Edutainment Video Authoring | David Johann Lensing | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

19 Lessons (1h 21m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Class Project

    • 3. Concern A and B

    • 4. Topic area

    • 5. Narrowing down

    • 6. Checking the relevance

    • 7. Smart Note-taking

    • 8. Conclusion

    • 9. Preparing for research

    • 10. Activities of research

    • 11. How much time?

    • 12. Case study

    • 13. Outline or script

    • 14. On the scope

    • 15. On getting started

    • 16. Intro and Outro

    • 17. On YouTube

    • 18. Last tips

    • 19. Closing

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About This Class

The class Edutainment Video Authoring (EVA) is about developing, researching and, above all, writing edutainment content.

What is edutainment? Edutainment refers to all those formats in which certain knowledge is to be conveyed in an entertaining way.

What are examples of edutainment? On YouTube, you'll find many examples of the edutainment genre, from animations like Kurzgesagt or School of Life to CrashCourse. Most likely, you've already seen some edutainment formats yourself – and at best, found them helpful!

We will focus on the video medium, but the skills can also be applied to blog posts, podcasts, and to some extent even in your studies. No experience or prior knowledge is required, only a joy in writing is quite helpful. For equipment, you only need a digital writing device (like a laptop) and no specific software. You got this, let’s go!

Who am I?

My name is David – I’m an educational content creator working in Germany, and on the side I study philosophy (about which I also produce content). For several years now, I have been honing the challenge of conveying seemingly (!) complicated or boring topics in an interesting, entertaining way.

My focus has always been more on education than entertainment – but what results from this is edutainment. And this genre comes with a special approach, especially on the script and outline level. That's why I created this class.

Where am I?

Meet Your Teacher

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David Johann Lensing

Educational Content Creator


Hi! I'm David, a content creator from Germany, family man and philosophy student. I create digital content for education – on all kinds of topics.

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1. Introduction: Learn how to plan, develop, and write down edutainment content in the form of a video or outline as the foundation for your own edutainment videos. That is what this class is all about. You've come to the right place if you want to use videos to convey knowledge in an entertaining way, whether via YouTube or within an educational institution. And if you want to learn more about what is arguably the most important stage in edutainment video production, the writing process. Hi, my name is David. I'm an educational content creator from Germany and also a philosophy student and a family man. I am thrilled about the prospect of seeing my kids grow up in an environment full of engaging content that helps them to better understand the world around us. Because of my studies, my personal focus right now is on philosophy, which is what my main channel on YouTube is all about. But for clients and project partners, I also work on historical content or topics around the basics of scientific work, for example. Now, the variety of edutainment content is huge. That is great, that is inspiring. There's something for everyone. But what all really compelling entertainment content has in common a solid work at the script or outline level. And that is what I am all about in this Skillshare class. How do I find topics for edutainment videos, or even better, how do I integrate a system that generates topics on its own? How do I do research in a targeted but also in an exploratory way? And above all, how do I get down to writing? I deal with all these challenges every day and I'm looking forward to share my experience, some useful tips and a proven workflow with you. You don't need any experience or a specific software or hardware tools. But a little practice and above all, joy in writing can't hurt. As far as individual tools for certain steps are concerned. I always make a few suggestions as to what works well. And of course, I show what I personally use. By the way, what you learn here will not only help you for producing videos, but also for blogging about educational content, for preparing podcasts, or even for written papers in humanities courses, the skills taught here can be applied to every aspect of life in which it is a matter of bringing complex areas of knowledge into a compact form. In all honesty and to be upfront with you, although entertainment content in the form of short videos is my main job, this is actually a not only my first Skillshare class, but my very first online course, ever. And I am not so used to speaking English yet, either. With that in mind, feel free to give a feedback and ask questions. I am eager to learn and get better myself in the way I teach others. Well then, let's go! 2. Class Project: As a class project, we will develop an outline or a script from blank page to finished texts. You can follow the exact same topic and procedure that I will show in the following lessons. But you can also, and I encourage you to do this, choose your own topic and develop a text that you can then directly apply to make an edutainment video. This project will ultimately help you to independently create edutainment content for your own channel or platform. To prepare for this project, you don't need anything except a digital writing device, like a standard laptop, and an Internet connection. So nothing you probably don't already use when you are out and about here on Skillshare. So then let's dive in. 3. Concern A and B: Lesson 1 is about two seemingly similar concerns. Namely, what do you start with when you A) want to create an entertainment video for the first time. And B) you want to create edutainment videos on a regular basis. The answers to these two questions are surprisingly different. Creating an entertainment video is, as I said in the introduction, a mixture of scientific work like writing a term paper, just a little bit more fun and less strongly regulated, and content creation, that is the creation of digital content such as blog articles or YouTube videos. Youtube is only one video platform of many, but it is by far the largest and the most widely used search engine for videos. Therefore, in this lesson, and the following lessons I will talk about a YouTube sometimes when it comes to examples, inspiration, or orientation. Now, in introductions to areas of scientific work or content creation, the step of finding a topic often comes first. In theory, the first step is usually a brainstorming session in the topic area, followed by a narrowing down according to certain factors, and then a check of the relevance of the topic, thus narrowed down. That is, whether it is suitable for a video production at all, or whether there is an audience for it, for example. This approach is suitable if you are writing a term paper for the first time or if you want to create a video and get started right away. So in the case of concern A. In practice, few people learn video production just to create one video. Even more so when you buy equipment for it. But when used repeatedly, the traditional method of finding a topic proves to be rather unsuitable. Instead, I recommend a different approach right from the beginning, which can be described as smart note-taking. This is about concern B. Now what is the further procedure? First, some theory that helps to understand certain things and to get started right away. I will begin by explaining the traditional topic finding process. So you can jump right in and start developing your first edutainment video during this course, which I highly recommend. After that, I will go into the smart note-taking for those who want to produce entertainment videos on a regular basis and take their workflow to the next level. Maybe even earn money with educational content. The traditional process of finding a topic takes place in three stages. First, defining a topic area. Second, narrowing down the topic, and third, checking the relevance. More on this in the next video. 4. Topic area: First things first, our videos are not just meant to be there somewhere. They should be seen and found helpful by certain people. So the first question should not be, what do we want to make our videos about, but rather for what audience, for whom. The target audience defines our topic area. In the context of content creation, we usually talk about the niche in which we are or want to be active. All right, now you! What is the field you are in? What is your niche? If you want to produce entertainment videos for a company, the corresponding industry is your niche. Or if it is about internal educational content for employees or trainees, then the company itself, with its corporate culture and philosophy, might define the subject area to which all your videos should relate. If you produce entertainment videos for your studies or as a teacher for your students, the corresponding course of studies forms your topic area. Or, school instead of university, the school subject such as biology, ethics, or math. If you want to produce entertainment videos for your own existing or planned online project, such as your blog or channel, then your niche will come from your interests or strength. If you're producing for a business school subject or a course of study, you will quickly have a clear answer as to what your niche is. Your topic area within which you want to produce your content. If you don't have a set topic area, a niche, don't let that stop you. Especially in the beginning, committing to a specific niche is overrated. It arises by itself from, well, your interests and strengths. Can't think of any? For starters, ask yourself or others who know you well, what do you already know a lot about? Maybe more than other people do, because it's simply interests you. You don't need to have a university degree to be able or allowed to communicate your knowledge to others. But in order to be able to share some of your knowledge, you should undertake some kind of self-study. That means really immerse in your topic. Look for literature or good websites. Read a lot, listen to podcasts, watch videos, get to know your niche in detail. This will always be a great help in the following lessons and in all the different stages of video production as well. In lesson 2, you will learn about my research methods and how you will get lots of valuable input in a short time. So here's a simple first action step. Define your topic by figuring out who you are producing four. This will help you to start your own entertainment video mission with a clear view. 5. Narrowing down: Okay, once you have mapped out your topic area and you are clear about your target audience that you want to produce for, the next question is, how do you come up with individual topics within your area or niche? Topics that are suitable for individual videos, or better yet, for a first series of videos. As I've mentioned once or twice, edutainment videos are a mixture of scientific work and content creation. The good news though, for edutainment, there are no such a strict or strategic guidelines in terms of topics and titles as there are for term papers in university, for example, or even for blog articles in the race for the Google ranking. But search engines play an important role for us, too a quite useful one, as you will see in the next section. But too much creative freedom makes it hard to find a beginning and an end and a good arc from beginning to end. In other words, to be creative, some limitations can be very helpful. The important thing is to not perceive a topical limitation as a restriction, but to see the creative space that results from it. Okay. What does that mean? If I now name some categories that can be used to narrow down possible topics, then don't take them as strict guidelines, but let yourself be inspired, play with them. It is not a matter of deciding on one category, but rather of choosing several from which a meaningful topic narrowing down results. Okay, let's see some examples. There is first, spatial narrowing down by continents, countries, cities, areas, depending on the niche, even a focus on a certain biotopes or even body regions can be relevant, as demonstrated by the animated series, »Once upon a time... life« from the 1980s. Second, narrowing in time by eras or years. There does not have to be a connection between a video length and the time frame covered. Focusing on a generation like the millennials or events like 9-11 or the fall of the Berlin Wall would also be a kind of narrowing in time. Now, third, the focus on a person or a work as a limitation, does not have to result in a biographical video or a review of something. A person or a work, be it a work of architecture, a book, a movie, a musical, or even a theory, can also serve as an example to illustrate a more abstract topic. Speaking of examples – to explain a physical phenomenon, you could do that with the reference to a particular invention or experience. It can be even your own experiment if you're feeling up to it. I wouldn't. Other examples – to make the principles of scientific work interesting for an audience, you can show this using the influence of Karl Popper. The horrors of the extermination of the Jews can be shown using the examples of Anna Frank or Sophie Scholl, each with their own topic focus on the Nazi era, such as the escape into exile or the resistance at home. A seemingly far too broad topic, such as the question of the meaning of life, can be discussed on the basis of answers that a single work gives to it, such as Hannah Arendt's book »The Human Condition«. Sorry that many examples are related to philosophy. That is sort of my thing. Now, action step – within your niche, narrow down a topic or some topics by combining different categories. As an interim results, you can finish the following sentence. »The topic of my video or video series is...« 6. Checking the relevance: Okay, once you have narrowed down your topic, it is generally a good idea to check the relevance of this topic. That is, whether there is already content about it or whether there is interest in it, like at all. Suitable for this as a search via YouTube. As I said, no matter if you produce specifically for this platform or not, YouTube gives you an impression of what the Internet already offers on a certain topic and how it is received. Ok, enter a few key words about your topic into the YouTube search, maybe even a descriptive working title if you have some. Now, there are three scenarios, each providing some food for thought. Scenario A – results with high click numbers, B – results with low click numbers, and C – no results. Scenario A, results with high click numbers, at least five figures depending on the topic, indicate that there is great interest in a particular keyword and that an audience exists, which is obviously already being served. You should not be discouraged by this. On the contrary, high click numbers are a good sign among the results. You can then search and look for those that come closest to your topic and then watch these results and ask yourself the following questions. What bothers me about the video? What could I do better? Which questions remain open? What could I answer? Pay particular attention to the comment sections below the videos. Are there any unanswered questions there? Or would I disagree with certain points, such questions give you ideas from which angle you could explore your topic. In this way, new aspects can be added to even frequently discussed topics. There's a lot of room for creativity, especially with broad topics. A quick tip for channels that you have identified as competitors or as good showcases. You can also display their videos by popularity on the channels video overview for research and inspiration. This will give you another impression of which topics in your niche interest many people. Scenario B – results with few click numbers, indicate that your topic is very end perhaps too specific, which can happen especially with particularly narrow topics. Admittedly, we live in a time when an entire book could be written about every area of knowledge, no matter how small, even if only a few people, then we'll read it. Nice example – in the German comedy TV show »Crime scene cleaner«, there is an episode in which Schotty, the main character, introduces us to the unexpectedly large universe of felt gliders or felt pets. These fluffy little things that you stick on the furniture so the furniture doesn't leave any scratches on the floor. Very educational, this episode. Whether it's felt gliders or felt pets or a similarly shall I say non-mainstream topic, ultimately, you will have to decide whether you want to take the trouble and time to produce an edutainment video, even with a manageable target audience. Scenario C – no results, are as rare as they are tempting these days, precisely because as I said, a whole book could be written on practically anything. If the search has not yielded any results so far, this does not necessarily mean that there's simply no interests. After all, the topic has obviously aroused enough interest in you to even consider it. And rarely are we all alone in the world with our interests. But in any case, it means that no one has yet come up with the idea of choosing this particular topic. Now it's back to weighing whether you want to risk the effort. Okay, now, three scenarios, one action step, check the relevance of your topic, be it via YouTube search or if possible, in direct exchange with your target audience. If, for example, you can get in touch with your future audience, be it trainees, customers, or students, through direct conversation. Maybe even surveys. Based on these insights decide whether you want to go to the effort of producing a video. Otherwise, repeat the narrowing down of the topic. But actually don't overdo it! After one video comes the next one. And if a topic didn't work that well, well, you will always have the opportunity to do better next time. We shouldn't start to get too sophisticated when finding a topic. So much for the theory if you are starting from scratch, as I said, this traditional topic finding method offers a good starting point for a quick start. If you have been following along, you should by now be able to come up with at least one topic on which you want to produce your first edutainment video. If you still have doubts whether your topic is really suitable, don't worry, we will continue to work on it in practice, the process is by no means as step-by-step in neatly separated stages as theory sometimes suggests. The individual steps of professional video production are tightly intertwined. That is something that you will experience yourself as you go along with this course. Especially if you want to produce more than just one video, which I kind of assume you will. And that brings us to concern B, what do you start with if you want to produce multiple videos without starting from scratch each time. Meaning effectively, what do you start with if you really want to learn a workflow around educational content creation. Here comes the ninja stuff. 7. Smart Note-taking: Online courses like this one are about learning something new, right? So let's think about this. A learning process always takes place between some kind of goal for orientation. This is where we want to go and our habits for stabilization, so that we can not only reach our goal, but also maintain what we have reached and build on it, grow beyond it. The habits are what we have to pay special attention to. If you just take the steps towards a goal without consciously acquiring the appropriate habits, then you may achieve the goal, for sure. But if you want to repeat the whole thing, in our case, if you want to produce another video, you would have to start all over again. You can do that of course, but it will increase the time and effort required so much that you probably will lose interest at some point. On the other hand, by adopting a certain habits and integrating them into your daily life, you'll make it easier on yourself in the long run, whether it's training for a marathon or video production. Now, I'm not suggesting that you get into the habit of making a video every week. And I'm not going to a lecture here about the far-reaching effects of small habits on life as a whole. If you are interested in this, the book »Atomic Habits« by James Clear is a good place to start. One thought model from this book that I find helpful is that of the three layers of a behavior change. These three layers are outcome, process and identity. James Clear recommends to think not from the results but from the identity. The most practical way to change who you are is, according to Clear, to change what you do. Now, it's not always so easy to tell which process or activity leads to which identity. That's why it's actually helpful to think from the identity or to think identity first. It is a mindset thing, though. It's just a mental attitude. At the same time, it offers a good starting point to find the right beginning if your goal is to produce professional entertainment videos on a regular basis. Therefore, simple tip, do an identity shift right at the beginning. Instead of thinking, I'm going to make a educational video now, think instead, I am already an edutainment video creator or a studytuber, be it only for the next few weeks or a month or with an output of one or two videos every three or four month. That doesn't matter for now. And who knows where this journey will take us? So this little digression on habits is why concern B might better be phrased as, what do you start with if you want to become an entertainment video creator? In light of what I just said, this leads to the question, how do you act accordingly? More specifically, what every day habit can you adopt to keep proving yourself that you are a creator? Well, one key skill for digital content creation in general and edutainment videos in particular is, perhaps surprisingly, writing. Writing is here meant as a basic and constant activity that accompanies are from capturing initial ideas, important thoughts, tips and advice, to writing social media posts to promote our videos later. In every stage of the video production, writing plays some kind of role. And at the beginning of all writing, there is note-taking. A seemingly simple thing that we do every day. Mostly, somehow somewhere, rarely in such a way that we still have our notes months or years later. And most importantly, rarely do we relate these notes to each other in such a way that ideas and topics can emerge from this linked bundle of notes. But that is exactly the point. Net-worked notes. Quick quote. If you organize your writing badly, most of what you read and think will be irretrievably lost. On the other hand, those who organize their writing well can achieve a lot, even with little effort. It is therefore worthwhile to consciously take back a step and consider whether what we do every day could not be approached differently and better. This passage comes from the book, »How to Take Smart Notes« In it, the author Sönke Ahrens encourages people to think of scientific work from a writing perspective and to systematically tackle the everyday habit of note-taking. Although this book is primarily aimed at students, it is also a perfect primer for content creation and for edutainment content production, which as mentioned, falls right in between these areas of content creation in scientific work, the system behind it is very, very helpful. The idea is not new. The slip box, which is the main topic of this book, was popularized by the highly productive sociologist Niklas Luhmann in the 20th century. Essentially it's about storing notes consistently in one place and linking them together. Nowadays, the slip box principle can be implemented in digital practice better than ever. That is because of a new generation of software tools such as the free where Obsidian or RemNote or Roam Research, which allow notes to be linked in a way that mimics thinking. To give you an idea of what that can look like... This is part of my notes linked together and this dot, this item represents my collected notes alone for creating this course. And they are linked to quite a few other notes, as you can see from these blue lines. This is a glimpse into Roam Research. In Obsidian, however, this would look quite similar, and frankly, a bit fancier. What may look and sound complicated is simpler than it seems. And it's about to take note-taking to a whole new level. For areas like content creation, this is a real game changer. The underlying system aims to make note-taking more deliberate and connected. The goal is that in this way, by virtue of an every day habit like writing down notes, as simple as that, a growing network of already roughly outlined content is created. And this content, unlike the worldwide web, is related to your own thinking, your own interests, your own topic area. From this network, that's the real clue here, do individual topics and even concrete questions and problems arise quite automatically, for which we can then produce our entertainment videos with all the more substance from our note collection. This makes traditional topic finding, well, obsolete – in the long run. Okay, but first things first, I will show you in contexts how we can harness the power of the smart note-taking in a practical example in Lesson 2, research, right now it's just about the first step towards such a system. And this concerns the so-called fleeting notes. These are all the ideas and thoughts that come to you in the course of a day or that you come across by chance. All the things that somehow strike a chord with you and that you want to capture and remember. So the first step to smart note-taking is shockingly simple. Turn the mere will to hold onto something into a solid habit. That means always record fleeting notes and ideas as soon as possible in complete sentences, including a short note on why you wrote down this or that thought in which topical contexts that is relevant for you. This helps your later self to immediately recognize the contexts and with the right software tools to come across corresponding thoughts already noted down when thinking about certain topics. Again, speaking of tools, always have the necessary tools ready for this. Exactly which ones, it doesn't really matter, but I will give you a thought. Collect your fleeting notes in one place, one way, if possible. This is easier said than done, not least because we live effectively in two worlds, in the analogue and the digital. What is meant here is not to use five different apps, or in the analog world, not to stick lots of Post-its in various places, but to keep an overview of your own notes so that you can transfer them as a bundle into your system at the end of the day or the morning of the next day, for example. And the digital realm, I myself currently use the app Google Keep for a fleeting thoughts and notes, when I'm on the go. Good alternatives would be Apple Notability or Drafts. Other apps will do two, as I said, as long as nothing gets lost. When I'm sitting at the computer, I transfer these notes to the actual note-taking tool. Currently I'm using a Roam Research where, as I said, there are cheaper and even free alternatives like Obsidian, a technical tutorial on how these apps work would go too far here. They are fortunately kept very simple and are maintained by helpful communities. In the analog world, I use a notebook and a ballpoint pen, very simple setup. I also transfer these notes promptly into the actual note-taking tool where I collect and link all my thoughts around the topics relevant to me. Now, conclusion. 8. Conclusion: You want to get started here and now with the creation of edutainment video, concern A. But you don't have yet a collection of your own notes from which topics emerge as by themselves. Then follow the steps of the traditional topic finding. You should find a suitable topic within two to four hours. I strongly recommend to start right away to participate and to gain practical experience. This is the only way to find out whether you enjoy this activity or more this bundle of activities and where exactly the challenges lie for you. You want to shoot more videos in the long run and don't categorically rule out the possibility of becoming an edutainment content creator, concern B, then what are you waiting for? It's purely a matter of attitude. If you want to be and act accordingly, then you are a creator from now on. And now that we have cleared that up, act accordingly. Get into the habit of writing down everything that seems interesting, relevant, or valuable to you with an eye on possible future videos you could produce from now on. Always have something with you to hold notes on. Don't let your fleeting thoughts or ideas get away. But remember, even if you start with this simple first step of smart note-taking right away, it will take some routine and a few weeks, if not months, time until this method really pays off. More on this in Lesson 2. See you soon. 9. Preparing for research: After finding the topic, the next step is research. And once that is done, it is time to write. Just as in Lesson 1 I want to reject this textbook notion of neatly separated stages right away. The research will accompany us all the way into the editing process. And if you collect your notes systematically from now on, slip box style, then the research practically precedes even the topic finding. No, it replaces the topic finding, it makes it obsolete. The term »research« comes from the French »recherche« and means something like investigation or search. Well, what are we searching for? For our entertainment videos, we need – information and interesting facts about our topic, suitable quotes, suitable visuals and music for the beginning, the end, maybe even the background. Well, last but not least, research serves to gain a deeper understanding of what you want to convey in your edutainment video. At best, you have chosen a topic that really interests you, because then research can be quite fun. Yeah, Yeah. After all, you can now dive into this topic and deal with it more intensively. Let's do this. 10. Activities of research: Let's start with the five basic activities of research. Note that this is not a strict sequence of steps, but more like dancing. It's a step forward, one step back, a step in a different direction. You get the gist. This part again is theory, how this whole thing is put into practice. I will show you shortly. Now, the activities. Expanding keywords – in addition to the first few key words that come to mind for your topic, also search for related terms, such as a generic or a subordinate terms or synonyms, for example, via thesaurus, and translations – optional, the English language area already covers a lot. Get an overview. Now, search the Internet using your own expanded keywords. Take into account the entire media diversity. Books or ebooks, websites, online, magazines, newspapers, but also films, web videos or podcasts. This activity is not about delving deeper into the individual content, but rather about collecting links to things that seem interesting or relevant to you. Now deepen your knowledge. This is about delving in, read up on your topic with blog articles and books with basic introductions, watch a documentary or a series of videos. The point is here to get really fit in your topic as a test of your knowledge, you can also read articles from scientific journals. These usually assume some prior knowledge. Do you understand the content so well that you could explain it in your own words? Very good. Make a selection – which websites and works are useful to you, whether it's for your basic knowledge of the topic, as a source for quotes or as tips for further reading to recommend to your audience later. Make sure your selection only includes a reputable or work. Some criteria. For example, check if you can see whether you can tell who created or authored the work. Whether this person or persons have done more and have recognizable experience in a particular field, or whether they are maybe controversial, whether they are cited a lot, that sort of things. It's also worthwhile to spot-check the publisher or the production company of certain works on the basis of other publications. Is there any obvious nonsense in their portfolio? Also important, within your possible source are there other sources cited and do the same quality standards apply to these sources? Sounds like a time-consuming, if not endless task. Yes. And depending on how serious you are about a solid source base, this activity indeed takes a lot of energy. At least with some time and experience, it becomes much easier to recognize a serious and dubious sources. Manage findings and notes, get into the habit of saving links, files, or work titles, and your initial thoughts about them in a way that you can always find them again. For files, a general resource folder with sub-folders by specific media formats is a good idea, such as PDF, images and music. The PDF folder in particular accumulates an immense amount of files over the time, from entire books to articles. But this folder is searchable by keywords. Just use shortcuts like a Control + F or Command + F. Nowadays, this search works for many files also within the full text of the PDF files, so that tagging a file is hardly necessary. However, in the file name, I would make sure to include important keywords and sometimes not to name the file after the maybe abstract title of the publication, but after the usually more descriptive subtitle. Example, there's an article I found and used called »Consuming the world, Hannah Arendt on politics and environment.« The first part of this title as abstract, »consuming the world«, I named the file only after the second part and after the publication date. It looks like this. 2013, blah, blah, blah, dot PDF. With music and image files, of course, you have to pay a little bit more attention to include important keywords in the file title or in the metadata of the file. Sounds more complicated than it is. Effectively, this means I named an image of the ancient poet Hesiod, simply hesiod-with-muse.jpg so that it is also displayed to me via search for the keyword Hesiod. In most cases, it's just really a few important keywords. Beware! For a concrete, a video project, the number of resources is so manageable that the feeling quickly sets in, »I will find that again, no problem.« But who knows when you want to revisit a certain topic or use an image again in another project? The workflow described here already serves the regular production of edutainment videos. And for this purpose, it is worthwhile to create your own resource folder or resource archive. To collect and to manage notes and quotes, you can use various apps here, some examples, Hypothesis or Liner allow you to highlight text on the Internet as well as to collect the highlighted passages. Pocket or Instapaper are read-it-later-apps in which you can store things worth reading. Readwise is a more advanced or sophisticated service that lets you collect all your reading notes and citations in a consistent way. Depending on your scientific aspirations, you can also use a literature management programs like Citavi or Zotero, that is free to use. This is about smart note-taking again, but no longer just a fleeting notes of things that randomly come to mind, but project related notes for videos you are currently working on, as well as thoughts and findings that you might want to keep for future projects as well. And therefore store as permanent notes. More on that in the practice part of this lesson. For one video of this whole systematic approach may seem excessive, but after your fourth, fifth, sixth video, you will no longer have any doubts about the usefulness of such a system. And as I said, that is what this is all about. All in all that sounds like a lot of work, but once you have done a few rounds of research, it will go a lot faster than you might think right now, especially the point deepen your knowledge can be shortened a lot depending on the depth of the planned video or your existing level of knowledge. Still it begs the question, how much time should you invest in research? That is what the next section is about. 11. How much time?: In practice, opinions differ when it comes to the amount of research required for online content. More business motivated content creators like Jim Harmer, for example, sometimes advocate no more than half an hour. And if you want to produce a blog post every two days or two videos a week, you won't have much more time to research. From a purely mathematical point of view, the informational benefits of a postings that summarize half an hour of Internet research in four to eight minutes cannot be dismissed. Those who read or watch such posts safe a few minutes of doing their own research. However, edutainment videos do not primarily serve to provide information or to save time, but rather to provide a deeper understanding of facts and contexts. Now, those who have many years of experience in a field, plus a very good memory and happened to have the ability to freely explain their knowledge in a well structured manner, those may be able to convey such a deeper understanding even without doing any research. But even then some time should go into research for one's own sources. The thing is, where does the knowledge a person is sharing come from? Where could it be looked up by the audience? As a rough guideline, I recommend investing at least two to four hours in research depending on the complexity of the topic, on the scope of the video, and your own prior knowledge. However, there is no formula like x minutes of video length equals x hours of research. The process cannot be formalized this way. Therefore, in the next section, a small case study, my own procedure for the research of edutainment video. After that, I would recommend you to spend a few days of research as well. While finding a topic was something that could be done on a Monday morning, for example, you can dedicate the whole rest of the week now to researching for your first edutainment video, or possibly your first series of videos, maybe for one to three hours per day, depending on your calendar. Take your time to practice your first workflows, create a folder structure, try out a few apps – all that kind of stuff. And you will find that research can benefit greatly from resting a few hours or days. That gives your brain some time to process the initial input and come up with new questions and thoughts. 12. Case study: Okay, I want to produce an edutainment video about the famous intellectual Noam Chomsky. As a further topical narrowing, I want to focus on the two problems with which he is primarily concerned. He calls them Plato's problem and Orwell’s problem. Very briefly, Plato's problem is dealing with how we know so much about the world when our individual experiences are so comparatively sparse, Orwell’s problem deals with how we know so little about the world even though our accumulated experience is so little. Here it already shows that my research doesn't start at zero, since I obviously have seen, heard, and read something by Chomsky before. Therefore, at some point I created a note in my note-taking tool with the simple title Noam Chomsky. This note not only contains everything I deliberately wrote in there, but, and this is the crucial thing about these note-taking tools, this node also contains a list with links to all the other notes in which I mentioned Noam Chomsky. It's called backlinking. This always reveals connections and focus for potential topics to me. Here is a quick look at »Noam Chomsky« as a key word in my notes and it’s references to any other notes. The larger the dot representing a note, the more links there are to it, that is, the more often I have already written about the noted keyword. As you can see, Noam Chomsky already has links to all kinds of topics, including Plato's and Orwell’s problem. This, however, still without specific research to a blog article or a video about Chomsky. And that is how it always is. You only find a topic and a meaningful limitation to it when you have already some knowledge foundation about a subject. As I said, finding a topic, researching, reading and writing, all go hand and hand and often run simultaneously. Still I am now faced with a problem, let's call it David's problem. And that goes like this. Noam Chomsky is an extremely busy man who has been giving interviews on world affairs for over half a century (!) and has written over a 100 books. Where is the best place to start? Here I should point out the differences between targeted and exploratory research. When I am guided by my own experience or experts and looking for tips on specific aspects of topics or specific works, then I'm doing targeted research. With an exploratory search, I don't know at first what exactly I am looking for and what to expect. An exploratory search is like a voyage of discovery through the Internet... Welcome to the Internet! Have a look around, everything that brain of yours can think of can be found. We've got mount-, ok, I start as almost always with a Google search. Because he is a US author. I ask in English about how to read Chomsky or where to start with his readings, writings, with his writings, how to start reading his writings. Damn... how to start with Chomsky. And in another tab, how to read Chomsky, how to read Chomsky. Thus the expansion of my search terms, that was point A, runs parallel to getting an overview, that was point B. By the way, whenever my foreign language skills reach their limits, I do not resort to Google and it's translator, but to the deep L translator, which provides a much better translation help. Still not perfect but highly recommended. Now, back to work. First I open all the search results that catch my eye as individual tabs with Command + click or right-click and open link in new tab. And then I skimmed the websites. There is a blog article that recommends ten books on getting you started and links ahead to an article by Noam Chomsky that should illustrate his thinking well. I read a little bit into it. Seems very helpful. Quick tip – everything that seems somehow relevant to me at first glance, I save in the reading list of Google Chrome, the Internet browser of my choice. It's like a built in read-it-later-app, like Pocket or Instapaper with less functionalities, but enough for me. I treat the reading list as a temporary folder which I empty after researching on a timely basis by transferring only the links I find really important into my note-taking tool. If your web browser doesn't offer such a reading list feature, I would simply create a folder called »research« in the bookmarks bar as a temporary location for the research results. Remember to empty this one on a regular basis. Otherwise it pure chaos. Well, the Chomsky article led me to, a database of all sorts of text and interviews by and with Noam Chomsky on all sorts of topics, very useful, certainly not only for this one project on Chomsky, but also for future projects. So I file the link to this database directly as a permanent note in the note-taking tool, in my Noam Chomsky notes. I will add the hashtag »resources«. Then it will be also listed to me in another note titled »resources«, among many other resources for possible future projects. That helps me to keep things in mind. The article that was brought to my attention is called »The responsibility of intellectuals«. I am pretty sure that I will certainly want to quote from it. I'm going to search right now to see if there's a German translation, because I want to make this video for my German audience, by the way. And yeah, when I'll type in »Die Verantwortlichkeit der Intellektuellen«, as I would translate this title, into Google, I get a German language anthology with just that title. The volume not only contains this article, but is the translation of »The essential Chomsky«, again, an English book which includes a selection of, well, essential texts by Noam Chomsky. This is exactly what I'm looking for. I am buying the book. Actually, I already bought it. Second hand, but still. This is the first time I invest more than my time and running costs for software tools like this note-taking app, for example, in this particular video. And it won't be the last book. In all, I acquired like 10 books by and about Noam Chomsky, all second-hand and for small money. But still, sooner or later costs are bound to arise in a video production, and not just because of the equipment you need. But you have to decide for yourself if and how much you want to invest in research. It's not necessary. There are enough free sources in the Internet. However, I deepen my knowledge, that's point 3 (or C) by reading some of the books by and about Chomsky. But books are not everything. On YouTube, as expected, I find tons of interviews with Chomsky. One interview stands out for me as a German. In October 2016, the German YouTube channel »Jung und Naiv« (young and naive) published an interview with Noam Chomsky. A wonderfully basic conversation about the history of humanity from the perspective of an alien, and the whole thing with a German language transcript as well. Great work by Tilo Jung. I definitely want to point that out. This interview brings me to another search term, the »propaganda model« by Chomsky. This will become, I guess, important in the context of Orwell's problem. Also on YouTube, I find a documentary on Chomsky cleverly titled »Rebel without a pause« from 2003. In it, I find some interesting quotes which I note down to possibly use them in the video. Quick tip – YouTube videos let you view the transcripts, just click on the three dots, then »open transcript«. This is sometimes just an automatically generated text full of errors, but still a help to navigate in videos. And because you can search this text via command + F or Control + F for certain terms you are interested in and thus note quotes in a more comfortable way. Now what next? Of course I search not only for the German expression »Platons Problem«, but also »Plato's problem« and come across a Wikipedia article on this very topic. Which in turn leads me to a work in which Chomsky writes about it in more detail. »Knowledge of language« from 1986. The book is not available cheaply anywhere, so I enter the title at Important – in quotation marks, that means »knowledge of language«, so that the title is searched for as a coherent search term consisting of three words. This also applies to Google search. Otherwise, there are search results only referring to one of the terms in my keyword, be it »knowledge« or »language« – that is not very helpful. Speaking of helpful – is especially helpful when it comes to the search for older writings. It brings to light many free books, for example, as PDF. I also find Chomsky's works there. Although not freely available, but for free viewing. That's enough. This requires an account at, which is also free. Once registered, you can use the platform like a library and view certain books for an hour or 14 days. However, as I said, many older ones are simply available as PDFs. Any PDFs end up in my researches folder and there in my PDF sub folder. Images are stored in the subfolder for images from that documentary, for example, I save a screenshot using the screenshot tool on my computer, but it might be more elegant to use a web browser add-in for exactly this purpose of YouTube stills for images. I saved the source of the image in the title or the metadata. The important thing is here to be able to trace everything you collect so you know where you found it. This applies not only to images, but also to music tracks which come from a limited selection of sources any way. Thus, the management of the findings, that was point 5, happens continuously in parallel. Now it's basically more of the same. Okay, we're almost done. How do I make a selection? That was point 4. This is also done a parallel to the deepening one's own knowledge. I don't even want to consider dubious appearing sources. The selection of those works that are directly used and mentioned by me depend on suitable citations and is decided when writing the script. More on that later. If you are still at the very beginning and you did not care about systematic research or file management so far, don't let this topic slow you down or even discourage you. As a system, this will develop over months and years and must grow with the appropriate habits. That's important. Without the habits, you won't know what to do with all the tools. So instead of trying to adopt every possible thing in a heavy lift right at the beginning, just test some of the tricks and tools and try out what works well for you. The next lesson will be about writing an outline or a script based on our research results. Let's do this. 13. Outline or script: In lesson 3, we will deal with the writing of the script, respectively, with the development of the outline for your edutainment video. For this lesson, you can allow yourself another week. Take it easy. Now, not everyone needs or wants a written out scripts, but get by with their notes and present them freely. This brings us directly to the question – outline or script? An outline is a mere list of key points or core sentences. If you are good at giving a free speech based solely on an outline, you can save yourself a lot of time when writing and at best, even when shooting, and at the same time, make a more natural impression in front of the camera. If you're confident enough and feel comfortable with it, do it. But keep in mind – to avoid losing time in editing and when adding subtitles later, you should make sure that you speak in a clean sections and without, preferably, without unwanted filler words or repetitions. If you prefer a script, because speaking freely in front of an audience or a camera has never been quite your thing, then of course, you are entering a vicious circle. Because you'll only get better at free speech by practicing, and hey, that's what videos are great for. You can always repeat sections. You can always start over, repeat sections. Remove, cut out the unsucc-, cut out the unsuccessful ones. No problem. Personally, I prefer to work with written out scripts for my edutainment videos, because videos are also a great place to practice scripted delivery in such a way that it sounds more or less freely spoken. Even right now, obviously, every single word is scripted. ...whatever, fly. Writing a script takes a lot of time and can be quite exhausting. Oddly enough. The hardest part of writing I once read, is not the writing itself, but the sitting down to write. Here are some reasons for a script. Saving oneself time is not always the best approach. My main reason for writing a script is to think more beforehand about how to convey what needs to be set in the most compact and concise way possible. Those saving the audience time. You're welcome. In addition, I like to provide the script of my videos for reference in the form of a blog post and adding subtitles is also much faster with an existing script. These steps serve to make your content more accessible and give some additional value. The best of both worlds is to write a script and thoughtfully lay out the content and structure as you go, and then highlight the most important points for yourself and then deliver them freely. This is not my preferred workflow about one that I think makes sense and is therefore recommended. For edutainment videos as commissioned work for clients, a script is almost essential. It is comparatively easy to make comments and corrections to the scripts. If things are conveyed incorrectly in the video, you may have to re-record and re-edit, an additional effort that should not be underestimated. Last but not least, a script gives you the full control about the targeted video length. Although with a little experience, this can be kept in mind even with an outline. This brings us to the question, how long should a script or an outline actually be? 14. On the scope: The blank sheet of paper, or rather the bright white screen can be quite demotivating. If there's nothing there to connect to or to build on, how do you start? I've had good experience with deciding on the scope first, how much do I actually want to right? Now there are no standards for the best video length, only rough guidelines that can be used as an orientation. Here are my personal guidelines for scripts. A short video, it's about 4 minutes long, based on a script of about 550 words, a normal video is approximately 8 minutes long, 1100 words. A long video, approximately 12 minutes and about one 1652 words... No, 1650... edutainment videos over 16 minutes might better be split in two videos. The word counts stand for written out scripts, of course. As I said, these guidelines offer orientation at planning, which can be useful especially for commissioned work. A few more words maybe written quickly, but of course also quickly lead to more time spent shooting and in post-production. The correlation between video length and word count is also based on your own speaking speed, mind you. I have to force myself and I also would recommend you to speak too slowly rather than too fast in front of a camera. I know that these course videos are not always the best showcase when it comes to speaking speed. I'm sorry, there's just so much to tell you! For both a script and an outline it is your own experience that counts, which you will automatically gather. As far as the right software for writing is concerned, you can go by your own habits. With Google Docs and Microsoft Word for example, I have a fixed format for scripts. It's Times New Roman, font size 12, line spacing 1.5. And then I can see at a glance, 3.5 pages is about the length of a normal video. If you also want to publish your scripts as blog posts as I usually do, you can also type directly into the block interface. In my case, that's WordPress. There's also saves you copying and formatting the script from Word to WordPress. For writing outlines, you are even more free in choosing a software. I'm working with currently with Roam Research, as I said, but you can also use Evernote or Notion, Obsidian, even Word, Open Office. 15. On getting started: Before you begin writing, here are three pieces of advice to get you started. First, if you decide to write a script, write as you speak. Just because you have consulted scientific articles in your research, do not write one now. Yes, edutainment wants to educate, but it also wants to entertain. If technical terms are unavoidable, explain them briefly, depending on the prior knowledge of your target audience, which you should now especially keep in mind when writing. Another small tip. Read your script aloud to yourself again and again and paragraph by paragraph and try out whether it can be said fluently. If it sounds awkward, rewrite until you find your rhythm. In general, simple words and short sentences help a lot. Second, whether outline or a script – tell a story. This advice may seem out of place since we are talking about factual topics. But here's the thing. Storytelling is arguably the most powerful of all humans skills. A whole lecture could be given on the power of storytelling, but I will leave it at this. Storytelling is especially important for communicating factual topics, because otherwise in most cases we don't seem to have any personal connection to them. Imagine a Wikipedia article as a video. Do you really want to see that? Our goal is not to string together pure facts in an entertaining way. We want to create a deeper understanding, present connections, and convey content in such a way that it remains in memory. Stories help immensely with this, both with a written script and with the notes that you want to present freely. From »Once upon a time...« to, »Yo, that thing, last weekend...«, good storytelling is about making connections and, at best, creating an arc. This can be a reference to your own life. For example, how you came to the topic or what role it plays for you. Or a reference to a person whose life this entangled with your topic. Be it because they made an important discovery or because they were healed or persecuted or expelled in connection with your topic. Historical events can be easily made more tangible by using the example of individual fates. But with a little thought, you can always find a connection to stories. Creating an arc, in the most basic sense, means using storytelling to connect the beginning and the end of your video by not only providing an answer to a question, the solution to a problem, or the truth behind a mystery at the end, but also the end of a story with which you started your topic at the beginning. Such an arc doesn't have to be, but it creates suspense and makes your content more memorable. Always when I say something about memory or memorable, I look at the script... well, whatever. Third, bring in structure. This is the best place to start, especially if you decide to write a script. Don't think of it as a 1.000 word block. Nothing is more discouraging to start writing. Instead, jot down a few subtopics keywords first, depending on the length of the video you are aiming for. At least four, at most 12, again, rough estimates – and keep some space between each. You will see now that you don't have to write 1.100 or 1.652 words, but just a few blocks of a few 100 words each. That is much easier. Now start with one of those blocks. It doesn't have to be the first block. But the goal of this lesson is to write a paragraph or more for each keyword or subtitle you have divided your script or outline into. For a script, use your personal way of speaking, and generally if it fits somehow, use storytelling – where the reference to a story absolutely does not have to be found in every paragraph. Storytelling can, however, help to find transitions from one subtopic to the next. And now I have nothing more to say then get to work. Try a little bit. Don't be too strict with yourself and don't let perfectionism get in your way. The outcome of this section should be an outline containing material for about 7 minutes of speech or a coherent texts of about 1.000 words. But in each case, not a final version, not even with a beginning and an end in the sense of »Welcome to the video about blah, blah, blah,« and »Thanks for watching« or something like that. For now, just write the paragraphs for your subheadings, the actual content of your outline or scripts. You can take 4-6 hours for this, depending on your time and energy in several sessions over 2-3 days. As always, the pace will increase automatically through regular writing or outlining later on. Training, training, training, wax on wax off. The next section will deal with the fine tuning, with the intro, the outro, and other elements of our edutainment video. Good luck. 16. Intro and Outro: Welcome back. I hope you had a good first writing session. Well, where do we stand? We have found a topic, done some research on it, and written a rough version of an outline or a script up to this point, great. In the previous section, I talked about scope, tone, and structure. Now let's get down to the nitty-gritty and all the little elements that make up an edutainment video. Let's start with an introduction, with the very first sentences for your script or outline. The reason we don't write it right at the beginning, but rather now is quite pragmatically that you now should know what exactly is covered in your video. And that's what you briefly touch on in the intro. The point is to give an overview in a few sentences. And thus a kind of promise what your audience can expect in the next few minutes and what not. If you have deliberately left out any subtopics for whatever reason. The purpose of this first paragraph is to save your audience time. If you jump right into the topic and start talking, the person watching doesn't know where the journey is going. For entertainment, quite exciting. For edutainment, not so popular. If you are producing for YouTube and are interested in a high watch time or if you just want to make things a little bit more exciting for your audience, you can work with »hooks« so that the viewers don't leave too quickly. You can build in hooks by asking an interesting question at the beginning or mentioning and exciting detail that is not self-evident. However, you should not bring the corresponding answer or explanation at the very end of your video. Otherwise your audience will feel artificially delayed. Instead, you can include a second hook when you resolve the first one, for example. And thus, the mystery (from the intro) is solved. But from it arises the intriguing question... Maybe a little less stagy. Last, if your video is part of a series and preceding videos are important to understand this one, then you should, of course, refer to them – in the intro. As far as the title for your entertainment video is concerned, I wouldn't worry too much at this point. Especially with public online content, there is a lot of debate about this. Should a title be descriptive or bold, clickbaity, yes or no? I argue for descriptive. For now. If I'm writing something about Noam Chomsky with focus on his language acquisition theory, I call it simply »Noam Chomsky, language acquisition theory«, just for me, for now. But maybe even as the video title for YouTube. A simple trick is not to name a video title in the video scripts along the lines of »Welcome to the video 'Noam Chomsky, language acquisition theory'.« What you mention is the topic, »Welcome to the video ABOUT Noam Chomsky and his language acquisition theory.« Instead, you can formulate your title later and then adjust it, if necessary. By designing the thumbnail, the preview image for your video, you even have the possibility to try out two titles or title variants, so to speak. And now for the last paragraph or the last few sentences of your script or outline – the outro. First of all, again, if your video is part of a series, then you should refer to any following videos in the outro. Likewise, the outro is suitable for references to other topically related videos. Be it content that you have already published or content that you have planned. The latter, however, only if you're sure that you will deliver the announced the video. And of course they don't have to be your own videos at all. The thing is, because of the shortness of videos in general, you can't really do justice to any topic. I would make no secret of this, but point out that there would certainly be much more to say about the topic and then give tips on further reading or other noteworthy content. In this sense, the outro is a good opportunity to include unused research material in the form of links or a mention of those links, which effectively can be found below the video. Content that you're unfortunately couldn't include or quote, but that is worth taking note of. What else? Well, I usually end by thanking the people for their attention and saying »Goodbye, see you next time.« But such phrases and formalities are a matter of taste and type. Do what suits you. 17. On YouTube: Let's talk about YouTube for a bit. One element that YouTube obviously can't do without is the subtle hint to comment and like the video or to subscribe to the channel. This is a so-called call to action. The usefulness of such calls is controversial. Personally, I don't like them in videos, but I am quite convinced that these calls to action actually lead to more interaction on the part of the audience. And thus to a higher reach. A necessary evil then. But one that with a little skill is easy to implement if you stick to two things. First, the timing, asking people to like your video in the first minute would be like Netflix asking us to rate a show right after the opening credits. First, you should convince your audience of the quality of your content. Then those who are still with you in the final third will be much more willing to like and subscribe anyway. Second, the manner. So that the call to action doesn't come across as randomly inserted it makes sense to consider this element already when writing the script or the outline. At best, you can integrate the call to action organically, perhaps with a topical connection or a touch of humor. Humour? Humor! As an example for an organic use of a call to action, here's one I wove into the last third of my script on Noam Chomsky. »Explaining Chomsky's theory of language acquisition in more detail would go too far here. But if there's interest in there to give the video a thumbs up and I will deliver. And while your at it, subscribe to the channel. So you can stay up to date on more Chomsky videos, too. If you want to use your recordings for a podcast episode as well, more on that in the next section, then you obviously have to cut out this YouTube specific stuff. So that was maybe not the best example of humor, but while we're at it, it's worth remembering that edutainment is also meant to entertain. Especially on YouTube humor is a factor that should not be underestimated. What's funny though, remains a matter of taste. And that makes our kind of edutainment video a delightful mix of educational, factual subject matter with a personal touch. I advice you to pay attention to a certain »gag density« already on script or outline level. Even if it's just a smirk every two minutes. For inspiration, it helps to combine your search terms with keywords like »fun«, »jokes« or »memes«. Yes, I don't always think of punchlines. I google for humorous ideas. As a German, I think I'm allowed to suggest that... because Germans don't have a sense of humor, allegedly, in case you haven't heard. In Germany, of course, we see that differently. We are very funny. And close. 18. Last tips: Let's take the time for a few more tips. In your outline or a script, color in all the longer quotes or the places where you want to insert large scale visuals. These are the places where you don't have to speak directly into the camera, but only into the microphone. This simplifies and speeds up the recording process. In case you have a script, you can simply read these parts out. Speaking of quotes, just as a reminder, as already mentioned in Lesson 2, research, you should of course have the source information for all the quotations at hand so that you can fade them in or link them when you publish the video. There is also the option to publish edutainment content not only as video but also as a podcast. For this case, you should briefly refer to the sources of your quotes also in the spoken word and mention that you link the sources below the post. To keep this podcast options open for you, it makes sense to never talk about the video in the intro or outro or in-between, but about the post, for example. So not »This video is about blah, blah, blah«, but »This post or in the following minutes we will talk about blah, blah, blah.« Also to consider, if you already know during the script which concrete visuals you want to show, remember to still describe everything on the audio track in such a way that it is understandable even without the video. Last but not least, with touch typing, you can type much faster sometimes even at the speed of thought. You can learn the system nowadays for free and online from home and with some practice and regular use, your speed will increase automatically and significantly. Why does this tip come at the end of the writing lesson? So that you don't decide to first learn touch typing before you start outlining and scripting your very first edutainment video. That would be procrastination. Big time. So that was Lesson 3. By this point, you should have completed an outline or a script for your entertainment video. If it doesn't seem perfect to you, don't worry, that will always be the case, as long as the outline or a script of yours has a beginning and ending and something in-between, take it for granted and get to work. 19. Closing: And that's it from my side. In the previous lessons, you have learned how to find topics traditionally and smartly, and that you shouldn't get too hung up on ideation. I've given you a few different research options with a call to be creative and use a wide variety of media formats. And it's important to always save source notes and include them in your video. Lastly, we went down to writing, composing a rough outline or a fleshed out script, which is best done in certain chunks. We added elements that are important for edutainment videos to this text basis, and finally, we colored it to be able to work with it better during the shoot. I really hope that all of these steps were explained understandably and that this course helped you to implement them. Feel free to share the outline or a script that you worked on as a project during this class. I'm excited to read what you wrote about and I'm happy to provide feedback. Likewise, I'm open to feedback myself. This was, as mentioned at the beginning, my very first Skillshare class. What can I do better next time? Thank you for your attention and I wish you all the best for your upcoming projects. Bye bye.