English 101 in One Class Period | Helen Companion | Skillshare

English 101 in One Class Period

Helen Companion

English 101 in One Class Period

Helen Companion

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15 Lessons (1h 23m)
    • 1. 1 Introduction

    • 2. 2 Introduction to Essay Writing

    • 3. 3 Pre writing

    • 4. 4 The Five Paragraph Essay

    • 5. 5 Thesis statements

    • 6. 6 Writing the Essay

    • 7. 7 Revision and Editing

    • 8. 8 Introduction to Rhetorical Modes

    • 9. 9 DescriptiveNarrative

    • 10. 10 Process Analysis

    • 11. 11 CompareContrast

    • 12. 12 Causeeffect

    • 13. 13 Persuasiveargumentative

    • 14. 14 research paper

    • 15. 15 conclusion

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About This Class

Returning to college after a long break? Going to college for the first time? Just want to learn to be a better writer? This class is for you. 

Helen Companion is a college instructor and professional tutor and has helped thousands of students improve grades or get into college. She has also published peer-reviewed scholarship, blogs, poems, fiction, and everything in between. 

English 101 is one of the first college-level courses that students are introduced to. The 42 hours in a 101 class are typically dedicated to basic essay-writing skills and the composition of several specific types of essay, sometimes called rhetorical mode. This course condenses those 42 hours into about ninety minutes-- the length of a single class in college. 

You'll learn: 

  • The main format used in college classes and academic writing 
  • The importance of pre-writing and six different pre-writing techniques
  • How to compose a thesis statement that will write about half the paper for you
  • How to quickly and easily write a basic college essay
  • How to write a compelling introduction and conclusion without a lot of work 
  • How to diagnose problems in your essay writing and how to fix them 
  • Five common types of essay writing: descriptive-narrative, process analysis, compare/contrast, cause/effect,  and persuasive/argumentative
  • Thesis and writing approaches for each type of essay as well as sample outlines and helpful tips and tricks
  • Approaches to research and ways to simplify the researching process 
  • How to write a research paper

This class covers a lot of information, and so I've also integrated mnemonic devices throughout for each of the major steps so that you'll have a quick and easy way to recall what you need to do if you find yourself getting lost at any point in the essay-writing process. Supplemental information, such as examples of different kinds of essays written by myself and others, will be provided in the community section after the launch. 

Whether you're writing your first essay or just want to improve your skills, this class has something for every writer. 


Meet Your Teacher

Hello all! 

I've loved the English language for literally as long as I can remember. My entire life has been, in some way or another, punctuated by this love affair. As a little kid, I told my brother stories I made up. I went to the Alabama School of Fine Arts for high school, which is a very well-reputed arts school in Birmingham, and my major was Creative Writing with a specialty in poetry. As such, I have several poems and stories published in various places. In college, I decided I wanted to be an English teacher and a scholar, so that's my "day job" now. I've published peer-reviewed articles on topics related to the English Renaissance, and I am pursuing a Ph.D. in the field. I also teach classes at a local college, and I teach on-demand over the summers when fewer stu... See full profile

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1. 1 Introduction: Hello and welcome to English one. A one in one class period. My name is Helen Companion. I have a masters in English and I teach English at the college level, including English 101 This is a course that focuses on teaching students composition, including basic essay writing techniques and Tom and types of essay writing. Instead of sitting in a class for three hours a week for 14 weeks, we're going to go through all of the content taught in English 101 in about 90 minutes. Ah, lot of the time spent in these classes is on practice, though, so if you have the time, I'd encourage you to practice in between each lesson. But for our purposes, it's not necessary. So here's what we're going to learn. The course is separated into three basic sections basic essay writing types of essays, which are also called Rhetorical Modes, and the research paper. This blood slides functions as a sort of outline for the classes, the whole, and it goes into some of the the sub topics that we're going to look into two so under how to write an essay, we'll get pre writing thesis statements, the five paragraph structure. I'm some tips for writing the body of the introduction in the conclusion, including how to do those things and revision and editing, including some kind of diagnostic tools you can use troubleshoot what you need to work on certain types of essays, which is descriptive narrative. The compare. Contrast the cause and effect persuasive, argumentative and process analysis. And finally, house right, Um, as mentioned before, we are covering a lot of ground in a short amount of time. So as such, I've developed two sets of exercises for each lesson. The concise experience is a brief exercise that is normally not more than a few sentences to help you practice the less than content. The full class experience is meant to mimic what you would do in an English one of one course, and so it'll be a larger project similar to the type of course work that would be required in a full length. The final project also has two types of exercises or two versions of it. So for the concise experience to write an outline for the research paper that will include a thesis statement, topic in transition sentences and major pieces of evidence. And these are all things that will talk more about as we go for the full class experience. You're right, a research paper of about 1000 1500 words, which is about 4 to 5 pages, with 3 to 5 sources. When you're ready, we'll start with an introduction to essay writing on the next lesson. 2. 2 Introduction to Essay Writing: welcome back to English 101 in a class period. The word s a often terrified students. It shouldn't An essay isn't anything to be scared off. I think it helps to kind of go over what an essay is and what it isn't before. Talking about techniques and specifics. This lesson has some general guidelines that apply to all the types of writing will discuss in this class. So what is an essay and at the formal definition is a short piece of writing on a particular subject. It's a relatively organized, informal approach to writing on a specific topic or topics, and generally the organization is introduces. The topic presents the argument and analyzes the significance. And as you'll see soon, I tend to refer to that as i p A. And it comes from the French essay, which means to try, and it's an attempt to convince a raider of the point that you're trying to make. And this last part is especially important. I think the word essay doesn't mean to succeed or to write it means to try, and ultimately that's all it s a is. It's an attempt to get someone else to see things from your perspective. So we've talked about what an essay is. Now let's talk about 11 is not. It is not stream of consciousness writing. It is not a short story. It is not disconnected thoughts, even if they're all on the same topic. It is not an informal discussion like what you would have the best friend and an essay is never perfect. No matter how much editing you do, there will always be something else to improve upon. So this is an approach that I've developed as an overview for the repeating process that happens in an essay. I call it I p A. And you can associate it with India Pale Ale, the international phonetic alphabet, integrate performance assessment or anything else that helps you remember it. Here, it means introduce present an analysed so the introduced step helps orient the reader. It provides background information. It helps connect a new point or previously made points to a thesis statement, and it had some other types and names. So it's called an introduction is called topic sentence background information, depending on where it is in the essay. But really, the idea is the same the same is true for present. It provides evidence and connects it back to your argument. Provide context and some other names, depending on where they are in the paper or exposition evidence points and synthesis. Then analyze explains the significance of what you just said to the point that you're trying to make. It helps the readers to make connections, and it explains your thought process. This is generally just called analysis. It doesn't really have another name. So some tips to keep in mind There is no right way to write an essay. I'm gonna give you a lot of tricks and give you a lot of approaches, but you might want to alter these to make them work for you Once you get used to them pre writing, even if it's only mentally organizing the paper helps a lot, and that counts. You know, if you're just thinking about the paper while you're taking a shower on your way into school, it still helps. The first draft is called a rough draft for a reason. Actually, in writing circles, there's a much less PC name that we tend to use, but we'll call him first drafts of rough drops for the sake of this class. And remember, that essay literally means to try organization matters a lot. The essay form is often a little repetitive, and if it feels like you're saying the same thing, that's probably a good thing. You should always air on the side of over explaining rather than under explaining, because you don't want to assume that your reader is making the same connections that you are. The idea that you're presenting is unique. Show that off, and that brings us to the exercises for this lesson. If you're doing the concise experience, you don't have to do anything said Just remember the information. If you're trying to do the full class experience, I want you to write a one page as say, about an experience in an English class. In a real course, this would be called a diagnostic essay. Wouldn't be grated and just be intended did help determine your strengths and weaknesses so he would have a starting point for the rest of the class. Um, when you're ready will move on to the next part, which is gonna be about pre writing and how you kind of organize your ideas prior to writing paper 3. 3 Pre writing: So before you sit down to write an essay, it's always wise to start with some pre writing. It can seem like an extra step, but ultimately will save you a ton of time and effort in writing in reviving. If you want to see an essay writing approach that combines pre writing and the essay writing process into one group of integrated steps, you can check out my other class, how to write an essay and 30 minutes. But this lesson looks at the more traditional approaches to pre writing and proofreading steps that would normally be taught in a one at one class. So what is free writing? It is the first part of the writing process. It's organizing your thoughts, gathering ideas, making connections. It's getting your ideas on paper and developing a rough idea of what you might want to look alike. And it's a really great way to break writer's block so that her about six types of pre writing that are are commonly approach there. Thinking, questioning free riding, listing clustering in mind, mapping and outlining the first step is normally just thinking, Um, it's just thinking about potential connections without any real organized process. You can try thinking about your paper in the shower or while driving to class. I cannot tell you how many times I did that. When I was in college, I had a long commute. It was about an hour each way, and I wrote so many of my papers. Just driving to and from the second type is called questioning, and this is kind of broken down into two subtypes, which are dialoguing and the journalists approach. Dialoguing is just imagining that you're having a conversation with someone, I'm say, a teacher, a friend, a family member. Whatever about the topic. What are some of the questions they might ask? What are How about the conversation? Go. What might it look like? How might you explain it? Things like that. The journalists approaches a more formal type of questioning for those who like more structure, and it asks who, what, when, where, why and how regarding the topic on its over here, we have an example from somewhere online, where you have a student who needs to write a report on the political conflict in the Middle East and questions that they might ask who was involved in the conflict. What issues most clearly divide those engaged in the dispute? When did the troubles began? And how, if they developed over time, where does the conflict seem most heated or violent? Why have those living in this area found it so difficult to resolve the situation? And how might it be resolved? Free riding is also a really common approach, and basically what you do is you sit down and you write in whatever medium works for you. Set a timer for about 3 to 5 minutes and you start writing on the top. You don't stop. Read it until the timer goes off. If you're writing with a pen and paper, don't let your pencil off the page. If you're at a keyboard in a word document, don't take your hands off the keyboard. If you're talking to a recorder, just keep talking. Don't censor yourself. It all you'll go back and you'll fix that stuff later. And then once you're done with the 3 to 5 minutes, you'll go back through and you're reorganize your ideas in a usable way. One pitfall of the A lot of students bank. If they treat free riding as a first draft. It's not, um, it's not of sufficient quality. It's not organized, often has a lot of grammatical airs, so you don't want to just do that as the first thing you do when you're writing a paper, it should be a separate step. If you use free riding. Listing is like a much more informal form of an outline. What you do is you sit down and prepared, right You list everything you can think of related to the topic. If you get stuck, she's one of the list items and write another list about it. And then when you finish your list, you organized the information into groups, and then you can use thes for paragraphs where you can use them for an outline. I don't use clustering or mind mapping much it. It doesn't work with my brain, but it's basically listing for visual learners. You write your topic in the center of the page, you circle it. They draw 3 to 5 lines out from the center, and you label each with the sub topic, and you repeat with each sub topic until you feel that you have enough information. Outlining is the most formal type of pre writing, and it normally comes after one of the other steps. Even if it's just thinking, what you do is you write the topic of the face of statement at the top of the page. You number five sections one through five, leaving plenty of space between them. Number one will be introduction, and then a sub topic labeled Jesus 234 will be the body, and five will be the conclusion. And then you'll write major ideas approves under each of the heading to help you determine what will go in each paragraph. So some tips to keep in mind. Don't censor yourself. The goal at this point is to get as many ideas on the papers you can. If one type of pre writing doesn't work before you try another. As I said to you earlier, mind mapping or clustering that does not work for May. I tend to be more about thinking and dialoguing and outlining sometimes listing, Um, so there any combination claim. Mix them up to a lot together. You need your important to remember that rewriting or pre writing is only the first step. Rewriting is gonna be the last step you'll need to reorganize or at least edit the information when you actually go to writing. And this process should not take long. You should not spend hours on pre writing and should just be about 10 to 15 minutes at most . A trip to the grocery store often is enough to do some sufficient pre writing, at least the thinking part. You shouldn't you spend three weeks pre writing before you write a paper that would be ridiculous than it would definitely defeat the purpose. So that brings us to the end of this lesson. If you're doing the concise experience, you should think about some topics that you might want to write a paper about. If you're doing the full class experience using one of the above techniques, develop a question or sentence about one of the following topics. And these are describe a perfect first date. What's your favorite book or food movie? Why, what are some reasons that you're taking this class and these air actually really common? Um, one of one topics for actual classes. I've seen a lot of teachers use these. I use the mother myself, then then you want to try some of the prayer writing strategies above to organize your thought. In the next section, we're going to talk about the five paragraph essay format. You may already be familiar with it, but still a good idea to recap it because it is kind of the foundation of all academic writing. So when you're ready, we'll start on that. 4. 4 The Five Paragraph Essay: the five paragraph form is the most commonly taught, approached essay, writing and for good reason. It's very structured, even to the point of being a bit repetitive, but it could be easily adapted to any type of us say it is suitable for an essay that is a page long or a chapter of a book with appropriate alterations. In other words, once you learn this format, you can easily adapt it for just about any type of performance, informative or persuasive writing in the class I mentioned earlier how to write Nestle in 30 minutes. I take a completely ridiculous premise that everyone who gets a speeding ticket should be executed, and I use the five paragraph form to demonstrate how you could make just about anything sound good. Using this format, which is one of the reasons we teach it so much, is pretty easy to make things sound really nice and formal without a whole lot of effort. This is an overview of what we're going to talk about. As I mentioned before, the form is both flexible and it is structured. It is comprised of three parts. The introduction, which provides contacts. It introduces the point of the paper the body, which is where the evidence and analysis occurs, and the conclusion which recaps the major parts of the paper and addresses and significance . The backbone of the paper is the thesis statement, which presents the argument and provides a roadmap for the whole paper. Thesis statements are really important and we'll actually talk about them in detail in the next lesson, which is dedicated completely to thesis statements. So this is a basic outline of a five paragraph essay. The introduction starts with a hook which is just something to draw the reader in, and it ends with thesis statement. There are three body paragraphs and all of them are introduced with the topic sentence that explains the purpose of the paragraph and possibly ties it back to the thesis. Then comes the exposition, which is a fancy word for the body of the paragraph, for the evidences and finally body paragraphs and with the transition sentence, which summarizes what has been said and I had significance if need be. The conclusion starts. But paraphrasing the thesis statement that it recaps what was said in the paper, then ends on the so what factor which is the main take away, that you want the reader to well, take away from the pain. You may have already noticed the i p a pattern in the description of the paper. So here's another way of looking at how it all comes together. At the essay level, you have the introduction, which is obviously the introduce the body, which is where you present the evidence in the conclusion which is where you analyze it. At the paragraph level, you have the topic sentence, which introduces the paragraph. The exposition, which presents the evidence of the transition sent into the lead out, which explains the significance at the evidence level. You have a lead in which introduces the evidence, you have the evidence which is presented, and then you have the analysis which analyzes the significance again. You've got introduced present, analyze at all of those steps. So end of this lesson, and I know that there are probably a lot of questions still about how to do all this and about how it all comes together. That's OK. We'll be covering this in more detail in future lessons. You can also look at some of my other classes, which go into some of these concerns in more detail. In the meantime, here are some tips to keep in mind. You can use the thesis statement as a road map. Right the body first. I know it sounds counterintuitive, but it's actually a lot easier if you do it that way right now. Outline. Before you even start the body. Don't stress out. Remember that the first draft is never perfect. Give yourself some room to make mistakes. And if you get stuck, just explain your thought process That brings us to the end of this section. There aren't any exercises at this point, but it might be a good idea to take some of the pre writing from previous lesson and start thinking about how you might turn that into an essay. When you're ready to move on to the next lesson, we'll talk more about developing thesis statement. It's 5. 5 Thesis statements: the thesis statement is only one or two sentences, but it's important enough to get its own lesson. This is because a well written thesis statement gives you a solid direction for writing the paper, and it gives the reader and you something to refer back to as an anchor. Most of the time, if a paper is struggling with organization, there's a problem with the thesis statement. I know that sounds like an oversimplification, but it's true. What is a thesis statement? It is a short, specific statement that outlines the purpose of the paper. It is a road map for both you and the reader to follow. It is a sort of summary of the paper you intend to write. It is typically the last sentence of the introduction, and it is a compressed form of the argument that you intend to make. It's worth talking about what makes a thesis statement work. Well, I like memory. Eight. So I've arranged these to spell Cassa concise, arguable, specific, inappropriate thesis statements should be concise. They should only be a sentence or two any longer than that, and it's easy to get off track or confused the raider. They should also be arguable, meaning that it is possible for someone else to argue against you. This also means that questions easily answered by Google are not good candidates. The thesis statement should be specific. You think that a less specific thesis statement would make the paper easier to write, but it's actually the exact opposite. The more you can nail down your argument here, the more likely you are to have a solid argument and to be able to stay on track. And when I say appropriate, I mean that it should fit the paper that it should contain a claim. In some indication of the evidence being provided. As noted previously, thesis statement should be arguable. That means to demonstrate a good one. I need a potentially controversial topic. The examples below may or may not represent my personal beliefs on the matter. We talked about Castle in the last life. Now we need talk about claims and evidence. The claim is the point. You're trying to make the evidence of the main topics areas that you will use to make that point. There are many, many ways to do this, but again, I like things that are easy to remember, and I found that these formula are really helpful for a lot of students. Of the two forms I tend to teach our X equals April's people see an X equals lie in both X is the claim. So in the first example, vaccination should be required for all Children. Is the claim the pieces of evidence or ABC, and why, in the 1st 1 the pieces of evidence are they prevent illnesses? A. Protect those who cannot safely be vaccinated b and prevent irritation of dangerous market microorganisms. See in the 2nd 1 The claim is, all Children should be required to get vaccinations. And the evidence why is because of the many ways the vaccinations protect both the individuals and society of X equals Y is better when you're looking at a much longer paper , the X equals a plus, B plus C is better for your beginning papers or five paragraph essay, something that's only a few pages in classes. In particular, you will probably have a prompt. Even if you don't, you probably have a research question. Writing the thesis statement is in large part about turning that question into a declared a statement. This slide looks at how you can use the prompt to write at least half of the thesis statement, So the first step is to reduce the prompt to a single question. So the question waas describe the perfect day or what is the perfect date? Then you would want to restate that as the question as the first part of a new Senate. So the perfect date ISS just normally take like the second half of a describe the or what is the to use that measure your new sentence, and then you finish the sentence with your evidence. The perfect day is at a nice restaurant with a man I love and involves excellent conversation. That's really all you need to do to write a thesis statement. So this is basically a recap of what we just talked about, but it's worth repeating. Ah, thesis statement describes your claim to take on the subject and the evidence you will use to support it. It should not be an easily answered question like when was the Declaration of Independence signed? Another reader should feasibly be able to disagree with your position, and it should only be a sentence or two. So that brings us to the end of the section. We will talk Maura about specific types of thesis statements when we get to the rhetorical modes on and how did to customize those two different kinds of papers? Um, at this point, you should have a solid grasp on pre writing the overall form of the five paragraph essay and how to write a thesis statement. So at this point, what I want you to try to do is write a thesis statement for one of the following questions . Describe the perfect for state. What is your favorite book or movie? Why and what are some reasons you're taking this class, and these are actually prompts that are used pretty frequently in one on one classes when the next section will get writing the asset itself. So when you're ready, move on. 6. 6 Writing the Essay: With the exception of perhaps the research paper section, this is the longest one in the course. In this lesson, we're going to go over how you write each of the sections of the essay. In other words, we're gonna talk about how to write the introduction, the body and the conclusion later, we'll look at how to adjust this basic process for different kinds of papers. Next two slides airmen, a sort of an overview ups after pre writing the next step just called drafting, which is the process of actually writing the essay. It is normal for a paper to take multiple dress when you're learning this form. It's often easiest to work from your thesis to use an outline and to remember I p. A. And this light looks at the general process. It sounds counterintuitive, but I recommend writing the body of the paper first, especially when you're first learning how to do this. The introduction and conclusion are a lot easier when you have a strong idea of what you're introducing in re capping after the body, which we'll talk about in a second. You write the introduction, which starts with the hook and narrows to the thesis. It starts with general information, also in an aristo thesis. Then you'll finish with the conclusion, which starts with the thesis and zooms out to more general information and the so what factor, which is the significance. It's in perfect, to be sure, but we also you often use an hourglass to show the movement through an essay, and the relationship between the introduction and the conclusion and the body, which is the body, is the heart of the essay. It's where the important information is housed and explained. It also tends to follow a more rigid structure than the other two parts. And that connection these next few slides walk you through the process of writing the body of an essay again, there are many ways to do this, and this is a particularly methodical one. I prefer to teach it this way because it's very difficult to mess up, but you will probably adjust this that you get. But as you get better at essay writing, so you take your thesis statement and you use it to form of a sick out. One for thesis was, the perfect date is in a nice restaurant with the ideal significant other in a lot of interesting conversation in the first body Paragraph would describe the restaurant it, but you're a The second body paragraph would describe the ideal significant other. It would be the B in the thesis, and the third body paragraph would describe the conversation. It would be the sea and the X equals a plus B plus C four. Then you write the first and last sentence for each body paragraph. The first sentence is called the Topics, and it's a sentence that states with the paragraph will be about and how it relates to the thesis. The transition sentences the last Senate for your body paragraphs. It is the seventh that read kept what was just said and connects it back to the basest. And if you remember these air, the I in the A from the i p. A at paragraph love. So this is our outlined so far, and it may feel kind of impressive that you have this much of the paper after just writing a thesis and six, you know, sentences for the topic in transitions. So your introduction ends with your thesis, which is the perfect date is in a nice restaurant with the idea of significant other and a lot of interesting conversation. Body Paragraph one described the restaurant. You got your topic in your transition sentences. The topic is the perfect restaurant has a nice ambiance in my favorite dish. Stake in the transition is the ambiance of the choice of food. Create the backdrop for the perfect date for body paragraph two. You're describing the ideal significant other. The topic is, of course, to be the perfect date. I would need to be with the right kind of person, and the transition is having a date whose whole dark and handsome is part of making the day perfect. And you may notice that the topic in the transition sentences air basically saying the same thing. And that's part of this form. Ah, body paragraph three. The topic would be no date could be perfect without good conversation, And the transition is talking about future plans and hobbies will make the evening all the better. So now we'll talk about what comes between the topic in transition sentences, so the topic in transition sentences provide clear boundaries for the paragraph. So now we feel in the middle. You'll introduce the evidence with the leading and you provide the evidence and you analyze or explain the significance. And we'll talk more about that in the the lead in introduces the quote of the evidence. It's the I in the I p A. So some examples are according to so and so so and so says the perfect date is one of the things I look for. It's basically the part of the Senate's or a sentence that introduces the evidence. Then you'll present the evidence. Whatever that is, it's the proof itself. I'm some common forms of evidence or data quotes, examples and anecdotes. Data, quotes and quotes tend to be used more with research papers, and we'll talk about that later. Um, but then what's important is it's just anything you used to prove your point, even if it's just you telling a story, and then you analyze the evidence that you've provided, so you'll tie it back to the thesis. Why does this matter? And what does it tell the Raider? Don't assume that the reader knows what you're thinking or talking about. Explain it to them, and if you get stuck, just explain why you chose that evidence or your thought process. So I'm not actually going to read this slide. But it shows you how all of this has put together an outline format. I will give you about 10 seconds, though, to just kind of look over it and read everything that's happening so far. Okay, so now we're gonna move on now we're gonna put it all together. This first paragraph is an example paragraph to show the pieces arranged. So this is a topic sentence. After that, I lead into the evidence and then I provide the provide analysis of the evidence ensures that the reader understands what I'm talking about. It's important to include all of these elements. The topic sentence the lead in evidence analysis and the transition sentence to ensure unorganized paragraph. The second paragraph is just one paragraph from the previous examples that we've been talking about what it would look like on the page. So the perfect restaurant has a nice ambiance of my favorite dish stake. In an ideal day, it should be quiet enough for me to hear my partners conversation. But there should also be some music. Another thing that helps set the mood is warm. Lighting the ambience and the choice of food create the backdrop for the perfecting, and so you can see in there that you have your topic sentence. You lead in to the evidence in an ideal date. Then you provide the evidence, explain why it's important, and then you come back to the transition. So now we're done with the body, and it's time to work on the introduction and conclusion. I'd like to teach these together because they're essentially mirror images of each other production. Your goal is to make it from the hook to the thesis. The hook is any piece of information that draws the reader in some common forms are an anecdote like kind of a short story. Ah, surprising fact data or a quote. Then you want to get from the hook to the thesis. So in between, you'll have transitional information or background that the reader might need to know to understand the rest of your paper and you end with so the process of getting from the hook to the thesis did you start with the hook. Then you briefly explain the significance of your hope. In other words, Why did you choose it? Then you write another sentence, explaining the background information that relates to both the hook in the faces and to you , the conclusion is actually a little bit easier to to format. It can be harder to write, but so you'll start with the thesis. It will often recap the major points in the paper in the middle of it. If you get lost, just restate your top again your transition sentences again. As I said, this is a really repetitive form, and it will end with the so what factor? So so what factor is why is the reader reading list what's important about it? You know, Why does it matter? What do you want the reader to gain from reading this? So some tips to keep in mind? Um, this is a good approach for students who have never written an essay before. Once you get used to it, it becomes second nature, and it could be adapted for more advanced papers, such as a research paper. I can write a quick five paragraph essay in less than 10 minutes, but I've been doing this for a long time. I remember everything follows I p A. So if you're not sure what to do, just keep thinking about that. Introduce presented, analyze pattern and let the paper guide you. If you're struggling to right, then go back to the thesis or try a different angle. So we've gone through a lot of information here. We've talked about how one estate works, how to write topic in transition sentences, how to introduce present an analyst evidence how to put all that together to make body paragraphs and finally, how to write the introduction and conclusion. Now what the exercises for this part. So if you want the concise experience just kind of mentally flesh out paper using the outline from the previous step and if you want the full experience using the outline from the previous step complete B s. A. If you need to take a little time to little this jail before doing the exercises, go right ahead. I know it's a lot of information, and when you're ready, we'll talk a little bit about revising and editing and some techniques that you can use for that 7. 7 Revision and Editing: So you've done your pre writing and you've written your first draft. You done right. That's what a lot of students think. And finishing the conclusion is only the end of the first draft. Now, the good news is that most of the work, at least for a college level essay, is done. These last steps generally don't take a lot of time. I'm also well aware that most students aren't going to spend a lot of time on revision, so intentionally teaching approach that requires very little under that heading. Nonetheless, it is an important topic to cover, and these air good techniques toe have for any writing. So why should you bother with this and polishes the paper makes it easier to read. It helps you get a better grade and allows you to fill in any gaps or further explain information, and it gives you the opportunity to so some differences between revision and editing. And I admit this is a little bit of a pet peeve for me up. So a lot of people conflate proof reading with revision and with editing, they're not the same thing. Uh, revision is seeing something in it. It is revising it is making major changes, normally 20 to 30% of the paper. It is cutting large portions or adding a lot of new information. Editing is making small changes, fixing spelling mistakes, adding transitions, minor rephrasing in rearranging. And if you're on Lee looking at spelling and grammar, that's proof reading. As I said before, the approach used in this class is intended to involve minimal editing did still a good idea. So the next several slides look at different types of problems with papers and how to address them. This section of the lesson is on diagnosing issues with the big stuff first, and then it looks a tsum techniques for some of the smaller. So what do you do if you worried about content or the quality of the argument? So your problem is that the thesis and the paper don't match often is easier to destroy. Vise the thesis than it is to revise the entire paper. But do make sure you go in and double check that your topic in transition sentences. Also, we're in good shape if you do that, so you're worried about content check to make sure that you're following. I P A. For each point. Make sure that you're connecting your arguments back to your thesis statement and look for any gaps in the arguments or things. So what do you do if you're worried about organization and structure Normally competing? Completing a reverse outline is a really good step. So to do a reverse outline you read through your paper and you write a one or two Senate summary in the margins that describes the main topics. And ultimately, each paragraph should be able to be described in one sentence. And you can actually use these this topic in transition sentences. And if you need three or more sentences to describe a paragraph, it maybe need to be expanded into other paragraphs. Another thing you can do is double check your topic in transition sentences. And remember everything in the paragraph should relate back to the topic. Transition sentences, which in turn should relate. So what to do If you're worried about the little things you're worried about flow. You should read it aloud. This is the best way to pick up minor issues, and you can check to see if you can add a word phrase or sentence as a transition toe link Ideas. If you're worried about grammar, mechanics, word choice or other minor issues, read it aloud. Get a second para vines and let it sit and come back to it. Often letting it sit is a really, really good step. If you can afford to. Once you forget what you've read, you'll come by or with Britain. You'll come back and you'll read it with a different So some tips to keep in mind. Um, so when I'm revising or editing, I don't wanna have to go back and forth between the paper and checklist. I don't have to use a checklist at this point, but when I was starting. So I've developed nothing up another Mamani device for the steps for proof, reading and editing, and I call it really, so we keep it real. You start by reviewing the content and the organization. So does everything relate back to the thesis? Is all of the information help your argument, and is there anything in the paper that doesn't belong? Then you'll evaluate the organization. Do the ideas follow a logical order? Do you have topic in transition sentences in a clear thesis and are you following I p a. Then you'll assess the little things like grammar mechanics flow inward choice. And finally you let it sit. You let someone else read, read it aloud, and that brings us to the end of this lesson as well as the part on as the writing basics. So for the concise experience, I want you to think about how you might have improved the previous paper based on what you've learned here. And if you're doing the full experience, clean up the paper using revision and editing techniques. The next part will introduce rhetorical modes, which of types of essays or techniques you can use in your essays to make certain points in the entire second half of the class is focused on rhetorical modes and on writing the research paper, which is the final part of it. When you're ready, let's move onto the next one 8. 8 Introduction to Rhetorical Modes: welcome back to English, one of one in the class period. This next less is an introduction to what are called. So what are rhetorical boats there? Just a fancy way of talking about common sets of techniques used in essay writing. When an essay is written predominantly in one mode, it is said to be written in that mode. For example, if you wrote an essay in which most of it was a story told us a narrative, we'd say it was written in the narrative mode. Rarely Willen s a truly involved only one mode, so it's best to think of them as approaches or templates TSA writing that make your job a lot easier. It would be nearly impossible toe have an essay that was in purely one mode, so they tend to be taught in pairs, and they tend to overlap, for example, technically narration, storytelling and description or two different kinds of mode. But it's nearly impossible to tell a good story without some element of description, and it's almost impossible to describe something in an interesting way. If there's not a sense of time and so we tend to bundle these together and this one. We bundle into two and teaches the narrative descriptive mitt, which will look at a minute. Starting modes tend to work well together and are treated as one because it's just simpler that way. And also the converse is also true. These air rarely used in isolation. I cannot think of a single time when you would Onley use one mode in an asset. So here are some examples of essays that are written primarily in one mode or set of mode alongside each of the description of what the essay is trying to accomplish, and we'll talk about all of these in this course. So the descriptive narrative essay is trying to say, Here's what happened. A process analysis is saying, Here's how I do it. Ah, compare contrast Essay is saying, Here's why A is better than beer. Here's how a is different than be. Or here's how a is similar than be two more to be cause and effect is Here's how what happened and a persuasive argumentative is. Here's why I'm right. So here's some tips to keep to think about as we go into detail about some of the mode so you can think of rhetorical modes, like a toolbox of techniques that you can use for writing. You know, you might be able to pull them out a nail out with a knife, but it's a lot easier to use a hammer. You can often determine a suggested mode when reading a prompt. So for easy, describe or tell in the prompt, it's probably a narrative, a process analysis or cost effective. Say, if you see, explain how, then it's probably gonna be a process analysis or a cause or effect compare Contrast, similar different alike. All of those point to needing to use the compare contrast mode and explain your reasoning. That's often a persuasive, argumentative. And if you use the prompt to write the claim part of the thesis and used the X equals a plus B plus C form that we've talked about. You have everything you need for an outline. Justin That set. So that brings us to the end of this lesson. We've covered an overview of rhetorical methods, and since this is just an introduction to the topic, you don't need to do anything when you're ready will move on to the next section 9. 9 DescriptiveNarrative: the first set of modes that were covering is the descriptive narrative. No, don't let the name scare you. This is something you already do every day. When you tell a story. The difference in the story and an essay is that an essay? The narrative of the description is being used to illustrate a point or to prove your thesis. So what is this? A descriptive motor of descriptive essay is a type of essay or set of techniques that uses the five senses to illustrate objects seen or event as if the reader were there. The narrative is a type of essay that recounts a story or Siri's events in chronological order, so it approach it. Unlike a story, there must be a clear purpose in the retelling, and it must relate back to the thesis statement, just like in a normal S I. One of the most important aspects of the descriptive narrative essay with Mode is well, description. Description is anything that appeals to the senses. Traditionally their five senses, but increasingly 1/6 kinetic is also being taught. And so these are site. So, for example, the bushy tree was covered in white blossom. You can see that. So that's something that appeals to your sense of sight smell. It smelled lovely and sweet, like my mother's for few. You can imagine your mother's perfume. Or you can imagine something that smells sweet and appealing to your sense of smell. Touch. The flowers were soft and delicate in my hand, so you can imagine what that feels like. Taste. The apple tasted crisp and sweet on my tongue, hearing I could hear the whistle of the wind. Does it blew through the trees. You can imagine what that here's but sounds like. And movement or kinetic. The wind moved quickly, like cars passing by, and the kinetic sense is just illustrating movement. You don't use it as often as the at last five, and most glasses don't require it. But some do, so I want to do it. The descriptive narrative prompt will either ask you to describe something where it will ask you to relay some sort of story or event. So here are some examples. Describe who you want to be after you graduate, right? A paper describing your favorite summer vacation right about a life changing event, what happened and how or why did change you and tell me about the most important moment in your life? And these are all prompts that either I've used drop seen other teachers used in a one on one, so your faces approach. You can see some common words or phrase often included in prompts for this type of paper, so describe in detail tell how something looked, felt, smelled or tasted and make the readers see with their own, I imagine. Think of a time you suddenly realized pretend or tell me about our common beginnings to descriptive narrative prompt. These will always have to do with telling a story or destroyed on this side. We're gonna look at an approach you can use to develop a thesis statement from a narrative descriptive, prompt. And this is kind of building on what we talked about in the previous. So when you see the prompt underlying the keywords and then underlined what comes after them and use them to start your thesis, and you can do this with any other months. So if your prompt was described the most impactful moment of your life, the claim would be the most impactful moment of my life. Waas, and then you finish the sentence and include any evidence if you need to. So the most impactful moment of my life was when my mother died because I had to learn to fend for myself. We moved and I had to leave my friends behind, and it taught me an important life lesson about mortality. And as you can see, this also follows the X equals a plus B plus C format that we've talked about before. So X is the most impactful moment in my life. I've talked about here with the claim, which was when the mother died. The A is. I had to fend for myself, be as we moved and I had to leave my friends behind. And the sea is it taught me important life lessons about mortality. And so for evidence, will generally want to pick three items or situations that you can describe or three so writing approaches. The best way to do this is to focus on these three things that are about to pop up on your screen, focus all on details, using the senses on writing a compelling story and explaining the progression of events. And if you focus on those things and tie them back to your thesis. You'll be fine. So here's a sample outline were just kind of building off of the feast of statement we had before. The most impactful moment in my life doesn't. My mother died because I had to learn to fend for myself. We moved and I had to leave my friends behind, and it taught me important life lessons about mortality. So for the first body paragraph, you would describe how mom used to make me breakfast to help me get ready for school. And so then you describe what it was like after her death, and you talk about having to get a job to help with the bills in the second body paragraph you might describe to save the day that you said goodbye to your friends or what it was like in the new town in new school. And in the 3rd 1 you would maybe look at mom in the hospital bed, seeing death everywhere and being afraid you'd lose your dad and your sister, too. As you can see, all of these have to do with describing and the events being described tell a story as you go. So some tips and tricks. Imagine that you're telling a story to a friend or a family member. Clustering. Mind mapping Enlisting are especially helpful here because they help you isolate details and recall the events and try to remember everything you can if you need to sit down and kind of jot down a journal before writing this kind of estate go. That brings us to the end of this section, um, your exercises for the concise experience or should just write a thesis statement for a potential descriptive narrative essay. If you want the full experience right, a 3 to 500 word descriptive narrative essay, Start with pre writing and developing a thesis and make sure you include topic in transition sentences, evidence and introduction or conclusion or an conclusion. Um, I didn't include prompts here, but there are prompts in the other lessons. And of course, you can use the what was the most impactful moment or any of the prompts in this lesson, when you're ready will move on to the next mode, which is process analysis, which is another scary sounding term for something that's actually really simple 10. 10 Process Analysis: process analysis is a fancy phrase for how to like a how to guide. It also describes accurately what the goal is here. You want to explain how a process works, too. So what is a process analysis? Taking the reader step by step through a process, activity or event? So how to essay or it's a set of directions. Examples of some process analysis, prom. So describe how you make your favorite meal. How can you make the world a better place? Described the step and the basis approach The process analysis prompt is always gonna pertain to how something is done. Explain how to explain how you what are the steps in and like with other essays. Just take the prompt and rephrase it, so the prompt is explained. How you make your favorite dish of thesis claim would be depths and making my favorite dish are. And then you had a summary of the steps. So the steps and making my favorite dish sushi are to first prepare the rice, then prepare the fillings and finally assembled the roles. Best advice that I have for this type of essay is to imagine yourself giving a professional presentation at a conference or a similar type of event. You wanna walk your reader through each step of the process of its if they had no idea what you're talking about, but they probably don't. And remember, you're the expert here, so you can also imagine explaining the process to a friend or family. But that often ends up being too informal. And unlike other academic essays, it's generally okay to use the pronouns you and you were, which makes this off much easier type of best say for a lot of students. And we'll talk about the ban on second person. Pronouns only get to the research paper, so here's a sample outline. So if I was to expand that last thesis the steps and making my favorite dish sushi, or to first prepare the rice that prepared feelings and finally assemble the rolls, the first body paragraph void involved the steps for making the right. So add water, salt and rice, the rice cooker hook for the appropriate on time at the sugar and mirin and let it cools, and the second body paragraph would build on that with preparing the fillings. So while the rice is cooking cut the vegetables lengthwise into thin strips into the same with seafood, then make sure to use different knives and cutting boards for vegetables in sea food because of food safety. And finally, you would get to the assembling of the roles, and this is most difficult part. So you give about ST Tail so you place a piece of nori shiny side down on the bamboo man and covered with about and quarter inch or so of rice, and you leave about 1/2 an inch of the top there, and you put the first row fillings lengthwise, about one inch from the bottom. You'll add about two to stream or feelings. You don't want to fill more than 1/4 of the rights with these feelings of otherwise, it gets too bulky and you can't cut it up. And so then you'll pick up the bottom of the mat. You'll start rolling sushi and make sure to keep the pressure even as you do it, and finally, you'll steel the role by wedding the top half inch, and then you cut into pieces and you serve it. If anyone wanted to know how to make sushi, that's actually How do you do it? Here are some tips and tricks If your reader will need to gather materials than you can use that for part of your introduction, or you could make it your first body paragraph. It's good for if you're trying to fill out some space, make each paragraph a group of steps, so try to think of it is showing the process in three steps, since there are body paragraphs, three body paragraphs, and if there are common mistakes or pitfalls, you can also tell your readers, so that brings us to the end of this lesson. The exercises, for this lesson or for the concise experience, write a thesis statement for a potential process analysis as, say, and for the full experience, right, a 305 100 word processing that Let's just say that starts with pre writing and a thesis, and make sure you include the topic in transition sentence evidence in an introduction or conclusion. You want some topics making your favorite dish or hobby are really good ones to start with because you already know how to do that, and you can visualize yourself going through the steps and when you're ready. We will get another type of essay that involves skills you already do every day, which is the comparing contrast. 11. 11 CompareContrast: compare contrast essay is one that gives a lot of students trouble. I've never really fully understood why, because the same students can effectively make comparisons or contrast outside of a context of an essay. So say you're comparing an artist's new album with the previous one, and you're focusing on ways that one is better or worse than the other. That's an exercise in comparison and contrasting, and it's the same kind of thing you would be doing in S. I. In fact, you might write that essay. Similarly, if you were comparing a store brand versus generic grocery items to cars or anything else for a purchase, mentally, you would go through the same thought processes that you wouldn't. This sort of essay, as with the other modes, will start out with what it is. It's worth noting that technically speaking compare and contrast are actually two different modes. But they're two modes that are so closely intertwined that there generally treated as the same like with other types of essays, you're gonna be choosing one mode to be dominant, either comparison or contrast. And then there are some other things you may want to keep in mind. so comparing contrast is exploring how things are similar or different and normally involves two items it must use the same basis of comparison throughout. So if you were comparing an apple in a car because they both were red, they really don't have anything else in common. So that's not gonna work very well. I mean, they also are commonly assessing why you may have heard the phrase about comparing apples to oranges is a way of saying not to compare to things that are not like. But that metaphor is actually a good starting place because apples and oranges do have important things in common. They're both tree fruits that both provide Jews. We eat both of them. When your bread and compare contrast essay, you want to make sure that the things being compared have valid similarities and differences from which to start from. It wouldn't work well, for instance, to compare an apple in blood because both can be read seemed to be all in apples and red today. Okay, so the compare contrast essay normally starts with two things that are similar and discusses ways in which they're different. You can do the opposite. Take two things that are different and discussed ways in which they're similar. But that tends to be a little bit harder. You want to compare to like things. For instance, two types of fruit types of cars, books, movies and it doesn't work very well if the two things there we'll get to basis and writing approaches in in a minute. But I won't take a second and talk about forming a basis of comparison. If you choose items from the start that are too similar to dissimilar. To make a comparison than the rest of the process is going to be very challenging. Ah, lot of people use Venn diagrams and lists for pre writing. You also want to choose things that either have one major similarity in a few differences or one major difference in a few similarities. And I'm really harping on this because I've seen this set of pitfalls with students so so many times, and I don't want you to be in the same boat, so a good topic would be. Apples and oranges are both fruits, but they have a lot of differences. Um, or the book and the movie are based on the same plot, but the movie takes artistic liberties that strongly differentiated from the book, so some bad topics would be one of mentioned earlier. Apples and cars can both be red, but they also have other differences. You could go anywhere with that. That's way too broad, Um, and the next one. Apples and oranges are similar in that both have efforts from a tree have skin and both have seeds. But they're also different because of the skin thickness, the place of orange and the taste of the fruit. This last one is problematic because it tries to compare and contrast way too much. It would be a nightmare to try to organize and write it so you wouldn't even half of it. You would either say apples and oranges are similar and that they're both fruits from a tree. Have skin and seeds or, you would say, apples and oranges or different because of the skin thickness, place of origin and the taste of the fruit. So there are two major approaches for compare and contrast papers. The first is called the point by point, which is what I've shown you how to do thus far, and it works really well with the X equals a plus B plus C form. So each of your three body paragraphs will focus on one difference between the two similar items. So Body one would look at the different skin thicknesses body to you might look at the different place of origin. Body three might discuss the taste. Subject by subject is better if you have ah, more vague kind of topic where you're looking at a longer paper. Each of the body paragraphs would focus on one of the two subjects. The body one might focus on apples and body to my focus on oranges. And yes, in this case, it would no longer be a five paragraph essay. It would be a four paragraph essay, but it's perfectly fine to alter the number of paragraphs and Inspector expected to a certain point, because the five paragraph essay is just kind of a basis that we used to build on the rest of academic. So the compare contrast prompt from so these air words in a prompter in an essay that would indicate comparisons and contrasts and the kind of things that you want to look for to identify it comparing contrast so alike as well as compared with either or likewise not only but also resemble same as similar to. And similarly, those are all things that indicate comparisons. Contracts, although different from, however, and contrast instead of less than more than on supposed to, but not on the contrary. On the other hand, unless and while these are all things that indicate differences, and so if you see any of those words in your prompt, it's a good bet you're looking. Eso compare and contrast thesis approach. First thing you do is identify any signal words in the prompt, just like from the previous slide, just like we've done before. So then you select your topic and do any pre writing to establish the similarities and differences that you want to discuss. Decide whether you want to use a point by point are subject by subject organizational structure. So point by point is best when you have one similarity and three or so defined differences , or vice versa. And subject by subject is better when you want more freedom to discuss different aspects of how it given pair of group of topics is similar or different. Using the thesis approaches previously discussed, then developed the thesis statement. So an example of a point by point basis dogs and cats up of mammals. But they're very different animals and that they used for hunting techniques, have different social relationships and have different have a different historical importance to the human rice. Ah, subject by subject B. A little bit more broad Cats and dogs both have a long history with humans but the nature of their respective relationship. So you've got some tips and tricks. It is really easy to go on a tangent with this type of essay, so pay attention organization focused on the pre writing. In the beginning, then diagrams and lists are two of the best pre writing strategies. I didn't talk about Venn diagrams in the pre writing section, but that's where you have those two little circles that overlap, and you've seen it a couple of times in this presentation. Outlines are also really helpful. I tend to like outlines and duck psych yourself out. Don't you think that just because the word essay is on the end of it, that this is something scary? You do this and that brings us to the exercises for this lesson. For the concise experience, you want to write a thesis statement for a potential compare and contrast us A. And for the full experience, you're gonna do the same thing that you've done with the last 23 headed 500 work. Compare contrast essay with pre writing a thesis. You also want to include the topic. Transition sentences, evidence in an introduction and a conclusion. Um, so in the next one, we're going to talk about cause and effects, which is another one that's a little bit challenging on. Then we're going to get into the meat of writing a research paper and talk about persuasive argumentative, which is the foundation for the research paper, and then were to talk about adding research to it. And then we'll be done. So when you're ready to move on to the next listen 12. 12 Causeeffect: Another common type of essay used in college courses is the cause and effect essay, especially in like history courses. It's very similar to a process analysis and say. But instead of explaining how to do something, it first kisses on the causes and effects of something that's happened or something that might happen. So what is it? It is Causation is a relationship between events, ideas, tasks or something similar. It is. How something happens, is completed or happened is what happened as a result of a certain cause. And it is the causes that resulted in an effect event or if it so. Here's some example of some cause and effect prompts and some more signal words. So some prompts might be described how humans have caused climate change. Describe how the bubonic plague resulted in changes in class structure in medieval England . Describe how electricity moves through a circuit show how Hitler was responsible for concentration camps during World War Two. Um, and some of the signal words are gonna be because since therefore, as a result, consequently accordingly when that is why, in order to the reason Waas led to brought about the outcome was the end result was was responsible for then so and if so, thesis approach is most important thing in this kind of essay is focusing on the how so the first thing you want to do is examine the prompt for Q and single words the ones that were listed on the previous page. And if the prompt does not specify focus, determine whether you want to focus on causes or effects. Normally it will, though. Then you develop a list of causes or effects, and finally you write the thesis. The cause of Event X was a B and C or event X caused results. Some approaches to writing, so you wanna examine one set of causes or effects per paragraph. The focus is generally on how or why something happened rather than on what happened, and it's especially for important to focus on significa. So here's a sample outline. Um, this one is actually on how the bubonic plague effect class structure in Middle Ages England. So in the 14th century, bubonic plague helped usher in the upcoming renaissance. Because fewer labourers were available to work in this demanded higher pay, people moved to the cities and the social events lead to new genres of literature that focused on emerging class structures. As a side note, I'm a literature geek and by specialty is medieval and renaissance, so this might be a geeky topic, but it is actually something that I really love. And so the first body paragraph might be because 1/3 of the population died in the majority of those deaths were centered around the poor. Fewer people were available to complete labor, and so this resulted in higher pay for peasants and more disposable income that led to the increased patrons of the arts. It also led to surf or the surf Tums, Um, going out of favor in the second paragraph, you might look at smaller towns, no longer had enough people to support the economy. And so people started moving to cities for jobs. The urban population saw entertainment leading to the development of the arts, and then, in third paragraph, will look at writers such as Chaucer and Boccaccio developed new genre of writing that combined travel literature in plague stories. Um, and in these emerging styles not focus not just on the upper classes, as historically have been the case, but also in the lower and middle classes which were emerging. And this encouraged literature and shifting class identity. Um, back to cause and effect s a love for my little geek moment. Susan. Tips and tricks You want to focus on progressions causes effects and how something happened . It's really easy to end up on tangents on the style of writings to stay focused and lists. Mind maps and outlines are especially helpful pre right, And that brings us to the end of this lesson. So the exercises this timer similares they've been before. If you're doing a concise experience, write a thesis statement for a potential cause. Effect us say if you want the full experience right, a 3 to 500 word. Let's say you start with pre writing and develop a thesis and make sure you include topic in transition sentences, evidence, an introduction and conclusion. Um, in the next section, we're going to talk about the persuasive, argumentative mode, and these are often really difficult for students. But don't be afraid of this type of writing. Everything we've done in this course is geared toward helping you to write in these modes because they are the foundation of research papers, which, of course, is the culmination of the class. So when you're ready, we will start talking about the persuasive and argumentative months. 13. 13 Persuasiveargumentative: We're nearing the end of English one. A one in a class period, these last two sections on the persuasive, argumentative modes, and the research paper, which is persuasive, argumentative essay plus research. The most important thing to remember about these types of writings is that you're trying to convince your reader of something helpful a low. You've been doing that all along, whether it was arguing that cats are better than dogs so that your first date was the most amazing day of your life. Technically, these are two mounts, and about 50% of teachers teach them. It's such the other 50% of us combine them because they really are very similar. So I'm going to do in both here and putting them on difference lines. But I'm going to talk about how they're similar in different a minute. So what is persuasive makes the reader agree emotionally with your perspective. Through facts and emotional appeals, you could summarize it as here's why I'm right. It's generally pretty. One sided your side, and it could be written without outside research, and you kind of want emotional tone. It may use the persuasive mode in an argumentative essay and vice versa. So the argumentative mode provides logic, logical claims to show why the authors perspective is valid. It relies on objective information, such as data or other people's perspectives. It generally attempts to be balanced in address counterclaims. It generally requires research, and it has an academic town, nice little chart that I found online that describes the primary differences in the team. Men's so remember whichever mode is being used, the goal is to convince the reader of something, so the goal is gonna be the same. Either way, it's just like changes in how you do that. So for persuasive writing, the starting point is to identify your topic and choose your side. And for argumentative writing, it's Identify your topic. Choose your side and add some research of a persuasive writing. Your purpose is to get the reader to agree with your opinion and for argumentative writing . It's to get your reader to recognize that your side of the argument is valid, which again is also probably gonna be your opinion, even if you're not presenting it. As such. Persuasive techniques combined facts with emotions to convince the reader that the author is right, they often are emotion based. They do tend to ignore counterclaims. On present, only one idea that helps to establish a position which you know, presenting only the authors side. And sometimes they make claims without evidence, which is why we often do persuasive before argumentative because it doesn't require the additional evidence. Um, so for the argumentative, the techniques are fax reasons and evidence to show that the author has valid points. It tends to be logic based. It often tends to acknowledge the opposing claims. It may compare different ideas to establish a position, so that would be the compare contrast mode leaking in there. It presents multiple sides, but it is clear which one is the authors on but always provides evidence with the claim. And I've kind of geared you guys toward argumentative throughout, Really, even with persuasive, you should use evidence even if it's not from an outside source. Um, with persuasive writing, the tone is more emotionally charged and aggressive with argumentative writing. It tends to be calmer, just trying to get the reader to acknowledge the validity of the author's side. The line between the two can sometimes be blurry, so if you're sitting there and going. I don't know whether what I'm writing is persuasive or argumentative. Don't really worry about it. Just kind of worried about what you need to do to convince your author. Are you convinced your reader of what you're saying? So what is it? Continued, persuasive, Argumentative? Often use other modes, particularly narrative, descriptive compare and contrast definition illustration, which we didn't talk about here. But definition is just, you know, defining something illustration is very similar to describing, but it's just kind of illustrating how something works. Um, if I was defining a chair, um, I might define it as a wooden apparatus with four legs and a wooden back. That would be the kind of thing you do in a definition, as I illustrations right along the same lines, cause and effect is used a lot as well. So these are all typically the backbone of a research paper, and we'll talk more about those in a second. And some examples would be scholarship application essays, cover letters and love letters. And obviously, you know, cover letters are gonna be Maura unbiased and cut for argumentative side and love letters are probably not going to be unbiased. That's not gonna work very well, so they're probably gonna be more like so The most important thing to remember about the persuasive, argumentative prompt is that it's gonna ask you to take a stance on something. You should appear objective, especially in an argumentative paper, and you might look at both sides of an argument. But everything you write about should be in the service of proving why your perspective is valid or what? Your right. So it will almost always ask you to take a stance, and they often are in the form of a question. So what's the best pet? Why? Well, should you? School uniforms. You're fired in high school wire occassion. So by now, you should have a good bit of practice with writing thesis statement. So a lot of this is gonna be familiar. Your first step is gonna be to read the prompt and decide your stance. Then you're gonna start your thesis off with your stance. Examples are cats are better than dogs because or school uniforms should not be required in high school because and that you could make a list of reasons to support your claim. So cats may be better than dogs because they require less effort there. Easier keeping an apartment that really have to be trained and then add those to the end of the thesis. So cats are better than dogs because they require less effort or easier to keep in an apartment. And there, Since I'm writing approaches, remember, you're the expert. Prove it. You want to use a combination of different approaches, and it's especially important to include a strong thesis and topic in transition sentences . Here was those could be really powerful tools for convincing your reader that you were right, and it's important to explain how you arrive at conclusions. Don't assume that your for tips and tricks. This is mostly just motivation, because I find that's what most students need. They can do this. They just get tripped up on the details and over complicated. So don't be overwhelmed by this type of writing. Everything we've done has been to prevent you for this model. Believe in your topic. That makes it 150% easier. Um, and try to write something about that you're passionate about, because that two makes it easier if you believe in what you're saying that's gonna come through. So that brings us to the exercises for the concise experience. You're going to write a thesis statement for a potential persuasive, argumentative essay. Um, for the full experience, it will be the same as it's been before. 305 100 word with pre writing a thesis and topic in transition sentences, evidence, introduction conclusion. And that's normally the requirement in a one on one class. If I haven't said that before, eso in the next one we're going to expand on will be discussed here, and we're gonna talk about adding research to the mix. 14. 14 research paper: research paper is typically the culmination of the 101 syllabus, and the same is true here. This is the last set of content that will cover an English one on one in one class period. And many students dread the research paper, which is unfortunate because they could be a lot of fun. Research papers are a chance to use other people's information to establish that your point is valid and quite possibly the best one. Although my original training is in creative writing, my favorite things to write or scholarly research because it's an opportunity to explore new perspectives improved that those are worth that exploration and discovery. So what is a research paper being a little slow? It's a persuasive, argumentative essay with research. It is a paper that is improved by showing that data or quote support your claim. It is a more formal version of a block post. In fact, I have seen teachers use blog's research logs is a type of assignment instead of a research paper, because students tend to be more receptive to them, even if they're basically the same thing, and it is the vast majority of what you will don't worry. Don't stress out research papers or just argumentative, persuasive essays with research added. It's the evidence, and you're letting someone else do a lot of the hard work for you. So here's where you get to say, But don't take my word for it. Here's where these people who are so much smarter than may have come to a similar one. Really good technique is to start the research. Prague obsesses by making a research journal. So something actually learned really late, and I wish I'd have known about it earlier. A couple of months before the final draft of my graduate thesis was Do I was trying to comb through God knows how many books to figure out where that one quote waas because I didn't take note of it as I went like I should have and like my teachers more me to do. Um, So what do you do with the research shuttle? What is it as you were doing research, you want to make note of your thesis and question, and he search terms. You write down any important quotes and the authors and titles of articles that you want to use. Some would have you basically write the entire citation in the research journal? And that's not a bad idea, but I think it can. You kind of impede the process and slow you down a little bit. I'm so you can do this as a digital or as a literal journal. I actually use one note, but you can use a pen and paper if that works. For you have seen people use word docks. I've seen people use recorders. Whatever works for you to be able to gather your research in a usable way later on. So in the next couple of slides we will talk about the process of doing research. And so it's normally really good idea to start with some preliminary research if it's not a topic that you know a whole lot about, um, so you might want to start with Wikipedia. I know a lot of teachers will tell you not to do that, but my experience Wikipedia is edited by people who are passionate and knowledgeable, and it is effectively peer of you because if you put something that's wrong, someone else is gonna go through and they're gonna edit, and they're gonna correct it um Now it is not a good place to get specific articles were to actually use in the research paper because anyone can edit it. But it is still a good place to start the same with a quick Google search. You know, you still have to be careful about what you see there, but it can give you a lot of good information. And so once you feel like you know the topic well enough to develop a question, develop your thesis statement or, at the very least, a research question, which is basically a claim with. So once you've done the preliminary research, you want a narrow your scope some and hear some tips to help with that. So you want to use your thesis statement your research question to develop a list of more targeted search terms. So you put the claim in each piece of evidence in the search bar by itself, and you can use synonyms of important words or different combination of words to that often helps you start looking at sources. Um, I do not recommend trying to read each source from start to finish. You would be here until doomsday, so you skim for the most important parts control F is a god, son. Do you can find a key word and you can just kind of read around it. Um And so then he makes note of any sources that seem particularly helpful in they read those more closely. So if you're writing a research paper for a class of for academic purposes rather than just for your own enjoyment, there are a couple of other things you might want to take into considerations. So you may be required to use peer reviewed sources, which is sometimes called scholarly sources. This is the things you're gonna find in your library database. So this means that prior to publication, the article was reviewed by experts in the field. If you're in college, most of the material in your college library will be peer reviewed, so that's a great place to start. And sometimes library databases are difficult to use or potential resource is are not well advertised. One of my favorite sources that I used, um, about early water books online, um, early English books online. You had to go through this entire like maids to find it, but it's a really great force. So you want to ask your library in? Maybe check out the live guides, which are kind of pages that librarians put together to guide you through certain subjects . Um, or ask your teacher for recommended. Okay, So you've got your research. Surely you got your thesis. You've done some solid research. Now, how are you gonna put that in the papers? So you gotta integrate it? What you want to do is you want to remember i p a from the lead in from earlier. This is where this all becomes really important. Introducing, presenting and analyzing introducing often involves a signal phrase lead ins we were talking about before. So and so says according to so and so the article shows if you have a full sentence before the quote, that explains what the quote is going to be. A You can introduce it with a colon, which is a really great trick that a lot of students don't know about. So education has changed considerably over the past 100 years. As Smith asserts, Colon, this is a made up quote. Although originally based on industrial era ideals, modern education tends to be more student center um you can also use analysis for one piece of evidence to introduce the next. If you arrange the evidence well so you can have your analysis be the lead in for your next piece. But you have to be careful about how you arrange it to make that work. If you get stuck on analysis, try paraphrasing the quote in relating it back to your thesis or explain why you chose that piece of evidence and always cite your sources were not going into detail about that here because different schools, different subjects use different citation standard style guides. But it is important that you always somehow indicate where you bought your information. They're really three ways to integrate research into a paper. The first is the direct quote. We've talked about that already, so the other two are the paraphrase and summary, and these are really helpful when you need to cite a lot of information from a source and you don't want to say quote the whole book. So, to paraphrase, you, go back to the skimming step and summarized the first and last part of the piece that you're working with. Remember the topic in transition sentences. Those apply in scholarship as well. Um, and so they're really good place to look. If you're trying to figure out how to summarise or paraphrase, and if you're having trouble paraphrasing in your own words, start at the end of the quote and work backwards to rephrase it. That will keep you from trying to mimic the wording on the page, because it's really easy to do that. So a fake quote is. Although originally based on industrial era deals, modern education tends to be more student centred. And so the paraphrase might be, Smith says, that soon centered education has become more common. You see, we started with students, entered at the back and then went back by basically about halfway through the day. Quote academic voice. Um, in college classes, you'll be expected to use a very formal type of voice that I actually think it's pretty contrary to what communication is supposed to do. But that's a rant for another day. So you're not allowed to use second person. No, you're your limited first person, which is I and way um, and then Onley sometimes, um, sleeps to some really awkward writing when I and we? It's not allowed, but it happens. You're supposed to use a more film off, more formal vocabulary, no slang or colloquialisms that you're just kind of local prices. And you would imagine that you're talking to an expert in the field because there are several types of styles used by different schools, generals and fields. I'm not going to go into a whole lot of detail regarding how to cite sources, but nonetheless, it's important to note that all external information should always be sourced. Even with paraphrase and summary. Always cite your sources. There are many styles to do this, the big ones or a p a M L. A. In Chicago. But I can think of several others off the top of my head, and you want to check with your T shirt specific style guide being used in your class. We're almost done. So here's some tips and tricks to keep in mind for the research paper. You want to start early, if possible, and give yourself plenty of time for research. When I was an undergrad, Um, I would start a month before the paper was due, and I would give myself a week to develop the thesis and do pre writing a week for research , a week for the first draft and a week for revising and editing. This was a long time ago that reads smart rather than reading a lot. A lot of time could be wasted just sitting there and reading, and that could make it very overwhelming and very stressful. So try to select your your sources well and skim through re this topic in transition sentences. Instead of trying to read everything and take notes of your sources. You go. Don't make the mistake that I made with my thesis. If you get stuck, explain why you chose the evidence. You know that more than likely, that's the point you're trying to make. And don't try to do everything at once. Take breaks. It's gonna be X. That brings us to the end of this lesson for your exercise. Just gonna do some pre writing and preliminary work here for the concise experience. It's gonna be to use previously explored techniques pre writing for a potential research paper, and in the final project you'll develop that into an outline for the full experience, you're going to start pre writing and you're gonna do a little bit of research, right? A rough pieces and outline, because in the final project, you're actually going to write a paper. So we'll talk more about that in the conclusion of the class. So I'll see you there in a minute. 15. 15 conclusion: So this brings us to the end of English one a one in one class period. I hope that you all have learned a lot and that you feel more confident and prepared to start a writing journey whether you're starting your first college class or you're trying to recap what you learned before, or you just want to be a better writer kind of summary of what we learned. So we learned how to write an essay, including pre writing thesis statements, the five paragraph essay structure, tips for writing, the Body, introduction and conclusion, and revision and editing. We also learned about five types of essays of rhetorical modes, which were the descriptive narrative. Compare contrast, cause and effect persuasive, argumentative and process analysis and well, for which, of course, is your final project for the Concise Experience. Want you to write a research paper outline, including the thesis statement, the topic in transition and major pieces of evidence. Um, if you have been following along, that should be really easy at this point, and you can feel welcome to go ahead and expand on one of the previous thesis statements that you didn't one of the other sections or one of the other outlines for the full class experience, right? A research paper of 1000 1500 words with 3 to 5 sources and same there. You can feel free to use work from other lessons to go ahead and do this final. And thank you for watching. Um, if you have any questions, please ask May I love to teach. And I love to help feel free to share your work on the community. I'd love to see it on other people would, too. Um, if you like my classes, go ahead and follow me. And if you want to share this far and wide, go for it and leave me a review. I love to hear what you think. Um, and again, thanks so much for watching. I hope everyone has a great day.