches, subject verb agreements, present and past perfect, passive voice. Reporter speeches, conditional sentences, and many other principles which can help you speak or write correctly. Each section focuses on 12 or three targets structure so that you can mass there each one and produce it accurately in your spoken English. If you want to speak English more clearly, if you want to sound more native like, or if you simply want to take your English to the next level, this class can help you achieve your goal of improving your English. Good luck. 2. 1 Relative Clauses : Hello, everybody. We have a very important listen here. And that lesson is about relative clauses. All of English students. They always have this connection with relative clauses. They are who that we choose when, where, whom and other relative clauses that we use in different sentences. But first of all, we have to understand the meaning. Gover Ella tive Klaus What is the meaning? Gover Ella tive clause Actually a relative clauses a phrase that adds information to a sentence. So this is a meaning off relative clause. All relative clauses describe and noun, and they began with one of these reality pronounce a relative adverbs. So the relative pronouns are who to describe people subject. For example, the woman who works in the bank is my neighbor. The other one is whom, actually to describe people, the object and, for example, my cousins, one of whom is a doctor leaving England. So whom here describes people and the object here, not the subject. The next one is Who's to describe position, for example, the man whose car was stolen when to the police station. So who's is they actually relative pronoun that described position and that to describe things defining relative clause is. So we use that to describe things in general. For example, I'm selling the computer that I bought in the U. S. So that here describes things and which to describe things we use it for. Non defining relative clause is, for example, um, selling this computer, which has a 20 5250 gigabyte hard drive for $500 so you can see the religion clauses here. Who, whom? Who's that and which, As we said, who describes people? The subject whom describes people the object who's to describe position that describe things defining relative causes and ways described things not defining roasted closets. So we have some relative adverbs, like when to describe time. For example, my favorite season is fall when all the leaves change color. So we use Wen here. Describe times where to describe places. For example, I visited the neighborhood where I grew up where I grew up, and why to give a reason. Do you know that? Do you know the reason why the stores are closed today? Do you know the reason why the stores are closed today? So we use why here to give a a reason. Perfect relative clause. They make sentences better, better sentences in English. So here's an example of some English sentences without relative clauses. For example, yesterday I met a man. He works in their circus. I bought a cell phone. It has Internet access. There is the restaurants I ate at the restaurant last night, so these sentences are correct, but they are very short and simple. You can use a relative clauses to make your sentences in English sound more fluent and actually natural. So that's how we make the sentences to sound more natural. We and the relative clauses between these two sentences. So, for example, instead of saying yesterday I met a man he worked in the circus. We can say yesterday I am a two man works in the circus. I bought a cell phone that has Internet access, so it's better to say I bought a cell phone. It has intern exes. It's so we can connect these two sentences with the relative clause that there is the restaurant where I ate last night. There is the restaurant where I ate last night, so we use relative clauses to have better sentences in English. Do not forget this part, defining and not defining Sorry, non defining relative clause. It's so what's the difference? Non defining relative clause is at extra information to the sentence. They add extra information to the sentence, but defining relative clause is at essential information to the symptoms. So this is the difference between non defining and defining relative clause is you can see if a relative clauses defining or not defining by removing it from the sentence. If you remove a non defining relative clause, the sentiment steel has the same meaning. If you remove a defining relative clause essential, the sentence has a different meaning or easing complete. So this is a difference between non defining and defining. Relative clause is so let me give you some examples example of a sentence with non defining relative clause. My brother, who lives in California, is an engineer, so if we remove who live who lives in California, we can see the sentence. Steel has the meaning, so this is a non defining relative clause. As I said, if you remove who lives in California, the sentence steel has the same meaning. But if we if we say my brother is an engineer. The relative clause who lives in California is extra information here. Ius an example of a sentence with defining relative clause. That's the student who failed English class three times. So if you remove who failed English class three times, the sentence is incomplete. Okay, and that's the student. Therefore, the relative clause who failed English class three times is an essential information because it defines which student specifically we are speaking about. So this is a difference between defining and non defining. Relative clause is, and always use a comma before and after non defining car relative clauses we can see. We can see a relative clauses all of the time in different newspapers and different books on. Actually, if you want to be a very professional right, we have to understand the relative clauses to add something formation to special sentences , which or that we use, which for non defining relative clause is go out for a Geathers and we use actually a comma before it. So use that for defining relative clauses and don't use a comma before back. For example, the bananas that I bought on Monday are aaden, the bananas that I bought on Monday are right and so you can see that we use that for defining. Relative clause is but the second sentence the banana, which I bought on Monday are rotten, so we use which always for non defining relative clauses. In the first case, it is possible that we have two types of bananas in the house. Older bananas that I bought on Monday and newer bananas that I bought on Wednesday, and the only and that's only the first. Bananas are right, but the second bananas are not. In the second case, all of the bananas in the house were bought on Monday, and they are all rod in again to decide if it clauses defining or not defining. Try removing it from the sentence. I read all the books that I borrowed from the library, so without claws, I read all the books, sentences can easing, complete which books and what books were speaking about. The new Steffan King book, which I borrowed from the library, is very good. So without claws, you can see here the new stiff and King book is very good. The sentence is complete and the library part was on Lee. An extra aw detail 3. 2 Asking Questions Orders: Hello, everybody. We have another new listen here and that's word order asking questions. Some English students misunderstand, and they confuse actually making and asking questions. But don't worry, because we are going to understand and explain everything here. Firming questions in English can be confusing sometimes. Don't worry. I'm going to teach you a simple formula that works for asking questions in almost all the verb tenses and the firm allies called Qassem. It's Q u A S m do not actually forgets to understand it. Order of these alphabets. Qassem Q u a s m So que means question. Words a means auxiliary verb s mean subject and M means main verb, so they always come after each other. Quasi. Q u A s m question worked ox liver subject and member. So look how Qassem works for forming questions in these very tenses For simple present questions, you can see first we have the question words Then we have excellent over. We have subject on the main verb. I'm going to read the examples for you. Where do you work? So where is the question worked? Do Azogues deliver Use A subject on work is a main for Let's Read other sentences are their words. What does Martha think about the project? How do you like your new apartments? How many kids does Bob have? You see, this is very simple. Qassem question work, Aqsa Liver Subject and May for Look how Qassem works for forming questions in these verb tenses. Simple past questions. Again, we have question words. Ox liver up subject and made for. For example, How did they learn English so fast? When did you get home from work? Yesterday. What did the teenager Sorry, the manager? Think about your idea. And where did you buy that? T shirts? Very simple. Let's speak about present continuous questions. What are you doing at the moment? Why is he ignoring me? What time are we meeting our for dinner? And who is she dating now? Very simple. Quasi question word. Auxiliary verb subject in Maine for here We have passed continuous questions again. Who were you taking? Who were you talking to on the phone? What was Jim doing when you called? And why? Where the Children eating candy before dinner. And how was he feeling after the surgery? Very simple. We just need to understand the formula here we have present perfect questions again. Look at the present perfect questions. How much money have you spends on clothes? This month. How long has your teacher worked at this school? What have they been doing all day? And how long has the client being waiting for their orders? Very simple. You can see we can use the formula for all of the tenses. Here we have future questions. Who will you invite to the party? What will your parents think about your plan? When are you going to clean your room? And why is she going to quit her job? Very simple. You just need to understand the technique account. English will be a very ese language. So do not confuse how to ask questions. Here we have model questions. What would you do if you had a $1,000,000? How could we improve our English? And where should I go on my next vacations? We can use some model questions here too. There are some exceptions for years. No questions. Do not use a question word, but the steel follow A s M auxiliary verb subject main for for example. Do you like bananas? Do is like the labor. You is a subject. And the main verb days, like other examples. Did you enjoy the movie? Are you studying English? Were you sleeping when I called you last night? Have you finished your homework? Will you call me when you get home? Are you going to accept the job offer? Should we take the early morning flight so we can use the A S M here? X deliver subject and the main verb questions with the may never be. Also don't follow the patterns like Are you thirsty? Is she a teacher? Were your parents anger when you fail the test? And was was hair ex boyfriend, basketball player. So questions with the may never be the domes follow the path through. This is another exception. 4. 3 Directandindirect: Hello, my dear friends, this is Ahmed Robbie. And in this listen, we want to speak about the direct and indirect questions, a very important grammatical point that many students have problems with. So please, everybody listen carefully and try to understand the direct and indirect questions in English. It's very simple, very see. You just need to pay attention to me. So what are indirect questions? First of all, we need to understand the indirect questions. The indirect questions are a little more formal, and Polites so remember indirect questions are a little more formal and polite. We use them when talking to a person we don't know very well or in a professional situations. And their form is a little difference. So this is what we call indirect questions. An example of indirect question. Could you tell me where the bathroom is? Could you or could you? But American people say good. She could you, because D and why pronounced yet, could you tell me where the bathroom is? You can see the form off. These questions are a little bit different from direct questions, but I'm going to explain all of them for you. Don't worry. Everything is simple. So phrasings, foreign direct questions. We used these phrases, guys, When we want to actually speak and express indirect questions, try to understand them. Could you tell me or could you tell me, as I told you, Do you know, I was wondering, Do you have any idea? I'd like to know. Would it be possible? Is there any chance? So we use all of these phrases when we want to speak about indirect questions. So try to understand these phrases. If you want to actually change the direct question to interrupt question so direct and indirect questions in English there are some examples here. I'm going to keep you. This is an example of direct question. Where is Market Street? So if you want to change this to indirect questions, we say, Could you tell me one of those phrases that we learns right now? Could you tell me where the Market Street is? So what kind of changes you see? Could you tell me where the market is so in indirect questions with is are the verb aids comes after this object you can see. Could you tell me where the market is? So we changed the direct question to injury question here. As you can see the verb am, he's and are come after the subject. So if you want to change the this question from direct to indirect question, you have to just, you know, put the he's in our after the subject. That's it again, where the worries market streets. The indirect question is good. Tell me where the Market Street is, the only changes here, as you can see. Will you bring the phrase Could you tell me and market straight comes at the beginning and he's comes after that. So that's it. Very easy, very simple. So let's understand another direct and in direct questions. What time does the bank open? So here we don't have ease or are here. We have does what time does the bank open? So how can we change this to indirect question? The indirect one is, Do you know what time the bank opens? So as you can see India in indirect questions, we don't use the auxiliary verbs do does DEET. Never. Also, you can see that the verb is open in the direct question and opens in indirect questions so you can see that. So we never, never use auxiliary verbs. Do Dawes deed in in direct questions? This is a very important point, and we need to understand. It's okay, guys, other examples. But the question here is, Why did you move to Europe? We have. Why did you move to Europe? So if you want to change this to answer a question, I was wondering one of those phrases we learnt. I was wondering why you moved to Europe so you can see an indirect question. We don't have a question. We have statements. We change the actually phrase to statement. We changed. We changed the question to a statement. So again there is no eggs deliver did in the indirect question. In fact, this injury question isn't even a question. As I told you, it's more of a statement that in applied thea other person to give more information. So why did you move to Europe? I was wondering why you moved to Europe, why you moved to Europe. You can see we change it from a question to his statements. The next one is the other examples off indirect questions. How has he managed to get in shape so quickly. So this is a prison. Perfect. How has he managed to get in shape so quickly? So the indirect one is Do you know? Do you have any idea one of those? Actually Ah, one of those statements that I taught you. Do you have any idea how he he has managed? Do you have any idea how he's managed or how he has managed to get in shape so quickly? So an indirect question as you see what we did. Ah, actually, we changed the question to a statement here, So the auxiliary haven't has can be used in both the direct and indirect questions. This is a good news. We can use it both in indirect and direct question. But in the direct questions has comes before the subject. Okay, indirect in the direct question has comes before the subject and in indirect question has comes after the subject. This is actually the change that we made, and you can see it's pretty clear the next part's other examples the direct one. How much does this motorcycle costs? Another simple question. And in New York twenties, I like to know how much this motorcycle costs as you can see we don't have, does and do or did in direct. Ah, some sorry in indirect questions. So to form this indirect question, remove does and change cost to costs pretty easy. Pretty simple. Okay, guys, direct and indirect questions in English. Other example. Can you finish the project by tomorrow? So it's pretty simple. Would it be possible for you to finish this project by tomorrow? So for Derek questions with can we can use the phrase Would it be possible to make it indirect? Very simple. Very easy. Can you finish this project by tomorrow? Would it be possible for you to finish this project by tomorrow? This is how we change the direct to indirect question. Pretty simple. Other examples. Can we change the meeting to Thursday? The direct one is Is there any chance we could change the meeting to Thirsty? Is there any chance is another option for forming in direct question with Ken? So this is another option that we can actually make. There are lots of changes we can make. Is there any chance we could change the meeting to thirsty? Yes. No Derrick questions. If indirect questions. What does that mean? if the direct question is a yes. No question. It has no question war. Such as what? Who, when? Why or how? Then the indirect question will have. If so, does Tom like Italian food? So you can see the answer of this question is yes or no. So if you want to change this to indirect question, we should bring f like, Do you know F Tom? Like his Italian foods? You know, if Tom likes Italian food So this is how we change the yes. No questions to indirect once, you know, if Tom likes Italian food, another one. Are your parents joining us for dinner? This is another year. So question and they direct one. Could you tell me if your parents are joining us for tomorrow? Your parents are joining us for tomorrow. Another one. Do they speak English? This is a yes. No question. Do they speak English? Yes or no? Okay, so the Zurich twenties, I was wondering if they speak English. I was wondering if they speak English. Very simple, very easy. This is how we change their direct to indirect. It's no direct questions. Iffing. Indirect question. As I told you, there are some other examples you need to know. Has Bar Bara ever studied abroad? This is prison Perfect. This is yes. No question The trick one. Do you have any idea if Barbara has or if Barbara's ever studied abroad? The derrick one. Do you plan on traveling with summer? The direct one is I'd like to know if you're plan on traveling this summer. Do you plan on traveling this summer? I'd like to know if you plan on traveling this summer. 5. 4 used to : Hello, everybody, this is Ahmad. Robbie will come to the new listen and this. Listen, we want to speak about two forums off. Used to a very essential form. Re grammatical point. Very nice grammatical point. Onda, this. Listen, I'm going to explain to you why do we use used to and where can we use used to? So, first of all, we should understand what is used to many English learners. Confused the two forms off used to. So we read this. Listen and take the quiz to test your understanding. So used to means a costumed too. So used to means it custom to the first meeting of used to ease a cost stemmed too when something was strange or different for you in the past. But now you think it's normal. So in this case, we can use used to. And when I first moved to Korea, I didn't like the food. But now I'm used to it. So you Now you come understand it. When I moved to Korea, I didn't like the food, but now I'm used to it. It means that now it's not strange to me and I like it now. There's another example, here we are used to waking up early. It means we do it every day. My four year old son cried on the first day of school. He wasn't used to being away from his mother the whole day. So you can see we use the Gironde. We use the verb i n g after used to here another example. It took me a long time to get used to driving on the right side of the road after I moved from New York to London. So you have lived in, uh, Finland for five years? Are you used to the cold weather yet? Are you used to the cold weather yet? So you can see after used to We used the noun and the verb usually comes Actually always comes with I n g before this form off used to we used the verb B and gets okay. We use the verbs B and get be to describe the state of being accustomed to something. And we use get to describe the process of becoming a custom to something. This is the difference. So sometimes we use be the verbs B m. These are and sometimes we use the world gets. But after this form of used to we used a noun or their i n g form of the verb as I told you so. This is very simple. And we understand actually, destructor off used to used to our didn't use to because we have didn't. Here we don't We don't say used to so something you did repeatedly in the past, but not now. So we use used to to speak about something you did repeatedly in the past but knots now. Okay, so the second meeting of used to ease to describe actions Judy's repeatedly in the past, but ah, that you don't do it. Now let me give you some examples. When I was a child, I used to go to the beach with my grandparent's. So you did it in the past, actually, But you don't do it anymore. He used to play tennis, but he's topped. A few years ago, she didn't use to like vegetables, but now she eats them frequently. They didn't use to come to church, but now they're among the most dedicated members. So and this Listen, I think we learned to great forums off used to did. You used to think this is a question. Did you used to think a lot in your college years? So did did you do it repeatedly in the past? So after this form of used to, we used the infinitive off the verb. Remember it? 6. 5 too and enough : Hello, dear Friends will come to the new Listen this. Listen, we're going to speak about two and enough two and enough. Unfortunately, many many English students make mistakes when they use the words to any enough in their speech. But don't worry. Today I'm grain to help you actually correct those mistakes. So let's start. Are you ready? I'm ready. Okay, let's get a started to ands. Enough two plus adjectives. Do not forget that to always comes with the adjective. For example, this sheriff is too expensive to as active. It costs $30 I only have $25. It's too expensive. So as you can see here, two comes with the adjective. Please keep it in mind. Always to come was with adjective Here two comes with much, sometimes too much and uncountable. Now so too much comes with uncountable now. Okay, Uncountable for example, I drank too much water. Water here is uncountable. I drank too much water. Now I really need to go to the bathroom. So you, as you can see too much, comes with uncountable. Now this is a very essential an important points. Next one is too many. Too many comes with countable now. Too many. For example. She put too many eggs into the cake. The recipe said three, and she used five. So as you can see here, too many comes with uncountable noun. Very simple, easy peasy. Japanese e. The verb actually comes before too much sometimes. Okay, for example, he complains too much so. As you can see, too much comes after the verb and divert comes before to my Sometimes he complains too much . He has such a negative attitudes. He has such a negative attitudes enough. So let's speak about enough guys you can see in this table. I explained everything for you. Enough comes with the noun, countable or uncountable night doesn't matter. Okay. For example, we don't have enough people for a soccer team. We have eight people and the team needs at least 11. As you can see in the first part, enough comes before the now and the noun can be countable or uncountable enough comes after the adjectives. Okay, enough comes after the active here, for example, Sark it you're not old enough to buy alcohol. You're 19 and the minimum age is 21. So as you can see in this part we understand enough. And to the last part say's enough Comes after the for Please, guys, keep this points into your mind. If you don't understand, come back from the beginning and try to understand it. For example. I don't exercise enough so enough comes after a burp here. I don't exercise enough. I need to go to the gym more than ones month. Exactly. Actually, we need to go to the gym every day. Nuts wants Imo, so we should exercise enough. If we don't exercise enough, you must go to the gym every day and exercise. So this is a difference between enough and too. And this is how we use them. If you have any questions, you can ask me. Feel free to ask me. Thank you. 7. 6 some and any: everybody, This is on drive D. This Listen, we are going to speak about some any ons. No. If you have problems understanding these don't worry. I'm going to explain all of them for you. And I'm going to give you lots of examples, lots of practices. So everything is clarified and clear. And if you have any questions and then up the video, you can ask me. But before that, I suggest you too much this video a couple of times, Okay, Some or any? Which one we should use. We use something positive statements. For example. I have rights some good books lately. So this is the first point that we need to understand. And we use some in positive statements and we use some with uncountable noun is and with plural countable now is this is a second important point that we should keep in mind. We use some with uncountable now's and with plural countable noun with singular countable. Now's just to use a or and so guys we use a or n just for singular countable naps. For example, I have read a good book lately. A good book series, accountable single or countable noun and we use a before that. Okay. Use any in negative statements with domes. Didn't haven't it sets raw. So this is a difference between any and some. We use any negative statements, but we use some, mostly in positive statements. For example, I haven't read any good books lately. I haven't read any good books lately. Also, we use any with on countable Noun is and with plural countable lounge for example. I don't have any pencils. So pencils here Plural countable announce I don't have any paper Paper here is uncountable Now I don't have any dictionary. I don't have a dictionary. So with singular countable now's we just use a or in Okay, So dictionary here is singular countable noun I don't have in a dictionary or we can say I don't have a dictionary. We use any any questions. We also use any questions? For example, have you read any good books lately? Have you read any good books lately? There are some exceptions here. We always use some when offering something like would you like or asking for something? Can I have? Can I have some soda? This is an example. Would you like some chicken so we can use some any questions but for offering and for asking for something in these in these cases, in these places, we can use some. This is the difference between some and any in sentences that begin with there. You can actually you can say them into different waste. Okay. For example, there aren't any books on the table or there are no books on the table. So you can use these both forms to speak about any or No, there isn't any milk in the fridge. Or we can say there is no milk in the fridge. There wasn't any music at the party or there. Waas new music at the party. There weren't any cookies in the box or there were no cookies in the box. So both forms are correct. We can use any or we can use No. And both are correct. So there there there is a double negatives. Never used knots and no together. So we don't say there are end no books on the table. This is not correct to say. There are no books on the table. We don't say there isn't no milk in the fridge. We don't say there wasn't no music at the party. We don't say there weren't no cookies in the Bucks. So we never use double negatives on this is not correct. Something, anything and nothing. What are the differences between something, anything and nothing. The same rules apply to something, anything and nothing as we learned before. For example, I want to try some think new this year. So we use some in positive statements and sentences. I didn't mean anything at the restaurant. We use any in negative statement and sentences. And are you doing anything interesting this weekend? And we use any also in questions. So the same rules as you can see here apply to something, anything and nothing. There is nothing to do in this town. There is nothing to do in this town. Someone, anyone, no one. Somebody, anybody and nobody. Someone and somebody are the same as our anyone and anybody. And no one and nobody someone, for example, someone forgot to turn delights off before leaving. So we use someone in positive statements. So we have the same rules. Very Z. I don't know anyone who works from home. We use any in negative states statements of sentences. Did you meet? Anyone knew at the conference? So we use it in the questions. So it's pretty easy. Now. Things is difficult. Nobody likes the new teacher somewhere, anywhere and nowhere. Let's go somewhere warm on our next vacation. Positive statement. A sentence? I can't find my keys anywhere. Negative sentence. Did you go anywhere else before coming home? And this is the question they're waiting. Room was so crowded that there was nowhere to sit, nowhere to sit so you can see some any and no. And we have the same rules about all of these works. You just need to understand the rules and you will understand the grammar all correctly. 8. 7 Subject verb agreement: Hello, everybody. A very important listen off today is about subject verb agreements. Many English learners have problems actually using verbs and now's and different sentences so they get confused for which one is plural and which one is singular. But in this listen, I'm going to explain different ounce and ah different actually expressions about singular and plural verbs announced. Don't worry. So let's get started. So the first parts we're going to speak about subject verb agreement is one off the first thing he should learn. So my friend is Japanese, so it's very easy. This is Singler and my friends are Japanese. This is plural. So we understand the difference between singular and floral in this English. Listen, you're going to learn a few more advanced cases off subject verb agreement that confuse many, many letters. So get ready. Let's start with everybody. Anybody, somebody, nobody. Everyone, anyone, someone and no one. These subjects are all singler, So do not forget. These subjects are all single and they take singular verb. For example everyone have problems. No, this is wrong. We say everyone has problems. I don't know if anyone is in the office right now, so anyone is. This is a singular actually subject, and we use singular for is how do you react if someone gives you a compliments? Someone gives your compliments. So this is a first subject verb agreement on. It's pretty easy. Nobody likes the new English teacher. Nobody likes the new English teacher, so we understand the first part. The next words. I want to speak about our club, team, family and army. So, guys, are these noun, singular or plural? What do you think? These subjects are also singular, even though they are talking about a group off people. So this is another great point that you need to understand, For example, my family ease. We don't say my family are. My family is visiting me for the holidays. The basketball team has a new coach, so in British English, family and team are often plural. Do not forget this point in British English. Family and team are often plural, but in America, family and team are singular. Okay, this is the second part about subject verb recruitment. Let's go to the third part. What about police? Many students they are confused about this Word is it's chloral or singler usually polices plural. The police are investigating the murder. Police have arrested three Subsys suspects, so police is usually plural to talk about an individual member. Off the police, we can say policemen or policewomen or the gender neutral Terram police officer. So police usually is a plural now. And keep this point in your mind, please. The second at the other part, is about people, Children, men, women, mice and feet. So what do you think, guys? Do you think these now's our plural or singular? So it's clear these words are irregular. Plural noun. Now those are not formed by adding s. We call them Irregular plural announce and they take the plural form of the verb. So all of these words are plural. For example, our Children are very well behaved. The people, like the new president's men, don't usually enjoy shopping for clothes. My feet are cold, so you can see that these irregular plural now's our plural. The other parties both off if you of many and several. Do you think these words take plural or singular? Ah, announce these wars always take the plural form of the verb, always plural. For example, both of my brothers are older than me. If you of these products have defects, many of the houses in this neighborhood don't have garages, so you can see all of these words. Take the plural form. Several off The students aren't going to pass, but when we speak about half off a Thera doll, 40% off some or most these words can be singular or plural, depending on what follows them, so they can be both singular or plural. For example, half off the students are from another country, but half of the class is from another country. So it depends on the actually the subject half of the students half of the class, so they can take both plural and singular for depending on what follows them. The other part is about data data. Yeah, data. Is it singular or plural? There's a debate about the word data. Technically, details plural. The singular form ease day term datum. However, in common usage, people often tree detail like information as an unaccountable Now wish actually takes the singular form. So both forms are correct. Both forms are correct. We can say the data is accurate and the data are accurate So this is Ah, various full information about subject verb agreement. If you don't understand this, listen. You need to come back and just watch it again. And if you have any questions, guys, please do not forget to ask me. Thank you. 9. 8 First Condition : Hello, my dear friends, this is Amadora. Be on this. Listen, we're going to speak about first conditional sentences, so don't worry and listless and we're going to understand everything about the first conditional ministers have problems understanding the first conditional. These sentences are very important and we use them in our daily speech. So let's get a started first conditional sentences. We use the first conditional to talk about future possibilities. So we speak about future possibilities. For example, if it's sunny tomorrow, I'll go to the beach. If it's Sunday, tomorrow I will go to the beach. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. So you can see we use first conditional to talk about future possibilities. So there are two parts to a first conditional sentence. The first part, the condition and the results. Okay, so there is a condition and the result. So there are two parts for the first conditional sentences. The condition is the if symptoms. I call it on if sentence or condition. For example, if you study this weekend, you will pass the test on Monday. If you don't study, you will fail If John goals on its rip next month, he won't have time to finish the project. If we don't save money this year, we won't be able to buy Christmas prisons. So there are two parts the condition part and the result parts. So it is possible to reverse the condition and the result. As you can see, If you don't study, you will fail or recovery. Verse it. You will fail if you don't study, so it goes both ways have to form the first conditional look. Let's speak about the form but speaking by the structure. So for condition we bring if and subject on present, simple and for the result of subject comes with future with will won't or sometimes going to. So this is how we form the first conditional sentence. It is possible to use all their words and set off if in first conditional sentences, like we can use when and as soon as so these are alternatives to If so, why do we use them? We was when When the condition will definitely happen. For example, when I die, I leave all my money to charity. So here we was when, when the condition will definitely happen and we use as soon as to emphasize immediacy, immediacy, for example. The situation is very urgent. I'll call you as soon as possible. Alcalay as soon as possible. Okay, let's study each case separately. When? When The condition will definitely happen in the future. Look at the difference between those two sentences. If I see Sam, I'll give him your message, which means I'm not sure if I will see him or nuts. Okay, this is about possibilities, as I told you before, But if I say when I see Sam, I'll give him your message. It means I will definitely see some. So we use when when we speak about something that is definite. But here we can say as soon as to emphasize immediate says, I told you my feet hurts. As soon as I get home, I'm going to take off these shoes. So we use as soon as when we speak about immediacy on. You need to understand this. This is a very important point. As soon as we have enough money saved will take a vacation to Costa Rica. We can't wait. I'll respond to your email as soon as I can. So these are other examples we use as soon as to emphasize immediacy, immediacy, that's it. And explore Ortiz homeless. This is another substitute for F, not a substitute for if not, you won't lose any weights unless you start eating healthier food. Which means you won't lose any weight if you don't start eating healthier food. So you can see we use on Lis here as a substitute for if notes very nice issue. Other example. I'm not going to dance. All is somebody invites me, which means I'm not going to dance if somebody doesn't invite me. Perfect but perfect substitute for on Lis. Another example. All is there is an Emmy emergency at work. I'll be home on time, which means if there is not an emergency at work, I'll be home on time. Perfect substitutes. 10. 9 Second Condition: Hello, my dear friends, this is a month, Robbie. Actually, we talked about the first conditional sentences. And in this listen, we are going to speak about the second conditional sentences, so we need to understand the second condition. But don't worry. As you can see, we talked about the first condition which waas. We use it to speak about possibilities, but what about the second condition? Let's find out. We used the second conditional to talk about impossible, imaginary or unlikely situations that's writes impossible, imaginary or are likely situations. For example, if I were an animal, I'd be a tiger. So this is something impossible, right? Or what would you do if you had a 1,000,000,000 daughters? So this is something imaginary because we would never have a 1,000,000 daughter. I mean, that's something imaginary. If Americans aid list fast food, they would be healthier. So this is about something that is unlikely. So is it can see we used sick. We use second conditional sentences to speak about impossible, imaginary or likely situations. There are two parts to a second conditional sentence, and I'm going to explain them for you. So again, like the first condition we have the condition and the results. So we have two parts here. The if part and the results. For example, if he exercised MAWR, he would be healthy. He would be thinner. He'd be thinner. If I were taller. I could be a professional basketball player, right? I love basketball. If the teacher spoke more slowly, would understand her better. If you're company went bankrupt, bankrupt here means to lose a lot of money to lose all of your money. If the company If your company went bankrupt, what would you do? Yes, what would you do so you can see the two parts. But now we are great tricks to speak about actually the other parts which is the structure in the form. Also, it is possible to reverse the condition and the results like the first condition. For example, If he exercised more heat, be thinner or we can reverse it. He'd be there if he exercise more. They're easy rights, easy peasy, Japanese E. So as you can see how to form this second conditional, this is how we conform. It's if comes with the subject and the past symbol. So we have passed simple here and the result comes with would mites could and the verb. This is we. This is how we form the second conditional sentences with wood. It's common to use the contract shins like I'd instead up I would you'd that, instead of you would heed instead of heat. He would. She'd wheat and fate. What's the difference between would might and could? Very important. Listen, police focus and try to understand We used wood, so the result is more definite or certain. For example, if Peter asked Karen to marry him, she would say yes. In this case, we know that Karen love speed her very, very much. But might the result may or may not happen as you can see. For example, if Peter asked Karen to marry him, she might say yes, but she might say no. So in this case, we are in short, if Carrie lofts Peter or not. But could we use good to talk about possible results? For example, if I had a $1,000,000 I could do anything. I could buy a new car every month. I could have my own helicopter. I could leave in a mansion. I could eat expensive Gorman food I could quit my job so could hear emphasizes the opening off possibilities. So this is a difference between would might and could we use a what to speak about something definite? Might we use it to speak about something that may or may not happen and we use could to talk about possible result? That's it. 11. 10 Difference between should could and Would: Hello, my dear friends, in this video, we're going to understand the difference between would should and could forever. So don't worry about these confusions you have in your mind. So the difference between SHIRT could and would, is difficult for many English learners. So this listen will help you understand when to use each one. So there is nothing to worry about. I I grant to you that you will understand all of the words and the difference between shoot could and would. It's very clear, very transparent. So let's start with should Well, should and shouldn't for advice. Here are some examples of using should and shouldn't to ask for and give advice and suggestions. I've had a really bad headache for the past week. That's not good. You should go to the doctor. Yes, So he issued here to give him advice or a suggestion. I want to make more friends, but I don't know how. First of all, you shouldn't spend so much time on the computer. You should go out and join a club or start playing a sport insert. I had a fight with my best friend. What should I do? Um, I think you should call her and tell her you're sorry. So as you can see here, we use should to give advice and suggestions very easy, very clear where it's transparent and we understand it. And I'm completely sure that you understand it too. So we use could and could end for abilities in the past. Actually, we use could and couldn't in different situations. But this is one of the usages abilities in the past. Good. And could ends are the past form of can and cans. You know that when I was younger, I could run a mile in seven minutes. So waste, I speak about my abilities in the past. Now it takes me 20 minutes. Yesterday I couldn't find my wallet anywhere. But this morning I found it. Yes, last year, he couldn't speak English very well, but now he can. So as you can see, we use could and couldn't to speak about abilities in the past. That's right. In the past, we also use good for possibilities in the future. This is the second usage is off. Could minister does have problems understanding bliss. Here's an example of good to talk about future possibilities. Do you have any ideas for our publicity's e campaign? Yes, I've got a few A Diaz I could put advertisements on race spoken Google. We could also give outs pamphlets in our neighborhoods. Maybe John could even contact local TV stations. So does it can see here. The guy actually speaks about future possibilities, so we understand that we can use could to speak about future possibilities. That's a very nice point. Also, he is good to make polite requests. This is the third usages of actually the third usage of Could. Could you please open the window? It's hot in here. Could you turn the music down? Thanks. Could you make 10 copies off this? A report, please. So you can see we use could to make polite requests. Right? Polite request. We used to talk about unrealized or unlikely situations on riel. Or unlikely, for example, if I wear the president's off my company, I would make a lot of changes. If people were more generous, there wouldn't be so much poverty in the world today. She would travel around the world if she had more vacation vacation time. That's right. So as you can see, we use with to speak about on riel or likely situations. Notes in this case would is often short turned to death. Exactly. Like, for example, if I aware of the president of my company, I did, which means I would make a lot of money. So here, day stands for would this is a short part we can also use would This is a second usage we can also use with, actually just to make polite offers. It comes where it comes away. The would you like, Would you like Would you like? Yes. Here are some examples of using. Would you like to make polite offers? Would you like anything to drink? The soda would be great. Thanks. Would you like to join us for their? I'd love to, but I actually have other plants to do tonight. Actually. Would you like to see some pictures from my vacation? Sure. So he is. Would you like to make a very polite offer? Very nice point, guys. So we understand these differences don't use too after shoot could and would, Please. This is the mistake that many students make. So don't say you shouldn't to make to smoke. This is wrong. say you shouldn't smoke. Don't say we could to ah or their pizza. Tonight's now that's rocks A. We could order pizza tonight. Don't say I want to buy a new car. If I had the money now say I would buy a new car if I had the money. So we never use two after Could shoot And what? Thank you very much. I wish that you have understood the listen. If you have any questions, please contact me. And I suggest you to review this video If you didn't understand some parts and do not for again to take the tests. Thank you. 12. 11 Past Perfect: Hello, my dear friends, this is a much Robbie on this video. We're going to speak about the past. Perfect. Actually, Minister does have problems using the past perfect tense in their speech. But don't worry, We are going to speak about the past perfect. And we're gonna give you lots of examples. So first of all, we have to understand what is past perfect the past. Perfect is the past before the past, you can use it to talk about an event that happened before another event in the past. So remember, we speak about an event that happened before another event in the past. This is a very important part about the past, but Frick And that's why we use past perfect here. The past beverages formed with hat plus past participle, so had in the past participle off the verb, for example. I had to set in English for several years before I traveled to the U. S. So you can see that something happened before something else in the past. So before I traveled to the U. S, I studied English. I had a studded English. So the study English happened before traveling, or I hadn't studied English before I traveled to the U. S. This is a negative form, or this is the question. Had you studied English before you traveled to the U. S. So here you can see there's a combination between simple passed on past. Perfect. I know most of the times we combine simple past and past perfect to speak about something that happened before. Something else. Okay. On Dhere past her, for example. One. We're going to give you some examples to make you understand it. To make it more clear for you. Imagine you are late for work on the day of an important meeting. Okay, Just imagine. So Number one, The meeting started at AIDS. Okay? And you arrive at 8 15 So there are two past tenses here. The meeting started at eight and he arrived at a 15. But you can see that. Ah, the meeting started at eight. So it happened before your wife. So here we say. Actually, you can use the past. Perfect to say. The meeting had already started by the time I arrived. You see? So the meeting had already started by the time arrived. So you can see the meeting had already started by the time I arrived. So the meeting started at eight. I arrived at 8 15 So the meeting started and happened before I arrived. So this is what I call past Perfect. We speak about the tens. We speak about something that happened before something else in the past. Okay, so let me give you some other examples Past. Perfect example. Number to imagine that The reason Husband and a wife who got divorced last year before the divorce. They were married for three years. Okay, so they were married from 2008 to 2011 but they got divorced in 2011 so you can use the past. Perfect too. Actually say they had been married for three years when they divorced. So this is we speak about Something happened before something girls in the past, they have been married for three years when they divorced. Okay, so Ah, they had been married for three years when they divorced. So you can see we speak about Something happened before something girls three years ago. So it's very clear, and I think it's very easy for everybody to understand, But if you have any questions you can ask me about the past Perfect, and I can give you more explanation. It's common to use the short form of debt instead of hat, for example, they'd been married, which means they had been married. They'd been married three years when they divorced. So and another one When I checked my cell phone, I saw that she called me twice, she to call me twice. She had called me twice, or by the end of the day I'd write in 200 emails. By the end of the day, I had reading 200 emails. So D stands for hat here. And what about hat hat ministers have problems about had had they actually see the structures in different examples with the past? Perfect. It's possible toe. Have the structure had hat on? Hadn't hat in a sentence when had is both auxiliary verb and the main verb. In these cases, it's very common to use the short form off day and had soap. This is actually passport Frick, but we have a combination of looks, a liver and the main for, but let me give you some examples. I had had five different jobs By the time I was 30 years old, I'd had five different jobs by the time I was 30 years old. When I saw him, I could tell that he had had too much to drink. When I saw him, I could tell that it had too much to drink. I told my boss that I hadn't had enough time to finish the project. We had never had an argument until last week. So you can see we can use hat hat in some actually passages, and we have to understand it. Their self signal words for the past. Perfect. I'm going to speak about the signal words because we can see these signal words with pastor for most of the time. In general, these wars Onley when used about a situation in the past. These are other actually signal words we can use. The meeting had already started by the time I arrived. So by the time here is a scene signal worked we can use for the past, Perfect. When we arrived at the airports are flight had already lift. When here he's another signal worked. Before we sold our car, we had owned it for 12 years before is another signal work. He never meant a native English speaker until he visited London until he's another signal war for the past. Perfect, she said that she lost her wallet. She said that she had lost her, Walt said, Is another way to speak about past perfect in. This is a kind of signal war, too. Note the simple past and the past. Perfect are often in the same sentence, but not necessarily. It is possible for the first sentence STIs, to establish that context of the past and for the following sentences to be in the past. Perfect. For example, look at the sentence I first met John in 2011. He had been looking for a work he had been looking for work for the past two years. Although he had come for interviews in several big companies, nobody had hired him. So this is it. So this is a simple past, past perfect, often in the same sentence as I told you before, there is always ah combination of these two tenses and sentences 13. 12 present perfect and past perfect : Hello everybody. This is Ahmad Robbie and I'm back with the new listen. Understanding difference between present, perfect and past Perfect. As you know, many students have problems understanding the difference between present, perfect and past. Perfect. Actually, we spoke about the past Perfect in the previous. Listen on. Ah, I think everything is clear for you now how to use past Perfect. But let's understand the difference. Both present, perfect and past perfect talk about something that happened before A point in the time. So there's a reference point here in the prison. Perfect. A reference point is the presence. But in the past perfect. Our friends point is the past. This is the main difference between present perfect and past Perfect. So, President perfect is an action that started in the past and continue to the presence. So, guys, please be attention to this point again, I'm going to see it again. An action that it starts in the past and continued or continues to the present. Okay, this is present perfect. For example, I have leaved in this city for six months, So something happened actually for six months. So I have lived in the city for six months. So something that started in the past and continues to the present. So and actually that's happened before. Now we use present Perfect to speak about an action that happened before. Now on specific time, for example, I have been to Japan twice. I have been to Japan to I said, This is an action. Happened before now and we speak about on specific time. Okay, How to form the present. Perfect. This is the question off many students, So let's speak about the form off present. Perfect. So as you can see, we have half and has for the third person plus past participle of the verbs. Very easy. Examples are present. Perfect. My mother has just gone to the store. Janet has lived abroad for five years. I haven't seen the new movie. It's have you finished your homework? So these are some examples are present. Perfect. It's very common to use the contract shins like ve and s in the prison. Perfect. For example, I've instead of I have I've been to Japan three times my mother's, which means my mother has My mother has just gone to the store, Jan. It's lived abroad for five years. Janet has lived abroad for five years. So it's very common to use the contractions, VE and S and the president perfect. Especially when we speak English. When you would make actually conversations and use birth and perfect. We can use these contractions. Let's speak about past perfect past Ben Ferguson Action That happened before a time in the past. We know that, for example, when I arrived at the office this morning, I discovered that I had left my computer on, but not before. Oh my God, this is such a big mistake. Sometimes I make So this is an action that's happened before a time or before another action in the past. So let's speak about the form off past Perfect. The form is easy. Like President. Perfect. Actually, we we don't have have or has we have had and pass parts? Is it pull pretty easy? Examples off past. Perfect. I went to Japan in 1988 and in 1991 I turned 10 years old in 1994. So we say I had bean to Japan twice. By the time I was 10 years old, I had bean to Japan twice by the time I waas 10 years old. We speak about something that happened before an action in the past. The other example is my husband ate breakfast at six. I am and I woke up at 7 a.m. So, guys, can you tell us which one happened actually before in all direction? Actually, the 1st 1 My husband. Eight. Breakfast at six. And then after that, he woke up Hat seven. I am right. So we say When I woke up this morning, my husband had already eaten breakfasts like this Action happen before something else in the past that waas actually very important issue. So first he ate. He's actually breakfast when I woke up. So we say When I woke up this morning, my husband had already e 10 breakfast past perfect. An action happened in the past before. A tight It's very common to use the contractions D in the past, perfect. Like I travel to five different countries by the time I waas 20 years old. By the time as I totally before, this is a signal word we use for president for freaks or past perfect. I traveled, which means I had traveled to five different countries. That's it 14. 13 Passive voice present past: Hello, my dear friends, this isn't about Robbie And this. Listen, we are going to speak about the passive voice off present on past. This is another big question. Is off many students, Actually, they have problems using the passive when they speak English. They right, Especially when they have an aisles or total exam. They have problems understanding these forms, but don't read. We're going to understand them. It's very clear. You just need to pay attention. You just need to understand everything, right? The details. If you have any questions in the end, you can ask me. But before asking you the questions, please try to listen. Ah, to this. Actually. Listen, watch this. Listen. Understand it. And then you can ask me any questions you have. Okay? The passive voice definition lists just starts with the definition in the active voice. Actual. The subject of the sentence does the action. Okay. Like, for example, John painted the house last week. Subject to their object to the subject is John. The verb is painted on. The object is house is very clear. So you can see this is an active voice and active sentence. The subject of the sentence does the action. But in the passive voice, the subject of the sentence receives the action. So this is a difference between passive on active. This is an example for ah, passive voice. The house was painted last week so you can see the subject on and the air appear Rights Notice that the object of the active sentence is house. This is the house and actually became the subject of the passive symptoms. The house became the subject of the passive sentence. Again, the house was painted last week. Passive voice use. Actually, the passive voice is used when we don't know who did the action, for example. So we don't know who did the action. We have no information about the door. For example, the documents were stolen. So who still the documents way? Don't know. We have no ideas. We don't know who. Still the documents Number two. We use passive voice when the receiver of the action is more importance. When the receiver of the action is more important. For example, the pyramids were built nearly 5000 years ago by the Asian Egyptians. So here the pyramids are important, so we don't speak about the subject here. We want to emphasize that the permits more than actually ancient Egyptians. So we want to put more emphasis on pyramids than ancient Egyptians here and the passive of always form. Now it's time to speak about the forum. Let's understand the structure and the form off passive voice to change an active voice sentenced to a passive voice in terms. Actually, we make the object of the active sentence into the subject of the passive sentence. Number two. We use the verb to be in the same tens as the main verb of the active sentence. Number three. We used the past participle of the main verb of the active sentence. Here are some active and passive voice examples to help you. Don't worry, We're gonna help you understand the four. We're gonna give you lots of examples to make you understand. To make everything's clear for you. So this is an active sentence. People drink champion on new yours, Eve. So we bring the objects at the beginning of the sentence. What is the object? The object here is champagne. Exactly. So we say champagne is drunk on New Year's Eve. So as you can see. As I explained for you, the object comes at the beginning of the sentence, and then we have to be verbs and these are and then the past participle. This is a forum off, actually, passive voice. Champagne is drunk on New Year's Ive active. So before I say the passive sentences right to guess it, chefs used these machines to mix the ingredients. Ships used these machines to mix the ingredients. So, guys, can you guess what is a passive form? Yes, First of all, we should understand the object. The object. Let me help you. The object is machines. So did you guess. Let's see. These machines are used to mix the ingredients that sits. If you answer correctly, I should tell you. Bravo, Bravo, the active one they renovate. It's the restaurant in 2004 so they subject renovated firm. The object will be the restaurants. So what is a passive one? The restaurant was renovated in 2004 pretty easy. Another active sentence. The teachers informed the students that the class had bean canceled. The teachers, the subject informed the verb and the students are the objects. So we say the students were informed that the class had been canceled. See Easy, Busy dropping easy. This is pretty simple and pretty easy. The passive voice presence in the present. The passive voice uses the verbs ease and are and past participle of the main. For as I told you before, the passive voice present is often used to describe processes. For example, things about process. What? How things are made. Let me give an example. First the apples are picked, then they are cleaned, and finally they are packed and shipped to the market. You can see we can use the passive Loy's present e to speak about processes. We speak about general thoughts, opinions and beliefs that, actually passive form simple, like New York is considered the most diver city in the US This is something about beliefs and opinions. It is believed that Amelia Erhard plane crashed in the Pacific Ocean. It is believed hunger and is seen as one of the world's most difficult languish to lor. So we speak here about also beliefs, opinions or thoughts. This is something pretty easy. Skin cancers are thought to be caused by excessive exposure to the sun, so that's it. But the passive voice past in the past. The passive voice uses the verbs, wasson wear and passport simple of the main verb. But where do we use it? Don't worry, it will explain to you the passive voice past is often used to describe events in history. For example, George Washington was elected president in 17 88 so we can see we use it to describe events in history. We needed to speak about crimes and accidents. For example, two people were killed in a drive by shooting on Friday night. Yes, Friday night, 10 Children were injured when part of the school roof collapsed. So we can see we use the passive voice passed its peak about crimes and accidents as well as in many other situations. We can use passive always. 15. 14 Reported Speech: Oh, my dear friends, how are you doing? Will come to the new listen and this. Listen, we're going to speak about reported speech statements, reported speech statements. I know many students have problems speaking about reported speech statements. But don't worry. And this. Listen, we are going to study all of these statements. There is nothing to worry about. So what is the report of speech? This is the question that many English students have. What is a reported a speech? What is this grammar about? You know, reported a speech is when we talk about what somebody else said, we have direct speech. For example. I have been to launch in three times. This is a direct speech. I have bean toe London three times and we have reporters speech. So the reporters speech, we say. She said she'd bean toe London three times. So we report this speech and we call it reported speech when you want to report to speak to other people to change the direct speech. Actually, we change it to reported speech then today and this. Listen, I'm going to teach you actually, the techniques on the grammar about reported speech we often use reported speech when talking about conversation that happened in the past. There are some changes to the verbs with the reporters speech. We are going to read the table, so read the table to find out how each of their tens changes. So I'm going to show you the table and you're going to understand how can we change the verb in order to make the direct speech? Reported a speech. Are you ready? Let's get started. So this is the table. As you can see, we have direct speech and we have a report of speech and we have some examples. Let's start with the 1st 1 The 1st 1 is simple presence, simple present. If we want to change the direct speech to reported speech, you can see we change. This simple present tends to simple past. Okay, so one tens comes back, so I want to go home. So this is a direct speech and the reported speech ease. She said she wanted to go home. She said she wanted to go home, as you can see, want changes to want it. Simple present always changes to simple past, she said. She said what she said she wanted to go home. So that's how we report somebody's statement. That's very easy. The next Parties Prison Cantina West's and past continuous. We changed the direct speech off president, continuous to the past. Continuous, actually, when we want to use it In a report of speech, for example, I'm reading a good book. I'm reading a good book. This is a direct speech. If you want to change it to indirect speech, you say. She said she was reading a good book. She said she was reading a good book. As you can see prison continuous changes to past continuous. If we have simple pasts, the changes we change it to actually pass perfect. For example, I ate pasta for dinner last night. This is a direct speech. So the verb ease eight simple past. So we change it to pass Perfect. So we say. She said she'd she had. She said she'd Eden Pastora for dinner last night. She said she had eaten passed off for dinner last night. That's pretty easy. And the last one ease prison perfect changes to pass. Perfect. Okay. For example, I have just finished cleaning my Rome so they sees a direct speech and this is president Perfect. So we need to change it to reported speech. So we change the tens from present. Perfect to pass perfect eso we say. She said she'd just finished cleaning her room. There's another example. My mother has never been to Japan. Onda. We change it to pastor for Chrissy. She said her mother had never bean to Japan. So you can see that's pretty simple. We changed actually direct speech to report of speech. All you need to do is to change the verb to change the tens from simple president. Simple past from present, continuous to pass, continuous from simple past past perfect from present, perfect to pass perfect, easy peasy Japanese that's pretty easy on their arm. Some questions you have to take in order to understand. Ah, your errors, your problems. But that's pretty simple, and there are two other actually parts here can and can't always changes to could and couldn't. For example, this is a direct speech. I can meet you next Monday. So can changes to could, She said she could meet you meet me next Monday. There's another example here. Sorry, I can't talk now. All that's work on that report of the species. She said she couldn't talk at the moment because she was its work. As you can see, Cam changes to Couldn't and I am at work changes to She was at work as he they told you before the simple presentations to changes to simple past on the last parties well and want changes to would and wouldn't. For example, I'll pick him up at the air. Bert, this is a direct speech. The indirect one is, she said she'd peak me up at the airport. She said she'd pick him up at the airport. The other example ease. I won't tell anyone anybody our secrets. I won't tell anybody or secrets. So if you want to change it to indirect and reported speech, you say, she said she wouldn't tell anybody My sick rat, she wouldn't tell anybody. My secret eso, as you can see, will changes to boot and won't changes to Wooden's. That's pretty simple and be careful, Set and told, have small difference. After told, we need to include a person okay. After told we need to include a person, for example, she said that she wanted to go home. She told me so after told until we use actually person, she told me that she wanted to go home. She told John that she wanted to go. We cannot say. She told that she wanted to go home. Or she said that you wanted to go home. That's wrong. And don't make this mistake. Please. Okay, that's it for today. And we can move to the next. Actually. Listen. And this is all about reported speech, and I think it's pretty clear if you have any more questions you can ask me. Thank you. It was great talking to you. Now, don't say that. 16. 15 Reported Speech: tell everybody. How are you doing? Uh, this is a hot Robbie. And this. Listen, we're going to speak about reported speech co request or there's any questions. As you can remember, the previous session we talked about, actually, affirmative sentences, positive sentences. But here we are going to speak about requests, questions and orders on. We're going to speak about reported speech on give You some techniques, Andi actually discuss these grammatical points. Are you ready? Let's get started. How to form reported request or there's and questions. It's simple. You just need to pay attention to these rules. Okay, As you can see in this table, the direct speech changes to reported speech for requests and orders we always use. Asked me him hair or told me him hair. Okay, for example, you can see the first part. It says, please make 10 copies of this report. So how can we change this direct speech to reported speech? Please make 10 copies off this report. This is an order. So if you want to change it to report of speech, we'll say she asked me. She asked me to make 10 copies of the reports the next one is go to the bank. This is another order. Go to the bank. So if I want to change it to reported speech, I say she told me to go to the bank. So we used I told somebody to. She told me to go to the bank pretty easy or she asked me to go to the bank is all the same . There is no difference between asked me to do something or told me to do something. The next parties Yes. No questions for yes. No questions we say asked if and wanted to know if, for example are you coming to the party? This is the question that is a yes. No question. Are you coming to the party? So if want to you if we want to change this to direct SRE reported speech, we say he asked if I was coming to the party. He asked if I was coming to the party. Andi, this is pretty easy. And there's another one. Has John seen the new movie? If we want to change this, we say she wanted to know if John had seen the new movie. As I told you before, if we have prison. Perfect. We change it to pass. Perfect. If we have simple past, we change it to pass perfect, simple prison changes to actually seem pull past. So we talked to this. Talked about this these tenses in the previous session. Andi, I think if you don't understand the tenses how to change the tenses from direct speech to reported speech, I suggest you to come back and study them again. Other questions we can use ask. I wanted to know. For example, when was the company found it? She asked when the company waas found it. What kind of car do you drive? He wanted to know what kind of car I drive. Okay. He wanted to know what kind of car I drive. That's pretty easy on, actually simple for a question. Orders asked me to Is use for requests. Ask me to Is used for requests. Told me to a stronger. It is used for orders and commands. The main verb stays in the infinitive. For example, she asked me to make copies. He told me to go to the bank as as it says told me to is stronger. It is used for orders and commands for yes, no questions asked if and wanted to know if our equal they're all the same. For example, did you turn off the TV? And, uh, she asked if I had turned off the TV? As I told you before, We change a simple pass to past perfect on for years. No questions we use asked if and wanted to know if and they are both completely Ikle. We don't use the auxiliary verbs. Do does deed in the report that questions. That's a very important point. Pay attention. We don't use the auxiliary verbs do does deed in the report. It questions so that see, it's for right now. That's about reports, questions in requests and orders and other questions. Yes, no questions. That's pretty simple. If you have any more questions, please, guys, do not forget to contact me. I will be at your service at any time