English Fluency: How to Sound Like a Native Speaker | Cloud English | Skillshare

English Fluency: How to Sound Like a Native Speaker

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15 Lessons (3h 6m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      6:59
    • 2. Fluency Tips

      18:24
    • 3. Blending Part 1

      21:40
    • 4. Blendng Part 2

      19:51
    • 5. Time T Part 1

      14:13
    • 6. Time for T Part 2

      6:21
    • 7. Intonation Questions

      12:10
    • 8. Tone

      10:49
    • 9. Stress

      13:36
    • 10. Stress and Meaning

      17:34
    • 11. Common Problems

      13:02
    • 12. Practice Makes Perfect

      13:21
    • 13. Tongue Twisters

      5:35
    • 14. Improvisation

      6:12
    • 15. Summary

      6:39
25 students are watching this class

About This Class

In this course, you will learn how to sound natural when speaking in conversation. We will go over ways to blend words when speaking continuously, and also how to say specific sounds in the right way so that your speaking flows more easily. In this course, you will learn about tone and intonation, and how to use stress to get your meaning across. Finally, this course will cover some really useful exercises for improving fluency and building mouth muscle memory. This course is intended for serious language learners, who want to sound more natural when speaking English. 

You will be able to see my face and mouth clearly in each video lesson, and I will use a blackboard at all times. 

Each lesson focuses on a single idea, and each is comprehensive. Students can go at their own pace and should take their time, with lots of practice between videos. Replaying each lesson is highly recommended. 

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: so welcome to this course on English fluency. My name is Luke, and I will be teaching this course about English fluency. In this first lesson, I would just like to introduce the course a little bit. Introduce, say something about the course a little bit and tell you the meaning and the purpose of the course. So let's begin by talking about fluency. What is fluency? We should know the meaning of the course. Fluency in language in English, in this course is the ability to speak easily and naturally and to sound as though you're speaking easily under naturally. Okay, so that's all it is. Fluency is the ability or the skill to speak out, to say what you want to say very easily, and when you say it, it sounds good. It sounds clear other people can understand you easily, so that's the meaning of fluency. And in this course we're going to be working on many different aspects or parts of fluency . How can we be more fluent in English now, In this course, I'm not going to be teaching you very many words. I'm not going to be teaching you, um, a lot of things that aren't useful for fluency. We are just going to be talking about and practicing very important and practicing how to get better at fluency. How to speak more fluent, Lee. Okay, so that's what this course is about, Okay? And I'm going to be using the board here like this. I'm going to be writing certain ideas down. I won't be writing down everything I say. And also you will notice that there are no subtitles under this video. The reason for that is I want you to also develop. You're listening. I want you to really, really focus on what I'm saying. If you can understand 70% of what I said, that is good. If you can understand 100%. Maybe I'm speaking a little too slowly. I want to challenge you a little bit. So in this course, if you can't understand 100% of what I said, that is a very good reason to go back. After you have improved on to take the course again, watch the course again and see if you can understand 80% the next time. So in this way I also hope that you will be able to improve your listening as well as your fluency. You're listening. Ability is connected to your ability to speak naturally, smoothly and fluently. Okay, so let me just talk a little bit about what we're going to talk about in this course. Okay? We're going to talk about some a few rules that we can follow about stress about tone. And we'll talk about the difference between stress and tone and how those can change the feeling of the sentence and the meaning of the sentence. So we'll talk about that. We'll also talk about how we can connect things together in the sentence. When we're speaking a sentence. When we're saying a sentence how we can connect sounds and words together so that the whole sentence sounds more natural. Sounds more fluent. So that's a very important part of fluency, of speaking naturally connecting sounds together. And we'll talk about many different examples of how to connect sounds together again. Very, very important. We're going to talk about the beginning of sentences. We're going to talk about the end of sentences and how to make sure people are able to hear us when we speak and especially hear the difference between the end of a sentence and the beginning of a sentence, So we'll talk about that, too. We'll talk about, as I mentioned tone, particularly question tone when to use this question tone when to use that question tone. So that's a pretty simple thing. So next we'll go onto the first riel lesson, and in this lesson, we're going to be talking about a few important tips, a few important things to always keep in mind when you're trying to improve fluency. So I will see you in the next lesson in this course will also talk about certain letter sounds. For example, the letter T. And we'll talk about how always saying the letter T is not such a good idea. That means saying it as isn't such a good idea. And sometimes we need to change it a little bit, too, to make a small change to make the letter and the whole sentence sound better, sound more natural, so we'll talk about a few examples of this kind of thing as well. Toward the end of the course, we're going to then move on and focus on some different exercises. Some different things weaken due to actually practice improve fluency. So the first part of the course ISMM or learning some specific things we can do on the end of the course is focused on more practice. We're going to be reading a couple of longer paragraphs to get fluency down, to learn to speak more naturally. And I will use my own speaking as an example. So if you don't like how I speak, Theun, I'm sorry. That's too bad. But I will do my best to make it very clear and very fluent. And then we'll do some other exercises, such as tongue twisters, and we'll also talk about improvisation. Improvisation will also be a powerful tool for us to improve fluency. Okay, so this course again is designed to help you get better at fluency through learning specific things. And through practice, we won't be learning too many new words in this course. We won't be learning a lot of grammar in this course. We're just going to focus on how to sound better, more natural when you're actually speaking in English 2. Fluency Tips: Okay, So in this first actual lesson, we're going to be talking about just a few fluency tips. Remember, Fluency Topic of this course is how to speak naturally and clearly in English. Tips means something that you should do, which can help you to do something better. If someone gives you a tip, it could be similar to a suggestion. Or it could be similar to a good idea which can help that person, which can help you in this situation. So fluency tips. I'm going to just tell you Ah, few things, too. Keep in mind a few things to keep in mind for this course. Okay, Now, the first and perhaps most important thing to remember about speaking fluently is that sentences. And when we're speaking naturally, words are blended. So it's important to know the correct pronunciation of each work. It really is. And actually, I have another course about basic pronunciation in which I talk about how to say different sounds correctly, for example, vowel sounds and constant sounds. But that doesn't mean that you should say when you're speaking a whole sentence each word separately without connecting those words together. So let me give you an example. Let me give you an example. Does that sound good? Should I say let me give you an example or let me give you an example or let me give you an example. Okay. Which one sounds better to you? I think you can probably guess. And you probably feel that the one which sounds more natural is the one where I don't say each work one by one by one. If I do that, it doesn't sound fluent. So you need to know the right pronunciation of words. But when you're actually speaking sentences, you will sound strange. If you speak one word by one word, you will sound like a robot, so that's very important. We're going to learn how to mix and blend. Blend means to sort of mix two things together or make this one go into this one a little bit. We're going to talk about how to do this, and it's something I just want you to keep in your mind during this course. Very important. Okay, now the next tip, I think, is obvious. Obvious means it's very easy to guess that it's obvious. Obvious means everybody probably knows it's easy to see, but I should still mention it. I should still say this. Don't be flat. What does that mean? Well, you've been listening to me speaking so far in this course, and I don't talk like this. I don't say you've been listening to me speaking so far in this course that that is flat notice that when I speak, my voice rises and falls differently. I do it for different reasons and to some degree, to some extent it is my choice, which words? I want to focus on. Wits which words should be up, which words should be down to some extent, it is my choice. It is my type of expression and there are some which are common or normal, and we'll again talk about that a little bit later in the course. So I just want you to keep in mind that you do not want to be flat. If you speak flatly, you can't express emotion very clearly, and other people will feel very bored about what you are saying. People can't listen to that. Okay, so just remember, it's better that you use some fluctuation. Fluctuation means your voice rises and falls fluctuation means up and down and up and down . It's better that you have that, and it sounds weird. Then it's totally flat. So if you don't know how to make your voice go up and down for English, at least try, and we're going to learn about how to do it later. But at least try. It's better than if you speak like this flat. Uh, so don't be flat when you're speaking Now, this is a huge one, and this is true for every part of English pronunciation and indeed, pronunciation for pretty much any language, unless it's only a written language like Latin, Um, listening is very, very important. If you want to get the feeling for how language sounds, you've got to be able to hear and listen on the notice the things about that language, right? I speak the way I speak, not because I learned some rules about how to say things this way. How to say things this way. Actually, no, I never learned any rules, and in this course we will be talking about some rules to help you, to learn a little bit more quickly, right? But most native speakers of English didn't learn rules. They learned how to speak fluently by listening. So you need to be very good at listening if you want to speak naturally. So if you say to yourself, I want to be a great speaker. But I don't want to work on my listening. I only want to focus on speaking naturally. That is a very, very bad idea. And in fact it's not possible because you can't know if you sound natural if you sound fluent, unless you're able to listen to how other people sound to what fluid is to a standard of fluency. And I'm not saying that I am the standard of fluency. There is no standard English right. There are many different forms of English, but you need to be able to figure out which kind of English fluency you want to have. Okay, and so listening is really important now. The next one is really tough. Self awareness means being able to pay attention to yourself. What you are doing awareness means the attention that you pay to something and your ability to notice that thing or get something from it. So self awareness just means focusing on yourself and being able to notice what you are doing. Very simple. Now you think? Well, I know I know what I'm doing. You would be surprised. You may think you know what you're doing. Most people think they know what they are doing, but there are many things, especially when it comes to speaking habits that we have that keep us from becoming fluent and in English. This is also true, and it's actually not only true for people learning English. Ah, lot of Americans use recently in the last five or 10 years used the word like in sentences , but the word has no real meaning. They just use it as a sort of thinking word. And we'll actually talk about thinking words later in the course. Ah, thinking word is something that you say when you're thinking about what to say. And many Americans will say, Well, like, I think like like and it's very common, and I mentioned this to my my brother one time, you know, you say like a lot when you speak, really? Okay, I'm going to stop. I will stop saying like I think it doesn't make me sound smart, and that's true I think if someone says like too much in a sentence, they don't sound very smart. My opinion, Just my opinion. Uh, he said, OK, I'm not going to do it anymore, but, like it's really it's really, like, hard for me And he said, like two times. So it's difficult to change your habits and notice what you're doing. I just want to tell you this because I want you to start trying to focus on what you are doing, how you need to have keen awareness, self awareness, very important. All right now, the next one is a tip that I think is incredibly useful, particularly for fluency. And that is to record yourself. To record yourself means to capture, to capture, catch or keep your voice. Okay, we'll be doing some exercises that can be used when you are recording yourself later in the course. But generally it's a great practice, and actually this can really help with the last tip awareness. So if you say something and you record yourself maybe on your phone or whatever, there are many different ways to do it. You will find that you're able to notice things that you didn't notice when you were speaking, and that's really important. You'll be able to catch your bad habits. You be able to catch and find the things that you are not doing that are keeping you from becoming fluent. And so this is a very powerful tool for you. So I hope that you will start doing it now. Some people say I hate the way I sound when I record myself. Okay, You're the only one listening to it. So it's OK, OK, You hate it. Okay, You hate it, but you can get used to it if you do it enough. Okay. I used to hate my voice when I heard myself or a recording of myself. Now I'm totally used to it because I always record myself this this lesson this video is a recording of myself, and I will listen to it and edit it probably for many hours. So you'll get used to it. Get past that. Recording yourself is a powerful tool. Okay, now, another tip, which is really, really, really useful, which a lot of people don't really think about is the ability to hear in your head. Let's just do this. All right, I want you to imagine a word. Let's say the word banana. Okay. Banana, banana, banana. Say banana. Say banana. Okay, we all know this word. Now, I want you to say the same word two times in your head without speaking the first time you say it. I want you to say it like this banana banana. Okay, the second time, I want you to say it like this, but they're not banana. It's not correct. But just do it. Okay, let's try. Can you hear the difference between the two words in your own voice? I can, and I think you can to. And if you can't, you can work on this. The ability to hear sounds in your head without actually speaking can help you a lot. Because during the day you will be able to think about some of the things that we learn in class May be something that you heard in a movie. And you will. You will start to think in your mind in English sound not only when you're watching movies not only when you're listening to meet not only when you are speaking not only when you are listening to your recordings, you will be able to hear sounds in a kind of way in your own mind, on being able to think in this way we can call this audible, audible thinking can really help you in your progress to become more fluent. When you start thinking in sounds, you can begin to work on things almost unconsciously, without focusing on that without doing an exercise. So this is something that I really hope you can develop and try to start doing on a regular basis, a regular basis. That means usually, and if you start doing it, you will find that you progress more quickly. Now. Something which is true in pretty much every aspect of every language is that not all rules work. We may have some rules we may have some ideas about have to do this, but it's very likely that there's an example that doesn't fit that rule on example that doesn't work. This is called an exception, an exception to the rule. That's an E, by the way, that's an E on. That's any. My handwriting is a little bit messy, an exception to the rule. Okay, so if we learned something later in the course. Or if you hear something, generally we can say that that usually works. But maybe it doesn't sometimes, and you just have to sort of accept it to say Okay, I see it's a language. It's not mathematics, it's not science. These things mathematics and science have very clear rules, and the rules must always work. Two plus two always equals for always. But this rule about this thing in pronunciation, in fluency and grammar doesn't always work. It's kind of usually rule, we could say, or a general rule. We could say OK, so just keep that in mind. Finally, let's talk about something which, if you are this kind of person, you really need to remember when you want to work on fluency. If you're the kind of person, the kind of student and there are students like this and that, that's great, right? If you're the kind of student who thinks I must follow this rule and this rule and do this and this and this on, then I will be fluent. I must do all these things and then I will be fluent. It's going to be more difficult for you because there's an aspect or apart of language, particularly language fluency. That is not about doing a certain thing, but is instead about getting a certain feeling about it. And that's something that's very difficulty to put into words, right? The best way for me to say it is get the feeling of that. Let's take an example. Okay, here's a piece of music that you play on the piano and one person learns it plays the keys all correctly. People say, OK, that's correct. And then a person who is really, really good at the piano takes that same piece of music and add something to it. Even though the notes are all the same, they add some passion to it. The add some emotion to it. Somehow it's very difficult to put into words what that is. Well, it's the same in some way for fluency. The feeling of a language the way that it sounds as spoken by the native speakers of that language is not always easy or even possible to put into this rule and this rule and in fact the people who, as I mentioned before, the people who do speak it in this way they don't know any rules. They don't know why they're speaking it in this way. They just do. And so, to some degree, you need to just sort of relax on the be open to the way that it actually sounds. Don't say something. Should be this way, right? It should be this way. Right? Well, I learned this. It should be. Should be this way, right? If you always are doing this, if you're always think should be should be, it should be. You will miss the point. You will be very mechanical in the way that you speak. And so I hope you can relax your mind. Relax your mouth. English is a very loose language on If you do that, I think that you will find if you're open to it, you will find that you improve very quickly and you're able to get that feeling of English spoken English. That's hard to put into words. That's hard to say. It is that that that it is this very difficult to say what it is? There's an aspect of it that is sort of intrinsic, an aspect of it that you can't really separate and describe. Okay, so in the next lesson, we're going to be talking about blending words. That means how to put words together so that sentences flow like water. Water flows flow more naturally in a sentence particularly. Okay, so I will see you in the next lesson. 3. Blending Part 1: So we talked about in the last lesson some basic tips, things to remember when we want to focus on improving fluency. And now I want to, in this lesson, actually start to learn a few important things we can think about and actually do when we want to improve fluency. So in this video, we're going to be talking about blending, blending What does blending mean? Well, the very simple meaning of blending is where you have to things, and you kind of mix them together. You take part of this one and part of this one and you mix them together. Let me give you a visual example. Let's say we have here some lines like this and some lines like this. Okay, the first ones thes are we could say vertical lines on the second ones. We could say these lines are horizontal. So now what can we do if we want to put these two together? What we could start to make thes a little bit farther apart, like this war and them, or separated. And then we could take these on extent, a few of them like this. So we have some of these here and some of these here. I know my drawing is not very good, but this is the basic idea. And you can think about this for color as well. You have blue here and green here on you in the middle. Mixed. Um they are blended mixed together. So this is blending in the very simple meaning of blending. Now, I know my drawing is really bad, but I hope you can get the basic idea. So we're going to be now talking about how we do that with words. If we say each word in a sentence one by one, Even if the pronunciation of each word is perfect, then the sentence will not sound fluent. It's will sound like this if I speak like this. Each word is good, but every word is separate and not blended. See, that doesn't sound natural. That doesn't sound fluent, right? This sounds natural. This sounds fluent. So what am I doing to make it sound like that? Well, I'm doing a lot of different things, but one of the things that I'm doing is blending. So let's talk about that. Mixing words together to make the sentence more natural to make the sentence flow flow is like water to move from this to this to this. Like water. Naturally. Okay, so we need to first talk about vowels and continents because when we talk about blending, we talk about vowels and continents. A vowel is simply a letter of the alphabet Letter of the alphabet. Alphabet has 26 letters. I'm sure you know that on five of those letters air called vowels and those vowels are a E i O u. Now we won't talk about the pronunciation of these valves. If you want to know about the pronunciation of these vowels, you can watch my other course about pronunciation. This is about fluency. So the vowels a e i o u constants are the other 21 letters of the alphabet be J K l. And so on. L. That's an L. And so on. Okay. And so why am I saying this? I'm saying this because there is something about this that can help us to blend words. Okay. If you have one word, let me make a little bit of space here. And the end letter or sound. I should say letter or some not Onley letter letter or sound is the same as the next word. The first letter or sound. Then we can actually put these two words together. When we say it for vowel sounds and constant sounds. Let me give you a simple example. Here we have a word. Bug. Right and gate, Bug and gate. Two different words. But we see here the letter continent in this case at the end of the first word is the same as the letter at the beginning of the next word, the word after it. So because it's the same and we can say the same sound, we should put them together when we say it. So instead of saying bug gate weaken, say bug gate bug gate bug gate. Now, there are some situations where the letter doesn't make a sound. And so we have to in that situation, say the sound, not the letter. Because sometimes, for example, this word the last letter is e. But this is called a silent e. We don't say it. We don't say so. May we say some? So the last sound is m, not E. So if we have another word here that begins with E it doesn't work, it doesn't work. We can't really blend these words very well, and we'll talk about what we can do in that case in another lesson. But if the next word is on em at the beginning, the M sound, then we can do it. Last sound. Hear em first sound. Hear em some mums, some mums, some mums. So this is a very simple thing, but it can really, really help us to make our sentences much more fluent. I should also mention that sometimes other letters make one sound. For example, P. H makes the same sound as F. So if we have a word that ends with pH and then the next sound is F or the next word begins with the letter F that's also okay. Same sound, same sound. So we can say in this case, usually the same letter right end of the first word as the same letter as the beginning of the next word. Or we could say at least the same sound. In the case of this, it's the sound that's the same not the letter, because the last letter here is his E. But we don't say the e. So I hope you can get that basic idea. It's a pretty simple idea. It's called blending. If you do it, your sentences will sound much more natural, and we still say the word correctly. But we just put the two words together on this. Takes some practice, so let's do some practice. All right. So for practice we're going to start with vowels and how we can put these together how we can blend these two words together. We could also sometimes call this linking to link things together. Linking is when we connect to things together. I prefer to use blending because that's how it feels. It's, Ah, the word, which makes you feel like it's softer. Linking is sort of a hard cut trunk thing. I don't really like that. So let's let's practice with vowels first. Here we can say the letter here and the letter. The letter here are both vowels, and they're the same. But we can also say the sound is pretty much the same, and here and here the letter is the same. However, in this case, when we say it, the sound is a little bit different, but it's close enough here, we'll probably say the sometimes people say the But in this case, people will usually say the and here egg the egg. So this is the short E, and this is the long E, but it's pretty close, and so we can still do it. So you shouldn't say Oh well, they're not exactly the same, so I shouldn't try to put them together. In fact, you can usually you can. You can usually put sounds together like this if they're pretty much the same. Almost the same. So let's talk about this one. Let's do this one. This one, we should say not as go over. You can hear that. Go over. The next one begins over. This is not blended in its sounds. If we say it in a sentence, not very fluent. Instead, we'll add a small double. You sound here a little what sound to help us blend. The words go over, go over, go over, go over and we'll talk about the that little W sound more in another video. But now I just want to give you the feeling for putting words together so I don't want to talk about that little sound too much. So try this. Go over. If you're saying go over Uh huh. Then it's not right. It has to be a continuous sound. Go over. Go over, go over, go over. It's not a very, very strong W sound. It's not. Go over like that. It's a very mild sound. Go over here. They are a little different, but we can still put them together. The egg, the egg instead of your little Why sound instead of the egg? The egg. The egg that sounds very hard, right? Doesn't sound natural. The egg, the egg, the egg, the egg, the egg, the egg, the egg. So go over the egg time. Go over the egg time. Go over the egg time. Go over the egg time. Go over the egg time now the same idea. But this time we'll talk about continents. Or we could say constant sounds. Now here we won't be adding the little W sound where the little why sound as we did for the vowels here, we're going to be just smacking two words together because they have a common constant or a common constant sound. Okay, so let's let's go into the example. Uh, let me just read this one time each word individually. I had Dave's number ready. I had Dave's number ready. Each word is correct, but it doesn't sound great. Doesn't sound natural. Instead, we should connect these two and these two. Instead of saying had Dave's, we should say, Had Dave's had Dave's had stop Dave's. There's no space between the No Space had Dave's hat. Dave's here instead of number. Ready, we should say Number ready. We make the R sound a little bit longer. Number. Ready. Number Ready. Number ready. I had Dave's number ready. I had Dave's number ready. I had Dave's number ready. I had Dave's number ready. Good. The next one. Same thing. Put these together constant, constant. These air, the letters Same mom made instead of mom made. Doesn't sound as natural. We should say. Mom made Mom made Mom made. I don't stop my voice. Mom made Mom made continuous Mom made here. New waffles. No. Stop. New waffles. New waffles, new waffles. Mom made new waffles. Mom made new waffles. Mom made new waffles so very important to catch this point. There is no stop between the two words New waffles Mom made. That's very important. Okay, To have to continue this out if you can't do it, work until you can. You must be able to do it to speak more fluently. Next one my wife found. Why? Found? Here's an example where the letter isn't the same, but the sound is the same. Right? Wife is the last sound. F is the last sound. So why found? Why? Found not wife found? Not good. Why? Found? Wife found. So I continue the sound here. Black Cookbook. Not Black Cookbook. Black Cookbook. If you can hear Took Black Cookbook. It's wrong. It doesn't sound good. It's right for each word. Yes, but if we're trying to say the sentence well, it's not good. Black Cookbook. Black Cookbook, Black Cookbook. My wife found a black cookbook. My wife found a black cookbook. Okay, so let me quickly read these. I had Dave's number ready. I had Dave's number ready. Mom made new waffles. Mom made new waffles. My wife found a black cookbook. My wife found a black cookbook. Okay, so practice these until you can do it very easily. Okay, Now, next, I want to go into a more serious example that we can use to practice this very, very well. It's a little difficult, but I think you can do it. So let's now look at a longer example of blending words. Okay, so now let's look at a paragraph that we can use to practice this idea of blending for both vowel sounds and constant sounds. Now I don't want you to focus on the meaning. It's crazy and weird. I just wrote it like this because it has many different examples of sounds that can be blended. Don't focus on the meaning. It has almost no meaning. It does have meaning, but it's very strange. Just forget it. Okay, that's not the purpose. So let's go over this slowly, once and talk about the places where the words should link and then elite. I'll read it a couple of times, slowly and quickly, all together. Okay, so the 1st 1 if they're really there, really, there really is someone is someone. Now this is a visits, but they're so close that we can pretty much put them together if there really is someone is someone with the with the with the with the Qiyue key. You need key you need If there really is someone with the key you need. If there really is someone with the key you need with the with the key unique, you should do over, do over. It's a little different do and oh, right. But we can still pretty much blend them. You should do over. Should do, should do over. So here's three sounds Now, if you feel tired, you could say Should do. Okay. It's all right. Um, sometimes it's difficult to blend every word that you can, but, um, it might be a good idea to blend this one as well. Should do over should do over and above the expectations, the expectations, the expectations, the expectations, someone expectations. Someone expectations someone. These are also the same someone else secretly. Another one else secretly else secretly else secretly keeps, if faking. If faking. If faking here. If faking gout, faking gout, faking gout. These two are also blended. Faking gout if faking out. If faking gout if faking gout. If faking out, help solve, help solve help solve Saul volumes solve volumes. Solve volumes. Saul. Volumes of victimization or victimization. Now this one, it's an F yes, but it equals the V sound here. We don't say off, we say of the V sound. These two have the same sense of victimization, of victimization, of victimization, of victimization, of victimization, concerns. Go on, go on, go on. There's a little w sound there. Like we said before, go on and do it and do it. These air also together and do it and do it. Okay, so now let's go over this. Let's read this very slowly. If there really is someone with the key you need, you should do over and above the expectations someone else secretly keeps. I'm stressing these points. I won't quite say it's like this when I read it. Naturally, someone else secretly keeps. If faking gout helps solve volumes of victimization concerns. Go on and do it. Okay, so I'll read it slowly. I'm going to read it as though I would naturally read it. There might be a couple of places where I do make a small break just because there are so many in this paragraph. So many examples. It's very difficult when reading naturally, totally naturally to focus on each one, and I actually I don't mean that you should do everyone right, Because again, in normal conversation and normal speaking, there won't be this many of these blended words in a paragraph. This is just an exercise. Okay, so I'm just going to read it now, as I would totally naturally read it. If there really is someone with the key you need, you should do over and above the expectations someone else secretly keeps. If faking gout help solve volumes of victimization concerns. Go on and do it Now Let me read it one more time. More quickly on Totally naturally. If there really is someone with the key you need, you should do over and above the expectations someone else secretly keeps. If faking gout help solve volumes of victimization concerns. Go on and do it. So this is natural. This is how I would read it totally naturally if I were looking at it for the first time. So practice this. Read it many times out loud. Record yourself to to match my pronunciation. Go back. Listen to what I said again. Listen to my version of reading it slowly and quickly. Try to really, really get it down, okay? And I think you will find that once you start thinking in this way, you begin to speak more naturally, more fluently. So in the next lesson, we're going to be continuing talking about blending words. But we're going to focus on a different aspect of blending words, so I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. Blendng Part 2: Okay. In the last lesson, we talked about how we use constant and vowel sounds, which are the same. Sometimes letters sometimes just sounds which are the same to blend or mix words together. And in this video, we're going to be talking about something very similar also about blending. But what about when words don't have the same sound? Exactly what about when they're different? Can we still kind of blend or link thes words together? The answer is yes. In a way, we can make them sound much more natural, weaken sound much more fluent when we're speaking. If we if we do this so what I would like you to do first is just try to rethink how you think about words. We think about words when we're speaking as one word, one word, one word isolated, isolated means separate from everything else, this word and then this word and then this word. But when we're speaking, we can't think in this way. And the natural fluent English isn't like this. We blend everything pretty much, not Onley words that have the same sound. We jump from one to the next rather than stopping and saying the next. That's why I have this word jumping here. It's not that we say this word and then this word first this one and then this one first this one and then this one. No, we jump to the next word. We use the word before to spring or jump to the next. Not in every situation, but in many, many, many, many situations. Did I say many? Yes, Many so way. We could say this is everyone, but that sounds very hard. There's a sharp line is everyone is everyone, but I want you to rethink this word instead of thinking of the separation. I should say, instead of thinking of this separation as being here, I want you to try to re think about where the line is. I want you to instead move the line to here in this case. So let's move the line here rather than where it waas, which was here instead of saying, is everyone. I want you to begin with the I sound and then I want you to imagine that actually, the S is the first letter of the next word just in your mind, not for the meaning, but for the pronunciation. So instead of saying is everyone I want you to say Yeah. Is everyone Yeah, is everyone now that's still separate. It doesn't sound perfect, but that's the idea. That's the rethinking that I want you to do. Now we know how to say is so All we have to do is jump from the S to the next word. Just like we practice. It is everyone. It's everyone we can do that. And we can say is everyone so we can say this word as a continuous sound. We bring these two together and now we jump to the next. Like this is everyone is everyone is everyone is everyone. So from this ass week, Coombe into the next word is everyone is Everybody is everything. So we jump to the next one. How about this one? Well, first we think. Okay, this is show up. These two words show what up? Up up, Different sound. We can't. We can't blend them. We can blend them. We can blend them in a way. A slightly different kind of blending. We can jump from this word to this word. Jump! Push off the last word into the next word. OK, so how can we do it for this one? I want you to break the word here. So the first part is there. The second part is there, and I want you to say these two show show don't focus on the worst sound yet. Show, show. And then here. What? What? What? Instead of show up, show up. That's not very natural. Show what show? What? Okay, now all we have to do is mix the two. We know how to say Show up on. Now we can say Show what? Red. So now we just need to put these two ideas together. Just like we did for is everyone. Now we can say show up, Show up. Show up. What? Between these two, my voice does not stop. It continues. Just like here is that is that is, as my voice never stops. So there's no break in my voice, Very important. And for this one as well Show up, show up, show up And now we do it more quickly. Is everyone show up. He's Everyone show up. All right, so that's pretty easy. So I just want you to rethink how you think about words when you're speaking. Okay, that's very, very important thing to do to become more fluent now, the same idea here and something that we talked about a little bit in the last lesson. And the lesson about vowels is that sometimes and actually I should say most times when we have vowels next to each other, even if it's not the same vowels we use a little why or a w sound to make them go together Mawr nicely. So for these were going to be using the why sound to help blend them. And for these were going to be using the double you sound to help blend them. Okay, so imagine that here we put a little Why here we put a little Why here? A little bit of a why here? A little. Why sound? And this helps us to jump across to the next word rather than saying we are. He is Hi. Everyone die under. We can jump with why we are. We are Yeah, there's a little why there? I'm not saying we are. That's too strong. It's a small y sound. We are we are we Are we Are we Are we are My voice does not stop e We are We are We are We are no break in the voice He is he is He is He is he is Hi everyone Hi everyone. Hi everyone. Hi everyone. Hi everyone. Hi everyone. Hi everyone. Hi everyone, No break Die under Die under Die under Die under die under I'm not focusing on it. I'm not saying die younger Die under die under Die under die under Okay, the next one we do the same thing But this time we add double you a little w sound to these and it helps us to link the words together to jump from one word to the next to blend them . Go in, go in not to go in. Go in, go in. It's a little bit of a what? Go go win. Go in, Go in, Go in you Are you What War War right you are You are It's almost like the w sound is here. Here, here, here Do it. Do it! Do it! Do it! Do it! Do it instead of do it. Do it! Do it! Do it! Do it! Do everything do everything, do everything, do everything do everything, Not do everything. Do everything again. It's very, very important to remember to continue the voice. Okay, let me quickly go through these again. We are he is Hi. Everyone die under We are he is Hi. Everyone die under Go in You are Do it, do everything Okay? So these are just simple examples of cases when we can mix or blend or link words together with pronunciation to make our sentences sound more natural in fluent This is one of the things we can do These air not for the Onley examples. Just some simple examples to give you the idea about how to do this. And we're starting to get a bigger picture That weaken blend many things not on Leewards with the same vowel or constant sound, but also words like this that are just valuables at the beginning or end. And we use the y and w sound to link them together as well. Okay, next compound words What is a compound word? Very simple. A compound word is a word made of two words or maybe three words. Okay. Like some buddy, some is a word and body is a word. We put them together. One word. Somebody. Now the reason I want to talk about compound words is the way we say compound words can make us more or less fluent when we're speaking. We cannot say somebody somebody any more any more. You cannot have any space between the two words in the compound word. You have to make sure you say the whole word fluently and try to as much as you can jump into the next part of the word. Now we have two different types of compound compound words voiced and unveil voiced. What is voiced me. Voice means this. The two words at the end of this one and the beginning of this one are Ah ah, using the voice. Both of them. E woo her. Mm hmm. Okay, these are all. And actually this is an example of a word we talked about before. Same sound. These are all voiced. Both words. The end of this one. The beginning of this one voiced. These are unveil voiced. So for the unveil waste words, basically what it means is that we don't use the voice for part of it. Part of the word at the end of may be the first word or the beginning of the second is on voiced guy. So for part of this middle between them where we should link them together. So here's an example. Pay. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Voiced check check on voiced. Okay, so let's just go through these on. We should continue the voice for the voice ones. Very important. Continue the voice. Somebody, somebody, somebody instead of somebody We should say somebody, somebody, anymore, anymore, anymore anymore. Not any more any more. Anyway, anyway, anyway, anyway, anyway, over doing over, doing over, doing not over doing over doing it has to be continuous home made home made home made. And we talked about this before. The sound is the m sound. So we know that one on voice now. Without it way, we still need to make sure we jump even though we don't continue the voice we still need to try to jump on. Make it continuous paycheck instead of paycheck, paycheck, paycheck, Miss understanding instead of miss understanding, misunderstanding, misunderstanding or miss under standing. Can't do that either. Misunderstanding weekend We can't can't Ken Weekend weekend Sometimes sometimes sometimes household, household, household. So what's really important to remember for these compound words here is, let's say, for example, under Stan, which is two parts under and Stan that makes it a compound word instead of saying under stand, Understand, understand we jump to the next, and here there is. It's not quite a word, but instead of saying Miss Under, we say Miss Sunder Sunder, the end of this one jumps into the beginning of the next one. Here, this one, we break it in another way, like we did previously. Instead of saying week end, we should say we can Weekend weekend, weekend weekend. That's better. Instead of saying sometimes sometimes this one doesn't have a very obvious jump from this one to this one. But you can hear the difference between some times and sometimes sometimes. Sometimes it's still very, very fast. So some of these compound words we can easily jump from the first to the second. Some of them, like sometimes we can't so easily jump into the next word. But we can still say it very quickly on leave no space between them. Here's another example. Instead of saying house, hold house, hold household, household, household. So it's almost like this one is the beginning. This is the way that we can say compound words more naturally. It's very important to remember. Keep the space between them small. No stop, No break. Even if one of them is voiced, one of them is unveil waste. So practice these compound words, and I think if you come across compound words, you can use the basic idea that I just talked about but leaving no space and about trying to jump to the next part, if you can, the two most important ideas to say any compound word more naturally, more fluently. Let me just read through these one more time quickly, somebody, somebody, anymore anymore, anyway, anyway, over doing over doing home made home made paycheck, paycheck, misunderstanding, misunderstanding, misunderstanding. Weekend. Weekend weekend. Sometimes sometimes sometimes household, household, household and you can hear the difference between household and household household space between them. That's too long. Household is better household. Okay, so practice these. Now I want to talk about and do a little bit of practice reading practice for this kind of this kind of work, jumping from one word to the next. Okay, now a short paragraph. We can use to practice jumping as we have worked on, and also how to do or use or say compound words. Okay, so we can use this as an example for practice. Now, once again, please do not focus on the meaning. Meaning is almost nonsensical. It doesn't really make sense, so don't focus on it. I just wrote this as a way to help you practice the things that we learned in this and the last video. So I'm going to read it slowly and then read it quickly. I want you to try to follow along and then go back, listen to it and read it by yourself. Record yourself. Listen to yourself the recording and see if you have made progress. Okay, so first, slowly and then quickly. Hi, everyone. Hi, everyone. We are going to talk about how over doing things how over doing things can sometimes cause misunderstanding can sometimes cause misunderstanding. Do we know any more? Do we know any more? Do we know any more? Sometimes we must go into a topic deeply to understand it. Sometimes we must go into a topic deeply to understand it. Hi, everyone. We are going to talk about how over doing things can sometimes cause misunderstanding. Do we know any more? Sometimes we must go into a topic deeply to understand it. Hi, everyone. We're going to talk about how over doing things can sometimes cause misunderstanding. Do we know any more? Sometimes we must go into a topic deeply to understand it and now, very quickly, very, very quickly. Hi, everyone. We're going to talk about how over doing things could sometimes cause misunderstanding. Do we know any more? Sometimes we must go into a topic deeply to understand it. That's very, very fast. If you can't do it that quickly, no problem. It's actually difficult for me to do it that quickly and again. Doing things very, very quickly is not the point. The point is not speed. If you can't say things very, very fast, that's actually OK. No problem. It will be more clear when people are listening to you. They will be able to understand you. It's better that you have fluency. Fluency is not speed. Fluency is the ability to sound natural when speaking. So if you are unable to do it quickly, just focus on doing it slowly But sounding smooth and natural when you're doing it, okay? So just to be very, very clear, fluency isn't speed. They're different. Someone who's very fluent maybe doesn't speak very quickly. You don't have to. Okay, and in fact, it might be better if you don't for you. I would recommend not doing it unless you have first mastered slow fluency. OK, so that's all for this lesson. Practice this one a lot. Try to get it down. This one's pretty short, so it's easy to practice and again record yourself. So in the next lesson, we're going to be talking about the T sound and what we can do with the T sound to become more fluent because it's a very hard sound and a lot of the time. If we se Teoh, it can reduce the sound of the fluency in what we're saying. So we're going to talk about what we can do with the tea, so I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. Time T Part 1: Okay, so in the last lesson, we talked about some blending. We talked about how we can jump from one word to the next word, for example, using a small why sound or small w sound. And we also talked about how, in compound words like Lighthouse, we shouldn't say light House because it is one word. We should reduce the space between it so that there's no break. And if we can, we should continue the voice between the word the two words. But now, in this lesson, we're going to be focusing on the letter T now. Did you notice? I just said the letter t did that sound like I said, the letter t know it did not. It sounded like I said the lead dir t. It wasn't a strong does sound, but it was a very soft do sound. And we're going to be talking about when the T sound can become kind of like a diesel. We'll talk about that later, but first I just want to quickly talk about the problem with the T sound. The problem with the T sound is that basically, it's a hard sound. It's not like she or It's a very hard sound, and because it's that kind of sound, it can reduce in some cases the fluent or natural sound of the whole sentence. If you have to stop and say t very clearly every time. And so we're going to talk about situations where you should use that sound very clearly and where you don't have to, where you can change the sound a little bit in different ways. Now I'm actually not going to give you a very clear rule about when you must use that sound , because I feel that while there are a couple of very general rules, there are so many exceptions that it's not very useful. An exception is a case in which it doesn't quite work where the rule doesn't follow. There are so many, I feel it's confusing. And so I'll just give you a couple of examples in which we must say the T sound very clearly on a simple example would be this word I have here. Stop, stop! We cannot say stop or another thing. We must say the t sound very clearly. Stop! Stop! We have to say it. Okay, now here. It doesn't count exceptions because the T sound makes a different sound. It makes the s h sound. I'm sure you know that. So here we don't need to really worry about it. Except shuns doesn't make the tea sound at all. So that's a different case. Okay, now, what about this one? What if I say this together? Do I need to say the the T sound clearly here, in fact, no. And we'll talk about why in a moment. But I just want to give you a feeling about places where the t sound is necessary. Stop is an example of when we must use that sound. And another example would be wanted Wanted eso here we have a sound in which if we said wanted, then that would not be very clear. So we have to say it very clearly wanted if we say it without it wanted. It sounds very strange. If you have I can say generally a t followed by e d. You're going to say tid very clearly. You're going to say tid. You're never going to say it without a very clear t sound so t e d I can give you at least one rule, T E d will be pronounced very clearly as t'd. It sounds almost like T I. D. Tid like that. Probably someone's name will have ah, clear T sound as well. There might be a couple of examples when you wouldn't use it, and there are cases where you could or not on, and it depends on your personality and your speaking style. So I just want to tell you you should listen for places where the T sound very clearly is used. Examples wanted and stop and focus on. Focus on those examples and try to get a feeling for when you should use it. So next. Then, and most importantly, we're going to talk about cases in which you don't have to make the clear t sound, and these we will call the stop and the D instead of tea. It's not exactly a D. It's a kind of de Okay now, examples of the stop What is the stop? The stop is a T sound where you don't pronounce the t sound, but you can't just not say the T sound. Instead, you have to actually stop your voice. Stop your voice very suddenly, and that can replace the T sound, but it's very, very important to remember that you cannot just skip over that, right? So let let me do an example. So here we have an example. Three words, Hunt. Uh, and dragon. Let's Aggie Hunt. Uh, dragon. Now we could say it if we wanted to hunt a dragon hunt a dragon, then that's fine. But because here, huh? Because here T is at the end of the word hunt because it's at the end of the word hunt. We can often remove the tea sound and replace it with nothing. But it has to have a nothing there. There must be a nothing there. Ah, stop there. So we can say this as instead of hunt. Hunt, Hunt, hunt Notice. My voice is stopping very suddenly. Hunt. Oh, dragon hunt A dragon hunt a dragon rather than hunt a dragon. But we cannot just remove the tea and say the end sound only we can't say Hana Dragon Hana Dragon, hon, a dragon. That sounds incorrect. It is incorrect. It's not clear. So you have to make sure in the cases where the tea is at the end of a word and you want to remove the T that sound? You must have a stop like that. You must stop your voice suddenly for a short time hunt a dragon hunt, a dragon hunt, a dragon. Very important that you don't say Hana Dragon. Okay, now you can say hunted dragon on that sounds pretty good as well, so it's kind of a choice in this case on, and usually it is a choice. Usually, if you want to say the T sound clearly, you can, but often when we remove it, such as when it's at the end of a word. And usually when we remove it, it's at the end of a word. Usually when we remove the teat sound and replace it with a stop, it's at the end of a word. Not always. Um, it does make the sentence sound more natural. Okay, so one one one one. Do you want something? Do you want something? Do you want something? Want something? Want something? Sent, sent, sent, sent. I sent that yesterday. I sent that yesterday. I sent that yesterday instead of I sent that yesterday. That's more difficult to say. I sent that yesterday. Sounds much more easy. I sent that yesterday. See? See, See. See. Could you help me find a seat, please? Could you help me find a seat, please? Could you help me find a seat, please? Instead of Could you help me find a seat, please? Okay, now it's especially useful if the next word is a constant like please P l E A s e. Because if I say seat, please. Then there's a space here and we don't like spaces in fluency when we're working on fluency , spaces, air. Not good. So if I use the stop here, If I use the stop here at the end of the word, then it's much easier to say these two words together. Seat, please is difficult to put together. So if I used the stop seat, please Seat, please. Seat, please. That sounds much better. Just be careful that you do not say see. Please see. Please is wrong. You must stop your voice Hook who seek please? Okay. Hat, hat, hat, hat. I wear a hat every day. I wear a hat every day. I wear a hat every day. Okay, now we have two examples and they're not really, really common but fairly common where the tea can be stopped, not at the end of a word, which is the most common example. But instead, in the middle of the word on again, this is your choice. You could say fitness, fitness, certain certain. And these air fine, correct pronunciation. But again, sometimes we want to sound even more fluent. Sometimes we're speaking really quickly. We can change this to a stop. So fitness fit What fitness is a sudden stop. Their fitness. Fitness, fitness. I care about fitness. I care about fitness, certain certain. And here we don't say a name. We change the sound instead of certain. 10. We say I'm certain certain certain it's certain disaster. It's certain disaster, certain certain it's certain disaster, certain disaster. Okay, let's go through these really quickly again. One sent. See hat fitness Certain? Certain. Okay, so for this, just keep in mind. Usually that stop T comes at the end of the word and is especially useful if the next sound is a constant sound in the next word. Sometimes we can put it in the middle of the word, in the example of fitness and certain, but there are some cases, and you have to just figure out those cases for yourself in which you have to say the T sound. We can say. In some cases, though, the T sound must be said. For example, T E D words t plus e d like waited, right? So just keep those in mind. And ah, and remember, when you do it, make sure make sure make sure that you stop your voice. You must stop your voice. Okay, Now we're going to talk about when we change T to D now. Another thing, which is very, very common. But you can't always dio, for example, waited. We can't do, we must say waited, as I mentioned before. Sometimes we can change the T sound to a sound which is softer than the Tisa, which is a kind of de sound. It's not exactly the D sound, because it's not a clear, uh, sound. It's not a very obvious sound, but we can make it a kind of soft D sound which we can use to replace T in many cases. And I would like to just give you some examples of this one. Here we have hurtle, hurtle. We could say this sound very clearly. Hurtle, hurtle, But people want to say very quickly and it's difficult to say told told like this. So people will often say Hurdle, hurdle, hurdle hurdle doh, doh doh doh doh doh doh doh doh doh! It's almost like that The Japanese, the Japanese sound the Japanese are sound Hurdle, hurdle, hurdle, Hurdle It's a very quick flick of the tongue. I'm not seeing her. Dole. My tongue is moving quickly out. Hurdle Hurdle Very light. Daughter, Daughter, Daughter I could say Doctor, Doctor. But most people would choose instead to say daughter, My daughter, my daughter did it did Editor dead. It edited it My daughter, my daughter, my daughter, my daughter. It's a kind of de sound There instead of cattle the next one Kettle kettle. Many people will say Kettle kennel, Cattle, cattle cad. It's very soft. Kettle kettle, kettle, kettle! Waiter! Waiter! I'm not saying Waiter, Waiter! Waiter! Waiter! Waiter! Waiter! So I'm still saying a kind of very light d sound. Let me read through these one more time. Hurdle daughter Kettle. Waiter, Hurdle Daughter Kettle! Waiter! Okay, so, um, try to listen for this sound. Try to listen for this soft d sound when you hear people speaking and listen for cases where you see the hard T cases where you sorry Here, the hard T sound inwards. And also places where you here the hut Stop. So next we're going to do some practice. 6. Time for T Part 2: So now let's do some practice and I want to do some reading and hopefully get a feeling about the clear T sound. I want you to listen for that, the clear stop and also the light D sound. And I want you to really try to catch when these air used in what situations you will find that often the Clear T sound is used at the beginning of words on the D. The light D is often used in the middle and at the end of words, we often use the stop sound. But I don't want to say this is a rule. You must follow this rule because there are many, many cases. There are many examples that don't really follow that rule, so I don't want to say that is a rule. I want you to try to listen to people speaking to me speaking and get a feeling for when these different things are used in what situations. So let's practice this slowly. 1st 1 I had to wait, so to hear very clear T sound, I had to wait until t sound until he hit Stop hit, hit me before I thought stop back fought, fought back. I had to wait until he hit me before I fought back. Wait until he hit me before I fought back. Okay? I had to wait until he hit me before I fought back. Natural Next one I witnessed. Stop, I wit I witnessed Ah, heat stop! Heat wave in August August. He's always a t sound Clearly you must always use a sound for August. I witnessed a heat wave in August and spent stop spent spent the period with a wet stop cloth on my head. I witnessed a heat wave in August and spent the period with a wet cloth on my head. I witnessed a heat wave in August, unspent the period with a wet cloth on my head. Okay, next one I sent Stop my daughter. This is the D sound that like diesel I sent my daughter Tootsie. Tootsie Toe TT Tootsie to, uh, t sound too. Ah, great school. Great stop. Great school in Canton. And we could also say Canton, Canton or Canton. People who live there say Canton or Canton. They say both in Canton, Ohio, or Canton, Ohio, because I want one stop her energy to be clear to sound to be put put put toward put stop put toward T Very clear T here to put stopped toward put toward certain cert certain And some people do say certain certain A very quiet, very light d sound. Some people do say certain certain. I always say certain. Certain I usually pronounce the T very clearly put towards certain subjects subjects, subjects. There's a T sound. It's life, though. Um, she can't She can't Can't stop, Can't study elsewhere. I spent about 40 b d sound 40 40 40 40 40 days Trying t trying to hunt Stop for such, uh, oops to Oops. Sorry about that. That's a writing mistake. Forgive me. Forgive me for such a place for such a place trying to hunt for such a place. Okay, let me read these again One more time. I had to wait until he hit me Before I fought back, I had to wait until he hit me. Before I fought back, I had to wait until he hit me. Before I fought back, I had to wait until he hit me. Before I fought back, I had to wait until he hit me before I fought back. I witnessed a heat wave in August and spent the period with a wet cloth on my head. I witnessed a heatwave in August and spent the period with a wet cloth on my head. Next one, this one I sent my daughter took C to a great school in Canton, Ohio, because I want her energy to be put toward certain subjects. She can't study elsewhere. I spent about 40 days trying to hunt for such a place. Okay, about 40 days trying to hunt for such a place. Okay, so practice thes many, many times again. You don't have to always do it the same way. You don't have to say 40 days. You can say 40 days. You can say about 40 days, and that's okay. And if you can say it pretty clearly in fluently, fine, go ahead. Sometimes I do it. When I read this many times, if I read this 10 times, I will probably say it a little bit differently every time. I will say it differently each time. Slightly, the idea is, and the thing I want you to remember is to be more fluent. Generally, the T sound can change to reduce the sharpness of that sound. And you can use that as a tool to improve fluency. But that doesn't mean you must do that. I'm not saying you must do this. This is the clear rule. I'm trying to show you what is acceptable. A tool for making the tea sound more fluent. Okay, so just keep that in mind. And don't think I'm telling you what you must do in this case. Okay? So that's all for the T sound. In the next video, we're going to be talking about tone. Okay? We're gonna be talking about tone, so I'll see you in the next lesson. 7. Intonation Questions: Okay, so we've talked about how to blend words, how to jump from one word to the next. How to reduce or say the T sound too sound more fluent. But fluency is more than that. Fluency is more complicated than just mixing words together or making some sounds lighter when you want to speak fluently and in order to speak fluently, you've got to have the right way of thinking. And the things that I've talked about so far are things that should become habits for you. The more that you listen. As I mentioned, listening is very important, the more you will be able to get a feeling for these kinds of things. So now I want to go on in this lesson and talk about another really important aspect of speaking fluently. And I hope you start to notice me when I start to use the T word, I said important. I didn't say important. I could have said important, and sometimes I do. But that's time I said important. So try to be aware of me and what I'm saying, and also when you speak, try to be aware of yourself, okay? And this lesson we're going to move on to Internation on the simple meaning of intonation is just the rising and falling of the voice for a sentence when we're speaking the rising and falling of the voice. Usually we consider this to be a more general word tone. T O N E is typically for one word, not always, but typically for one word. And it's about how that word changes meaning based on the rising and falling of the voice. But intonation is generally for a sentence. How the voice goes up and down and when and why. Okay, so we're going to focus on this in this video, and I want to focus in this lesson about questions. Okay, so let's talk first about yes, no questions. Now, when you think about questions, you probably have heard of the question, the question tone. People sometimes call it where it's a rising tone at the and it goes were Ah ah. But maybe you have also noticed that not every question in English uses this tone, so we can say generally, questions which are yes or no questions will more or less usually use the traditional the normal question tone, uh, at the end goes up at the end, it steps up toward the end and we'll do some examples now. There are some examples when it doesn't quite work, but we can say generally the yes or no questions have this kind of tone, and then we'll talk about the other kinds of questions after that. So first, what is the question tone? We'll say this word is lower than this one. This one continues to go up and continues to go up. It's sort of steps up word by word. It's not that each word usually goes up it inside the word. Each word steps up to the higher tone so that the end is really high. Have you seen this? Have you seen this? Have you seen this? So it goes up at the end like that, and we know it's a question. Have you seen this? Have you seen this? Have you seen this? Have you seen this? Have you seen this? Okay, it's a yes or no question. The answer to this question could be yes or no. And that's what I want to explain. Usually, yes. No questions where the answer to the question can be yes or no. Usually these will be, uh, with this traditional rising voice. Okay. Can I help you? Can I help you? Can I help you? Can I help you? Can I help you? Can I help you? Have you seen this? Can I help you? Is the same basic idea. Next one. Do you want some? Do you want some? Do you want some? Do you want some? Each one is stepping up. Do you want some? Do you want some? Do you want some? Each one is stepping up. But I also want to mention that if it is a yes. No question on the answer to this and this and this can be yes or no. We don't always have to use the Yes, no question. Words. We could We could say it without this. We can still ask a yes or no question without this, but we must keep the tone so that people know it's a question. So this one doesn't work. This one works. All right. We can just use tone to show. It's a question. And it has the same meaning seeing this, seeing this two words. But it must go up if we say seeing this, that doesn't really have a meaning. Seen this? Ah, question. It means, Have you seen this? I can understand that. So a lot of the time when we're speaking quickly, we say this kind of short question word just to save time to speak more quickly. But it's very, very important to use the right intonation to go group like that once, Some once, some once some means. Do you want some? Once Some. Okay. Are you going? Are you going? Are you going? We can also say just this. Going, going One word going going now if we don't use that intonation if we If we don't say huh like that, then it has a very different meaning. Going going. So if someone says, Are you going? I can say going. That means I am going. So you have to be very careful and make sure that you're using the right one. Because if you don't, the meaning will be unclear. Going okay? No, I think you can get the idea. Ganache asked Lots of different questions in this way. Hungry? Hungry? That means Are you hungry? Must use that tone Now. There are a couple of examples. Um, and they're actually more than a couple of examples. Some cases Where A. Yes, no question. Doesn't have this tone. Here we have one which is, like I said, an exception on example where we don't use it. Is that so? This is something that you would say if you are a little bit unsure if what someone said is right or wrong. Someone said something. Maybe you don't quite believe it. You are doubtful, unsure, and you just wonder. Maybe it isn't so. It's not a question where we always need an answer. Sometimes this question doesn't need an answer. I'm just showing that I'm not so sure about that. So I say that. Is that so? Is that so? So it's just like a normal sentence. Is that so? Is that so? Is that so? This is not the tone. The intonation that we used for the last ones, right? The others were dude at the end. This one? No, But this one we can say is the normal tone. Yeah, yeah, yeah. And that means really Is that true? Is that true? So is that So is like a special expression that's used when people wonder about something. Is that so? If someone tells you something interesting, this is true, you say? Oh, is that so? That sort of means I'm thinking about that. So this one is a special case, OK, but the others we can say and most others, many others. Questions like this have this kind of who? Now, let's talk about another kind of question. This kind of question typically does not have that same ROOP question tone that we just talked about. This kind of question can often and usually is meant to get more information. Okay. What's your name? Notice? I don't say. What's your name? That sounds very strange. What's your name? What's your name? It goes down. What's your name? What's your name? So it is a question, but I want more information off. My name is Luke. I'm Luke. My name is Luke. I'm Luke. Okay, so this is good. Where are you going? Where are you going? I will not say. Where are you going? We cannot use that tone here. Where are you going? Where are you going? It's going down at the end. Where are you going? Where you going? I'm going home. Okay, so this one getting more information is falling down. Can you tell me what's going on? Can you tell me what's going on? Or can you tell me what is going on the road here? I should say what's usually I will speak. What's Can you tell me what is going on? Can you tell me what is going on? So you does go up because I want to focus on you. You. Can you tell me what is going on? Now? You may say Wait a second. Hold on. Can can. That's a yes. No question word, right? Why is this sentence not? Can you tell me what is going on? Can you tell me what is going on? Why do we not use that tone? The reason here is because I'm still trying to get more information. Can you tell me what is going on? The answer to this question would probably not be. Yes, I can. The answer to this question will be hopefully what is going on? You should tell me what is going on. Even though I said, can you? If you say yes, I can. Then I need to say will you OK? So usually if I ask this question, what I really want is more information. So the answer to the question will be mawr than yes or no. So we use Can you tell me what is going on? Different tone. Okay, so just keep in mind the difference between these these two and ah, there are exceptions. There are cases in which one doesn't follow this general rule, which I've given you. But what you can do is this. You can, when you're watching a movie or something like that, you can watch for examples where they're asking questions and see How do they ask that question? What's the tone they're using for the question and try to figure out how you can do it. Also, you can write down a series of questions to be five or 10 questions and then record yourself speaking those questions and try to follow the right general tone intonation. Sorry, the right intonation for those questions. So that might also help you to figure out and get a feeling for these on how they should be used. Okay, so in the next lesson, we're going to be talking about how tone the tone of words can be connected to meaning. Okay. How? The tone of words can be connected to meaning. I will see you in the next lesson. 8. Tone: all right. In the last lesson, we talked about intonation, and we talked about how different intonations are used for questions. For simple yes, no questions. We use one the rising tone and then for other questions that get information, it's usually a falling tone. So we're going to be talking about how simple words, particularly words like this. The 1st 1 is a thinking. Word can change according to tone 1st 1 as I mentioned, Ah, thinking word, a word that we use when we're thinking or in another situation, we would say, as a flat, I'm thinking about something or whom ah, or whom Onda. When it's used like this, it's called a thinking word. Ah, thinking word. Mm hmm. Totally straight and flat. But what if we add a question tone to it that goes up like this, Huh? When you see something that's confusing or strange and you wonder, how can that be? You say to yourself, If someone says something totally crazy or weird, you will use that tone. And that tone means I'm surprised. It's difficult for me to believe this. Or did I hear correctly? Mm. So it could be either one is I'm surprised. I can't believe that. Or sometimes. Can you say that again? I didn't hear you correctly. I didn't hear you clearly. So Okay, so tone here can change the meaning here. Oh, Oh, is just a word to acknowledge something has happened to say Ok, I understand that. I heard what you said. I got it. Oh, there's no emotion. They're not a good thing. Not a bad thing. It's just okay, I I got it. It's in my brain now. Oh, similar to I see right. But this one would be very different. Oh, a falling tone Very high to very low Oh, falling down you Oh, I suddenly realized something. It's not just on getting information. It's that suddenly I've got something and I've realised made a realization Ah, someone tells me something very interesting like that. It's a very different feeling. This one is just it's it's received. Or sometimes it means I knew just some information. I've got some information. Okay, This one very different. It's often an excited feeling or a feeling of realization. And that's a very important word for this tone. The next one. Oh oh, similar to this. I heard something and it surprised me a little bit. Maybe I did not expect to hear what you just said or what just happened on may be I want you to say it again to confirm that that's true. So I might say, Oh, similar to Really? Oh, really? So in this case, it's sort of like a mild surprise or I'm not sure I heard you clearly the next 10 oh, oh, or oh, oh, bad news. You hear something usually negative, something you don't want to hear on when you get the information. It's the same as this one. It's about getting information, not really realizing something very interesting getting information. But this information that we're getting is disappointing. It's information we don't want to hear. We feel a little bit sad about it. Oh, we can't go today because the weather is bad. Oh, so it's to show some disappointment. So these 40 00 oh, okay. They show very different feelings and actually have different meanings. So this one s u R E could mean you're welcome. And it could mean okay, a very positive okay. And, um could show excitement in this way when It's used as you're welcome. Someone says thank you. Sure, Sure. Its informal. But the tone is sure. Sure. Sure, sure. Oh, sure, Sort of. Ah, downward tone like this, but starts up. Sure. Okay. This one is very different. Very different. Sure or sure? Sure. Um, this one could be used to say Okay, this one means okay as well or Yes, right. Do you want to do this? Sure. That means yes. This one could be that. Do you want to do this? Sure, sure. It's pretty flat. Sure, sure. And it could be. Yes, but it would show that I'm not excited. Sure. Or someone said something that I don't believe. I don't think that's true. I saw an alien yesterday. I don't think that's true. Sure, sure. That means. No, you didn't. It's not the same as this one. This one and this 10 means I can't believe what I heard. I'm surprised. Or maybe Can you say that again? Really? Is it true like that? This one? You're not surprising me? You're just saying something. Maybe stupid and wrong. Sure. It just means I don't I don't believe you. Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. Simple flat, flat. It just means I agree. I accept. Or yes, it has a lot of different meanings. Yes, I agree. I accept. Okay. Okay. Very flat. Okay. I always say okay. Before we continue to the next topic, OK, This one. Okay. Okay. It's sort of like this one. A negative. Not very positive. Okay, okay. I learn something new, or I get some new information, or I agree, but I'm not very excited about it, and I want to show that it would be OK. Okay. Okay. Okay. So up and then down. Okay. Okay. Maybe you're right about something. But I'm not happy that you're right about that thing. This one. Okay. Okay. This one is the same basic tone as this one, but it goes. Uh huh. Okay. Okay. This might mean I am excited about something. You tell me something new, and I say, Ok on, then Maybe I'm going to participate with you in the discussion. We're going to talk together. You tell me a new idea, and I think that's a pretty good idea. So I say, OK, well, what about this? So it's like I'm showing excitement about something. Okay, so that's this tone basically the same tone as this one, but more excited now, in English, we don't have formal tones, like Chinese, therefore tones in English. We have tones that show meaning, but they're not formal. And so I can say this one is similar to this one, but this one is more excited. Okay, Brighter. This one is okay. Okay. Okay. Not so excited. And the way that it's expressed is very different. Okay, the next one, this one I can write like this. You Okay? Okay. Okay. So if someone says something to me that makes me uncertain or I don't really agree with what they say, what they have said, maybe I think they're wrong, or I want them to continue. But I don't really agree with them. I can say OK, Okay. Okay. So this is another one on this one is to show some sort of doubt to show doubt. Okay. Okay. So I accept what you said, but I'm not really in agreement with what you said. And I expressed that feeling by using this. Okay, Tone. Okay. So let's go through these again. Okay? Okay. Okay. Okay. This one. Okay. Okay. Okay. Okay. shows that I'm not very excited. Not very happy about something. This one. Okay, okay. Shows I'm very interested on. Want to participate in something? This one? Okay, okay. Shows I'm thinking Maura about something, or I doubt something is true. Okay. Ah, that's another one. Also use it as a question. Of course. Of course, we could use it as a question. We can usually add questions to most of these. If I want to make sure you know something. Make sure you understand something. I will say okay. And add a question. Okay. Okay. And then you can say, OK, you can say OK, Okay. Okay. Okay. It's a question. Do you understand? Is what it means, Do you understand? And then you can say Ok, that means you do understand. Okay. All right. So in the next lesson, we're going to be talking about stress. That means focusing on a word with our voice within a sentence and what that can do relating with fluency. Okay, how stress can be connected to fluency. So I'll see you in the next lesson. 9. Stress : okay. Previously, we talked about intonation and tone. That means the rising and falling of our voice and how that can be connected to meaning on how it can be connected to, for example, questions. How different questions have different intonation and how tone can change the meaning. Like if we say OK or okay means one. Do you understand me? Or I do understand you right? And the tone can make the difference. And this one, we're going to talk about stress. A stress is different from tone. What is the difference? Stress just means focusing on a word. Making it stand out to stress something is to make it stand out or to focus Oops, to focus on that so that it can be heard more easily than the other words in the sentence. That's basically what it means. It's not really related to the the tone of the whole sentence, the intonation czar of the whole sentence or the tone of the words. It's not really related to that. It's more about focusing on it with our voice on. That could include two things one would be stretching, and to would be to se more loudly so If we want to stress a word or even part of a word, we can stress parts of words weaken stress words themselves. We could make it longer. That means Stretch could make the word longer, longer and still think longer, longer. And we can also say it a little bit more loudly sometimes than the other words. Okay, so that's really what stress is about. And we use it connected with meaning, and also to make the sentence sound more fluent. Now, why is stress important for fluency? One thing is, if you say, if you stress every word exactly the same, the sentences that you say will be incredibly boring if to and interesting have the same stress exactly in the sentence and every word does. Then it's going to sound like a robot sentence, right? Usually, robot voices don't have the ability to stress words, and you can hear that very easily. And when we hear that, we think that's weird. That's obviously a robot, obviously a computer voice. Okay, so humans are able to stress things more easily. That's what we do, and that allows us to emphasize, to emphasize certain meaning and also make our sentences generally Mawr. Interesting case. We will talk about that really quickly now. There are some kinds of stress that are just common for different situations, but we can say in general and for many cases you can choose your stress. Usually we will stress important words in the sentence. Well, stress important words in the sentence, and this is often our choice, although there are some cases where it's just common to stress it this way and not this way on for individual words, they're actually very clear rules about when things should be stressed on when things should not be stressed. But I'm not going to focus on the stress of individual words in this course that will be for another course. One example of the case where there is a sort of common stress that most people will use in that situation is ah, customer service. Customer service is a department in a company that will help customers help them with problems and how to maybe fix some certain thing that they don't know how to do. Anyway. I want to show you a quick example of a kind of stress in a sentence that is common for most customer service. If I'm the customer service person on the phone, I might say thank you for calling. This is Luke. How may I help you? Thank you for calling. This is Luke. How may I help you? So calling Luke. How may I help you? Thes Three words are stressed in the sentence. Now, to be totally honest with you, I'm not very sure why This is a common stress for this situation, but it is. And there are many other examples like this. But there are so many of these examples on these are not clear rules that you will have to just listen for these kinds of stress in these different situations. I want to focus on some general things about stress that you can use for everyday situations that can help you speak more fluently. That's what I want to focus on now. So one thing that I would really like you to remember for using stress to speak more fluently is that often we will say small words, especially words that are used on Lee for grammar. For example, simple verbs like can is be thes. Words won't be stressed because their grammar words and they're not really, really important to the whole meaning of the sentence. Well, they can be. In fact, they can be. But we can say they're not words that have a lot of information in them, and so we don't really focus on them. Usually when we're speaking quickly, we say them very fast. We don't stress them. All right, we move past them very quickly. On also weaken say propositions are like this. Two propositions are words like of to and from these words, we usually don't stress either, unless these words are important for the meaning of the sentence. If it's very important to focus on that word because it's important for the meaning of the sentence, then we can. But we can say generally these words. We just move past them very quickly and we focus more on the important words in the sentence. Okay, so let's just go over a couple of examples here. We have to do together instead of saying to do weaken se Teoh do very fast to do to do, to do, to do, to do to Dio. I don't want to do anything today I don't want to do anything today notice to do very fast and I don't stress it at all. I don't give any stress to to do to do, to do. I don't stress want to do anything today, so I stress Don't end anything now. Maybe maybe I want to focus on the do part, so I would stress do. There's nothing to do. I don't stress too. But I stressed Do. There's nothing to do today. There's nothing to do today because that's important to the meaning of the sentence. So if you want to focus on the meaning of the sentence, then stress it. If it's just grammar and it doesn't really have to be focused on, it isn't important for the meaning of the sentence. Don't stress it. I don't want to do anything today. Next one is it? Is it? Is it is it? What is it doing? What is it doing? What is it doing? What is it doing? Is it very fast doing is stressed? Doing is an important part of the sentence. What is it doing? So don't stress. Is it here because we're not interested in the is or the it? It's not important for the sentence, but in some cases will focus on is if we want to know about the being of it. What is it? What is it? What is it? Okay, so this is different. Then we would focus on is here because that's important for the meaning. Okay. You know you know you know. You know very fast. Unstrung est fast and un stressed. I mean, a band. I'm in a band. I'm in a band. I'm in a band. I'm in a band. I'm in a band. I'm in a band. I focus on band. Band is more important. I'm in a band. Okay. Without wither, wither, wither, wither, wither. I'm going out with a friend. I'm going out with a friend. I'm going out with a friend out friend. I used these because they're important right there. Important for the meaning with a with a Not important. I move past it quickly. If I say I'm going out with a friend, everything is flat. Nothing is stressed. It's possible to get the meaning still, but it won't be so obvious. So it's actually very helpful. If you would stress the important things in the sentence and put less stress on the unimportant things in this situation. With up. Okay. Going out with a friend. Okay, next one. Dua! Dua! Dua! Do, uh, do, uh Don't focus on it. No stress. Do it! Do it very fast! Do it! Do it! Do a Dua Dua! Very quick! Okay? I was so happy I wanted to do a dance Do very fast. That was so fast You probably didn't even hear it very clearly. I was so happy Focus on that. It's important in the sentence. I was so happy I wanted to do a dance. I was so happy I wanted to do a dance I was so happy I wanted to do a dance to do a to do it to do it so fast. Actually, two is also very fast. I have to in there as well to do up to do a to do a to do a to do Ah, I was so happy. I wanted to do Ah dance to do a dance. I was so happy I wanted to do a dance. So this one again, we don't focus on words that aren't important. So to do Ah or do, uh in this case not important. Next one had to had to. I think you've probably noticed that when I'm speaking really, really fast I actually changed the sound of two. I don't say to to I say to it Sounds like took toe Had to had to had to had to had to had to had to had to had to have a okay. And this one also toe to do to do to do, to do, to do, to do, to do ah, to do ah to do ah to do Ah to do ah to do ah to do had to had to So these are really, really quick Okay on Because they're so quick We usually when speaking quickly change the sound So this one I didn't know what I had to do I didn't know what I had to do I didn't know what I had to do I didn't know what I had to do Had to do I didn't know what I had to do I didn't know what I had to do I didn't know what I had to do Had has a little bit of stress There was a little stress on hat but not very much the main focus. The main stress in this sentence is what I didn't know what they had to do. I didn't know what I had to do. So just keep this in mind when you're speaking. When you're talking quickly, it's okay to to say these small grammar words. We consent grammar words very quickly, so long as they're not that important for the meaning of the sentence. However, if that's something that we need to focus on, I had to do it so sometimes this could be stressed if had is very important in the sentence . I had to do it. That's a very important part of that sentence. Then we do need to stress it. So I just want you to be aware of this relationship. Unstrung EST, if it's unimportant, stressed if it is typically also the sounds of these words like tha will change in different situations, especially if we say them very quickly. Okay, so keep that in mind and in the next lesson we're going to be also talking about stress. But we're going to be focusing on the relationship between stress and meaning, guy, the relationship between stress and meaning in sentences. So I will see you in the next lesson 10. Stress and Meaning: now, in the last lesson, we talked about how we don't stress certain words if they're not very important. And usually those words which are not very important, are words that are used for grammar or like is an some proposition words like to, but that sometimes if those words are important to the meaning of the sentence or something , that we need to make sure is understood that we should stress those. And remember, stress means the way that we focus on words within a sentence. And actually, it's also related to how we focus on different parts of the word. But I'm not going to talk about stress within words. In this course. I'm going to talk about stress within a sentence. I want to focus on speaking sentences in this course. That's what this course is about. Fluency in speaking sentences. Okay, now I want to go on then and build on the idea that we talked about last time. The idea about meaning on stress. I want to talk about how we stress certain words if we want to focus on a certain meaning on how that actually can change. I mean, the meaning can change according to the stress that we use. That means that we can use our stress to express different kinds of meaning. And I'm sure you probably know this, but I want to give you a feeling about how we conduce this and how, If we're able to do it easily, we will be able to sound more natural and be understood more easily by others. No, I do want to say something. You can't just randomly stress words. You can't just stress all stress this one in this one. Usually you have to choose to stress the words which gets your meaning across in the way, which is clearest. Now there is some choice there. You could stress this one more than this one. Sometimes they're so there is some personal choice, and people stress different words in sentences in different ways. Fine. But it's not totally random. I mean, you can't just stress I for no reason. You have to know why you're stressing I and that's what we're going to talk about in this lesson. We're going to talk about when we stress things, why we stress things, the reason that we stress things and how that can affect or change the meaning of the sentence. So let's look at this sentence. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. It's the meaning off this sentence and I'm sure you understand it. Maybe we're in a place and, um, I I want to express that. I didn't say we should go back, but it can have different feelings in different meanings for different stress. So let's go through some of those different stresses. If I stress the first letter of this word, I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. What does that mean? I didn't say we should go back. I focus on II stress. I That basically means that someone thought maybe I said we should go back and I want to focus on saying that they're wrong, that maybe it was another person not me to be. Maybe he or she said, Let's go back. It wasn't me, wasn't me. I didn't say we should go back, so we will focus on I because that's what we want to express. Now. What about the 2nd 1 What if we want to focus on? Didn't I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. This one clearly means OK. Not who said it as in the last one, which is usually about who said it. But maybe someone heard me say we should go back for they thought they heard me say we should go back. And you say You said we should go back on that. I want to focus on the fact that I did not. It's not about me or others. It's focusing on the fact that I did not. I didn't say we should go back. You said we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. Focus on stress didn't okay. And the other one, the last one I didn't say we should go back could mean that as well. But again, it has that other meaning where it could be me or someone else who did say it. So this one I didn't say we should go back, has one very clear meaning. The next one. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back Now. This one has a kind of strange meaning. This one means that maybe I want to go back. But someone got the feeling that I want to go back. Not from my words. Maybe we're at a party. And I'm sort of just like this and someone says So you want to go back? You want to go back on? I say, I didn't say I want to go back. I did show. I want to go back though. My body language did show that I want to go back. And so someone guessed that I want to go back. But if they asked me this question and I want to remind them that I did not say Let's go back then I will say, I didn't say I want to go back. And then they might reply. Well, yeah, but you look like you want to go back. I can see that. So that would be the meaning in this case. I didn't say we should go back. Okay? I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back now. This one has a very obvious. Meaning me and some friends. Me and him and her, right? Three friends, maybe. I'm talking about someone else and I mentioned that those people should go back. I don't know why I would say that, but it's possible those people should go back. And then someone says so Do you want to go? And I didn't say we should go back. They should go back. Maybe someone forgot something at home, right? And I want to still stay here. I don't want to go home to get it. I want those people to go home and get it. Maybe another group of people who live in the same place. I didn't say we should go back. They should go back. Okay? I didn't say we should go back. Yeah. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back now. I think you can probably guess the meaning here. I didn't say we should go back. This one means that I think we really, really must go back. Have to go back now. Some emergency, right? Maybe I really, really need to go to the bathroom. Because I ate too much Indian food I didn't say we should go back. We must go back and we have to go pack now. I didn't say we should go back. OK, so this one is focusing on the meaning of should the meaning of should is not. We have to. The meaning of should is it's the best choice. It's the best choice and have to is stronger than that. Must is stronger than that. I didn't say we should go back. We must go back. Okay? Now. I didn't say we should go back. This one doesn't really have a clear meaning. So I'm gonna pass this one. They didn't say we should go back. We could say that. But the meaning here is not very clear. What does that mean? If we if we mean go back, we can't really have any other meaning there. So we'll pass that one. I want to focus on the last one, though, because that does have another meaning that has a special meaning. I mean, I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. So we're at a party, for example, at a friend's house. Maybe I mentioned that we should go and someone says So you want to go back back home? I didn't say we should go back. Going back means going to where you were before. That's the meaning of back. You were in one place on you went to another place. And when you go to that place again, you go back to that place. But maybe I want to leave here this party and go to a different place. Not back to where I was before, but maybe go to a different party. So I didn't say we should go back. I said we should go to that party. Someone said so. You want to go? You want to go back? You want to go home? No, no, no, no, no, no. I didn't say we should go back. I said we should go there. Then I can focus on their because that's what I want to express. Clearly. Okay, So I just want to you to keep this in mind when it comes to stress. Don't stress things that aren't very important. And for fast words like to do that we talked about, we can actually change the sound a little bit because we want to very quickly say them. And then for those words which are important to the meaning of the sentence we stress on the meaning of the sentence can change according to the stress we give. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. Those have two different meanings. It's two different meanings, and it comes not from the words but again from the stress I give it. And that's something which is very important. And I want you to keep it in mind, and it can help you a lot to express yourself fluently. And actually stress is a very important part of English fluency, the words you choose to focus on, and I don't want to tell you that it's a must. You must focus on this word. There is some freedom, and people stress things differently. As I mentioned, you can choose to stress this one more than this one, sometimes usually in fact. But it is also important to remember that you shouldn't just randomly stress things randomly means you don't know what you're doing. I'll stress this one. I'll stress this one. I don't know why. I'll stress them just because that you shouldn't do that. You should know why you're stressing it. The best way to think about this is to say I'm going to stress this word back because I want to focus on that meaning. And this is something that needs to become natural for you. So you have to practice it on, practice it in practice it until it becomes really easy. The one thing that you can do is to practice this sentence with the different meanings and the different stresses. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back. I didn't say we should go back the's practice saying these and make sure you keep in mind what the meaning is on how stress can change that. Meaning. Okay, so we're going to do a little bit of practice next. Okay, so I hope that it hasn't been too difficult. I don't think this is too hard. It just has to become a habit for you in order to become more fluent. So let's go on to some practice. All right. Now, for a little bit of practice about stress, I'm going to read this short paragraph kind of Ah, long. Short paragraph. A couple of times, slowly and then quickly on. I want you to listen to how I read it. Now I'm going to read it like this, but that doesn't mean you must read it exactly like me. I might be making a couple of personal choices, things I want to stress more than others. And so I want you to just remember that and that some things will be related to meaning and those are important. Others might be some personal choices I make based on my speaking style. So I'm going to read it first. Slowly. I can't believe you want to do this so much that you're willing to risk your life. Now, I could have said you're willing to risk your life, and that would be okay. I could say you're willing to risk your life or you're willing to risk your life. Both of those would be fine. It's a personal choice I want to make. I want to focus on one of them. What is it for now? Here you wouldn't want to say, What is it for? That sounds very strange. Again. We have the's grammar words, isn't it? We usually don't focus on them. Usually we do not. What is it for? What is it for? Four. We want to focus on purpose, right. So we focus on four. What is it for? In my opinion, you're in a hurry to do it. And you haven't thought it through carefully. You're in a hurry to do it and you haven't thought it through carefully to do it to do it very fast here to do it. And you haven't thought it through carefully. I want to focus on those two, but and usually before a comma like this. If you have a one word at the beginning of the sentence and you have a comma after, it will focus on it with stress it but well and also so we usually focus or stress that one . But because it's so dangerous, I focus on so because so is a very kind of important thing I want to stress, right? Very. I want to emphasize that it's very much not just dangerous, very dangerous, because it's so dangerous you really need to take some time to consider what you're doing and what the potential risks are. Is it worth it? Or I could say, Is it worth it? Now? Remember what we talked about for question tone, right? We have yes or no question. If I say, Is it worth it? This is what's called a rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is a question that doesn't need an answer. So if I say is it worth it this down tone, it's not the normal question tone I don't need you to answer. It's not a real yes, no question. It's not for you to say yes or no. It's a rhetorical question I'm using to make you think about this that I'm talking about. Now. If I say, is it worth it? Maybe that is a really question. Maybe you really need to answer. Yes, it's worth it. Maybe not. No, it's not worth it. So it depends on if I want to make it a rhetorical question. Just a question to make it more clear, or if I want to make it a yes, No question. Let me read it again. I can't believe you want to do this so much that you're willing to risk your life. What is it for? In my opinion, you're in a hurry to do it. And you haven't thought it through carefully. But because it's so dangerous, you really need to take some time to consider what you're doing on what the potential risks are. Is it worth it? Okay, so here might be a little bit different than the last time I read it again. That comes back to the idea that there is some freedom of choice here. You're not a robot is a human language. It can change. It's not always the same. I will read this 10 times, and each time I read it will be slightly different. But there still are some common things to keep in mind. Things we've talked about about intonation and about, for example, stress with small words and stress with important words that you can still make your own choices. The important thing is not to read it flat. I can't believe you want to do this so much that you're willing to risk your life. Okay, Now that is a mistake. That is a mistake. Another thing that I want you to really notice Here is that when I reached the end of a sentence and this is something I didn't really talk about much before. When I reached the end of a sentence, my voice goes down. Usually when you get to the end of a sentence, the voice falls. So keep that in mind. I can't believe you want to do this so much that you're willing to risk your life. What is it for? In my opinion, you're in a hurry to do it. And you haven't thought it through carefully. But because it's so dangerous, you really need to take some time to consider what you're doing and what the potential risks are. Is it worth it? Okay, so try to practice this many times. Try to get it down, do it slowly, slowly, slowly, and then speed up. All right. In the next video, we're going to be talking about some common problems that learners of English as their second language have. When they're learning to speak, we're going to be talking about some thinking sounds, and we're going to be talking about some common difficulties. Okay, so I will see you in the next lesson. 11. Common Problems: now in the last lesson, we talked about stress, and we talked about the relationship between stress and meaning. But now I want to go on and talk about some common problems that people have when trying to become fluent. That can actually keep them from becoming fluent. And the 1st 1 is about habits, and it's something I mentioned at the beginning of the course. Habits are deep within us. We can say they're sort of dug into our minds, and there's a difference between knowing something and then making that thing, you know, a habit. A very simple example. Okay, maybe you say, for example, to yourself, I am going to start getting up every morning at 6 a.m. Because I know that's good for me. I'll be able to get more work done, and I know that I will be able to be more productive, for example, So that's knowledge. You know that's going to happen and you decide it will happen. But doing it in practice is much more difficult. Day 16 AM so early, I can't sleep more so you give up, but one day you do it and then you start to get used to it day after day. By the end of that, you find it's easy. After you do it many, many times, you sort of get used to it because it becomes a habit on because it becomes a habit. Then it becomes something that you usually do. So I want to emphasize or stress the importance of habits when we're speaking and trying to be fluent in English very important. Okay, No, What are some bad habits? What are some habits that we need to change? Well, one that is quite common is that when you're speaking in English, you have to think and speak at the same time, right? You have to be thinking about what do you want to say? And you have to think about how to say, What do you want to say at the same time? And so when you're trying to do both of those things at the same time, one thing often happens, you will repeat the same word or phrase over and over again. My opinion is that Is that is that is that okay? This is distracting for people listening to you, and this is a bad habit for speaking fluency. Okay, now I know everyone does it sometimes, but you want to get out of the habit of doing it For every sentence. Everyone sometimes stumbles when they're speaking, they sometimes say, Say like that When they're speaking, I do it. Everybody does it. But if we always do it when we're trying to make a sentence, the flower is very beautiful and it has has has it has because you're trying to think of the next word, right? So you want to avoid it. So how can you avoid it? That's very simple. The way to avoid it is to slow down. Don't give yourself the pressure to say something right now. It's much better if you say nothing at all. Then if you repeat, it has it has it has Flour is very beautiful and it has pink petals. Isn't that much better than saying the flower is very beautiful? And it has, Has it has it has it has. It hasn't has pink petals. It's much better that you just stop for a second pause and then say what you want to say, right? So if you have to think and speak at the same time, and you need to stop to think for a moment, which is very natural, right? It's not your first language. You're you're learning it. And so it's difficult. Sometimes you have to find that word that you want to use. Figure out the right tone. You want to use of the stress with grammar, which grammars, right? So many things to think about. It's understandable if you have to stop sometimes, so just stop because it makes you sound less, much, much, much less fluent. If you repeat yourself many times, it sounds like a mess. If you speak like that and you always repeat words, the person listening to you will think about what's going on and they will give up. But if you stop for a moment, they will be able to understand. Okay, they're stopping. I remember what they just said. It's still pretty clear and wait for what you will say next. That is much, much better. So here is a habit. If you have this habit, try to change it. All you have to do is force yourself to hear when you are repeating a word many, many times, and then instead of just stop, and that's an easy habit to get. But it's a very, very useful one, especially if you find it difficult to think and speak at the same time. Now another one which is really important and connected to this is thinking words thinking words. What is the thinking word? Ah, thinking word is a word we say when we are thinking, and there are several different thinking words in English. We have a lot of thinking words in English, and I want to just go over a couple of them and say that while you can use them, I don't want you to overused them because using them too much is again, as I said, distracting can distract people and make them confused. If you say too many thinking words thinking words like, um uh, well ah, yeah, and Americans will often say, like you really don't like that one. Uh, these words. Everyone does it. Everybody uses them. So I'm not saying Don't use them. I'm just saying, Try to reduce it. So, um, let me see what I want to say. There I used one, all right, I said, Um, and that's OK, but if I say uh, well, uh, let me see. Uh, well, if I do it too much, the person listening might become confused and forget what I was talking about. So I just want you to think about your habits and don't get in the habit of using either way too many thinking words like, um Ah, Well, her and Americans sometimes use like, like like don't use, like, as a thinking word, please, um, or repeating the word that you wants to are. You just said many, many times until you find the word that you want. Just try to reduce it and make this a good habit. Make this a good habit, OK? Another thing that I want to mention is about habits as well. And it is that everything that we're talking about in this course needs to be a habit. When you're speaking in English, you should not be thinking about his might tone rise. My wife, my fluency, right. Blending words in the right way. Eyes this. All right, because if you're focusing on those things, there's no way you will be able to focus on grammar. There's no way you will be able to focus on what you're supposed to be talking about the best possible situation. The ideal situation is that you focus on what you want to say and how you say that is a habit. So whether it's pronunciation or fluency or whatever, all of these things should become habits on those then support. What do you want to say? And if you just have to think about what do you want to say? You will be able to say so many things and your language will support you to help make that very clear to other people. And everyone will say, Ah, it's so clear. But if your fluency and you're in bad grammar gets in the way of these things than the thing you want to say that what is blocked is lost behind a lot of these other things that are confusing the person listening to you right and so four fluency all of these things in his course, work on them and practice them over and over and over and over. Don't just watch this course repeat this course several times and do some of the exercises that we're going to talk about until everything is easy until it's natural until it's a habit. And that is probably the most important thing I will say in this course. Okay, the power of habits, the power of repetition and repeating and doing things many times until you get so comfortable with it that it's no big deal. Easy. No problem. Then you can focus on the what? So that is the main issue for a lot of people who wants to be fluent but are not Okay, so I just want to give you that general tip. No and exercise you can do. Ah, very simple exercise you can do to improve fluency and practice this and find your habits, your bad habits and fix them. It's too writes down a very simple question. Any kind of question. Well, not a yes, no question, any kind of interesting question, and then just answer it. Don't plan your answer. Do not plan your answer. Just speak your answer and record yourself on your phone, perhaps, and listen to it and try to find mistakes and problems. So here's an example of a question. What is the craziest thing you'd like to do someday? Any kind of question like this? Okay, this is not a special question. There are thousands and thousands and millions of questions that you could ask yourself, So there is no limit. Just writes down the question, something like this, something very different and then directly answered the question. That's all you have to do. Record yourself and listen to it and try to fix your habits. Based on the things that we've talked about in the course, What is the craziest thing you'd like to do someday? The craziest thing I would like to do someday, probably, is to go to the moon. Now. A lot of people, when they hear me say this, they think, Oh, you're crazy. But I think it's actually a very possible and reasonable dream. I'm totally serious when I say it, I actually want to go to the moon. Not only do I want to go to the moon, I would actually like to live on the moon for a while. If someday humans can easily go to the moon and visit the moon on, maybe there's a moon city on the moon. Maybe I will live there for six months or a year, and I hope I hope that I will be able to go to the moon at least before age 60. It's my dream to visit the moon and maybe lived there before I'm 60 years old. Okay, so this is the kind of answer we can give. This is my answer to this question. I didn't think about it at all. I just answered. And that's what you need to do is well, if you plan everything in your mind and you say, I'm going to say this this and this, then you're not pushing yourself enough. So you have to really challenge yourself in the next lesson. We're going to be doing some serious practice. I'm going to be reading a short passage and I'm going to read it several times. And then I would like you to also try to follow it. So in the next lesson, we will be doing that. So I'll see you see you in the next lesson. 12. Practice Makes Perfect: Okay, So in the last lesson, we talked about some problems that people wanting to become really fluent in English often have. And we also talked about the importance of habits and how habits aren't just what you know , but what you do naturally, based on what you know, sort of like the action of knowing in some sense and how habits if you're going to be actually fluent, the right habits must be something, As is the meaning of habits that you don't think about at all. You just do it totally natural. So in this lesson, we're going to be talking about and doing some practice we're gonna be talking about at the end how we can practice fluency. And at the beginning, we're going to actually be doing some practice. We're going to be actually going through this passage here, which was actually written by me long, long ago. We're going to actually be reading this together. I'm going to read it a couple of times, and I want you to listen to how I read it. Listen for some of the things that we talked about so far in the course, and then I want you to try to do it yourself slowly, slowly, slowly and then get faster if you can. Okay, so we're going to start. Just with this reading is actually a great way to practice pronunciation. It's a great way to practice fluency by reading. First you pick up and you start to notice how things should sound, and you should be able to pick out those things based on what we learned by yourself when you're reading. Second, it's simply a matter of practice. The more you do something, the better at it you will get. This is something that is true from sports to learning, a new skill to fluency. So I'm going to read this very slowly. It's going to take a little while. It's going to be a little long, and then I'm going to read it more quickly, and then we'll talk about some other exercises you can do. Here we go. Gandered was born September 19th 1928. At age four, he started hanging around Mansfield Senior High School near his home. The atmosphere enthralled him. He did whatever he could to be part of the action. He went to track meets clean trash after football games and carried water. Sports have always been a part of my life, he said. Gandered thrived in the Mansfield Senior Sports program, thrived in the Mansfield Senior Sports program. He excelled. He he he excelled at football playing center. He excel. He he He excelled at football playing center. Later, attending Brown University, he was offered a position on the football team. After three years in college, gandered entered the military gender, entered the military not again dirt. Gander gandered, entered the military and entered the military. Terry military. Upon his discharge, he joined the family business at gender door at that at Gander Door Company. He married, started a family and became known as the guy with the camera can. Now I'll read it two more times, this time without any stops. Still, slowly, the next time. Very quickly. Gender was born September 19th 1928. At age four, he started hanging around Mansfield Senior High School near his home. The atmosphere enthralled him. He did whatever he could to be part of the action. He went to track meets, cleaned trash after football games and carried water. Sports have always been part of my life, he said, Gandered thrived in the Mansfield Senior Sports program. He excelled at football playing center. Later attending Brown University, he was offered a position on the football team. After three years in college, Gandered entered the military. Upon his discharge, he joined the family business at Gander Door Company. He married, started a family and became known as the guy with the camera, now, finally very quickly. Gandered was born September 19th 1928. At age four, he started hanging around Mansfield Senior High School near his home. The atmosphere enthralled him. He did whatever he could to be part of the action. He went to track, meets clean trash after football games and carried water. Sports have always been part of my life, he said. Gandered thrive in the Mansfield Senior Sports program. He excelled at football playing center. Later attending Brown University. He was offered a position on the football team. After three years in college, Gandered entered the military. Upon his discharge, he joined the family business at Gander Door Company. He married, started a family and became known as the guy with the camera. All right, so I hope you can get out of that some of the things that we talked about, the practical things that we talked about so far in the course, and I want you to try to use this paragraph pieces are these two paragraphs as a way to practice those things as a way to really, really master those things and make them habits? Now I want to talk about a couple other things that you can do and that some people do to improve fluency. And I don't want to do examples of all of those things specifically. But I do want to talk about, um, we did one before where we did a question. Ask any kind of question, open question. And then we answered. It simply answered the question out loud, recording what we said. Now, this is a great way to practice. And we did an example of that in the last lesson in this lesson. Now we're reading something a passage. This is another great way to practice. It's a great way to practice because you don't have to think so much. You can focus purely on fluency in the last one with the question. You have to think about what to say and how to say it in this one, you just have to focus on the fluency, saying it clearly you don't have to focus on grammar. And what do you want to say now? A couple of other things we can do and some very common things, one that you might have heard of and that some people do to improve fluency is called dubbing, and it's fairly new. It's kind of a new thing, but it's pretty cool dubbing. And there are some different APS that allow you to get video clips is where you take a piece of ah, clip maybe from a commercial, maybe from a movie, maybe from a TV show. Just a short clip from that, and you study it a lot. You listen to the pronunciation, you memorize the pronunciation, and then you replace your voice with the speaking in that video with the person speaking the actor. In that video, you replace your speaking with it, and by doing this you have to copy that pronunciation. And this is actually pretty interesting way to improve because once you finish it, you then match match what you did with the original. You match the two and you could see the obvious differences between them. Have you got it? It doesn't sound the same. Does it sound basically the same? Are there some big differences? Do you have, ah pronunciation problem here? Are you not stressing words enough? Can you not quite get the sound that they have? So this is a great way to do a sort of side by side comparison of fluency and other pronunciation. So I actually recommend this one. If you can find a good app or figure out a good technical way to do it dubbing you replace your voice over another person's voice from a video. Another one is to do a combined exercise for both listening and fluency. Practice now. Remember, I mentioned that one of the keys to fluency is listening. If you can't listen, if you don't have a sharp ear, if you don't have a sharp year, then it will be very difficult for you to master fluency to be good at fluency. Have to be good at listening to. So one thing you can do is this. Find a short MP three. That's quite difficult, and you can't understand completely. Maybe you can understand? 40%. Not easy. 40%. A really tough one. MP three. When I say mp three, what I mean is a no audio clip. Oops. Audio Clip the clip and make it short. It should be a short one. Maybe 45 seconds. 50 seconds, Maybe one minute. Okay, then listen to it again and again and again, over and over and over with a piece of paper. And try to write down every word that you hear every word. You may spend two weeks just on 11 minute short clip. You may spend two weeks trying to figure out what is this person saying? It's so difficult. Okay, it will be quite challenging for you, but going through it and doing it well, really sharp in your ear. And through that, sharpening your listening skill, your ear. You will also notice and begin to pay attention to a lot of these aspects. Thes parts of fluency that we've been talking about and others which we haven't talked about. And you will be able to get the feeling for natural pronunciation for speaking naturally fluently. Once you've then got it. You've written down every word that's in this clip. Then try to copy it, then try to read it. Then record yourself speaking this thing that you've been listening to for two weeks and see how you do because you've been listening to it so much, you will have remembered a lot of the tones. A lot of the stress that the original used you will have sort of absorbed that. And so you will find that you have got the feeling for the fluency off this particular clip on that can generally help your fluency ability, your ability to speak naturally to speak fluently. Okay, so these two exercises reading on dubbing on Actually this one as well listening this listening exercise can all improve fluency. Okay, so you have to work at it. You have to work hard. But if you do, you will see results. Practice makes perfect. That's why I wrote this at the top. Practice makes perfect. The more you practice, the better you get. Learning is not enough. This course is to show you a few things. You should do this. You should do this. But just knowing it is definitely not enough have to practice it a lot Now. One more thing that you can do to practice your tongue, your mouth for fluency, for speaking quickly, especially is called a tongue twister and a tongue twister is something that you say very quickly, which is difficult to say, and it can really help you to get used to saying English sounds. And so in the next lesson, we're going to go over a couple of tongue twisters, so I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. Tongue Twisters: So in the last lesson, we talked about some different exercises that we can do to improve fluency. We did some reading as practice. We've also talked about asking a question and answering directly. We talked about dubbing, and we also talked about a listening on fluency practice that's combined the combination of listening and fluency together. Now I want to focus on something very specific related to your tongue, because fluency also involves the ability to use your tongue, especially over time, more quickly, at least to be able to make thes sounds when you need to. Quickly. Now, fluency doesn't exactly mean quickly speaking quickly as I mentioned before, you can be fluent and speak slowly, But doing this exercise that we're going to do today is a great way to build up the skills that you need. If you want to speak quickly and can help you get used to the English sounds, Okay, so tongue twister, a tongue twister tongue. This is your tongue on a twister. To twist something is, too. Bend it in this way, right to ring it in a circular way in opposite directions. Now you're not really twisting your tongue, but These are meant to be a little bit difficult to say. And so if you say that many times and you get used to doing it fast, then naturally you'll be able to speak quickly if you want to, and you'll be very used to and feel very comfortable with a lot of English sounds. So this one is the most famous tongue twister, the most famous tongue twister. Most English speakers know it, and it's called Peter Piper, and I'd like to read it for you, and I'll read it a couple times on a notice that I'm going to increase in speed. First we master it right, mastery first and then increased speed. Here we go. Peter Piper picked Ah pek of pickled peppers. Peter Piper picked Oh peck of pickled peppers. Uh, peck of pickled peppers. Peter Piper picked If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick now the whole thing. Slowly, Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Ah, peck of pickled peppers. Peter Piper picked if Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, How Maney Pickled Peppers did Peter Piper pick Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers , a peck of pickled peppers. Peter Piper picked If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? Now let me try to do it fast. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, a peck of pickled peppers. Peter Piper picked If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? That's a little difficult for me, but you get the idea. You don't have to do it that fast, but that's the idea guy. So if you are able to do these quickly, you'll feel more comfortable with English. Sounds great. Now I want to do one, I wrote. This one is written by me, Not famous, Okay, but you can still use it to practice. Here we go. Stella's bombshell sales skills still shock Stella's sister Ella. Ella's sales skills still don't come close to Stella's killer skills in sales. Even though Stella and Ella are sisters, their skills definitely differed drastically. Ella excels at whispering tongue twisters, while Stella still excels in sales skill. The meaning is really stupid. Let me try to read it faster. Stella's bombshell sales skills still shock Stella's sister, Ella Ellis. Sales skills still don't come close to Stella's killer skills and sales. Even though Stella and L are sisters, their skills definitely differ drastically. L excels at whispering tongue twisters, while Stella still excels in sales skill. That was tough. That was a hard one. I've met ahead. Haven't read it quickly before. That was actually a little harder than Peter Piper. Maybe because I have said Peter Piper, for my whole life on this one is new. Anyway, you can practice these. They're fun. They're not a big deal. They're just away for you to get used to speaking a little more naturally. Now, in the next lesson, we're going to be, um, doing another exercise that you can do to practice and improve fluency. Okay, it will be the last lesson for this course. 14. Improvisation : Okay. Now, in the last lesson, we talked about tongue twisters. A fun way to practice pronunciation and fluency. To get faster and faster is a good way to improve your fluency and and speak more naturally . Now I want to give you one more exercise that you can do. To improve fluency on this one involves thinking more than the other aspect that we talked about. Remember when we talked about reading and we did some reading practice? We focused on pure fluency, using things like blending and stress things that we've talked about to improve fluency, to sound unnatural when we speak right. But that's pure fluency, because we don't have to think too much when we're reading. But another aspect of fluency is that the ability to think quickly in English as well as speak naturally with the right tone and the right stress. So I want to give you a very simple exercise that you can do to improve thinking and fluency, and it involves improvisation or some people just call it improv. Improv or improvisation just means making things up suddenly with no plan at all. And this is a key key skill in speaking a language. When you walk around on the street, you don't know what's going to happen. You don't know what you're going to have to say next. You don't know who you're going to run into or C right or have a conversation with. You don't know what's going to happen. And so being able to suddenly say something, talk about something without some previous plan is really important on this simple, simple, simple exercise can help you work on that. All you have to do is write down a word, write down a word on a piece of paper and then start talking about it immediately. Start talking about it without thinking. Just go, go. There doesn't need to be a plan. You don't have to say something amazing or very smart. Just start talking. You don't have to stay on the topic of the thing you write down. You can go off, but just start talking and challenge yourself to speak for 1 to 2 minutes. Now I'm going to do this as an example. I'm not going to speak for 1 to 2 minutes. I can, but I'm not going to because it will be a little boring for you. I think to just watch me rambling about something for 1 to 2 minutes. Not useful. But I want to just give you the idea of this exercise. So write something down, and then immediately, with no delay or hesitation, no delay, just start. All right, So let's try this. I'm going to write down the word, and then I'm gonna just start talking about it. I'm just going to begin talking about it immediately. Um, I have not planned this. This is not part of my course plan. Just to let you know I'm really going to improvise. I honestly have no idea what I'm going to say. OK, so here we go right down a word. Ah, Okay. Onions, onions, Come in many varieties. There are red onions. There are green onions. There are long thin onions. But the thing that onions usually have in common is that they have a very strong taste. We could say a pungent taste. And one of the defining features of an onion is that when we cut an onion, it actually can make us cry. Onions make us cry. Now, there've been many jokes about onions and that they make us cry and one of the things that we can do that actually stops onions from making us cries to actually suck on a lemon while we're cutting an onion. And if we do that, it cancels out the effect of onions, making us cry. In my opinion, onions are delicious, some kind, some kind of onions. I don't really like some kinds. I really do. Like my favorite kind of onion is probably red onion. I prefer red onion and Mexican food. It's particularly good in guacamole. Guacamole is a kind of Mexican food that involves avocado, red onion, lime and cilantro, and his mixed together with a little bit of salt and milk. And it's delicious with tortilla chips. All right, so I could go on and on and on, and I did make. I think I made 11 mistake there. Maybe you can catch it, but I'm trying to speak as quickly as possible, and I'm improvising. I'm not focused on being totally correct. I'm not focused on being perfect. I'm really focused on continuing talking, and this is an aspect of fluency, and you can use it to practice any time, any time And as I also mentioned earlier in the course, you can do this kind of thing in your mind. It's better if you do it out loud if you record yourself. If you record yourself doing it on your phone and listen to it, because then you can point out on this isn't very clear. I need stress here and here. You can more easily find the mistakes by listening to it on fixed many of your habits, but it is possible to do this kind of exercise in your mind. And actually, I would encourage you to start thinking about things in your mind in English. Instead of having thoughts in your native language, you need to be having thoughts in English, and the more you begin to have thoughts in English, the more you will be naturally able to speak your mind, to say what you want to say and importantly, to say it more flew into the sky. So developing English brain. And we haven't talked about that really in the course because we're focusing on the speaking fluency aspect part, Um, but it is really important to begin to think in English, and there are many things we can do to think in English. Perhaps we can talk about that Mawr in another course. So anyway, in the next lesson, we're going to be just doing a quick summary, a quick conclusion of the course, and so I will see you in the next video. 15. Summary: well, there's an expression and medium in English. Medium is, ah, common phrase that most people know on the idiom is all good things must come to an end. And so we come to the end of this course on fluency. I hope that you've learned a lot from this course and have got a lot of good ideas about how to improve your fluency, what you can do to improve your fluency. And hopefully you will use the things that we talked about to practice and practice in practice to become more natural English speakers. I really hope that I want to quickly go over what we talked about in this course. We first went over blending. We talked about how one word can go into the next word. For example, if a word ends with D on the next word begins with D. These two words can be sort of smacked together, and when we smack them together, it sounds much better. We don't have to have a space between the words. We also talked about jumping where we can go from one word to the next word. Pretty naturally, pretty fluently. Even if the sound is not the same, right? So, for example, go under. If we add the small w sound, we'll go wonder. We can put these two words together and to remove the space between two words, particularly compound words, which we talked about. We can actually make our sentences sound more natural. Even if it's not fast, we can make our sentences sound more natural. We also talked about the T sound we talked about how t is tough because it can sort of stop you sometimes on we talked about how you have to state sometimes, but other times you can say the small sound or ah, stop sound. I want I want to know. I want to know, right? I want some. I want some words like this. We can actually stop all right and words like daughter, daughter. We use the small d sound. We talked about these examples. We then went on and we talked about tone. We talked about tone and then we talked about stress. Thes two are different, but they are connected in some way. Tone is the rising and falling of the voice for a sentence. We talked about the question tone, the intonation of the sentence and how? Yes, no questions have. Ah, uh, right. Do you want to go? Whereas other questions where we get information, the tone goes down. All right. Which one do you want? Which one do you want? This one doesn't go up. We also talked about the tone of individual words and how the words the tone we use for words like huh or huh For this can change the meaning of the word. So the tone of the word can change the meaning of the work. Then we went on to stress and talked about the same things for stress. We talked about how the meaning that we want to focus on. We should stress. And that makes the sentence more clear and that if every word has the same stress, the sentence will be done. A very boring, like a robot. We shouldn't do that. That's not very good. We have to have focused on important words. But we do have some freedom. We also talked about how a lot of grammar words like to and be and can we often don't focus on them? But we can focus on them if it's very important. If they're important for the meaning we want to express, but we usually say them very quickly, and sometimes they even change in their sound, like to go t to go right Then we talked about some common problems, and the important thing to remember about those problems is to slow down when you need to. If you find yourself addicted, it'd repeating the same word or using too many thinking words. Slow down, Stop on, then speak. That's fine. That actually is much better. We also talked about the importance of habits, and that's what I really want you to remember from this. Course. Habits are everything if you learn, if you understand everything in this course, but you don't know how to do any of the stuff in the course. If the stuff that you've learned in this course doesn't become a habit, your fluency will not improve. It all has to become a habit. It has to be all there with practice, lots and lots of practice, so that when you want to say something, it comes out very nicely. So habits are everything. Then we actually talked about some different exercises we could do. We talked about doubling. We did some reading practice, which is very important for pure fluency, and we talked about also, which is also very important. Improvisation and improvisation is when we make up something suddenly suddenly make up something. So go over a lot of those exercises that we talked about and do them many, many times, make your own like the ones we did and do that many times to improve your habits and improve your fluency. And remember, it's also very important to improve your listening. Listening is connected to fluency. If you can't hear what other people are saying, how can you know if you're fluent or not? So listening and awareness are really, really important. Also, we did some examples of tongue twisters and some reading, so you can go back and watch those lessons again and get those examples and continue to practice them. The tongue twisters we talked about, Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. We talked about that one, and we also did some other reading passages and some small examples as well. So anyway, I hope from this course you've learned a lot. I hope you continue to practice and practice is everything okay? So I wish you luck in the future. I hope that you all become extremely fluent in English on, um I think you're well on your way If you take the basic points of this course and you really, really focus on it and practice your well on your way to becoming fluent. Anyway, that's all for me. Thank you very, very much for taking this course. I'm really happy that we could go through this long journey of fluency together. And I hope you can continue to take courses with me and recommend them to your friends. If if you enjoyed this one. Okay. So anyway, I will see you next time about