English Grammar - Advanced | Kate Ochsner | Skillshare

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English Grammar - Advanced

teacher avatar Kate Ochsner, English grammar courses

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Intro video Advanced

      1:07
    • 2. FUTURE TENSES REMINDER

      3:07
    • 3. FUTURE CONTINUOUS

      2:38
    • 4. FUTURE PERFECT

      5:15
    • 5. BE ABOUT TO

      1:40
    • 6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

      2:49
    • 7. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

      2:33
    • 8. MODALS IN THE PAST

      3:25
    • 9. THIRD CONDITIONAL

      4:05
    • 10. ZERO CONDITIONAL

      1:41
    • 11. The PASSIVE II

      6:31
    • 12. RELATIVE CLAUSES II

      3:36
    • 13. RELATIVE CLAUSES III

      3:37
    • 14. The passive with reporting verbs

      3:45
    • 15. The Passive with two objects

      1:20
    • 16. ADJECTIVES ENDING IN +ED OR +ING

      1:31
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About This Class

Learn English grammar easily. Master your English grammar skills with this course.

  • This couse structured in Grammar Packs with everything you need to improve your English easily.

  • I will be adding more grammar classes, so please follow me.
  • Learn grammar topics in a very easy to understand way with subtitled video lectures.

  • You will practise everything by doing review exams at the end of the class.

This course is focused on learning English structures, grammar and vocabulary equivalent to:

  • The “First Certificate Exam (FCE)" level from the Cambridge University in the UK.

  • The B2 level in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

  • A 87-109 points at the TOEFL exam (Test Of English as a Foreign Language).

Meet Your Teacher

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Kate Ochsner

English grammar courses

Teacher

Hello, I'm Kate.

I´m originally from Boston, Massachusetts (USA).

I am an ESL teacher with a BS in English Education, with over 20 years´experience teaching English.

I have worked for several companies and language schools, as well as translated books, and online articles.

I have taught Business English classes, English literature, English Theatre classes, and Cambridge Exam Preparation courses.

I created my courses in 4 different levels to perfectly fit your needs. From Beginners to Advanced levels.

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Intro video Advanced: 2. FUTURE TENSES REMINDER: future tenses reminder just as a reminder. Remember how many different tenses we can use for the future? We have already seen some verb tenses. Future simple. Just add will between subject and verb. I will buy a new car. Use this if you want to say something for the future. Is not a planned nor arranged action going to I am going to buy a new car. This is for plans in the near future. Present continuous. I am buying a new car with the same meaning as in the going to form. Now let me show you some other tenses for the future president. Simple really present. Simple. Yes, we will use it for timetables and schedules. For example, if a train is leaving at 5 p.m. we can say the train leaves at 5 p.m. This is present simple. We can also express a future. But in the past, For example, when I saw the accident, I was going to call the police, but they got there very quickly. Another way to express the future is to be about two. This means that it refers to the immediate future. Something will happen in a few moments. For example, I'm about to get home. This means that I will arrive home in a few minutes. As you have seen in the previous videos. We use the future perfect tense for the actions that happens first or before the other action or before a specific time. For example, scientists will have discovered life on other planets by 2050. We use future continuous to describe an action that is happening in a specific moment in the future continuous case. The specific moment is in the future. For example, tomorrow at 5 p.m. I will be working in my office. 3. FUTURE CONTINUOUS: future continuous In this video, I'm going to show you another verb tense you can use for the future. Besides present, continuous going Teoh or the future? Simple. Let's start one. When we use this verb tense as all continuous tenses, we use them to describe an action that is happening in a specific moment in the future. Continuous case. The specific moment is in the future to how we create a sentence in future. Continuous as it is a continuous tense, we have to use the continuous form that is B plus verb in i n g form. Then the verb will be in the future. That is will be Let's see some examples tomorrow at 5 p.m. I will be working in my office. You will be sleeping tonight when I get home or in negative. You won't be sleeping tonight when I get home or in a question Will you be sleeping tonight when I get home? Remember to use the W A s V formula. When you create a question in our case, there is no w or interrogative pronoun. The A or auxiliary is Will the subject or s is you the V or verb is be sleeping. Three. The typical words from this verb tense. There are no specific words to use in this tense. Besides all the words that tell us the action is happening in a specific moment in the future, like tomorrow at 10 a.m. Tonight in one year or any other. 4. FUTURE PERFECT: future perfect In this video, I'm going to explain to you another verb tense you can use for the future. Besides present, continuous going to the future simple and the future continuous from the previous videos. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One when we use this verb tense, we use the future perfect tense when we are explaining something that happened in the future. And there are two actions we need to say that one hack shin happened before the other action. We use the future perfect tense for the action that happens first or before the other action or before a specific time. Look at these examples. By the time you get home, I will have gone shopping, as you can see by the time you get home is the action that happens second and I will have gone hap Shopping is the action that happens first so it goes in the future. Perfect. Another example. I won't have finished my homework by 9 p.m. Scientists will have discovered life on other planets by 2050 to now. Let's see how we create a sentence in future. Perfect as you saw in the English verb tenses structures. Videos. We create the perfect structures using the third column of irregular verbs or plus e d of regular verbs. Putting the verb have in the present past or future if you remember in the present. Perfect simple. The verb have goes in present in the past. Perfect. Simple. The verb have goes in past so in the future perfect simple. The verb have goes in the future. Look at these examples. I have just gone to the gym. This is present Perfect. I had just gone to the gym. This is past perfect. I will have gone to the gym by 6 p.m. This is the future Perfect. Remember that in the future we don't differentiate. He she it from the rest of subjects. So in the future, perfect. All subjects are will have plus the third column of irregular verbs or plus e d of regular verbs. Remember that for negative questions we change will for won't and that's it. Let's see the same sentence but in negative. By the time you get home, I won't have gone shopping. Scientists won't have discovered life on other planets by 2050 to create a question. Always remember the W A s V formula. Remember that the A or auxiliary is the word you used to make a negative sentence. In our case, it is will. So now that we know are eggs Ilary. Let's create the same sentence in a question. Will you have gone shopping by the time you get home? Will scientists have discovered life on other planets By 2050 where there is no w or interrogative pronoun the A or auxiliary is will the S or subject is scientists. The V or verb is have discovered. Remember to always use the W A s V formula. Now let's see which are the typical words from this Phurba tents. There are no specific words except those that give us a deadline or specific time. For example, by Monday by March, in a week in two days, in three hours, etcetera 5. BE ABOUT TO: be about two to be about two is another structure to consider when we want to say something in the future, it refers to the immediate future. For example, I'm about to leave home means that I am leaving home in a few moments or another example. The train is about to arrive. This means that the train is almost here. We can use this structure in present, past or future, as there is a verb to be in the structure. We just have to put the verb in the present past or future. For example, I was about to leave when you called me. Even though this is not common to create a negative sentence or question, as there is a verb to be in the structure, we just make it negative or in a question, as we have in many other lessons. For example, are you about to finish the exercise? Were you about to leave when I called you? As always, remember to follow the W A s V formula when creating a question 6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: present. Perfect. Continuous. Hello. I'm going to tell you about how to create a present perfect, continuous tense when to use it. This is your first perfect continuous tense. So please pay attention again. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One, when we use this verb tense, we use the present perfect continuous in the same way as we use the present Perfect simple . That is to talk about actions that started in the past but didn't finish or we don't know if they finished. But the difference is we want to put emphasis in the duration of the action. Look at these examples. I have been studying for the exam for two hours to now. Let's see how we create a sentence in present. Perfect continuous, as we saw in the English tense structures to create a verb in present. Perfect. Continuous. We need a verb in the continuous structure for this tense. That is be plus i n g. Then we need the verb to be in present. Perfect. That is have been. Then we add the verb in i n g form. Let's see some examples. I have been doing exercise for three hours. You have been watching TV all morning. She has been working in her office since 8 a.m. Or in negative. I haven't been doing any exercise since last week. She hasn't been working hard since she got sick. Three, Which are the typical words from this verb tense as we use, this tends to emphasize the duration of the action. The typical words are since four or during as they express a duration. 7. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS: past perfect. Continuous. This tense is very similar to the present. Perfect continuous. But it's used for the past. Okay, let's start again. Remember that in each verb tense, we must know three things. One, when we use this verb tense, we use the past perfect, continuous in the same way as we use the past. Perfect. Simple. That is when we want to say that an action in the past happened before another action both in the past so we can say its the past of the past. Simple. The difference is that we want to put emphasis in the duration of the action to how we create a sentence in past perfect continuous, as we saw in the English tense structures to create a verb in the past. Perfect, continuous. We need a verb in the continuous structure for this tense that is be plus I n g. Then we need the verb to be in the past. Perfect. That is have been Then we had the verb in i n g form. Let's see some examples. When my dad arrived home, we had been cooking for one hour. I had been watching TV before the TV broke she had been working in her office before she got sick. Three The typical words from this verb tense are the same as the ones in the present perfect, continuous tense as we want to emphasize the duration of the action. The typical words are since four or during as they express a duration. 8. MODALS IN THE PAST: motels in the past. In this video, we're going to explain to you how to create a model in the past tense. Remember that most of the motile verbs that we have seen in previous lessons refer to the present and the future. There are a few models that can be used in the past, for example, could have to or be able to. But there are others that cannot be used in the past like must, Can, May might or should. For that. If we want to use thes models in the past, we have to say the motile verb plus have plus the verb in the perfect tense that is the third column or plus e. D for regular verbs. Let's see some examples. I could have done it better than I did. I'm ashamed. You mustn't have driven drunk. You should have told the truth. He may have asked you before. Notice that after would or the motile verb in the past, all subjects will go with have you will never say she should has told you the truth. The correct way is she should have told you the truth. Check the table to see which is the specific use for each motile verb in the past. Remember that we can use the motile verb could for the past and that the negative is couldn't we can also use the motile half to in the past that is had to as in I had to go back when I saw you and the negative will be. I didn't have to leave when I saw you. We treat it as a normal verb in the past, so we will need the auxiliary of the past. Simple didn't. Now let's see the moto verb be able to It is the most flexible way to say on ability or capability as we can use it in any tents. We just have to say the verb to be in the tents we want. For example, in the past, it will be I wasn't able to finish the exercise until you helped me or in the future, I think I will be able to do it myself. 9. THIRD CONDITIONAL: the third conditional in this video, we're going to teach you the only conditional you haven't seen yet. What it is, the structure and its use. Remember that we use conditional sentences when we want to express a condition. For example, if I have money, I will buy a new jacket. As you can see, conditional sentences have two parts. One is the condition and the other is the result of this condition. Remember that either part can go first. But if you start the conditional sentence with the part with if you need to put a comma between the two parts If not you do not need a comma. Now let's see the third conditional we use the third conditional for the past. We create 1/3 conditional using this structure. If bless past perfect would plus present Perfect. Look at the examples. If I had known his phone number, I would have called him. If she had known that you were here, she would have come earlier where the conditions are. If I had known his phone number and if she had known that you were here, the results are I would have called him and she would have come earlier, as we saw in the models in the past, lesson after a wood could or should we will always say have even if we are using he she or it. So, for example, he should have been here by now, and not he should has been here by now. Another thing you should know. Like in the second conditional, you can use the motile verbs could or should instead of wood. For example, If I had known his phone number, I could have called him. Or if I had known his phone number, I should have called him instead of if I had known his phone number, I would have called him. For example, if I had money, I could buy you a new car. If I had money, I should buy you a new car instead of if I had money, I would buy a new car. So now you have seen all four kinds of conditional sentence take into consideration that sometimes you can mix parts from different condition. ALS, as in the example, I wouldn't have missed the bus if it wasn't late, where the first part is the third conditional. But the second part is the second conditional. Last. You should know that there are some alternatives to if in a conditional sentence, please check the theory lesson where you will find all the alternatives you have. 10. ZERO CONDITIONAL: zero conditional. Now let's see the zero conditional. We used zero conditional for riel situations or fax. We create a zero conditional using this structure if plus present. Simple president. Simple if, plus past symbol past. Simple As you can see, we create a zero conditional using the same verb tense in both parts again as a reminder. Remember that conditional sentences have two parts. One is the condition, and the other is the result of this condition, and either part can go at the beginning of the sentence. For example, in the present, if I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick. Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius. In the past, if I was cold, I turned on the heating again. Remember that either part can go first. But if you start the conditional sentences with the part with if you need to put a comma between the two parts 11. The PASSIVE II: the passive to this is the second part of the passive. In this video you will see the passive form in more verb tenses than in the first video as well as the passive with two objects and the passive with reporting verbs. If you do not remember the passive form, please re watch the passive one video to make sure you understand the passive form. Before watching this video, you're going to see a passive structure in more complicated verb tenses. But remember that all passive sentences are created using the same process. For example, in present, continuous, the active sentence is they are building new houses and impassive new houses are being built in past continuous. The active sentence is they were building new houses and impassive new houses were being built. Let's look at some examples present continuous active. They are building new houses. Passive new houses are being built. Please check the rest of the table 12. RELATIVE CLAUSES II: relative clauses to This is the second part of the relative clauses topic. So if you don't remember this topic, please review what is explained in the relative clauses one video in Unit two in the Lower Intermediate course, as we saw in the relative clauses. One lesson. We use relative clauses or pronouns to refer to something we are talking about. For example, this is the bus that goes to the airport. A doctor is a person who helps people in this sentence who refers to a doctor, a person. If you are not familiar with the relative pronouns, please review the relative clauses. One lesson before starting this one. Now let's see when it's necessary to use a relative pronoun in a sentence. We have to use a relative pronoun when it refers to the subject of the sentence, as in, the woman who lived next door works as a nurse because the woman is the subject of the sentence and who refers to the woman we need the relative pronoun. Another example. The man who committed the crime is arrested. The man is the subject of the sentence and who refers to the man. So we need the relative pronoun. Another example. The river that crosses the valley is very long. In this example. The river is this subject, so the relative pronoun that refers to the subject cannot be omitted. Let's see some examples where the relative pronoun can be omitted. That is when it doesn't act as the subject, so it can be admitted when it acts as an object. Look at the examples. The chair that I am sitting on is blue, in this case, the relative pronoun that refers to the chair that is the object of the sentence and not the subject. That is I in this sentence, we could say the chair I am sitting on is blue. Another example. The restaurant where I went yesterday was very busy again. The relative pronoun where refers to the restaurant that is the object of the sentence and not the subject, that is, I in this sentence weaken, say, the restaurant I went yesterday was very busy 13. RELATIVE CLAUSES III: relative Clauses three. Now let's see the difference between a defining or non defining relative clause. We will call a relative clause defining when it helps us specify and identify who the subject is. For example, the bus that goes to the airport is blue. We see the relative pronoun that refers to the bus and helps us find out which bus exactly is the one that goes to the airport. Let's see another example. The shop that opened yesterday is very nice, in this case, the relative pronoun that refers to the shop and helps us set up which shop exactly is from all the other shops in the street. It's the one that opened yesterday and not a different one. So when the relative pronoun helps us identify the subject, we call it a defining relative pronoun, and we can use the relative pronoun that instead of who or which. Now let's see the non defining relative pronouns. We will call a relative clause as non defining when it gives us extra information but does not help us identify the subject. Look at the examples. My brother, who is a doctor, works in Paris in this case, the part of the sentence that tells us that his brother is a doctor doesn't help us identify the subject, as we already know that this subject is his brother. So it just gives us extra information. Let's see another example. Susan's mother, who is 58 is very healthy. You can see that the part that tells us that Susan's mother is 58 years old does not help us identify the subject because we already know that Susan's mother is the subject. This part just gives us extra information about Susan's mother. In the case of non defining relative pronouns, we need to put the part of the extra information in Kamas. As you can see in the examples. In this case, the relative pronoun acts as a subject of the sentence, so we can't use that as the relative pronoun we have to use who for people or which for things we cannot say. Susan's mother, that is 58 is very healthy 14. The passive with reporting verbs: passive with reporting verbs. Let's look at some examples. The active sentence is People say Paris is nice. The passive sentence is Paris is said to be nice, or it is said that Paris is nice. We used this kind of passive when we describe on opinion. And as you can see, there are two ways to create the passive voice. One way is by changing the verb tense of the active voice into a passive, as we did in all the other passive tenses that is adding the verb to be in the tense of the verb in active voice, then the verb of the active voice in the third column or plus E d. And then add the infinitive. People say Paris is nice. Paris is said to be nice. Remember that the negative of the infinitive tents is not too, for example, following the same sentence. Active people say Paris isn't nice. Passive. Paris is said not to be nice. The other way to create a passive with reporting verbs is by starting it with it, then create the verb impassive as always. Then add that active people say Paris is nice, passive. It is said that Paris is nice. The most common verbs to use in this kind of passive are believe. Consider, Expect hope. No se suppose, think, understand and accept. For example, we could say it is said that Paris is nice, but we can also say it is considered that Paris is nice or it is known that Paris is nice, The last thing we will see in the structure to have something done. We used this structure. When we ask someone to do something for us, for example, I have my nails painted every week or I had my shoes polished yesterday. 15. The Passive with two objects: passive with two objects. This means that the active sentence has two different objects. S v 00 For example, Susan bought a new dress for her daughter. As you can see, this is an active sentence. Susan is the person who buys the dress following the S V o structure. But in this case, we have to objects. One is the dress and the other one is the daughter. We can create the passive with either object. For example, the passive can be a new dress for her daughter was bought by Susan or her daughter was bought A new dress by Susan 16. ADJECTIVES ENDING IN +ED OR +ING: adjectives ending in E. D or I N. G. In this lesson, we're going to see how you can change a verb to create an adjective. For example, let's use the verb to interest. We add E. D. At the end of a verb to describe how a person feels so for people or to describe the effect that something or someone creates on someone. For example, he is very interested in books. He buys books every month. We add I n G, to describe something that produces or creates the sentiment. For example, this is a very interesting movie. I can learn a lot from it. Look at another example. Let's use the verb to bore. If we say he is very bored watching this boring movie, we mean that the person is effective and the movie produces or creates the sentiment.