Editing and Proofreading Masterclass | Dominate Writing, Punctuation & Grammar | Nitay L | Skillshare

Editing and Proofreading Masterclass | Dominate Writing, Punctuation & Grammar

Nitay L, Proofreader & Translator

Editing and Proofreading Masterclass | Dominate Writing, Punctuation & Grammar

Nitay L, Proofreader & Translator

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47 Lessons (3h 4m)
    • 1. Introduction Video - Hidden Gems of Knowledge Await You

    • 2. Editing Preview Video

    • 3. Introduction to Editing

    • 4. Niches & Jobs as an Editor

    • 5. 6 Main Types of Editing

    • 6. Keyboard Shortcuts & English AutoCorrect Software

    • 7. Editing with Microsoft Word

    • 8. Inefficient Phrases and Words

    • 9. Clarifying Inefficient Sentences

    • 10. Redundancy and Repetition

    • 11. Fending Off The Attack Of Redundant Sentences

    • 12. Relevant and Irrelevant Info

    • 13. Eliminate The Trivial; Note The Devoid

    • 14. Hemingway Editor

    • 15. Complex Sentences, Adverbs, and Passive Voice

    • 16. Avoid Adjectives, Adverbs, and Weak Nouns

    • 17. Turn Weak Writing to Writing That Sticks You To The Page

    • 18. Sentence and Word Variety

    • 19. Add Variety; Make These Sentences Tasty

    • 20. Fact checking

    • 21. True/False? Spot Wrong Facts

    • 22. Editing Plot

    • 23. Editing Themes

    • 24. Editing Characterization

    • 25. Editing Point of View

    • 26. Editing Plot Pace

    • 27. Editing Dialogue

    • 28. Show, don't tell

    • 29. Academic, Web, & Story Editing Tests

    • 30. Proofreading Preview Video

    • 31. Basic Proofreading Terms Guide

    • 32. The Proofreading Process and Types

    • 33. Decent Proofreading Pricing

    • 34. Proofreading Checklist - Things You Can't Forget

    • 35. Universal Proofreading Symbols

    • 36. How to Clarify Text

    • 37. Clarifying Wordy Sentences

    • 38. How to Fix Poor Syntax

    • 39. Fixing Passive Voice and Misplaced Modifiers

    • 40. How to Correct Punctuation

    • 41. Spot the Missing Punctuation

    • 42. Master Any Work Field with 5 Essential Steps

    • 43. AutoCorrect Software & Proofreading Translation

    • 44. 10 Tips for Editing and Proofreading Better

    • 45. Proofreading Job Sites

    • 46. Introduction to Upwork

    • 47. Final & Bonus Lesson

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About This Class

Get 2 Courses In 1 - Both Editing and Proofreading

My name is Nitay, an Instructor with one main wish!

Bringing your knowledge of proofreading and editing to a whole new level through a series of fun video lessons.


Uncover Pro Methods From an Expert: Learn From an Experienced Proofreader and Freelancer for More Than 5 Years.

Discover the Biggest Market for Freelancing Jobs: Learn How to Get Proofreading Jobs on Upwork, Exclusive Information You Won't Find in Any Other Course.

Time Is Money: Become An Expert Proofreader and Editor within a Few Hours of Content-filled Lessons, instead of Wasting Precious Time in Search of Incomplete Information on the Web.


Topics You'll Learn During the Editing Course

• Track Changes in MS Word and Use the Best AutoCorrect Software.

• Recognize Common Text Errors and How to Enhance Text Quality.

• Edit Fiction Novels, Web Articles, and Academic Writing.

• Use Keyboard Shortcuts to Write and Edit Faster.

• Enhance Publishing, Creative Writing, and Copyediting Skills.

And Much More!


Topics You'll Learn During the Proofreading Course

• Proofread Translation with 3 Essential Methods!

• Spot Common Grammar, Punctuation, and Language Errors.

• Clarify Text, Fix Poor Syntax, and Correct Punctuation.

• Work in Proofreading Through Online Job Sites (Upwork Guide Included).

And Much More!


⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "I have been editing for about two years now, and I wanted to learn more about editing and proofreading, especially when it comes to my writing. I'm glad that I took this course and will take some more like this." (Angelic Houston)

⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "Very straightforward explanations. This course is helpful, especially if you don't have experience or prior knowledge in Proofreading." (Arman Castillote)

⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "Very nicely explained, the instructor gave all essential details, very easy to understand" (Priyanka Chauhan)


You might also like this class on Freelancing On Upwork.


See you on the course!


Instructor Nitay

Meet Your Teacher

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Nitay L

Proofreader & Translator


Who Am I?

My name is Nitay. I'm an English and Hebrew translator, proofreader, and transcriptionist at Upwork.

I have wide freelancing knowledge and several years of experience working for numerous leading global companies.

My Goal

As an instructor, I have one main wish! To help you save time and start earning right away by learning knowledge that, sadly, I didn't have at first.

Stay Updated

Click "Follow" on the left to be updated when I upload a new course. You'll also know when I add new lessons to my existing courses!

See full profile

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1. Introduction Video - Hidden Gems of Knowledge Await You: Have you ever dreamed of becoming a master of writing and a best-selling author or wanted to write so well, readers will only be thirsty for more. Well, after we've finished this course, your writing skills will saw higher than ever, almost like magic. So whether to fulfill one of those wishes out to pass your time doing a flight to Antarctica, you came to the right place. But first, let me introduce myself. My name is Ni Tai Chi Minh, English and Hebrew translator, proofreader and transcriptionists at Apple. And I made these lessons packed course based on years of experience in editing and proofreading. What you want me to prove my experience. Well, instead of saying I made this valuable curves, I decided to replace such boiling adjective with a noun and the verb lessons back. This is one of many actions and editor does to enhance writing in one of many actions you will learn during this course. What hidden gems of knowledge away to master the basics of editing when diving for the first time, practicing in shallow waters. The first section we'll introduce you to editing before we can dive deeper. The first three lessons, we'll teach you basic stuff such as editing jobs, pricing range, the common jobs in editing, and what types of editing exists. For example, proofreading is a type of editing service. Did you know that? In the first lesson, you will learn how to write and edit faster with keyboard shortcuts. If you write daily on the computer, the discovery of keyboard shortcuts will cut your work time in half. If you already know them, hold your breath. That's not all the lessons stores. You will also hear about a tool that helps spot spelling and grammar errors in English, the best online autocorrect software. And for dessert, I prepared a sweetness and about editing methods on Microsoft Word. The standard editing checklist. The following list of lessons is the meat of the course and your trampoline for jumping to new heights. These lessons are for editing any topic and type of texts, whether it's an article, a scientific paper or a book, this section Z formation will bounce every text writing level in any situation, even in space. The books Editing Checklist. The next list of lessons will allow you to better structural and develop your story elements. Turn robotic characters into real breathing characters and evade embarrassing plot holes. Don't live any opening for critics to start complaining and getting practice activities. The last three buses of your editing Adventure have a bite at the free common issues of editing. This section can direct you to the type of editing that most fits you. And if not, then at least boost your confidence in those areas. But I'm sure that after all those wonderful lessons, you will be full of confidence anyway. Master the basics of proofreading. First, we added the text to deliver an engaging and to the point experience. And later we prove it it for perfection. But before exploring punctuation and grammar rules and learning to avoid language mistakes, we should study the basics just like walking. By basics. I mean the proofreading niches, process universal symbols and essential tips. How to get clear and concise texts. Avoiding punctuation mistakes, unclear sentences, and filler words that make our sentences clunky is what this section is all about. Essential proofreading methods and tools. If you ever wondered how to spot hidden language mistakes, then these 10 proofreading tips will solve your problems for good. Along with methods for proofing, translation and mastering different work fields. The final lessons. The best way to practice your new writing, editing, and proofreading skills is by taking jobs. That way, you sharpen your skills and earn money at the same time. And in this section, I will show you how and well to get your first job online. So what are you waiting for joining my course and write professional text that provide results or pass your time doing a flight to Antarctica. That's fine too. 2. Editing Preview Video: If you wish to enhance your writing skills and become an editing specialist, then my course, edit writing like a pro is exactly for you. You can examine the manuscript for hours and missed several mistakes, or you can take my course in spot all unwanted air holes with time to spare. Explore the story editing, checklist, and descend your novels writing level to new heights in readers to the pages, or discovered the standard editing checklist preparing you for every editing tasks around the corner. But hold tight, it doesn't end there. My course promises to sharpen your skills. We've several helpful practice activities and free final test. So what are you waiting for joining my course and become an expert writing? Any saw today? 3. Introduction to Editing: Ladies and gentlemen, we arrived at the introduction to editing island. The island is known as the home of two famous boxers, and I will give you tickets to the front row in the upcoming battle. Editing versus proofreading, who will win? Well, depends on the type of editing you need. Editing involves making changes and suggestions to improve the writing and stories equality. It focuses on the core features of writing rather than surface level issues. And editor will pay attention to bowling or redundant texts that he or she can improve and even review the story structure. He aims to make writing more readable and engaging, not to fix grammar or spelling mistakes. He might, but that's not his job. That's when our second Fighter enters the RNC. Proofreading has less ambition than editing and thus is a cheaper service, but it's still performs a vital role. Proofreading is the process of correcting surface errors in writing, such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other languages tapes, for example, before writers published the articles, a proofreader checks their work. He omits typos or grammar errors and helps avoid an unprofessional look to the paper. But Stoli writers prefer to pay for an editing process before anything else. It's more important for them to make a captivating book. We writing that draws more readers than a book if no typos, we have enough budget for both processes. Here is the usual order in which they appear. Editing is step 2. Step 1 is writing, of course, and proofreading is step three. In this course, we will focus on the fighters standing, on the arenas lifestyle. The one who always thinks about the audience feelings when they read. Let's meet him in a detailed manner. These are two sections of the course I want you to use as checklists. Whenever you edit, there will be seven areas. You will always check as seen in the standard editing checklist. And if you're editing a story, there will be seven more topics to pay attention to in the books editing checklist. For those who wish to work in editing, let me show how much to ask for as a beginner or an expert. As a beginner, requesting payment of $0.03 per word is reasonable since you have yet to gain any job reviews on Locke's story. Later on, you can try asking for $0.06 per word and see how it goes. I calculated these rates based on payments for editing Jobs and Apple. And while different languages mean different charges, the prices here are customarily for most languages as well. I will erase. A beginner should request around $15 per hour. The low price will allow clients to hire you despite your lack of experience after getting enough work history, you may request $20.5 dollars or even $30 per hour. When I had a lower hourly rate as a beginner, a client gave me seven hours to finish editing his article, except I finished the job after four hours. But since my client was pleased with my work and Adelie delivery, he paid me for all seven hours. My suggestion is don't worry about low hourly rates. Rather, think about what price will fit your clients budget and start gaining work history in varied field. Your expertise means you can demand higher rates. Having a background in particular fields allow you to charge more in that niche search editing job as well, your prior knowledge exceeds others. Still, even if you don't have a degree to wave at your clients, you can expand your work history in a specific niche and low clients with that, I have piles of work proof in translating apps. And when clients need someone to translate their app strings, I always catch our eyes instead of 10 others. It's important to get an accurate overview of the project you are about to start on. Sometimes a client will send you a sample that screams the word mistakes and needs fixes for every second or third word. In such cases, asking for a higher payment is also sensible. High ones received the 20 pages sample of a short novel to proofread. I refused to do it since every third word had a spelling error and it looked like the seven years old wrote it. The client offered me $5 for each page, but I didn't accept his offer because I knew that it wasn't worth the effort. After you gain some editing experience, you can distinguish how long it takes you to edit papers with various types of amounts of L. That's when you will know if a task is worth your time or not. That's it for this lesson. I hope you learned something new from all this. The next lesson is about the usual areas of jobs in editing with examples from Upwork. See you there. 4. Niches & Jobs as an Editor: I hope you wrote some popcorn because this lesson is full of surprises. Fasten your seat belts and stick to our chiral because the right is about to begin. I want present dozens of possible niches, or only one or two, I will present three, the top three niches that are most common. Now that's high level animation. Definitely worth preparing popcorn. Book editors. Book editors Walker full-length manuscripts from a massive variety of categories to choose from. Fiction or nonfiction, thriller, biography anymore. Books editing is a major commitment and one of the most intensive areas of editing. Make sure to familiarize yourself with the world of writing and publishing before you devote yourself to a book editing career. Unlike academic and web articles that often contain less than 10 pages, books include the hundreds of pages. In book editors need to consider both writing and story elements. From one side, editing books is a profitable job, but on the other side, It's also time-consuming and complex, but not for you. After you finish my course. Academic editors, please fly over here. Thank you. To make a career out of academic editing, you will need a postgraduate degree in the relevant subject. It's not for everyone and is usually only a viable career option for those who already had a master's or PhD. For those of you who have a degree, academic editing is a smart choice. The Moscow's your knowledge is, the higher your salary will be. And this niche demands both editing skills and academic knowledge. If you wish for profitable job, this is a good option. Plus there will be less competition in a specific LEI use specializing. Wow, these effects are only getting better and better. Web editorials create and edit content for various online sources. As a web editor, you might need to know how to apply search engine optimization tactics and sometimes to publish your writing with tools like WordPress, variety, the web editing strong point, and my motive to be a web editor all you receive a variety of articles about diverse products or topics, then learn new themes. Also, SEO tactics for those who don't know are about choosing words that get more traffic for the article. If you tell a client that you have SEO expertise, you will have better chances of getting hired by Weber the toes. All right, are you ready? Let's open the door to another dimension. This is an example of a book editing job that also requires experience we ride. Sometimes knowing how to edit isn't enough. Clients may ask for further specialization in proofreading skills in developmental editing, or even in writing. Blogging, little arc niche. We run a large and successful blog in the arc niche. Every month we published several blog posts written by talented artists. We are looking for talented Alito, we've native English to join us for an ongoing assignment editing around two articles per week. As you can see, this web editing job is about art, but doesn't ask for previous experience in the topic. You can jump blindly into the subject and learned about art while editing. It's a great example of why I like web editing, despite the higher competition. Need someone to polish my research proposal for PhD application. I wrote a four-page research proposal on the economics of education for PhD application. And I need someone to polish my languages. Although this is an academic editing job, the client doesn't ask for a degree, but rather a person who have solid language skills and experience editing academic documents. It shows that we've both editing and proofreading skills. You can find jobs in all three niches. Still, you better pick one topic and focus all your efforts to specialize in it. The competition is harsh and you need to give clients arisen to choose you. Have you decided which niche feeds you the mouse? Before the end of the course, you will have editing tests in all three niches. Maybe that will help you choose. For now, I hope that you enjoyed the information I presented. And if not, I'm sure that these expensive effects are enough incentive for you to keep watching my course. 5. 6 Main Types of Editing: No matter the niche you want to work in, B, It's MOOC editing or web editing. You still better recognize the coming editing services. The next two types are related to book editing and all the usual editing options for writers. Copy editing assures the text is free of grammatical errors and adheres to the standard editing checklist. The copy editors job is not only to proofread the manuscript, he or she must ensure that the content is consistent, correct, and efficient. In short, a copy editor goes through proofreading and standard editing checklist to check for accuracy, consistency, and errors in grammar. Contrary to editing, which avoids proofreading and includes the book Editing Checklist. Copy editing focuses less on the big picture and more on the writings details on a sentence by sentence spaces. If a writer considers is story elements or content believable and well-structured, it hesitant about his writing quality, copy editing is the right choice. Developmental editing, also called structural editing, is looking at the big picture. Whereas the copy editor takes a micro view, drilling into the detail, the developmental editor goes macro. Their job is to enhance your ideas, organization, structural, your book's content better and smoother transition between ideas. Not to examine spelling and grammar. In short, a developmental editor uses the book editing checklist. Yet developmental editing isn't intended only for stories, feeds, content-based books and articles to. Sadly, I don't focus on this side of developmental editing. Doing my curves, you will learn about story developmental aspects including organization, structure and transition of story elements. So when is this type needed? If a writer is confident in his writing quality, it has attempt. That is, story elements or content are full of holes and pull the structured developmental editing is the desired choice. Line editing, as the name implies, a line editor performs a line-by-line review of the manuscript. He does not look at the big picture, but focuses on word choice and whether each sentence has the intended impact. To make sure each sentence works as intended, a line editor checks for clear and concise syntax. For example, the sentence while watching a movie, people who text on the phone are very annoying, is not clear. Who is watching the people? Or does it mean that when you watch a movie, all people who text on their phone are very annoying. So a line editor would change it to people who text on their phone while watching the movie are very annoying. He also distinguishes plot and character in consistencies and corrects mood and tone. Line editing perfect your manuscripts quality and style, which is why it's also known as stylistic editing. If you wrote a commercial or a speech and you want your sentences to deliver a clear and impactful message. Line editing is a smart choice. Align it all follows both the standard editing checklist and the book Editing Checklist. But besides these two, he also clarifies syntax and corrects mood and tone. Evaluation, editing and evaluation. And it looks at your manuscript to assess the structure, flow, completeness, and quality. The editor will usually provide a short message that summarize his key points, areas of concern, and suggestions for the book. The evaluation should direct the writer on how to get the story to a publishable state. For example, going back to square one and heavy and developmental editor, working over or hiring a line editor to help we voice and tone. Evaluation editing sheds light on hidden weak points of a writer's manuscript. It helps authors that debate what kind of editing their book needs or whether they're self-correction will suffice. Proofreading. Proofreading is the last stage of the manuscript editing process. Proofreaders are the grammar inspectors who make sure no spelling or punctuation errors make it to the final version of your work. And proofreader after receives a style guide that notifies him of any unusual spelling or styles in the manuscript. For example, if the offer road a fantasy novel and have invented some words to clear things out. Proofreading is a type of editing service and isn't related to the general term editing. And as chefs sprinkled cherries on the cake for final touches, proofreaders check punctuation, grammar, and spelling to grant writing its perfection. Fact checking. If a writer has a lot of niche information, he knew his book, especially if it's a topic he has never written on before, he might consider getting a fact checker. A fact checker takes note of all the factual references in the book and confirms them via external sources. If he finds any insecurities, he will alert the writer right away. Sometimes competitors are fact checking to, for instance, when they edit an academic document or other fact-based papers. We will have a future lesson about this process, then I will avail essential fact checking steps. That's it for this one. So which editing type caught your attention the most? Go back and think about that for a minute. Our next lesson will be Keyboard Shortcuts and autocorrect software. Both help not only in editing but in any writing task you will do in the future, but enough spoilers and waiting in the next lesson. 6. Keyboard Shortcuts & English AutoCorrect Software: Like one plus one equal to, which I hope you all know, keyboard shortcuts plus practice equals faster writing. These commands are meant to save you time and effort and it's up to you to stop using the old long ways and practice these new shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts are a fantastic way to speed up writing at a computer or any computer work. There are a hundreds of individual keyboard shortcuts programmed into our PC or Mac. Yet, to save your time, I've compiled a list of the top 15 for editing your next article or story. And generally, you should always seek built in keyboard shortcuts in every software you use. For example, in a video editing program on a captioning tool. You, I understand once you adapt to using the following sought cuts, your new speed will leave your mouth wide open. Control X. Instead of loading the texts and then copying it, you get both actions in one click. Control C. Instead of using your mouse to copy text every time, use these simple shortcut. Control V. If you want to paste text or anything you copied, use this simple shortcut. Controls. The most helpful shortcut, in my opinion is this action you do can be undone by this easy chemo. Chuck. Now take a break and practice those shortcuts on Google Translate or Word or Notepad. Ultra step, switch between apps with this shortcut, instead of with your mouse. Control a, you use it to select all the texts. Also very useful. Control D. This one is unless usually used, but it's important to know. You use it to duplicate the texts. Control S for saving any progress you made without using your mouse. Control F. You might know this one already, but when searching a specific word, that's the shortcut unity. Take a break and practice those shortcuts. Control of arrows. This so gut helps to move more quickly between words and long texts. Try plane with this one former shift with any arrow key. This is for selecting specific thing. Control plus shift with any arrow key allows the quickness selected block of text. Stop the video and use each keyboard shortcut a few times. Get used to them and make sure you do those actions only by the shortcuts I talked to you. Trust me, it will save you a lot of work time. As keyboard shortcuts, autocorrect software also equal faster writing. Grammarly, one of the best English autocorrect platforms out there. Like a metal detector, it spots pesky spelling, grammar and punctuation errors. Grammarly can identify most spelling and grammar errors and suggest corrections and improvements. It has a handy google from extension that's activated whenever you use Google Translate or other websites, and a Microsoft Word extension for those who deal with daily English files. The free and low-cost service is excellent. Try it, even if you don't plan on using it for editing. Exclusively Grammarly premium service and gives more corrections and grammar suggestions. The premium service is a useful upgrade, but I wouldn't pay for it, had its full cost. Personally, I bought it at a friendly price thanks to a 50 percent off discount the offered on their site. Now, let's have a look at how Grammarly works. Go to Google and right Grammarly from extension. Then simply hadn't Grammarly into Minecraft. Let me show you how it works. If I write, let's go together with spelling errors. Quickly identify them and suggest ways to fix it. You can also double-click anywhere and you get synonyms or other words for a placement. Now let's look on the extension into heel. You have three options. I suggest activating on them. They give you the decision or which bases Gamow Lee will be active, give or not, give you some, just some synonyms and similar words or option for other collection of texts. Now, if you have an English file and want to check it, go and press new document. That's how we generally look. You arrived at the finish line. Thank you for watching and enjoy the faster wheels you obtained. Next will be our last warm-up lesson before we begin learning the editing checklists. See you there. 7. Editing with Microsoft Word: When editing, read for yourself or a client, you want to show markups, changes or comments made it to a document. For instance, leaving a comment saying, thanks to the library of knowledge in my mind, I spotted this mistake and revised it to ensure clarity. A comment only for a client with a sense of humor. And in this lesson, I will teach you how to track changes to leave comments, and how to replace several words into better ones. Editing options on Microsoft Word. When you're editing someone else's work, they need to see what has changed. Here are two ways to do so. Track changes. Every time you change something in the document, it becomes visible. This visual can be switched on and off whenever you like. Keep track changes activated whenever you fix something. That way, you want need to manually adjust the text to show your changes to the client. It's handy when sharing documents with other colleagues because it allows you to see what changes were made and by whom. Plus, it enables you owe your client to accept or reject any changes made it to the document with a click of a button. Below is an image of, well, you can find this option. Go to review, tracking, then track changes. Comments. Comments can also be replied to if you are sending the document back and forth for many checks, add a new comment when you want to specify Y2 are changing y or leave some notes for the writer. As we've done a vision Marx word uses a different color for each user to distinguish among their comments. Comments can also be found in the overview tab as shown in the picture. How to find the Laplace various words at the same time in a Word document. For example, let's say you want to remove repetition of the phrase in fact, and to replace the inefficient phrase in order to, at the same time. Let's say you have a list of unnecessarily sets of words on vigorous words that you wish to find on a document, instead of using control plus F to find and replace them one by one, here has an easier method. Step 1, open the Word document and press the Alt plus F11 keys to open the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window. Step 2 in the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window, click, Insert, and then model. Afterward, paste the VBA code. You can find it in the lesson or course resources into the modal window. Step 3, change the two question marks towards you wish to be found and replace and separate them with a comma. On your right is how the VBA code looks like. Step for, change there and tongue to the new words you want to replace with, and then press the F5 key to run the code. In this case, the first question mark will be replaced with and the second question mark will be replaced with plank. Again, you can find this text in the lesson or course resources. All right, you finished the introduction phase. Don't make this a cliffhanger. Jump to the next section and discover the course first editing topic. See you there. 8. Inefficient Phrases and Words: Efficiency is using the least amount of resources possible to achieve the goal. As an editor, you direct the writer to avoid dawn chunky paragraphs to achieve his goal. A clear and concise message. And as you already guessed, cutting inefficient phrases and words is one way to do it. But before we begin, here is an interesting inefficient fact. You didn't know a particular solar panel can convert only 20 percent of available solar energy to electricity under ideal conditions. Imagine how many energy problems we could have solved if solar panels were more efficient. As an editor, you should remove wordy phrases that your reader may regard as extra or inefficient. Let's have a look at some. Yo aim is to be familiar with as many inefficient phrases as possible. Doing editing. Open your eyes for both familiar and new inefficient phrases and replace each one with a tighter word. Fortunately for you, I attached a pre-made least to the lesson on course resources. So don't forget to check it out. Omit fact phrases, phrases like in fact, as a matter of fact, and the fact is, should be removed. These phrases don't add anything to the message. In fact, they are a loophole for readers to stop reading. Or as I should say, without. In fact, they are a loophole for readers to stop reading. Exclude them as soon as they pop up. Avoid negative phrases. Negative sentences often confuse readers and make them work harder to grasp the message, the words no, and not our signs for possible tangled negative sentence. Here of our few examples, no more than can be replaced with utmost. I'm not crazy about the movie, but for its aesthetics element can be replaced with I only like the movies and aesthetic elements. I will not go to the market unless I have two can be replaced with, I will only go to the market if necessary. You can leave negative sentences that aren't too complex and can't be tighter as they are. Yet. Always check negative sentences to see if they're positive version is clearer. Some words are used often, but usually can and should be admitted for sentence efficiency. However, before the showcase begins, here is another interesting inefficient facts. And standard incandescent light bulb converts about 2% of its energy consumption to light and 98% to heat. Talk about inefficient the Remove there. When you talk about a general group, for example, Muslim women wear hijab. Cats are great pets. Also, there should be removed if repeated in a list. For example, the 20s and 30s, saying there twice is unnecessary as long as they are not interrupted by other words. Note that this doesn't apply for a n as they should always appear before singular noun. Really, a lot or after. Seeing suffering is really tall means your too lazy to write exactly how much, how tall is it? Quantified? Swap these vague terms for a more accurate description. Instead of saying that the Empire State Building is quite tall, tell the numbers and domains the readers even more. Believe and think. People are more interested in the facts than they are in vague thoughts. Even if you are writing an opinion piece, readers should understand that based on the context. Combined eye stronger, more impactful verbs and make a sharper tone for the writer. Just uses off just to imply something small or inefficient. Don't add anything to the sentence. In most cases, you can remove the word just without affecting the sentence meaning. For example, I barely arrived in time. Or like when we first met. Both sentences don't really need just, I want to clarify that using just as an adjective or rather than the word only is all right. Using just to quantify that's wrong. That, and then to smooth your text, remove the words that. And then whenever the sentence makes sense without them, and don't start sentences with then, because it makes them clunky and difficult to read. For example, one of the kids said lots of the old places down here had secret rooms. Yet be mindful, natural remove that or then if it might confuse the readers and disturbed the sentence message. For example, the governor announced his new tax plan would be introduced soon. We felt that the readers first impression is that the plan itself was announced moments ago. Thus, this sentence doesn't need that for clarity. Literally and virtually. Both words are often superficialis remove or replace them with something more descriptive and precise. Usually, these words don't add information to the sentence. Eliminate them at all costs. Sorry, I will be less dramatic. Useless adverbs completely, entirely, certainly, absolutely, obviously suddenly and undoubtably. You can remove them from any sentence without affecting its meaning. Use more descriptive terms in their place. Adverbs are vague and all intend to prolong already confusing sentences. In a future lesson, I will show you how to catch and omit them plus explain why. Vary. The leading vary in any sentence won't take away the intended meaning. When you spot very Plus and edit to replace the combination with a single stronger adjective. If you write in Google Search, the sentence omitting the word vary. You can find many replacements. Check it out next time you spot the word vary. So so is another word that doesn't do much deleted without affecting the sentence, meaning. Help plus 2. Two is an optional before an infinitive. And the infinity for help is usually the later action. Thus, if you deleted or added to, there will be no difference in meaning, clarity and efficiency, we'll possible results upon removing two after help. For example, omit information that doesn't aid. Emphasize the main purpose. Except for the words I mentioned here that our mole you should recognize and the meat. You can discover them yourself later through my sample files or the practice activity. What is your task? Go through a list of wordy phrases and inefficient words and learn them by heart. Slowly read the manuscript and spot this pair words. Titan or remove the unnecessary to ensure the sentence contains only the essential. Again, you will find a pre-made list on the lesson or course resources. Here is a tip for you. Try searching in your language unnecessarily words and repetitions or ambiguous words on Google and grow your list as much as possible. This sums your first editing action. Check the following practice activity for sharpening your skills. I trust you understand now the relevance of efficiency. Still don't go overboard and brush your teeth while showering. Even efficiency has limits. Anyway, hope you liked this one. See you in the next lesson. 9. Clarifying Inefficient Sentences: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 10. Redundancy and Repetition: Redundancy is the needless repetition of words or phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or ideas. Remember this, repetition is good for humor. Night for writing. Repetition is good for remembering, not for writing. Repetition is good for our knowing someone not for writing. Repetition is good for this joke, not for writing. As an editable, you must identify repetition through different angles. That's why this lesson will teach you different forms of repetition in the text. Avoiding redundancy in phrases and words and action description. She nodded her head in agreement. Those last four words can be deleted. What else would she not but her head. And when she nods, the writer shouldn't add that she agrees. That's obvious. They heard the sound of a train whistle. The sound off can be deleted. Redundant adjectives. In a moment of hopeful, optimism, she made the call. Adding two positive adjectives is inefficient and you should remove one, several words that serve the same purpose. The reason for this is because nobody cares. They opened IT for redundant words and tighten the manuscript as much as possible. To sum it up, your first action in this topic is to check for redundancy in adjectives, actions, descriptions, and words with similar meanings. Don't allow sentences to sound like a broken record, record, record, alright? Avoiding redundant details. Sometimes a text has an overabundance of description. How to avoid? Ask yourself, will this amount of details engage the reader or will it bore him? Can I reduce some details but keep the essence of the point I wish to make. Can I merge some details into one? In a story? It could be the environment description in an article. It could be Awards packed paragraph without an eye-catching style. And in academic paper, it could be an overuse of examples. And if we're mentioning examples, then avoiding redundant examples. How to avoid? Ask yourself, is it necessary to use two examples to emphasize the point? Can I reduce one example but keep the essence of the point I wish to make canal emerge above for examples into one. Usually one example is enough to strengthen one's point. But if the writer wishes to use various examples, at least tried to group them as much as possible. United sentences with the same subject. If a short sentence starts with he, she, or it, and the sentence before it is short to unite limb, but only if the new sentence isn't too complex. For example, the wild boar gulped towards the prey. It hasn't eaten for a whole day. Or a better version, the wild boar, who hasn't eaten for a whole day, gulped towards the prey. Instead of writing two sentences with the same subject, you should merge both into one cohesive sentence. There is no need to repeat the subject twice unless the sentences are too long. Claim repetition. Writing that repeats the same basic lane without expressing a new reinforcing point of view. For instance, overuse of synonyms to express a point. For example, her stance on issues zed has 0 morale. It offends standards of right versus wrong of decency versus indecency. It stands in the face of that which is good and righteous and noble. None of these synonyms add anything of substance to the text. The reader doesn't even understand why the stance has no morale and in what specific ways. Thus, the paragraph is redundant. How to avoid? Ask yourself, how many times have I made this point already? Can I reduce the details but keep the essence of the point I wish to make. Except for redundancy of synonyms. Acclaim repetition can happen by redundancy of counterclaims or examples. Pay attention that every message contains new information within its sentences. Excessive references, repeated references. Avoid including two references for the same quote. For example, at first, I wish they knew my mistakes before they happen. But then I heard what Eleanor Roosevelt once said. If life were predictable, it would cease to be life and be without flavor. Eleanor Roosevelt. In the better version, I omitted the secondary laws are valid in the brackets. This type of excessive references is problematic yet uncommon. Let's look at some more typical excessive references. Redundant citation numbers. Here are two ways to use citation numbers when citing more than one reference at the time, there should be no spaces between commas or dashes. For example, as you can see, there is no empty spaces inside the brackets. If a sentence has various citation numbers, removed them and add one at the end of the sentence. The footnote to include all words references in it. For example, at the 64th meeting, a draft resolution submitted by 19 member-states was voted upon, but was not adopted owing to the negative votes of two permanent members. The better version, we remove the free citation numbers and added one at the sentence ends. What are footnotes? They are brief explanations shown at the bottom of the page. As you can see in the image below. Repeated footnotes in documents, footnotes are like draws for long references, but we can shorten these long references when we cite the same source. Again, shortened footnote should include author's last name, shortened version of the title, and a cross reference to the original footnote. For example, the original reference says, Peter leverage all luck, population aging in developed and developing regions, implications for health policy, social science and medicine volume 51 number 6, 15 in September 2 thousand. Now, the second time we reference the source, I will write the author's last name, literature alloc, shortened version of the title, population aging, and the cross-reference to the original footnote. See Chapter 2, footnote 3. That's it for the angles of repetition in writing. Note that redundancy can be positive if you don't just copy and paste the same words. It's a great tool for reminding your readers of key information and reinforcing your ideas. The rule is returning two key words and phrases, but not restating basic facts or repeating entire sentences. Next lesson, we will talk about relevancy in writing. Sounds exciting, right? Well, until next time. 11. Fending Off The Attack Of Redundant Sentences: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 12. Relevant and Irrelevant Info: When I started writing my book, I intended to introduce the environment in the first paragraph. Yet after many revisions, it was all about how the city got its name rather than its surroundings. Thankfully, I felt something was off and check the relevance of the chapter. Doing my inspection, I noticed that the first paragraphs purpose wasn't fulfilled, so I changed it. In this lesson, you will learn what relevant and irrelevant info is and how to find it. How to recognize relevant and irrelevant info. Here our first step is to ask what is the main purpose of each chapter in the manuscripts? Later, divide the material in each chapter into separate pieces and ask the same question. For example, define the main purpose of Chapter 1, write it down and separate up to one into pieces. Next, write the main purpose of each piece in Chapter 1, this process allows us to identify what info contributes to each piece main purpose, and what informed to remove. If you are uncertain as the writer about his goals behind each piece. Except for a situation when the main purpose opens our eyes to what is missing, there are details that the main purpose won't shine its light upon. For that reason, I gathered some guiding questions to discern overlooked info, info that its absence might confuse and irritate readers. Is it obvious why or how the reader wants to know why something happened or how something earned its title. Unless you aim to answer these questions later, you should add this information now and make the saturation clearer. In story writing, the writer hides in full from the reader to create interests. As I said, if the writer answers the questions later than it's all right, the problem happens when the author ignores the questions and leaves them open. However, a writer can explain every small fact that his story tells. Therefore, you should read the manuscript and see if not knowing why or how something happened may impair the reading experience. Is it obvious where something happened? The writer needs to fill the picture. We've colors and not leave it in black and white. Make sure it's clear where the situation is happening, whether it is a story, a history, or biology book, ensure the background is described. We'll an example, a chop and your point to gain the readers trust or to clarify the message, we often add an example. If you are editing academic papers, you can strengthen an argument when it's not impactful enough by adding an example. An essential method for academic writer. If you're editing a story and example can explain why a character act in a specific manner. Thus, an example is relevant when trust or clarity is lacking. Like in the last lesson, the target is clear and concise sentences. And removing the irrelevant will bring us closer to this achievement. Omit information that doesn't aid the main goal of each piece. For example, main purpose, a paragraph that describes the Salinas Valley. The Salinas Valley along the narrow swell between two ranges of mountains can be found in Northern California. The few people who live there tend to drink alcohol more often than drinking water. Writing about the residents drinking habits doesn't serve the main purpose. Thus, you should remove the second sentence. By looking through the glass is called the paragraphs main intent. You gain a new vision that highlights what's relevant or not. Delete information that the reader knows and getters return again. For example, the day has come to leave town forever. That morning, David's last patrol around town brought up old memories because the reader learns that this is the last day for David through the first sentence, the word last is irrelevant. While reading the document, he'd that every sentence ditches something new and doesn't repeat all the info. In case repetition happened, you can swap it with the reference to the repeated info. That's it for this one. Attempt, this lesson, practice activity and polish your new glasses of the paragraphs, men intent. For now, see you in the next lecture. 13. Eliminate The Trivial; Note The Devoid: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 14. Hemingway Editor: Hemingway editor will make your writing crystal clear and more effective. It pinpoints words and sentences that effect there is ability of any paper. Hemingway editor readability score shows the level of education a person needs to understand the texts. The lower the grade level is, the better. The tomb was named after Ernest Hemingway, the writer characterized by concise language and short declarative sentences. His work is estimated to be between a fourth, sixth grade level of readability. And in this lesson, I will teach you how to use it to enhance readability in writing. The Hemingway editor is an online tool that highlights complex sentences, adverbs and passive voice in your texts. It also marks compound words and suggest replacements for them. The online version of Hemingway editor is completely free. The desktop version Hemingway App is available for a onetime payment of $20. The online version has all the features the paid version has. But if you wish to donate to the developers, you can do that by buying their desktop app. But before I show you how it works, let me explain why complex sentences at verbs and passive voice should be removed or revised. Shorten overloaded sentences. In this busy world full of information, readers tend to favor short sentence length rather than flowery convoluted pros. Yet, long sentences are crucial for creating variety in writing. What we should avoid are overly long sentences. For example, making a sentence too long can be confusing because it is easy to lose track of what was said at the beginning, since they do not give the reader enough time to process what they are reading. And by the end of the sentence, you might have forgotten. Well it started. That's 51 words with no pause for breath. It would make sense to break it down into two shorter sentences. Making a sentence to longer can be confusing since you forget the words at the beginning, the reader lack enough time to process the information, and by the end of the sentence, he forgets where it started. This fragment is a lot easier to read and more engaging. Shorter sentences make it easier to get your message across and make no mistake. This is true for more advanced readers as well. In the future, we will have a lesson about sentence and word variety, in which I will teach you to use both long and short sentences. Yet, when sentences are overly long, Hemingway editor will warn you off, you will need to trim them. Shorten sentences highlighted in red or yellow on Hemingway editor and make their writing clear and concise. Reduce the use of adverbs. Adverbs are lazy way to tell how an action was made. Instead of using a creative and appealing expression, we add an adverb, expecting the readers to be imaginative for us. For example, saying she signed loudly. But how loud the juicing? To answer that, I would rephrase these two. She sang at the top of her lungs. In the writing world, adverbs have a bad reputation for being weak and unnecessary. For example, run quickly is better stated as sprint. There are plenty of adverb verb combinations that are often best expressed with a single more meaningful verb, such as driving fast becomes speeding. But even when there isn't a more fitting verb, you still should replace the adverb. We have an expression. And here's why. Another example. Why don't you come over here and sit by me? She asked flirt yesterday. The adverb, flirting mostly tells the reader how she asked the question. Instead, it should show how she asked. Why don't you come over here and sit by me. She asked, batting her eyelashes. As an editor, swap adverbs we've lived brimming expressions or stronger verbs. Hemingway editor will help you do that. As you can see, it highlights adverbs in blue. Reduce the use of passive voice. When writing in the passive voice, we don't have to spend time writing in clear and concise language. It may be a time-saver, but it can lead to unclear syntax and stretch sentences. Active voice is superior to passive voice. The reader learns first who acted what the action was, and finally, who are white was affected. It is an easier way to process information. For example, passive voice. The results were analyzed by the government committee. Active voice. The government committee analyzed the results. As an editor, make sure the writer uses passive voice as little as possible. Passive voice is highlighted in green on Hemingway editor. All right, now let's have a look at Hemingway editor. Search it on Google and enter the online page. As you can see, overloaded sentences are highlighted in red, yellow sentences are also too long, but you are not obligated to rephrase them if they are easy to read. Purple worlds are complex words that might be worth replacing if your audience is in fluent in English. And verbs are marked in blue and should be replaced or removed. Let's move this to the relief of the sentence. And on your right is how many of each. Through here, you can buy the desktop app if you want. If not, copy-paste your manuscript to the online page and do it from them. That's it, everyone, check this tool through the following practice activity. The next lecture will be on avoiding adjectives, adverbs, and weak nouns. You can't wait. Jump right into the next video. I will be waiting. 15. Complex Sentences, Adverbs, and Passive Voice: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 16. Avoid Adjectives, Adverbs, and Weak Nouns: Like adverbs, adjectives are devoid of creativity. And as moose Voltaire says, the adjective is the enemy of the noun. But why is that a problem? Well, let me explain. Avoid adjectives and adverbs. Good writing rely on strong nouns and verbs, not adjectives and adverbs. When writers use them, they're writing looks lazy as if they want you to see the world through broken glasses. Even worse, sometimes adjectives and adverbs repeat what readers already know as an editable. Whenever you spot adjectives or adverbs, remove them, or replace them with inaction. Here are two examples to emphasize my point. John was exhausted. He dropped onto the couch and exclaimed entirely, I'm beat. Improved version. John dropped onto the couch. I'm beat. Another example. I hate you, dude blurted fiercely. Improved version. I hate you. Jill said, narrowing her eyes. Except for the alternative of strong nouns and verbs, there exists another better option. You can also replace adjectives or adverbs with a parable. For example, you look marvelous in this beautiful dress. Her, he said, amazed, improved version. You'll look like the beauty queen in distress. Harris said, we've been. Tell me that you didn't enjoy reading the improved sentence more. Comparing her looks to a beauty queen makes your writing clever and interesting. Readers enjoy seeing how you link to your message to a different topic, rather than relying on another simple adjective to do your work. Avoid weak nouns. Sometimes a simple noun is all you need. If a scene takes place on the Hawaiian island, beach by itself might be fine if the writer already described how I in beaches. Unless of course, the characters are visiting a sparkling black sand volcanic beach for the first time. But a more specific noun is almost always better. Let me show you some examples. For example, a difficult problem might be a quandary, a complication, a dilemma, or an predicament. A habitual liar might be a predicate or a fabricator, a deceiver, trickster. A beach could be the coast, the waterfront, the lakefront, the seaside, or a shallow. As an editor, always aim to have a strong noun that forms the exact image the writer had in mind. Avoid lazy verbs. The same principle applies to verbs as we've nouns. For more specific variables. For example, the verb God. God is the laser word because it doesn't tell people how or why the action happened. Instead, use more potent words, such as obtained or earned. This also applies to the words use, make to be, there is to have and any other general word. If you wish to test your creativity and sharpen your writing skills, challenge yourself with the next practice activity. I hope you enjoyed my lesson. See you in the next one. 17. Turn Weak Writing to Writing That Sticks You To The Page: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 18. Sentence and Word Variety: Variety in shoes, your writing flow better and isn't repetitive and boring. For example, when I'm zigzagging between humor and raw content in my lessons. Since sentences can be diverse in more directions than words, let's start with them first. And I will prepare a salad while doing so. Sentence variety length. Several sentences of the same length can make for bland writing. One short sentence after another makes your prose sound choppy and childish. Here's an example. Only short sentences. Word and sentence variety is important. Variety helps keep your reader engaged in art board. Thus, use both long and short sentences. The problem with this paragraph is that all sentences are short. It makes the paragraph repetitive. And doll. It's like this cucumber salad diamond, expressing laziness and utmost simplicity. Conversely, All long sentences can make your writing hard to read. Here is an example. Only long sentences. In order to compose a piece of writing that engages your reader, it's essential to user writing in both your words and your sentences to incorporate sentence variety into your next piece of writing, tried to use both long and short sentences in addition to varying your word choice. If your paper lacks variety, it won't be compelling for your reader who will get bored and possibly even stop reading. So make sure that you include plenty of variety. This time. The problem was that all sentences with long, not only can that get repetitive and boring, but also difficult to remember what was said at the start. As this tomato salad lacks diversity, the paragraph lacks length variety. That's why the salad won't be served in any restaurant. And this paragraph, one be written in any blog. But enough about what to avoid. Let me reveal the correct recipe for making a salad. I mean, for choosing sentence length. No complex sentences and a variety of both short and long sentences vary both words and sentences to keep your reader engaged. Too many short sentences make your writing doll, while too many long sentences can confuse you, find a balance between both short and long sentences. This paragraph was much easier to read and more engaging. As an editor, you'll see that sentences aren't too long and mix between short and long sentences. And finally, I made a salad. I can be proud of. One of the trickiest patterns to spot is that of repetitive sentence structure. Same wavelength over using a sentence structure can hinder a reader's engagement with a text. Try using a variety of basic sentence structures. We can categorize sentences into four main types. Depending on the number and type of clauses they contain. Simple one independent clause. The boy who wanted to go outside, compound more than one independent clause connected by a coordinating conjunction. I like to read, and he likes to write. I like to read, and he likes to write, are more than one independent clause. And the word end is a coordinating conjunction. Complex one independent clause, and at least one dependent clause. Although he's now 79 years old, is still claims to be 65. He is now 79 years old is the independent clause. And although he's still claims to be 65, is the dependent clause, compound, complex, more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. After it was all over, my dad claimed he knew we were planning something, but we think he was timed two independent clauses and dependent clauses in one sentence. Adjusting the sentence structure during an edit is a great way to create effective prose for any other. Sentence variety conjunctions. The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet. And so you can remember them by using the acronym FANBOYS as an editable, ensure variety of conjunctions in sentences. Now, I will bring fanboys on stage with examples and alternative words. For example, for the holiday you Danny bought new clothes, waist to save for two in honor off toward upon. And Example, Sharon brought Danner a birthday present and balloons as gifts waste to say. And also moreover, first, not to mention Plus including, besides. Nor and our example, she did not return that night nor the night after. Another example, life or death situation. Ways to say, nor neither. Ways to say or either else. But an example, the data was no longer in an Access database, but SharePoint lists waste to say. But, and yet however, although except, unlike, whereas end steel. So example, Danny was thirsty, so he drank, ways to say so, therefore, hands as a result, thus, centers, variety, openings vary the way you start sentences to keep the writing interesting and lively. Most of us learned how to write sentences using the following pattern, subject, verb, object. Thus, we expect to read sentences in this order, using different sentence openers to delay the subject and verb of the main clause creates tension and Russia's interests. For Sundance openers, here are some options. Similarly, comparing something to something else, for example, has quite as a whisper, he turned to me. Preposition informs you of the position of someone or something. For example, behind the gate, the road stretched far away. Connectives joining words. For example, despite the sunshine, Mr. Tucker was wearing a heavy coat. Time preposition moves the timeframe to a different point. For example, afterwards, it was clear that he regretted his actions. Participle phrases. For example, shopping at the grocery store, my brother picked up a loaf of bread. That's it for sentence variety. It's shocking how many ways we can vary our sentences. But don't worry, word variety is much simpler. Word variety. Word Variety means Avoiding repeating words. When you revise the writing, pay attention to repetition in words and replace them with synonyms. After various edits, I can say that repetition of words can often occur in sentence openers. For example, starting several sentences with their eat or I, well-informed manual search, I discovered a simpler way to spot repeating words. How to spot repeating words? Word counter, a site that shows keywords density and highlights your overused words in the text. Copy paste your text and find out your words appearance percentage. How to find replacements for words. Thesaurus aside for finding synonyms for all English words. Use it to enrich the vocabulary in your document. Except for learning how to make a successful salad. I hope you enjoyed the lesson about sentence and word variety. Next is fact-checking. Another topic that others sometimes forget, and the new come and save the day. Well, see you in the next lesson. 19. Add Variety; Make These Sentences Tasty: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 20. Fact checking: It can be humiliating when readers, all important industry contacts, catch a blogger on author making mistakes like putting Sydney in Australia rather than Australia. Even if unintentionally these mistakes happen, both a blogger and author and an online publisher should consider reliability and accuracy. And the fitting process is called fact-checking. Sometimes a writer uses a quote or a fact without enough reference, if at all. As an editor, in shoe clarity of who said the quote or fact and on wide basis as web in academic writing are fact-based content that involve regular fact checking. And even an ad needs some basis for its facts about the presented products. Some writers are unaware of this and it's your job to advise them about their missing references. Check your source credibility. There are fact checking sources for different fields. Thus, you need to identify a trustworthy source related to your material. It could be an expert you spoke with on LinkedIn or a trustworthy website. How to identify a trustworthy website? Check who is the author or Tim behind the website and redo the views about their website. Review the author source legitimacy. In show the source comes from a globally known institute or reliable person. If it's not obvious as the writer, food sources and their credibility. Like I said before, inspect who is the author or team behind the source and read reviews about them. The other reliable sources challenge these packs. Its advice to check for arguments against the fact the writer used, if you spot one in college, the writer to deny it, right? The opposite of the fact that you are presenting and see if anyone challenges your fat. Now let me detail deeper what types of facts you need to be aware of. Most common errors, names, titles, place names, statistics, references to time, these tense, date, season, location, and physical descriptions, argument or narrative that depends on a fact, historical facts. And we were off superlatives like only first and the most. Superlatives, or when we say something is the most, the least or the only. The problem is superlative words are sitting facts that might change in the future. Thus, you better avoid using them. Some of you might focus on story editing and won't deal with facts. Still, it's crucial to maintain a line of thought that every fact needs a basis. Even in a story. I wonder, did the standard editing checklist help build your confidence? Or did you already knew all those skills? I talked to you. Even if you did, this isn't the end of the ride. But before we continue to the books editing checklist, I want to say congratulations on finishing this section. Trust me, by the end of the course, you will fill again editing expert. And my references are the curves and read reviews and the professional content itself. All a burn the books Editing, Checklist. 21. True/False? Spot Wrong Facts: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 22. Editing Plot: Now is the time to focus on story instructor. But where to begin? If you start a big picture editing, also known as structural editing, in an organized way, you will get the work done faster. To achieve that, I will showcase guiding questions through the lesson. All right, let's begin plot a term for the sequence of events that includes the story. The most common formula for plot is the three-act structure, which consists of beginning, middle, and end. The beginning serves to introduce the protagonist. The middle contains the rising action towards the climax and the end ties all plot threads. Plot editing guidelines. The following questions will assist you to spot embarrassing plot holes. Thus, the plot makes sense. Is it believable though the plot points flow logically how the plot threads tied by the ending. To ensure that here is your method. Create a model for plot points made from chapters by keeping track of how you enter and exit each chapter, right? The issues and or solutions that flow to doing chapters and add the purpose of each chapter. Highlight the beginning, middle, and end in your model. Doing so will make it easier to answer those four questions. Mapping a story by issues and solutions brightens any untied plot threads and an inconsistent stream of blood points. Follow the story chapter by chapter and complete your model. Do the plot twists make sense? Ensure it's obvious why the twisters happened and that the twist doesn't contradict situations that occurred in the plot. You can even add clues during the plot that make the twist more believable. Let's say you had a friendly character that turned out to be the villain, if that's the case, why did he help your protagonist at the start? See that a character's true intentions match his behavior. Twist the plot, not the logic. With the characters move too quickly between far distances. When characters traveled between destinations, right? The events during their journey and tell the exact time it took. Five days to weeks or even a month. If the characters will in the desert in the last chapter, they can't jump to a skyscraper city. And as the characters can teleport, tell the reader about their journey, you can even summarize it by saying, after a few minutes they found themselves near and abandoned gas station. But don't completely ignore the journey. How are the laws of the world stay true? Fiction stories that includes supernatural or futuristic elements, create plot holes. If you forget them. Your method. List the rules and laws of the world. Do they use magic or unique ability in this world? If so, who can use it and how powerful is it? Follow the story and preserve those rules. There are many ways to go about worldbuilding and listing them is key to detect rules breaking plot holes as you add it. Is there a person or an item that controls time? Traveling back in time or knowing the future could create several plant holes. If a character can travel back in time, it can also reverse every obstacle along the way. Thus, all complications in the story won't matter. Or if a character knows the future, it can't have any problems because it knows the future. Hence, since every story, the coil, some obstacles, Estonian with the power of time will be full of potholes. So what can you do? Reduce its capabilities and add limitations until it's empty of story breaking functionalities. For example, instead of a watch that controls time, have a watch that can freeze time for 10 seconds, except for it's overpowered functionalities, the power of time isn't original at all. It's repetitive. How so many movies have reused? This power? Is the applied device, also called a MacGuffins or a deciles ex machina. A plot device is usually an object the protagonists are searching for, trying to activate, kill 50, or even destroy a story element that serves to move the story forward. The plot device could also be an event, character, or ability. The issue develops from it's illogical power that appeals from out of nowhere to save the day or solve the problem. That's considered a pothole sense. It's an unlikely or illogical event. The stories ending should feel earned, not wrapped up in a shiny saw that fell from the sky. Method, reduce its capabilities and add limitations until it's empty of stolen breaking functionalities, plus review and remove it's illogical points. One example is the infinity stones for Marvel movies that somehow allow us to destroy the universe. Another is the one ring from Lord of the Rings and invisible irrational power wielding object. If you locate a plot device, advice the author about its issues and revise it together. Did the writer used bad leg to advance his plot? Let's say a character failed by accident from the tree on a dangerous piece. This lazy and all the way to advance the plot will look Chip in the reader's eyes. Don't let it seem like bad karma affected the outcome, but rather character traits. And finally, is null so much backstory that the main plot is dwarfed. Flashback is a great tool to reveal hidden information. For example, if we weld the past memory, a decision a character made doesn't make sense. Yet. Flashbacks don't affect the present story. Thus, it's tricky to make them engaging. You don't want a flashback to early in the story, but rather get readers hooked on the solid first, when the returns are thirsty to uncover a character secret or discover how current events came about. That's the cue for flashback method. Ask yourself, does the flashback unravel and mystery the reader want to find out, if not, remove it. And when it does attempt to shorten the backstory as much as possible. The truth is, readers want to stall it to move forward, we bought a reason to call for the background information on a character. A flashback might take the form of an irritating roadblock. And as a result, readers will hustle through it to resume the coin plot. So advice the author to edit later rather than sooner. Well, these are different angles you should review to dodge the potholes. Next lesson, we will dive into story themes and learn about the mysterious plot iceberg. What do I mean by the plot iceberg? Jump to the next lesson and find out. 23. Editing Themes: With its so-called Dirichlet feels like I'm inside the fridge. All right, That's because this lesson's world theme is below 0. The narrative theme, which is the subject of our lesson, is the main message or moral lesson in the story. Yet the world we craft can also have a theme. In these lessons case, the narrative theme, we'll be editing themes and the world theme will be a cold environment. That's a narrative theme is the heart of the story. It presents a vital idea, or more or less than that the character learns doing the plot which touches the reader something to. If you look below, you will spot our plot iceberg. At first, readers come in boats and only see the plot above the wider with its narrative events. But some dive deeper and discover the eternal and external character conflicts in the story. Between the diverse one or two are sharp enough to notice the theme that drives both plot and story from beneath the surface. So yeah, if you thought editing plot was important, editing themes is very, very important. Huts. Why is theme important? A theme builds the character's soul from concerns and passions. And gripping theme assures readers will relate to the characters and their struggles and feel invested in the outcome. Whether the theme is doll or alluring can impact the book success. But how do you know if a theme is captivating or not? Well, let me show you like before, I will present questions about what to avoid. Are the themes simple and predictable? Rather than using obvious themes, follow your dreams. You should forgive others or justice. Choose moral dilemmas to forward your plot. The readers aren't stupid. A simple theme of you should forgive others, means the character will learn to forgive others and isn't engaging. Instead, ensure the story explores a dilemma. Do you forgive all, take revenge on someone who has done the unthinkable to someone you love. Sometimes the theme does present a gripping Dilemma, yet it's not emphasized or clear enough. Follow the story and advise the author were to brighten his themes message. Is that a balanced amount of themes. On one hand, a story with more than one theme allows the writer to intrigue readers from several directions. And even if the writer wrote a short story, you should aim to have various themes. As an editor, you'll see that the story doesn't lack themes. Contrarily ostomy with too many themes can cause a lack of focus. Having many themes could weaken the protagonist theme or divert the readers from the book's central message. The more pieces there are, the less weight each piece has. As an editorial, evade, overuse of themes that harm the books message or its characters and omit some, if necessary. In short, balance the number of themes without overwhelming the reader's attention nor boring him with only one viewpoint. The appropriate number of themes should be between two to four. But my brain is breathing here, so maybe a little more is fine too. Before advising anything about the amount, it's best to judge by reading. Because the fact is, each story is different. Does the story have overused symbolism? Symbolism can better express the theme through a reappearing symbol like an object, animal, name, or dialogue. For example, a theme of freedom can present beards as a symbol. But if it's too obvious for frequent, it can annoy readers. As an editor, offer creative and variable ways to present the symbol and assure a symbol grows in importance during the story. For example, if the symbol is beards show a person with a beard name or an object with a beard mark. But be willing not to push the symbol at every possible moment. Some of you might say, okay, then I will bury my symbolism deep so it won't be too obvious. It hidden symbolism is like a gamble. It can have 0 value if the reader never noticed it. Or for those readers who do cut the obscure reference, the symbolism will be very effective. Symbolism is a delicate dance and finding the perfect balance can be time-consuming, yet rewarding. That's it for this lesson. This one was short, but every word is pure frozen gold. Sorry about the repetitive below 0 symbolism. But here is another attempt. Don't put on ice watching the next lesson and proceed with your book editing journey. Hopefully in a warmer lesson than this one. 24. Editing Characterization: Characters are your story. They act and react. They create emotion. They show motivation. People read a story to find out what happens to them next. But what happens next is only trigging if the readers care about the characters. So how do you make a lovable character? Besides gripping theme, a character needs to be well-developed. And in this lesson, you will learn to achieve that and more. Characterization, how you make a character seem like a real living, breathing person is tricky. As we will plot model, one of the best ways to solve character problems is to return to the character profile the writer created. If the profile lacks essential traits, the character will seem less like a person and more like a puppet. Often, this is the reason for character problems. And that takes us to our first question. Are the characters well-developed? As an editor? Ensure the characters are complex as real people and have reliable basis for their own behavior. Here are some guiding questions. Do the main characters have the following features? Mannerism, nervous tics, or habits. For example, it could be sticking out the tongue while thinking or tendency to mumble when scared to his mannerisms that fit your character image. Identifiable appearance. It could be weirdly shaped. Two glasses or red hair. Backstory. Just as in life, every person has a history. So in the story, every character has a backstory. Even secondary characters, although their background can be less detail. Strengths and weaknesses. Characters aren't perfect and they too have weaknesses besides strikes. For instance, being brave and strong, it has a dangerously reckless specific action when they get mad or when they're happy. And other direction to express mannerism. But if your character has many habits already, you can ignore these bad habits or traits that aren't seen as good. No one is perfect. And that includes the main characters in our stories. Moreover, the same holds true for villains. Sure they're awful people and no doubt their souls are cold and dark. But isn't there even one beam of good light in there? Of course there is. So as weird as it sounds, don't let your characters be perfect. Distinct voice, accents, slang, or frequent phrases can aid build your character personality and make it more memorable. While distinct voice isn't obligated, sometimes it's the missing piece to complete the characters puzzle. If you lack an idea, think of a friend States formula, but don't tell them that they were your inspiration. Else, copyright claims will soon come knocking. Knew the protagonist and antagonist motivations are realistic and clear. One of the most common mistakes I see in novels is a villain who acts nasty bug. We never learn why. Give you a villain or history that tells your reader how he justifies his own behavior. A realistic antagonists should have enough motivation in his backstory that the reader is almost tempted to sympathize with him. New characters evolve in some way during the story. Some of you might have already heard of the term character. Character evolution is the same thing. It's the inner journey a character embarks on over the course of the story, we've a significant change or growth at the end. And novel without a character arc is like a novel without a plot. It's less interesting when that element is lacking. Thus, to add the depth to the story led the main characters evolved by their themes dilemma. Do character's behavior shaped by the world they're living? Well, your bone influences the person you become. If a character leaves in a luxury mansion, he or she might dislike cheap food or act arrogantly. In real life, we develop some characteristics based on the people, the place, or even the country we're living. Your story characters are no exception. Do character's past feed their current personality? For example, if a character had a traumatic childhood, feeding personality can be a pessimistic, shy person or a crazy one. Then lesser, jumpy, friendly type. Do they sometimes behave out of character to ensure a believable story and characters spot actions that break logic or characters image. Here are a few examples. A character does an action that goes beyond her physical capabilities. Write down the exact strength of your character. How much weight can he carry? How strong is punches are, or how high can you jump in before breaking his legs? That way, you will recognize the character trespassing her physical limits. Also, the same method can be applied to bravery, wisdom, or friendliness. Being exactly with rates will allow you to grasp even better who the characters are. A character does an action that goes against her purpose, nature, subbing she said, or an event you went through. First, learn the character profile and pay attention if she behaves out of character. Second, keep in mind what a character learned and said during a conversation or an event and match her opinion or newly obtained knowledge in future events. Between two scenes, a character's personality flips with no explanation. As shy, useless sprints can become a brave, frightful character the next morning without any believable reason. Also, the same goes for character expressions. After seeing a close friend crying, a character can smile and be cheerful as if nothing happened. So be wary of this irrational sudden changes. Now let's talk about a different topic. How do secondary characters serve the story? Secondary characters are living beings. They aren't prompts to be used and then put on a shelf. Here are several editing rules for handling these characters. Ensure all characters present personality traits and their creative description. Avoid lack of details and over descriptive characters. Secondary characters deserve to have their own importance. Has a protagonist would not let a minor character stick to only one personality trait or unfold as simple and all backstory. However, don't get too caught up in details. If you dig too deep with their details, your readers will stray from the main plot. Reduce your list of secondary characters by removing those that doesn't help develop the story or the protagonist. In the first drafts, authors often write too many characters and it's okay. This is a helpful process as we create. But upon developmental revision, we discern which characters are essential and which characters are unnecessary. Because as we've themes, too many characters will spread the readers concerned and memorability for each one. To make it easier for the reader to remember secondary characters, attach each of them to one location and give them an easy to remember names. For example, a character that only appears at the post office, the grocery store, or a frequent dream. Instead of having the character randomly visit your protagonist, one that have your protagonist traveled to the one spot that you have designated for this character to live. If there is no reason for the secondary character to be at a second location, don't move them. And lastly, vary between types of secondary characters. Foil, dynamic, static, round, and flat. Foil types are characters with the opposite personality of the main characters. Dynamic types are characters that changed throughout the blood. The protagonist is a fitting example of this type. Static types are characters with personality traits that stay the same in the blood. Round types are capitals, we've conflicted nature, unsure of themselves. The value of the protagonist and grow alongside him. Flat type characters are tied to only one trait and recognized by this for the entire plot. Not every story will include every type of character. But the more you are aware of the different character types, the more precise your decision about which character type fits the story. If all of this wasn't enough, healer or more characterization issues, don't give a trade of bad luck to a character. It doesn't make sense and seems like a cheap way to advance the plot. I remind you again that lack isn't the answer to move the plot forward. And finally, avoid repetition of the same character trait in an expected and uncreative way. Don't let the reader think, oh, here he goes again, losing his way for no reason. Instead, use a creative and varied way for him to lose the way each time. When choosing or revealing iterate, verify its iteration possibilities. If it has none, suggest a different, more variable quirk. As I said before, repetition is good for human, not for writing. Repetition is good for, all right? All right, I want to repeat the same joke. That sums everything up. Characters are the heart of a restoring and as an editor, follow those guiding questions to strengthen the heart and the body of the book. Next lesson, I will teach you about editing point of view, waiting for you when you are ready for another inspiring lecture. 25. Editing Point of View: It's common for stories to be told for many points of view. And writers can swap between them in the middle of a chapter or the next one. But then the problems eyes up when readers can figure out whose perspective the story is told from. But before he showcases the do's and don'ts, let me explain what is story point of view? Point of view is through whose eyes and voice the reader experience the chapter. There are three types of point of views. First person, second person, third person. First-person. The character speaks in first-person I and takes the narrator's role. Second person, the writer speaks to the reader and tells the story from the perspective of you. And third person. The narrator is outside of the action, describing what is happening to a character within the story. The programs used are he, she, or eat? There are two types of third-person point of view, or magnificent, in which the narrator knows all the characters, thoughts, and feelings at all times. And limited a point of view that adheres only to one character's perspective at a time. No matter which type was chosen, your job is to check if the author diverted from it and fix it when he did. The Australian, each chapter is point of view. Here are some guiding questions. Point of view, editing guidelines. Is the point of view maintained. Did the writer used two types of points of views? For example, both first-person I and second you. And I'll you told, not shown about the different characters, thoughts, or feelings in the same chapter. First, historic can have more than one type of point of view. That means both first-person and second person, by the breaking point must appeal before swapping between them. However, changing point of view type has several potential problems. It's maybe confusing to the reader and irritate him that he doesn't get one continuous story. So bear that in mind. Second, unless your point of view character can read minds, it can't know what the others think or feel, as long as they don't tell all, show it. Stay sharp for when that happens. And maintained point of view. Is it obvious whose point of view is it? Make it clear to the reader when a point of view has changed and whose perspective you're using. In the chapters first paragraph mentioned somehow the name of the point of view character. If in the middle of the chapter, User chapter break to state that this scene has changed, as can be seen in the image below. But it doesn't have to look like this. Any bolts side will manage. Just make sure there is one. Isabella consistent switching formula. Many writers pick a formula to avoid confusing readers from changing points of view. You can structure a formula like this, a, B, C, a. We see the distribution should be as even as possible. After all, why would a reader concern himself with a point of view character that shows up every five chapters. The, the writer swap point of view in the middle of a scene. Don't live a point-of-view character in the middle of an action sequence. If the chapter ends with a cliffhanger, readers will turn to the next chapter to find out what will happened and when the next chapter begins with a novel point-of-view, character, readers will be impatient and rushed through it. I'm not fond of when a writer chooses the protagonists point of view and starts a thrilling battle. But before we know the outcome is tops, switches to the enemies point of view and says, No. Now I want you to learn about antagonists childhood. A cliffhanger is made to raise the tension in a reveal the outcomes trait in the next chapter to delay it and ruin the pace. The only time it can be valid is if the shift was to another point of view character yet at the same scene, otherwise inform the author about this issue. How there are too many or too few points of view. The more point of view characters there are, the more you first readers to spread out both their attention and their attachment. Many points of view can fragment the story and destroys focus. So how do you recognize a suppose point of view? Ask yourself, does this new point of view add something vital to the story? Or can you rework the scenes into an existing point of view character? Each point of view must either impact or be affected by the stories major structural moments. If that's not true of any point of view, then that point of view can be removed without affecting the story. That's it for how to edit point of view. This train isn't stopping and our next destination is editing plot pays, well mall hidden gems of knowledge awaits you. So make some popcorn, and I will see you there. 26. Editing Plot Pace: Most writers are aware that pacing is important, whether in a short story or novel. But what exactly is basing? Why is it so important? And how can you improve it in whichever kind of story you are editing? Blood base is crucial to keep readers hooked from start to finish. It's the rhythm you tell a story and it's events. How you telling an event too slow or too fast? Do the obstacles continue to rise? These questions helping enhance the reading experience and intruders will want to read more. And by repeating our usual ceremony of questions and answers, you will know when and how to change gears. Plant-based editing guidelines, spirit is key for the stories opening and towards the climax. But does your story adhere to this rule? The opening should interest to those past. The climax is a tense moment readers anticipate for. So slowing them down will make your readers impatient and disinterested. Obviously, if you see that these moments are slow, which soon you will know how to determine that. You need to revise them to be faster. How can you do that? Well, let's take a look at methods to hasten your scenes. Action, action scenes are will you show what happens in the story? And they contain few distractions, little description, and almost no thoughts. Such scenes aid in making a quick pace writing. Cliff hangers. When you leave the outcome of a scene or chapter hanging, the pace picks up because the reader will turn the page to find out what happens next. Prolonged outcomes. When you prolong outcomes, you create suspense and forward movement. While it may seem that belonging and event would slow down his story, this technique actually increases the speed because the reader wants to know if the character survives. Dialogue, a captivating argument with invigorates anything. The best dialogue for swiftness is a real life conversation that snaps with tension. A series of incidents and other means of spinning your story is to create events that happen one after another. We have minimal or no transitions. These are some forms of fast-paced writing if the opening and climax are stress free events. So just the writer to raise gear using one of these methods. Did you outline the plot to balance spacing to avoid concentrated event foreignness, or ongoing com chapters balanced spaced throughout the story. Use the plot model you outlined to discern well to smooth, uneven pace. Spread out both fast-paced, exhilarating moments of action and peaceful scenes with a paste formula. As you did with point of view, the redemption say this happened way too fast or that part dragged on forever. The goal is for pacing to be even and consistent. Slower paced scenes are as essential as fast-paced ones, as well as allowing for character development and inside, they give readers a chance to catch their breath after a fast-paced, gripping scenes. So follow a formula and balanced applaud pace. How complications pile up as the blood goes on. Progressive complications attract the reader to continue reading. Smooth sailing towards the story climax with brief obstacles along the way won't cut it. Instead, ensure arising. It balanced based of unsolved complications. After passing the introduction phase, it's time to crank it up a notch to keep the readers interested. So we dropped more and more unsolved complications. Reaching the climax, readers are then thrilled to unfold how everything settles. And finally, did the writer choose a fitting sentence structure to manipulate pacing? After you know, the chosen pays for each chapter, checks that the synthesis length suits or repays. If this is a fast seen, fewer words and shorten sentences will be more effective. If this is a slow scene, keep your writing descriptive and lead the character, admire the scenery. Writing longer chapters for a slow pace or shorter chapters for fast-paced will help to. As an editor in show the sentence structure follows the rising or dropping pace. Other ways to control paste are shifting. Our story is focused to a secondary storyline or using flashbacks when you want to slow things down. Has an editorial learned to recognize such paste control methods and the device plot paste to ensure a well-structured, engaging story. Sadly, that's all for this topic. Almost fully equipped. You can already see the light at the end of the tunnel. Your next editing step is editing dialogue. Keep going and I will see you there. 27. Editing Dialogue: Writing dialogue is hard work. Some know how to use it as a tool to enhance their storytelling. That's the group that you want to be a part of. And in this lesson, I'm showing you how to join them. Some say dialogue is well-written if swift and simple to read, and some say it's well-written if it fits real life conversations and isn't clogged. I say achieve all four. But how can you obtain these titles for your dialogue to give me a few minutes and you will see dialogue editing guidelines take their place. It's advised to consider what you would say in your character's position. Sometimes we prefer to hide our thoughts to avoid complications or to achieve our goals. Imagine what the characters are thinking and if you would choose to hide what they said. Also, in real speech, we use filler words or sounds to buy time to think about what to say next. However, in dialogue, words like, well, we can the conflict and get in the way of its progression. If your character needs to stall for time, have heard do something that signals her need to stall. For example, biting her lips and looking down at the floor. Take their place, but don't add filler words that you would use. Improving character's voice. Giving each character their own voice is vital to the authenticity. Here are a few ways to do so. Character unique phrases, usual mood that affect their speech, style of speech based on where they lived, on their past and reminder traits in relation to the dialogue topic. Also, researching the type of character, for example, a pirate, child or a hunter could reveal my ideas. As in real life conversations, each speaker has his own style of speech. So in story dialogue, characters would have their own unique voice. And it's your job to remind that to the author when he forgets outside the quotation marks. In real life, conversation will reveal our state of mind by poster, physical actions, facial expressions, and tone of voice. If you spot a naked dialogue scene, you should add descriptive tags, actions, or thoughts to bring it to life. Taking a break from Raw dialogue, every so often, allowing some variety. We have descriptive tags and actions is preferable. It how is that done and what our tags exactly. Descriptive tags and beats. A dialogue tag is a small phrase, either before or after or between the actual dialogue itself. For example, I know the truth, but I will never admitted. She whispered. She whispered is the Tag. Dialog beats is a detailed action that shows the character state of mind. Also, an unexpected beat action can revive the reader's attention doing a long dialogue section. But overuse of tags and beads can break the flow of nano. So unless if the dialogue is doing an action scene, had them only once in a while. Be mindful about the chosen descriptive weeds a writer should pick beats that reveal a character's personality based on his profile and not meaningful glances, smiles or nods that make your description feel repetitive and unoriginal. Accurate punctuation. We've tags I know the truth. Coma. She whispered coma material. Never admit that period. We've bits. You have some nerves showing your face, year period singularities, him loading eyebrows, period again, after what you did after what you said. Basically, tiles are linked with a coma and beats with a period. Also, it is worth noting that no one size grunts or breve words. These are action beads. Remember, tags explained how the dialogue sounds. Don't forget said. In real life conversations, we don't use physical expressions every single time. Most of the time we only say stuff. As an editor. Ensure the right girl throws said or even asked once in a while. Some of you might ask, Doesn't the use of said or asked sounds simple and boring. The short answer is no. Engrossed in the story and connected to the characters, a reader's eyes tend to pass over said or ask. So a writer doesn't need to avoid them, but use them from time to time. Conversely, don't let him overuse them as well. Repetition, get rid of unnecessary, repeated words and claims. Cut any excessive or redundant naming. The characters, know who they are talking to, like you do when you speak to someone. But if the reader might get confused about who's saying what are the speaker's name? Sometimes a character who has experienced an event in an earlier part of the story will describe it to another character. If the reader knows the scene already and this revisiting unveils nothing new. The Narrator can sum it up in a sentence. However, in some ways, repetition can be a useful tool to offer something weight. For example, when a character's brother dies, despite all efforts to save him, will repeat the phrase. He had done everything right to build the pressure, but use this method sparingly. Good dialogue is unexpected. Imagine how bore readers will be, if they can expect how characters will respond. Readers don't want the dialogue to be a statement of the character. Rather, they wish the dialogue to be adore into the characters deeper self to discover among unexpected part within him or her. As an editor will ensure one surprising moment in each exchange. Good dialogue is also one that moves the plot forward. After each conversation or exchange, the reader should be one step closer to either the climax or the conclusion of the story. That's it everyone. And now my final words before we continue to our last story editing lesson. Repetition apparently isn't always bad for writing. The crowd is stand, dramatic music plays as if someone found is lost brother after a decade. Anyway. See you at the next one. 28. Show, don't tell: This is it, The last story editing lesson? Kick up the music. Now, just kidding. Show don't tell is advice for writers, meaning don't describe the scene to readers, but allow them to learn it through your characters. As an editor suggests the writer to fix paragraphs that tell more than show confused. Well, let me provide some helpful examples. Setting, right, about how characters interact with their surroundings. You can tell a sentence like he walked through the forest, it was already fall and he was getting cold. All you can show forest fall and getting cold. The dry orange leaves crunched under my feet as I pulled the color up on my codes. One of the best ways to show rather than tell is to create a sense of setting. It allows the reader to imagine themselves in that very setting. As a result, reduce the gap between your and their image of the scene. Characters looks show character's appearance by exploiting their features, such as body features, clothes, or items they own. Telling my sister had a music player with her for our break-in plan. Show music player, my sister was busy breaking the locks while humming to herself after some song from how music player. Same with body features. If your character is tall, your reader can deduce that because you mentioned others looking up when they talk with him. So take your time to think what better way you can show a character looks. Character sensations. Results shouldn't rely on boiling adverbs on nouns to show what their character fields. Instead express feelings through actions or interactions with the surroundings. Telling I listened to the August time while freezing by the cold wind, show freezing the orchestra played. But because of the wind blowing in my ears and my teeth chattering, I heard nothing. Another example, instead of telling that your character is angry, show it by describing his face flushing his throat, tightening, his voice rising, or is feast slamming on the table. Scene progression. A sequence of actions and environment descriptions without thoughts or feelings, will turn any character into a narrator, puppets and puppet that the reader won't care for if kidnapped or murdered. Since all he knows is that it did this and then that and so on. So ensure scenes show the character's thoughts or feelings on the other side, in shrill action scenes limit cartel thoughts in the midst of danger or crisis. After all, people don't think every moment during a crisis they act. Some of you might ask, who's telling ever acceptable. And in some scenarios, yes, it does. For example, when describing the trip towards the next destination, rather than investing several pages showing every aspect of the trip from packing, dressing, getting a cab to the airport, going through security, boarding a plane, and arriving at the destination, you can shorten it to three days later. After a flight to Africa, he packed his weapons and set out to finish his mission. When it's information that isn't vital to the plot or already known to the reader. Telling it is preferable. And thus, you crossed the finish line of the story editing section. But wait, you're editing and proofreading journey is not even close to being over. A ton more content remains for you to discover when exactly you ask and goes straight to the final lesson and reveal the answer. 29. Academic, Web, & Story Editing Tests: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 30. Proofreading Preview Video: If you wish to enhance your writing skills and become a proofreading specialist, then my course proofreading errors like a pro, is exactly for you. You can examine a manuscript for hours and several mistakes, or you can take my course and spot all unwanted arrows. Swift as a machine. Learning from an experience proofreader how to clarify texts, fixed poor syntax and correct punctuation like approach may cause promises to sharpen your skills with several helpful practice activities and it doesn't end them. Well, assume a full unveiling guided to Apple, one of the best freelancing websites. Because we know jobs could provide a wet practice opportunity, improving your proficiency while earning money. So what are you waiting for joining my course and become an expert films proofreader today? 31. Basic Proofreading Terms Guide: as you begin to learn about proofing, a common question always comes up. What is the difference between editing and proofing? Well, editing involves a proactive editor making changes and suggestions that will improve the overall quality off the writing, particulary in relation to language use an expression after editing, the writing will be sharp and consistent, the expression clear and the overall readability off the writing and asked. Basically, anything should ensure that the writing gives the impression that the language comes naturally to the reader. Essentially editing ensures professional and correct writing and focuses on much more than just punctuation tells or a nuclear text. Which is why every book author sends his books through editing process before publishing. The following are some key questions that an editor will consider when anything, a piece of writing have proper words been chosen to expecially ODS? Is the tone appropriate for the audience? Did you use too many words? Have you used gendered language? Fittingly, these questions showed that an editor takes many small details in consideration when checking the text quality proof. Reading, on the other hand, has less ambition than anything and therefore is the cheaper service. But it. Stills performs a vital role. Profiting is the process of correctly and surface evals in writing, such as grammatical spelling, punctuation and other language mistakes, essentially ending in step two. Step one is writing, and proofreading is Step three copy editing. The copy editor makes true that the manuscript tells the best story possible. The copy editor focuses on both the small details and the big picture. Let's look on some points a copy editor focuses on. He checks for errors in grammar, spelling, syntax and punctuation similar to proof it. She also checks for incorrect statements. This is a necessary part off the copy editing process for non fiction manuscripts such as Historical Pieces, the copy editor, Mass check. If the facts in the manuscript are accurate and give the names and dates are correct, he also checks for potential legally ability. The computer verifies that the manuscript does not label others, and he checks for inconsistency within the story. This includes character description, lot points and setting. As you can see, the editor's job is not just a check grammar and spelling. He or she must make sure that every element off the story is consistent, compressive and complete. A copy editor confined working, editing books, resumes or blogged articles he edits as well as proof with the text he gets. So if you wish to become one, learning how to prove it correctly is a must. What is copyright copyrighting is the process of writing advertising. Promotional materials. Copywriters are responsible for the text on billboards, websites, emails, advertisements, catalogues and more. It is all about getting the reader to take action. That action might be to purchase, opt in or engaged with the product, service or company. Forfeiting jobs could sometimes be related to cooperating as well, so it's important to understand what copy. Warning Me. Basically, a copy editor is a highly specialised fighter who works mainly in sales or marketing area of the commercial sector, while a proof reader is a specialist in English or other languages in almost any context, working on anything from academic papers to nuts, that's the end of the lecture. Feel free to go back and re watch, and if these terms, if you're not sure, see you in the next lesson 32. The Proofreading Process and Types: proofing process and types. Let me show you the four steps off profiting process. Your first step should be to use AutoCorrect software to find spelling mistakes or double spaces within the text. Let that I will show you and talk about other courts afterwards you can use. The second step is to choose whether we would like to prevent a printed form off the document and later fix those changes on the computer or simply proof it through a computer from Start. Sometimes we're looking on a printed form of the document. You confined mistakes and arrows much easier than only computer Step three, though three a checklist Been spot all mistakes or needed corrections. The checklist makes you that you checked for all possible errors that usually appear. There will be a little less than dedicated folders in the last four step is to let someone else quickly pro video work, if possible. Sometimes others conspired mistakes you didn't noticed or skipped, because in your mind they sounded clear and feeding. But for others, it might sound un correct or hard to understand. Now, let's have a look on the most common per feeding types. Proofreading for print media print Media proofing is for newspapers, books, etcetera after preformed as somewhat off a final stage before printing print media. Proofreading is generally a check for errors. These errors could be in for mining, spelling or grammar and may have been introduced doing anything. Oh, have been missed internally doing previous rounds. Anything proofreading translations, ways, transition different from other types of proofing. Put simply because there's more than one language involved. Proofing in translation includes similar things to those mentioned about, such as checking, formatting, spelling and grammar. But transition Profiting also has to consider meaning and often actually has access to the source file to check that the intended meaning has been conveyed correctly. Academic proofing, academic, proofreading or more specifically, getting someone to pro video assignment is slightly different. The common theme off checking, grammar and spending returns. And it's sometimes accompanied by checks for academic style, such as referencing and correct academic fields terms. That's the end of the lecture. Feel free to really watch the profiting process, which would be important to remember when you start profiting for the first time, seeing the next lesson 33. Decent Proofreading Pricing: descent, preventing pricing when starting requesting payment off $0.1 pill. Word is reasonable. Since you have yet to gain any job reviews all work history Later on, you can try asking for a $0.2 per word and see how it goes. The low price tag is a result off the many cases in which the text requires little rewriting and that most proofreaders can edit large amounts of text really quickly. Thank you. As a rule of thumb proofing, rates for science, medical, financial and technical materials are heil than anything else in the mainstream publishing sector. If you have background in one of these fields, justice all that your expertise will lead to higher rates. Not all manuscripts are created equal, which is why it is very important to get an accurate overview off the project. You're about to start on. Sometimes a client will send your sample that shows a very poorly written text, which surely requires fixes for every second or third work. In such cases, asking for higher payment is also sensible. As for hourly rates, if you're only now starting to work or proof reading your goal should be to get hired and gather as many jobs as you can, and hence you should ask for $15 an hour after again. In more experience, you're free to request $20.25 or even $30 per hour. That's the end of the lecture. I hope you found this information helpful, and I will seal in the next test. 34. Proofreading Checklist - Things You Can't Forget: the proofreading checklist before at least some finger mistakes. I suggest that do search examples of common punctuation arrows in your own language on Google and Levin. What common mistakes can be found on your main forfeiting language? Also, don't forget to have an AutoCorrect software to go through the text and maybe find some mystics for you. I suggest using Graham early. If your text is in English now, let me show you your future proofing checklist. Have you used other corked software to spot spending els or double spaces? Using the build in Microsoft? AutoCorrect in the world is a wise to Did you go through the texts? Response Spending l's that might have been missed because sometimes even collection software's Mr Grows or doesn't recognize them, so it's essential, not completely. Rely on them full stops. Commas, colons, semi colons, etcetera, used correctly and worlds than sound like one another, but have different meanings, such as their there, and they're being used correctly. This step could be more related to English than other languages, so check if you're proofreading. Language has common words that sound similar but have different meaning and often are used on correctly. Is the text in an identical style throughout the old document. Check that the titles of in the same font and Style as well as consistent font you throughout the text. All the dates reading consistently. It was an example of inconsistency. Fourth of July 2016 could be said in fourth styles, but you need to make sure that the same style is used for off the whole document. The same applies to times it was an example for inconsistency. Three PM can be saved in full waste, but you need to make sure that the document keeps the same style. Although any oval used awards have you checked for poor scientifics, Centex is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well formed sentences. Here's an example of poor scientifics. She served sandwiches to gets on paper plates. A better way to say that is she served sandwiches on paper plates to guests. Better Syntex means sentences that are more clear and easy to read. You will have a full isn't about it later. Have you verified spending off people and company names? You will be taught how to do so late. Did you make sure your vocabulary is very. If you have used a more beautiful than seven times in a document, try changing in town. Have you clarified everything am biggest wall choices and sentences. Structures should be eliminated. And finally, did you get someone else to profit it? Remember, another sets off ice could sometimes see things from a different perspective. So if you know someone who is willing to help, try asking them to go through your file. That's it. Thank you for watching tonight Will see you in the next section. 35. Universal Proofreading Symbols: And now let's run some profiting symbols. So why should you learn universal profiting symbols in the publishing world and nervous numbers off text and layout alternation of May, often by more than one person on the same proofs, The editor might make their proofing marks, followed by the Proof Eater, followed by the author and so on. If you have ever tried to mark up a closely tied piece off text with corrections, you will know that it can get pretty messy very quickly. Often the page ends up with long. L was pointing to a possible answer nation point showing where he walked text sugar. It only takes two or three of this sort of corrections before the page becomes utterly incomprehensible. By using universal profiting symbols and the predetermined method of displaying them, any number off textural corrections become a piece. Okay, to the right is a great example off a couple off neatly months of messages to demonstrate just some off the most common preventing mops. Now let me teach you eight of the most common per feeding symbols. This pigtail sign is used whenever you want a word within the text to be removed for example, the word there was written twice instead of once. So you're right. Your big tail symbol on the one you want to remove. Use an empty triangle to show you want to add a specific word and, well, exactly. For example, the world pops is missing, so you need to add an empty triangle symbol exactly where he wishes to be added. And right above the word itself, these two symbols can be used whenever one words separated into two. For example, you can choose to use the symbol that works best for you on the other side. If you want to attach to words into one, you should use these to circle lights, for example, in the sentence. Her favorite game is softball. Softball should be written in one word When pro feeling English. A common mistake is forgetting to capitalize names, locations and first sentences work. These three lines should emphasize whether words should be capitalized. If a period is missing, it is how to show what should be at. Whenever I call my is missing. Simply write a triangle with a cover under it, for example, there are many more essential symbols. You can learn easily find by typing proofreading symbols on Google Search. That's the end of the lecture. I hope you found this information helpful, and I will see you in the next list. 36. How to Clarify Text: Now let me teach you how to clarify text worldliness. Sometimes the problem isn't choosing exactly the right word to express an idea. It's being wardy or using words that your reader may regard as extra off inefficient. You know a few examples of sets of words that are inefficient in the event that could be replaced with beef in the process off could be replaced with doing a while, regardless of the fact that could be replaced with, although due to the fact that could be replaced with because as a proof, either that aims to make the text clear and concise and moving. Extra words can directly help getting the reader right to the point of the text. Small to make a least offsets off words, you think a wordy and while profiting, try to spot you unnecessarily, sets upwards imported to grow your least and eventually get better at refining the text. Try searching the terms unnecessary words and repetitions, all ambiguous words written in your language on Google to find sets of words to add to your list, using a pronoun when readers can tell whom or what it refers to. For example, my cousin Jake hugged my brother Trey, even though he didn't like him very much. The pronouns he and him are making the sentence unclear. Is it Jake that doesn't like trade or the other way around? It is a more Cleavers. My cousin Jake hugged my brother trade. Even though Jake doesn't like trade very much, pay attention when profiting that opponents aren't misleading and make sure it's clear. Who are they referring to? Removing sanctions and sentences. Certain content sections off a manuscript may be correct and interesting, but if they are not adding any essential information, they should be removed. You will need to make a cruel decision and remove the unnecessary sections. What sections can really move long descriptions, off explanations or detailed explanations. Unless if they are necessary. And your show that the reader needs those details. Problematic paragraph that is difficult for you to read. Removing sentences connect from sentences that have a common thing. If a particular sentence repeats the words in the previous sentence, diligent if a sentence explains an idea or term most of the readers already know all that was already explained in the text. The lit explanation. Removing words activist writing instead of passive writing. For example, Logan, cumbersome versus the books was opened by the researcher Shorter and clearer version. The researcher opened the box. Activists writing almost sounds more clear this awkward and free from extra words. It also helps for bed of Syntex, and we will talk about it in the next list way. Give up on some of the adjectives and adverbs instead of fusing adjective tried to give the text simple and relevant. For example, the fascinating research shows that adopting bone graft today and night cycles may increase the chance of success. The sentence is already long as it is, so removing the adjective fascinating is recommended. In some cases, you can also replace adverbs and verbs to a new, shorter verb that keeps the meaning off the action. For example, Suddenly Rose could be replaced to jump replace phrases We one word. Look for text expressions off a few words that express one thing and try to replace them with one word off the same meaning. And here are a few more examples off possible downsizing. Increased appetite was expressed in all nice. Oh, you can say all my state more capable off or you can say able in two separate cases, all you can say twice. The resulting liquid was purple. Oh, you can say liquid waas or turned people. That's it. I hope you understand better how to clarify text and the importance of making it relevant. And I will see you in the next lecture. 37. Clarifying Wordy Sentences: Time for little practice. Open the file called clarifying words, sentences, questions, and follow its instructions. You can find it in the course resources. Good luck. 38. How to Fix Poor Syntax: fixing pull Syntex. Fundamentally, Syntex is about structure. The rules of syntax exists to make sentences clear and consistent. There are a variety of common side tactical mistakes, and all are easy to fix. Once a profiteer can recognize what is written in consistently, for instance, and in collect scientifics while watching the movie. People who text on the phone are very annoying. Correct Centex People who takes on the phone while watching a movie are very annoying. It's quite obvious when reading aloud that the second sentence is more clear and consistent than the 1st 1 Thus much is there to read here. The problem is the misplaced modifier. A modifier is a word or phrase intended to change or modify another part of the sentence. Typically the subject. In this case, the modified oil is while watching a movie because it affects how their subject, the people, is seen in the reader's mind. An easy way to spot the mother file in the sentence is that even if you remove it, the sentence can still be read and understood. You can find in the lesson or course resources and article the teachers more broadly on different modifiers in the text, you know. More examples. Incorrect Syntex happy about her upcoming promotion. The trip home was full of singing. Correct Syntex. Happy about upcoming promotion. Sammy saying all the way. Hope or incorrect Syntex Looking over Charlie's exam, civil mistakes become evident immediately. CORRECTS in text. Looking over Charlie's exam, the teacher noticed several mistakes. In the second incorrect example, the sentence is stating that the trip home subject was happy about an upcoming promotion, which doesn't make sense. Instead, it is Sammy who is the up in individual with the promotion. As stated in the correct sentence, the incorrect sentence lacks a subject to make sense. The sentence needs something off someone to perform the action it describes. To sum it up fixing pool Syntex requires both fixing sentences for more clear and consistent structure and making sure that sentences have a subject to begin with. The ramon types of Syntex checks that could improve the overall quality off the text, and you can find articles about them on the lesson off course resources use the active voice. One of the best ways to keep your Centex clear is to write in the active voice. This means the subject is carrying out the action of the sentence. For example, hiking up the endless, he dreams a bottle of water. This line is written in the present tense, using the active voice That's good. What you want to avoid is something like this hiking up the end. This a bottle of water is drunk by him. In addition to the unnecessary awkwardness off the passive voice, the sentence also employs that the bottle of water was the one doing the hiking. Applying the rules off voice to your Syntex allows you to write in a clear and present tense, free from an access off, helping verbs, trying to change passive sentences, toe active ones while proofing for four symptoms and at this process to fixing Syntex Checks list. Here are a few examples of complex sentences with correct centers, even though it's ridiculously expensive. I enjoy college here. It's clear who is the subject, and the modifiers are even though ridiculously and expensive, which are structured correctly since you can't write this sentence without adding a coma between the modifiers and the subject. Another example. Work pays the bills whether you like it or not. Here work is the subject and the mother fire is whether you like it or months in the south of Florida. Americans are scary, the subject is hurricanes, and the modifiers are in the south of Florida. The skies think especially in the romantic city of fairies. The subject is sky and the modifiers, especially in the romantic city of Faried. Ever since you rescued her, the dog loves her owner this time trying to think Who is the subject and who is the modifier by yourself also trying to check if this sentence sounds clear when you read it, That's the end of the electric. I hope you found this information helpful, and I will see you in the next. Listen, feel free to look on the articles I've left. 39. Fixing Passive Voice and Misplaced Modifiers: Time for little practice. Open the file called Fixing passive voice and misplaced modifiers and follow its instructions. You can find it in the course resources. Good luck. 40. How to Correct Punctuation: correct punctuation articles says there is a lot to explain and demonstrate about each of the punctuation signs I will provide in the resources off the lesson or course a file with extensive articles regarding what's considered correct punctuation and held response. Common punctuation mistakes Here is what you can expect that there how to use proper capitalization, how to use end of sentence punctuation marks. How do you use commas correctly? I went to use cones and semi colons. I went to use hyphens and dashes how to use apostrophes Stashes, Double quotation pardon It is and more. You will find most signs in different writing discussions regarding many more punctuation uses in the text. All that and more in the punctuation article. Smile. So go check it out. I suggest searching correct punctuation in your language. On Google, you might find more tips and helpful examples that could in hind still punctuation skills. That's the end of the lesson. Thank you for watching, and I'm waiting for you in the next left 41. Spot the Missing Punctuation: Time for little practice. Opened the file called spot the missing punctuation questions and follow its instructions. You can find it in the course resources. Good luck. 42. Master Any Work Field with 5 Essential Steps: get all five tips to gain. Better grasp over walk fields. If you wish to master, I feel that relates to your work. Whether if it's medical, technical marketing, etcetera, read, read and read some more. You know five steps for improving your knowledge over the medical field or any other field you wish to get better at. Be as specific as possible on what you start researching or reading about. Try choosing a unique and not loud subject that shows frequently on jobs you take. For example, don't focus on the technical field focused on sub topics within it, like WordPress or software development, a smaller topic that appeals often and picks your interest. Such articles and examples for you to read. Whether by searching on Google all by paying a weekly newsletter subscription by reading, you learn in terms related to the topic. You alone the writing style off the topic and overall, improve your writing skills. Purchase or borrow books related to your field of interest for you, Terry. The same applies here. The more you understand and gain knowledge related to the topic, the better your grasp over that work filled will become. Watch videos online that teach broadly and clearly about the subject. Some things are easier to learn when listening to someone that teaches them directly. You might learn faster. You even find more helpful information by watching videos online. Get to know a person who works in that field, and that wouldn't mind checking your final product. That way, both your knowledge and your work quality improves. It could be a friend, family member or even a person from linked in who is nice enough to give you a hand. Linked in is a network of freelancers or any other person who works in a company, which lets working people to get to know each other and find business opportunities. Try making an account there and talking with the person that works in that field. You're learning common medical field categories for those who wish to gain better grasp over the medical field. He lost several categories within the medical field, which frequently appear in jobs, medical records, psychology, Nutri Ology, healthcare Secretary and Pharmaceutical. Remember, even if you research online and read some books about the subject that doesn't replace in any way the broad knowledge and expertise person gains with a degree. A person needs to learn many types of medical terminology before been starting to grasp how big the medical field is. So think hard before jumping into that endless ocean. Your goal is to find a field that isn't too large, and that's highly requested within your walk field and then attempts to gain better grasp over. That's Nan. If the lecture remember, mastering the world might take some time. But when clients sees your experience at that field, they are sure to come for your first, which makes all of it warfare. But for now, let's focus on profit. So I'm waiting for you in the next lecture. 43. AutoCorrect Software & Proofreading Translation: English or the correct software while walking you correct and fix text as much as you can. But mistakes always heaven, and you want to be 100% sure everything is accurate and professional. After all, we are humans, and we often make mistakes. But perfection is what our plans to spend for us. That's what other correct or spellcheck software comes in. Unfortunately, I currently only know a well made somewhere that under the English, so we feel planning to the level of file in English to your client. He was a great free software for it. Gravelly ramel, a Canadian to find most spelling and grammar errors and suggested corrections and improvements to your English texts. It also has a very useful little form extension that can be used while using YouTube studio for editing. Subtitles in English, all while using Google. Translate for any unknown words encounter. I want to make it feel that I decided to talk about this suffering only because I found it helpful and simple to use, and definitely not because any payments off it's a free platform I'm using and wanted to share my personal knowledge about, I think the free no cost service is excellent and you should definitely give it to try, even if you don't plan on using it for war. No, let's say you have an English follow you wish to check. It is how we can do that. Go to Google and right family from extension that simply had Gremillion to Google from. Let me show you how it works. If I write, let's go together with spelling errors, quickly identified them and suggest ways to fix it. You can also double click any word and get synonyms off. Other words for replacement. No. In Egypt Studio, it can give you corrections and assist you with the English. Now let's look on the extension intel. Hell, you have three options. I should just activating all of them. They give you the decision on which places government. We will be active, give or not give you suggestions for synonyms and similar words or option for other correction of text. Now, if you have an English file and want to check it, go impressed your document. Let's I want to upload some titles and 74 Go here. Impressed, Upload, fight. I can't find my subtitle fire because it's in sa d former. The platform does not support it, so I will show you how to change it to texts for Go to Change folder and search options. Then don't have you and uncheck I'd extensions. - That's how it generally look, and you even have the option to check old files. I currently only used the from extension, but there are even windows and office extensions if you use it more often. Oh, if you're dealing with English on a daily basis, manually proofreading text in order to make sure your final version is clear off. Mistakes and errors will teach you the secrets of Perfect. Once you have finished your translation or transcription, is your work done? Not at all. You still need to proof in your work. Here are three reasons why to replicate typos, arrows off grammar and punctuation, etcetera to make sure that you're finished, translation or inscription reads well, sounds clear and looks professional in return. And finally, to make sure that nothing is in your translation or transcription that wasn't in the source text on the one hand, and that nothing is missing, either. Some of you may say or think that simply being careful what writing or anything. The work is enough, and sometimes it is, however, by myself used to do that and hearing them. My clients found some steaks, which led to wrong assumptions that my work was simply Google translated all that. I don't really know the languages, I said. So I started proofreading myself more. And thanks to that, such cases rarely happens. There are three methods off general proofreading you can do and should. Comparing the original and the new birth back. Translation and or re translation. Reading and proofreading your new version, comparing the original and the new birds the game by comparing your translation. All transcription with original text or audio. You can work sentence by sentence or phrase by phrase, whichever is easier. Go through the text, carefully lining up the new version and the original as you compare. Also, double check, tricky places, tricky terms and spots. You weren't 100% happy for sure about on your initial path through the original, for example, it could be worse that fit the original text or audio, but doesn't sound fluent invisible enough on your new version, you can feel free to ask a friend or someone you know who has a good language skills regarding held the text sounds to him and what he thinks. You can even ask someone else you know who work in subtitling or translation and tell him to proof in your file. And in exchange you will profit his next future work if you're still stuck or unsure. A site called Prose has a network called kudos that provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other translations or explanations of terms and short phrases. I strongly advise to make an account there and try asking questions when wishing to received professional help. For those of you who doesn't know, prose is the terms, this insight that experts in all the languages out there use forgetting transition jobs in their home page. There is a window for questions about such tricky terms or symptoms said that people sent an answer in order to help each other out. Another proofreading option is back. Translation. Back Translation is another method of compelling original, and Your Newberry. It simply means taking the translation or description with different language subtitles and then reaches lading in back into the source language without first looking at the original . Compare the original in the back translated versions. Obviously, there will be differences, but they should be minor and subtle, not major. Just so you know, some professional transition agencies use back translation to double check the translators and even proofreaders work. They know that profiting the only work guarantees better results for the customs. You should do the same. And now let's look on to online platforms for comparing text dif checkers and copy leaks. As you can see, I simply Googled dif checker, and now I will, until their website. There are two options to enter. Text one for original and one for new version. Let me add a simple text and show you how it works. All right, let's delayed some letters and change the text a little so that I can show you. As you can see the blood from highlights and counts the differences, you compress the green or red marks for jumping into each one of them, or simply scroll down to find it. Now let's have a look on companies. Instead of going to the home page, go to compare documents similar to Def Checker. There are two options to enter the text. One for original in one for new version. And again, let's make some changes and see how it goes. - One of the cool things here is that you can see the percenters of how many differences or matches it has found. By removing identical, you can see the percentage of your not similar text, then easily find the differences on profit your text if needed. Re translation. Re translation is another laborious way to proofing. Process is simple, but that's so ideal. You just read. Translate the original text him Compared to translation. Re translation is very useful for tricky spots and can be illuminating, but it nonetheless is a real duplicate flavor. As such, it's to be avoided unless necessary. You already did the walk once. Why do it twice for the same pay reading and proofreading your new version. Next, make sure your translation or transcription is a good text on itself. Read on your version from start to finish. Does it sound career and professional except, if not, do the level style tone and diction match those of the original? Make sure that they do. Obviously you should proof, read The new version is in your best profaning skills. Look for spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, formatting numbers, etcetera, anything that might be wrong. No runners spelling and grammar checker software. Over your tapes, you feel profiting English, for example, you can use Graham early. What is my proof? Reading skills aren't good enough. Here are two tips. One. You can team up with another translator. Proofreading skills can be trusted. Or you can pay another transgender to prove video work for you. Sites like Find her or a freelance. So awful. Not everyone like going over the finished work again, so you can definitely try to find an expert proof, either. For me, if you truly want to be a professional translator or transcriber, never simply run your spell and grammar checker and hope it catches everything. It can't and it won't. These three basic ways of profiting will help you to deliver translation for subtitling projects that are true to the original and truly child. No, and we're finally done. It was long, but it's a necessary process for all of you who wants to be a true professionals at their work. Thanks for watching and waiting on the next lecture 44. 10 Tips for Editing and Proofreading Better: this lecture, I will teach you 10 tips. All methods for proofing Better tip number one Proof in backwards. Proofing your text from the end of your content to the beginning is the recommended proofing method. Let me explain why this technique is actually a time saver. Proofreading backwards helps you to see the writing with fresh eyes and helps to focus better on each word separate. In addition, disporting actual els, you're also likely to find overuse the words sentences you can clarify and paragraph sick and simplify. Give it a try the next time you need to polish fresh draft or document. I personally use this method when checking for overused words or for sporting spinning kettles. Because that way it's easier to recognize a word that is used too much. And your mind doesn't feel words in the sentence, which could lead to skipping something. Double chicken tip. Even the most proficient off proofreaders can make evals a good way to double check. Your work is by listening to it. A good trick, which is free, is by opening Google. Translate copy and paste a selected piece off text into the left box. You will see a sound icon cricket to listen to the text. Being read to this method works when profiting English, but I'm sure you can find other platforms that have the same option to read aloud. Your text, as we will translate does for English Tip number three. Scan the first word off each paragraph varying your war chose elevates your content to a more sophisticated level. If several off your paragraphs begin with the same word, your writing won't be as dynamic as it could be used. This opportunity to push okay activity. You can end this process to the overused words part on your proofing checklist. Tip number four Verify Spinning off people's names Google is a proof with his best friend keeping Google search tab open when you proof it, and look at the proper spelling off every name in your text, for example, checking her to rights to find correctly. I'm sure you also appreciate when your name is spelled correctly to number five. Verify spilling off company names When a knowledgeable reader spots spelling for letter case so it makes an article looks sloppy. It could be a copy blogger on copy longer instead of correct spelling copy brother. An incorrect spinning off a name isn't the table. It's a mistake performing a final spell it cheque is an important part of proofing, so I've dedicated the steep two names professionals verify in every piece of content as they should. Just like with the previous did, you can use Google Search to find out how the company's name is written correctly. Tip number six. Improve vocabulary for better proof any I tried to learn 3 to 10 You high linguistic words or expressions in your language every day. Also right casual words that can be replaced with those new words. Such long term method could aid in improving your words. Proofing Excuse. This learning process could also help with finding similar words to use instead overused words in the text by writing high level words or expressions that could replace common Boeing words we hear every day. You eventually improve the overall quality of the text and makes it fun to read. Tip number seven. Put it on paper. People read differently on screen and on paper, so print out a copy of the text. If you will given only a few pages to perfect its recommended to print them and find out if your eyes might catch l was better on paper than on the computer screen. Tip number eight. Get someone else to prove it. After checking all the previous points, do not forget to get a friend to proof it it for you. You will be amazed at the mistakes you've missed. A second person will also be in better position to evaluate whether the sentences makes sense or not. Tip number nine No, your own typical miss takes before the profit. Look over papers you have written in the past and make a least of commonly repeated Arabs Do the same to papers that you have found on some commonly repeated Els while proofreading and add them to your least of commonly writing stinks in the final tape. Proof it for one type of L at the time. If comas are your most frequent problem, go through the paper chicken. Just that one problem, then proof it again for the next most frequent problem. In other words, when using your profiting checklist, don't attempt to complete two different checks like overused words and punctuation at the same time, but rather give every check in your lease, its own focus, time and respect. That's the end of the lecture. I hope you find this information helpful, and I will see you in the next lesson. 45. Proofreading Job Sites: Hello everyone. In this lesson we will learn about optional job sites that could provide your first proofreading jobs. And we'll also try to emphasis the differences between them as much as I can. So let's begin with why get hired in the first place? Will taking jobs could provide it read practice opportunities, improving your proficiency in proofreading all while earning money, like hitting two birds with one stone. Now let's look on some websites for proofreading jumps. Here first three options are freelancer, people per hour and fiber. These sides are among the biggest freelance websites out there providing a large number of jobs. You will also find fair number of freelancers that compete on them. Most jobs they're Arlene entry level and no entrance test is required to join them. Upwork and grandly to sites that provide between entry level to experience jobs and no entrance test is included in order to join them up. Ok is also known as one of the biggest finance websites. And after earning enough experience on the platform, you can certainly find well-paying customers. Grandly is an online service that provides editing and proofreading services. You might not get paid much if you're an entry-level proofreader, but it's still worth to give it a try to gain more experience. Proofreading services and galactose global alpha experienced proofreaders that already have solid grammar and punctuation skills, you can expect high salary on both of them as well as full-time jobs. But bear in mind that once you apply, you need to pass at 20 or 30 minute tests to be able to get any job assigned to. I believe that finding a place with both entry and experienced jobs is the best option, which is why in this course, I will provide a phone Guide to apple, a great site for wolf advanced and beginner proofreaders. And from my experience, after you again, trust and walkie story on the site, you can definitely find full-time, high-paying jobs. So that's it for this lesson. I hope it helped you to decide where to start and I will see you in my APA guide. 46. Introduction to Upwork: Hello everyone. In this lesson, I will give you a short introduction of Upwork and how it works through several questions that I will answer along the lesson. My goal is to give you a look on the big picture of what Upwork is. Alright, let's begin. How do you get jobs and up for? The main way is by waiting for new job posts published on your My feet page. You look up the details of the job and decide if you want to apply for it. Another way is if a client soil profile was impressed and decided to send you an invite to his job. Of course, once you find a client that gives you ongoing work, applying for new jobs, isn't the problem anymore. How their hourly jobs on Upwork? Yes. You discuss with your client the time it will take to finish the job and later you use a desktop application that you downloaded from, opposed to record your log time while walking. Unlike fixed payment jobs which require the client to approve your work before the payment is sent to you? I'm only jobs on Upwork approve your log time payment automatically without the need for any approved from your client. Also, once you start to record your lunchtime, the desktop application takes screenshots of your desktop once every ten minutes to make sure you're actually are walking and not faking. What disadvantages does a book had? Unfortunately, upon takes 20 percent profit from parents unless you earned already $500 with a client, which lowers your service fees to 10 percent, but only with that specific line. Also, after a few jumps, you will be required to buy connects points that allow you to apply for a new job posts. Don't well, IDO connects are quite tube and once you get the client that keeps your ongoing work, there is no need to buy anymore connects. It's true that 20% is not a small amount, but for the many jobs and higher payment opportunities you can find, it's totally worth it, at least as a beginner. How can you receive payments on our call? Our book supports PayPal, Pioneer US bank direct payments and global direct payments. Your clients pay your payment to our book, then do collect your total profit from a book by any of those options. In the next lessons, you will learn mainly about our book and how to correctly use it. However, feel free to try your luck on any other job sites you like. If you're not interested, simply skip to the final lesson of the course. Quick note, those of you who understand the rarely spoken language will obviously have it easier than those who speak common languages. For example, English, Spanish, or French. Since there will be less people to compete with. To start your journey on our book, here is where you can find my full course on it. Scroll down in my profile page, click the course and become an expert freelancer on their platform. 47. Final & Bonus Lesson: Hello students, first congratulation on finishing my editing and proofreading tours. Notice probably the time to throw your hat to the air or something. Thank you very much for applying. I hope you've found my course helpful and informative. I've prepared some bonus editing and proofreading methods to enhance their skills even further. Read aloud. Good proofreading is done slowly. Simply reading it normally allows your brain to fill in gaps and fix errors in your mind and skip them on the page. Reading aloud in shoes that each word and punctuation mark is verified. It also highlights awkward sentences because it will sound more awkward out loud than on the page. Give it a try for a sec and see what I mean. I learned it's important the hard way finished proofreading and add fall client's website. I delivered my work, but later, Mike Land contacted me about a spinning L. I missed a noticeable L by reading aloud. So next time you proofread it a few pages, try reading aloud. Circled punctuation marks. This method may seem over the top, but it's one of the most effective methods out there for spotting punctuation mistakes. By circling every single punctuation mark, you force yourself to look at each one in turn and question if it really has been used correctly. When do I use it? If I choose to print the document and don't want to miss any punctuation marks, find important client. Refer to people as who not that Harry is the guy who never stops mumbling, not the guy that never stops mumbling. It's easy to make this slip because that has become adequate in daily cover sessions. But it's more noticeable when written down. Swap thing with more exact word. Usually when we write thing of things, it's because we were too lazy to think of a better word in everyday life. We may ask for that thing over there. But in writing, calling anything a thing doesn't aid your reader. And to replace all thing of things with a mockery of word. Read well edited writing. People don't read enough these days, at least not well edited books and magazine articles. He had. Reading excellent writing is one way to see how to edit someone's own work. You will discover new options for recasting sentences. You will find inspiration for new ideas. And finally, I wish you good luck in your proof reading and writing projects. Hope I made you a little more confident in both. If you have any questions, feel free to ask, and I will see you in my next course. Also, if you wish to start working in editing and proofreading, go check my beginner's guide for financing on Upwork, and check my other courses while you're at it. Anyway. See you in the next one.