ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR - All The Verb Tenses | Gaia Massara | Skillshare

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ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR - All The Verb Tenses

teacher avatar Gaia Massara, English Teacher | Cambridge | TEFL

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Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

90 Lessons (4h 51m)
    • 1. Welcome to the course

      2:56
    • 2. How to use the course

      4:09
    • 3. Present simple introduction

      1:04
    • 4. Present simple Rule

      2:23
    • 5. USE ONE- Habits

      2:05
    • 6. USE TWO & THREE- Permanent situation

      2:58
    • 7. USE 4- Future timetables

      4:08
    • 8. USE 5- Expressions

      4:07
    • 9. USE 6- Conditional sentences

      6:10
    • 10. Present Simple- Conclusion

      2:24
    • 11. Present continuous- Introduction

      1:09
    • 12. Present continuous rule

      1:46
    • 13. USE ONE- Actions happening now

      3:23
    • 14. USE TWO- Temporary actions

      3:26
    • 15. USE THREE- New habits

      3:39
    • 16. USE FOUR- Add emphasis

      4:36
    • 17. USE FIVE- Future arrangements

      3:29
    • 18. Present Perfect Rule

      3:08
    • 19. USE ONE- Length of actions

      5:51
    • 20. USE TWO - Life experiences

      7:20
    • 21. USE THREE - Ever and Never

      2:33
    • 22. USE FOUR -Unfinished time expressions

      2:54
    • 23. USE FIVE -Past action with a present result

      9:08
    • 24. USE SIX- Introducing news

      2:58
    • 25. USE SEVEN - BEEN and GONE

      4:09
    • 26. Present perfect Conclusion

      2:32
    • 27. Present Perfect Continous Introduction

      1:05
    • 28. Present Perfect Continuous Rule

      1:50
    • 29. USE ONE- Action that continues to the present

      4:52
    • 30. USE TWO- Temporary habits

      4:00
    • 31. USE THREE- Result of a recent past action

      8:07
    • 32. Conclusion Present Perfect Contunous

      3:06
    • 33. INTRODUCTION PRESENT PERFECT VS PRESENT PERFECT CONT Gaia Massara English Coach Complete verb te

      1:16
    • 34. STATIVE VERBS

      6:20
    • 35. NO DIFFERENCE

      1:42
    • 36. DIFFERENCE ONE- Adding emphasis

      3:24
    • 37. DIFFERENCE TWO-Quantifying actions

      1:28
    • 38. DIFFERENCE THREE- Intention

      7:00
    • 39. DIFFERENCE FOUR- Yet and already

      1:28
    • 40. DIFFERENCE FIVE- The result of actions

      3:46
    • 41. Conclusion

      3:06
    • 42. Introduction Past simple

      1:12
    • 43. Rule Past simple

      3:23
    • 44. USE ONE- Past actions

      2:21
    • 45. USE TWO- With present perfect

      2:38
    • 46. USE THREE - With the past continous

      4:00
    • 47. CONCLUSION Past simple

      2:21
    • 48. INTRODUCTION PAST SIMPLE VS PRESENT PERFECT

      0:36
    • 49. DIFFERENCE ONE- Past simple vs Present Perfect

      5:40
    • 50. INTRODUCTION PAST CONTINOUS

      0:54
    • 51. RULE- Past continuous

      1:34
    • 52. USE ONE- Action in progress

      2:03
    • 53. USE TWO- Different past actions

      6:06
    • 54. USE THREE- Background story

      1:30
    • 55. USE FOUR- Complain about past habit

      2:06
    • 56. CONCLUSION Past continuous

      1:57
    • 57. INTRODUCTION Past perfect

      1:20
    • 58. RULE Past perfect

      1:57
    • 59. USE ONE- Multiple past actions

      4:05
    • 60. USE TWO- Length of action

      4:31
    • 61. USE THREE- Optional use

      3:13
    • 62. RULE Past perfect continuous

      2:59
    • 63. USE ONE- Past action

      4:55
    • 64. USE TWO- Reason

      4:09
    • 65. Conclusion Past perfect continuous

      2:14
    • 66. INTRODUCTION Future Simple

      1:03
    • 67. RULE Future Simple

      4:24
    • 68. USE ONE- Will

      2:19
    • 69. USE TWO- Will

      5:21
    • 70. USE THREE- Will

      3:25
    • 71. USE FOUR- Going to

      4:02
    • 72. USE FIVE- Going to

      2:27
    • 73. USE SIX- Shall

      3:47
    • 74. CONCLUSION Future Simple

      3:03
    • 75. INTRODUCTION Future Continuous

      0:42
    • 76. RULE Future Continuous

      2:04
    • 77. USE ONE - Two future actions

      6:18
    • 78. USE TWO - Prediction based on expectation

      5:18
    • 79. CONCLUSION Future Continuous

      2:17
    • 80. INTRODUCTION Future Perfect

      1:07
    • 81. RULE Future Perfect

      3:15
    • 82. USE ONE- Length of Action

      5:57
    • 83. USE TWO- Finished future action

      3:50
    • 84. CONCLUSION Future Perfect

      1:53
    • 85. INTRODUCTION Future Perfect continuous

      1:06
    • 86. RULE Future Perfect continuous

      2:02
    • 87. USE ONE Length of action

      2:38
    • 88. USE TWO - Finished future action

      4:19
    • 89. CONCLUSION Future Perfeect

      2:06
    • 90. COURSE CONCLUSION

      1:43
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About This Class

Hello and welcome to this class. 

My name is Gaia and i will be the teacher teaching you EVERYTHING you need to know in order to master ALL the English verb tenses. 

I have been teaching English for almost a decade have seen amazing students, with great fluency skills fall behind because of their lack of prophiceny in using the verb tenses. 

That's why i have created this class. I am going to teach you how to confidently use all of the English verb tenses, interchange between verb tenses and use them effortlessly in your spoken and written English. 

It has been specifically designed for ANY student at ANY level of English to either learn the verb tenses from scratch or revise forget and difficult verb tenses in order to level up your English, pass your IELTS exam with a 6.5+ band score or get a job in an English speaking country.

My goal for this course is to help you understand the verb tenses in "real" context, relate them to your everyday life and help you see how you can actually use the tenses in everyday English. Which is why in this class i breakdown each verb tense, explain its contruction, uses and in what real life situations or conversations you can actually use this verb tense. By doing this you will understand how to relate to the verb tense, how to fammiliarize yourself with it and how to master using it by yourself when you speak in English

This is a 100% active course, which means it realies on your participation. Throughout the whole course i will be asking your questions, giving you short speaking exercises and enableing you to actively learn and practice what i am teaching you, right there with me while you are taking the lesson. 

This course has been divided into specific sections, each of which concentrating on a particular verb tense and is accompanied by complete lesson notes and exercises in order to maximise your learning. 

By the end of this course you will be able to: 

  • Use all of the English verb tenses in spoken English 
  • Tell stories and speak about memories correctly in accordance to the past tenses.
  • Understand the difference between the present perfect and past simple (FINNALY!) 
  • Use conditional sentences confidently
  • Interchange between all verb tenses when needed 
  • Understand the difference, use and meaning of all of the English verb tenses 
  • Speak english fluently because of your ability to effortlessy use the verb tenses correctly 

In this course you will get

  • MORE THAN 4 hours of video lessons
  • PDF- Detailed explanation of the use of all verb tenses
  • PDF- Verb tense cheat sheet
  • PDF- Exercises and Answeres for every verb tense 
  • Active speaking exercises 

For extra English help i welcome the women here to join my Women in English community in order to build your confidence and practice English everyday with other women!

Join Women in English Facebook group here

Join the Women in English Instagram page

Join the Women in the English youtube channe

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Gaia Massara

English Teacher | Cambridge | TEFL

Teacher

 

Hello I'm Gaia,

I'm an English teacher from Australia but now i live in Italy with my beautiful daughter and husband. My journey with English began with my learning Italian, where i discovered that speaking a new language is one of the most personal eye opening experiences one could encounter. 

My husband and i opened an English Language school in 2015 however with the birth of our baby girl i moved all my teaching directly online, which now brings me close to 7 years teaching English.

As well as being passionate about teaching i love writing, studying personal development and behavioural phycology as well as practicing meditation. 

I incorporate my expertise and qualifications (Cambridge certified, TEFL certified) with my ... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome to the course: I'm gonna be honest with you, the English verb tenses are your foundations to really speaking English effectively. And at a C0, C1, C2 level, I know that English grammar can be very overwhelming. And when your main goal and focus for learning English revolves around getting a job, revolves around being able to hold a business meeting, or even just simply making it through a day living in an English-speaking country, the thought to learn all of that English grammar can be extremely overwhelming. And it is, there is a lot of grammar to learn. But in my eight years experience teaching English, I've learned that the key to speaking English fluently and coherently really is to understand how to use the verb tenses, how to interchange between verb tenses. So you can tell a story, so you can product, so you can create emphasis and feeling behind what you say. And that's why I'm here today talking to you about English verb tenses because I want to help you achieve those goals. And I really want to help you feel like, hey, I can, I can speak English really well. It makes sense. People understand what I'm saying, everyone, my name is Gaia and I am an English teacher, an English coach. Like I told you before, I've been teaching English for about eight years. And I have helped really a lot of students understand how to improve using the verb tenses, how to use the verb tenses clearly and be able to get their ISIL's band score, be able to lead presentations, even be able to go ahead and start their own businesses. My main goal for You are my main focus for you is to teach you in a practical way so that you can understand how to take grammar information and put it into your everyday life so that you can understand the subtle situations and scenarios where it would be more appropriate to use one verb tense over another because it's more polite, because it evokes a particular feeling. Sorry if you are here and you feel like, wow, this sounds like a really interesting course. I really want to level up my English and start speaking like a native speaker. I welcome you to this course. I am looking forward to teaching you and best of luck, learning the English verb tenses. 2. How to use the course: Tell everybody how I u here I am. I want to talk to you a little bit about how you can use this course. Now, as you can see from the title, this is a course, so you're going to learn everything you need to know about the English verb tenses. It is divided into three sections. You have the present tense, the past tense, and the future tense. And within each section, you are going to learn every single one of the English verb tenses really important for you guys to know and to understand that even though this is a video course, even though I'm not there with you in a person teaching you, this course relies on your participation and it is 100% active, meaning you're not just going to be sitting back, pressing play and watching these video lessons. I really need your participation, which is why I'm going to be asking you questions throughout the course. I'm going to be getting you to speak throughout the course. I'm going to be getting you to actually be using the English verb tenses in English through speaking, through writing as we are going through the lessons. While as this, every single lesson is accompanied by an exercise. Now you will be able to access the exercises in a big PDF pack that I have attached to this course. You have exercises and also all of the lesson notes. That way as you're listening to me speak, as you're trying to understand everything I'm saying. If there's anything that you miss, you can go over and read through absolutely everything I'm sitting here talking to you about today. Now, the best way that you can make your way through this course is to break it up step by step. Obviously this is quite a longer, coarser consuming it all in one day, I would suggest is going to be a little bit overwhelming. So I would say that the best thing is to concentrate step-by-step on each verb tense separately, whether it be the present tense, the past tense, et cetera, to make your way through the course in the order that I have suggested, because it is the easiest way in order to get a handle on everything. And as you are learning one specific verb tense, go ahead and obviously watch the video lesson rhyme providing for that verb chance. Read the lesson nights. During the exercise. Stay with information may be for one or two days where you are concentrating on practicing it. Writing sentences using the verb tense, using that verb tense, then move on to the next verb tense. Now, this is the procedure that I think is best for anybody who is learning the verb tenses for the very first time. If you are here however, and you are just needing to revise these verb tenses and you're already pretty much know how they work. Well then you can go through the program with a little bit more freedom, concentrating on the areas that you actually need to study and you can speed it up a little bit. Having said that, I do recommend though that you follow the order of the course. And that's pretty much how you can go through and participate in this course. Now, obviously, because this is a course you're learning English, you are learning in general, it is always recommended to have a pen and paper cups. That way you can write down any questions you may have. Anything that you feel a little bit confused about that you think you know what, I need to look that up. I need to focus on that a little bit better or I need to remember these. Go ahead, keep notes, write it down. Eight promotes active learning when you are writing, and it avoids you drifting off and getting distracted and possibly thinking about something else other than what you are doing in this present moment. So that is all the information I need to give you. I think that we're ready to jump in and begin this course. So let's go ahead and have a look at our first lesson. 3. Present simple introduction: Now we have six different ways. We can use the present simple tense. Six different ways, eat quite a lot. So I'm gonna go through each of these ways step-by-step. I'm going to explain to you how to use it in this particular way. Give you some examples and dissect PHP examples in order to help you really understand the verb tense in context. Now at times when I am explaining this to you, I'm going to pause and I'm going to ask you a question. Or I am going to ask you to try to use this particular verb tense in a sentence. What I want you to do at that time is to actually answer my question. Try to speak out loud, try to follow the instructions that I'm giving you. So of course, if you are doing this course and you're on the train or you're on the bus and you can't actually speak at lag because you have people around you. That's not a problem. Just try to do the exercises in your head and actually think about constructing particular sentences. 4. Present simple Rule: Now when we're looking at the construction of such sentences, we're just needing to use the bare infinitive of the verb. For example, if I say, I wake up early, I wake up early. You can see I have my subject, I, my verb, wake up, and then Lee. Okay, I am not needing to use any auxiliary verbs. I'm not needing to add any letters. I am simply using my subject, my verb in the infinitive, and then the rest of the sentence, I wake up early. Now what about if I want to say she or he or eat? What can I do? Do I need to change anything? What do you think? Sorry, in this case, I would have to add an es to the end of my verb and I would need to say, she wakes up early. He wakes up early. Who wakes up early? So what we can understand here is when we are forming our sentences in the present simple, in the third person singular, we need to add the S to the end of our verb. He wakes up early, she wakes up early. Now, what a bat in negative sentences, does anyone have any idea how to form the present simple in non-negative sentences, we use the auxiliary verb do. And I would say, I don't wake up early. I don't wake up early. In the third person singular. Do we need to change anything? Yes, we do. We need to change our auxiliary verb. Instead of using Dart, we use doesn't. She doesn't wake up early. He doesn't wake up early. And now, having a look at our question form, again, we need to use the auxiliary verb. Do. We simply say, do you wake up early? Does she wake up early? So that is a brief overview on how to actually construct the present simple. 5. USE ONE- Habits: So the first very basic way that we use our present simple is to talk about our habits, which are things that we do on a daily basis. For example, some of my habits are, I get up early, I film video courses every week, I work, every day, I sleep early at night. These are things that I don't do occasionally or sometimes, but there's something that I repetitively do every single day for quite a long period of time, I'm going to say for ever. So what are some habits that you have? What are some actions that you do every single day? So as you can say here, we are using our presence input a talk about our habits. Now it's really important to remember here that when we are talking about a habit, they are for routine based actions. They are not for temporary actions. This is one of the main mistakes I see students, even at a higher level of English, making, getting confused between something they are momentarily. Even if that moment Harry, is a few months or a few weeks, that is still a temporary action. Do you really wanna focus on overall actions that you're doing every single day in your life. So now you've understood our very first use of the presencing. But can you try to tell me one sentence using the present simple to explain a habit that you have or even that you don't have. 6. USE TWO & THREE- Permanent situation: Now let's move on to the third use of the present simple, which is to talk about things that are more or less permanent. Now, I say more or less permanent because we cannot predict the future. We don't really know what's going to happen. So if we get quite philosophical, I guess nothing is actually permanent, but we use the present simple for certain actions that they have been happening for a really long time. And we don't see any feasible change in the near future. So we take the as permanent actions. For example, I can say I teach English, I teach English. Now. I believe that this is a permanent action that I will be doing for many, many years into the future. Things could change. Life could change. But because I've been a teacher for almost seven years now and I don't have any feeling or intention of wanting to stop being a teacher. I would consider this as a permanent state, a permanent action, and therefore, I use the present simple, I am a teacher or I teach English. Another example, I could say is they live in Italy. They live in Italy. This is another permanent action when we consider the place where somebody leaves, it's not common for people to move constantly. Constantly, meaning like, you know, every week or every month normally, it is quite a long standing slash permanent action. They live in Italy. Again, we can use the present simple. I work in a school. I work in a school. Again, when we are talking about where we worked or what we do as a profession, we can generally use the present simple. If we don't have the intention and thought to go ahead and change jobs, meaning if we are not aware that our current job is just temporary and it's just something we are doing at the moment until we get a better job than we can use the present simple. I work in a school, I work in a clothes shop. Can you try to now give me a sentence using the present simple to talk about something that is permanent. Remember, think about things where you are working. What is something that is constant that you do in your life or where you live. These are great areas to start off with because generally these are already permanent actions. 7. USE 4- Future timetables: All right, so those were the first three ways that we can use the present simple to talk about habits, things that are always true and things that are more or less permanent. Now, you could have understood a trend that in these three situations, we're just talking about present situations. But can we use the present tense to talk about the future? What do you think? Do you think that we could use the present tense for future uses heavy heard any sentences like that before? Maybe a sentence like, the bus arrives at five o'clock, I start school at 09:00 AM. This is a different type of sentence where we are using our present simple to talk about the future. And now we're going to go ahead and have a look at our next three uses for the present simple, where we can actually use the present simple to express a future time. Let's go ahead and have a look at those. Now the first way we can use the present simple to express a future time is when we are talking about timetables and appointments. Now it is key to understand the concept of a timetable and a fixed plan, meaning it is a time that does not change. If you think about your English lesson and you use Study English every single Monday at nine o'clock and it never changes. This is a fixed plan. If you think about the train, the train arrives every ten minutes and does not change. This is a timetable. It's a fixed plan. So we can only use the present simple for the future in regards to fixed timetables and fixed plant when we're looking at actions that do not change in the future because they have already been organized and programmed in that particular way. And the most common way that we're going to use the present simple in this sense is when we are talking about catching trains, buses, any type of transport. When you are talking about appointments such as doctors appointments, such as english lessons, any reoccurring appointments that you have in the future at a particular time. Can you think of any of these situations in your life? Think at UNO, your daily routine. What are some of your time tables? Do you have any lessons that you take every single day at the same time? Do you do anything every single day at the same time? Do you have any appointments next week? At a particular time? Okay, so now that you've had a little bit of a think of that, let's go through some examples that are in this way. I can say, for example, my lesson begins at nine o'clock. My appointment is on Monday at five o'clock. The bus arrives every ten minutes. I learned English on Tuesday at six o'clock. Now, as you can say, this is a very similar way to use the present simple as to when we are using it to talk about habits and routines, things that are happening constantly. I learn English every day at five o'clock. I learn English every day. They are two very, very similar sentences. 8. USE 5- Expressions: Great, okay, now that you have understood this use of the present simple, let's move on to the next one and we're going to talk about how we use the present simple after certain words. Have you ever dissected the present simple and realize that there are very common words that are commonly associated when using this verb tense. Let me give you a list of some of them. We have the word when until, as, soon as, and often when until, as soon as after. These are four very common words that we use with our present simple. Let me go ahead and give you some examples so you can understand how to construct your sentences a little bit better. When I get home, I will cook dinner. When I get home, I will cook dinner after the word when we have used get harmed, getting in our present simple until she studies harder, her marks will suffer. Until she studies harder. Her marks will suffer. After I eat dinner, I do the dishes. After I eat dinner, I do the dishes. As soon as they turn up, the party will begin. As soon as they turn up the party will begin. So these are four examples to demonstrate how, when we are using these forward, we are always using a present simple. Now you would have seen the construction of the sentences being a little bit different because they're quite long. And they are incorporating other verbs like wheel, for example, where we have two clauses, two sets of sentences. Now dirt while we are going to have a look at this shortly, and I will be explaining it to you in the last use of the present simple. But until then, why don't you try to give me some examples of using one or all of these four words accompanied by the present simple. Going to ask you some questions. Using some of these words with the present simple to see if you can understand you know, how to answer these questions. So the first question is, when you get home, what do you do when you get harm? What do you do? When I get horror? I play with my daughter. When I get home, I played with my daughter using when I get home, accompanied with my present simple. When I get home, I play with my daughter. When you get home, what do you do? What do you do after you eat dinner? What do you do after you eat dinner? After I eat dinner, I normally do the dishes. After I eat dinner. After subject, I eat. Verb tense present simple. After I eat dinner, I do the dishes. What do you do after you eat dinner? Okay, so that's an extra question for you to start understanding how to use these new words in a sentence using the present simple. Let's move on and have a look at our next way that we can use the present simple. 9. USE 6- Conditional sentences: Now we are going to have a look how we can use this verb tense in conditional sentences. Who here has attempted to begin learning the conditional sentences? Yes, they can be a little bit tricky. But with a good explanation and a good example, you are definitely going to be able to grasp and understand how to begin using them in English. Now, are present simple, we use in two of the English conditionals, that is the first conditional and the 0 conditional, OLAP. We have five conditionals in English, and we are going to go through some of them in this course. But for now, let's concentrate on these two. Now, we can use our present simple when we are looking at the construction of our first conditional. What is our first conditional? Well, the first conditional, like any conditional, is a sentence structure. It's a little bit like a mathematical equation where we have certain words in a certain order put together that a themed altogether equal to first conditional. So our construction for the first conditional is IF plus the present tense plus will. If present tense plus. We'll, let me give you an example and then I will explain to you how we use this. If I eat a lot, I will feel very full. If I eat a lot, I will feel very full if plus 0t, which is my present tense. I will feel very full. If present will. If I eat a lot, I will feel very full. If I go to bed late, I will feel very tired. Go to bed late. I will feel very tired. If she doesn't do her homework, she weren't pass her exam. If she doesn't do her homework, she weren't pass her exam. Here you can see all of the same sentences with the same construction. If present simple plus, we'll now, how are we using this construction? When do we have to use this construction? We are using this construction when we want to talk about an action that is more or less 90% sure to happen. It's not 100% because maybe something could happen, but it's like very close to it. 90% sure. If I go to bed late, uh, will wake up tired. Now, its happened at times that I've gone to bed late and I didn't wake up tied. But it's also happened 90% of the times that I've gone to bed and I've woken up tide. So to express the fact that doing this is 90% sure to result in a particular situation may being tired, I use the first conditional. Can you try to give me a sentence in the first conditional? Great, okay, now, let's move on to our 0 conditional. Now, Al Jazeera conditional, we use the construction if plus present tense plus present tense. If plus present tense plus present at each is what I believed to be one of the easiest conditionals to remember because it just have to keep using the present tense. If present tense, present tense. Let me give you an example. If you heat water, it boils. If you heat water, it boils. If at Sama, it's hot. If it Sama, it's hot. If it rains, the floor gets wet. What situations are we speaking about? So you can start to see that we are using our 0's conditional if present tense, present tense to talk about facts, things that are always true. It's a fact that if it rains, the floor gets wet. It's an absolute fact. Now, where's the gray area? Sure. If there is a covering over the floor, the floor work get wet. But it is a general truth that when rain falls from the sky, the floor gets wet. If you heat water, it coils. This is a fact. Nothing else can really happened. Sure. If you don't hit the water enough, it may take longer to boil. It may simmer before it boils. But again, it is a general fact that by heating water will boil. What about when I said if it samma, It is hot. If at summer it is hot. Shore with head summers where it's been very cold and rainy. For those of you who are living in Australia, particularly Melbourne, you understand this situation. However, it is a general truth. The season of summer is hot. So if at Sama It is hot. So this is how we're using our 0 conditional one. We want to express facts that are generally always true. If present, simple, present simple. Ok, so now can you think of a sentence that you can say using VZV conditional to express a fact and something that is always true or give you a few minutes to try to say one. 10. Present Simple- Conclusion : Right, fantastic. Okay, so we have come to the end of understanding how to use the present simple. Let's do a quick recap and then we are going to go over and set our exercises. So what you've understood is we have many different ways. We can use the present simple. We can split it into two different uses. To use the present simple for the present tense and to use the present simple for the future tense. If we're using the present simple for our present tense, we use to talk about habits, things that are always true, and situations that are more or less permanent. If, on the other hand, we are using the present simple to talk about the future. We're using it to talk about timetables and fixed plans when we are using the word when, after, As soon as, end, until. And when we are using our conditional sentences, both the first conditional and the conditional in all situations, the present simple is quite easy to construct. We're just using our bare infinitive in our positive sentences. If we need to refer to the third person, we are using an S to express a positive sentence. In order to say are negative sentences we either use Dart or doesn't. And likewise for our questions we are using to or does a great job, guys, you have successfully finished your very first verb tense in the very first section. Now, what I would like you to do is take a deep breath because I've given you a lot of information. Go over to your lesson nerds and start to read through the lesson notes, highlight the examples, highlight the construction of these sentences. If you are a beginner and this is the first time having a look at the present simple. Go ahead and do the exercises. Now, in the excitement of completing this course, you may be quite tempted to jump over and start straight away with the present continuous. If, again, you are a beginner, I don't advise you to do this. How back for a second. Take your time to go through your exercises, correct your answers, read through the lessons and men move on to the next verb tense. You did a really great job. 11. Present continuous- Introduction: This part of the course you're going to be learning all about the present continuous are going to learn how to construct this verb tense in your sentences, meaning, what verbs do you need to use and what conjugation of the verbs do you need to be using? And you're also going to learn how to make questions, affirmative sentences and negative sentences. From there we're going to analyze and dissect the different uses. We're going to deconstruct examples and situations in order for you to get a better grip on understanding when, how, and where you can be using the present continuous in English like that. So done, it's time for you to start practicing and you can go ahead and complete the exercises, check your answers and cross-check If you need by read, watching the videos. Don't forget that this is going to be a really practical class, like all of the classes here. So I need your participation from going to be asking you lots of questions and getting you to give me lots of examples. So make sure you are doing that because it's going to help you understand everything heat better. 12. Present continuous rule: Now when we are looking at the present continuous tense, like any other continuous tense, we need to be using gerunds, which is the ING version of our verb. Instead of saying walk, like what we would have said in our present simple, we thank war king and we're adding the i and j jumping, walking, speaking, working. We need to use the I-N-G. For now, as well as this, we also need to use a particular auxiliary verb, which is the auxiliary verb to be is R. Now the construction of our present continuous when we are looking at positive affirmative sentences is subject verb to be conjugated accordingly. And our verb in the I-N-G form, I am speaking English. You are listening to my lesson in our negative form. Again, it is the same, we just need to add not I am not speaking English. You are not listening to my lesson. Hopefully you are. And it very simple, we just need to add not, of course you can use the contraction. I'm not speaking English, you're not listening to my lesson. Again, for our question form, the exact same thing. However, we need to use inversion, like we do with all of our questions. And we need to first use our auxiliary verb, then our subject than our verb in the I-N-G form. Are you listening to my lessons? Am I teaching you English? Is she working? That is very basic and brief way we use and we can construct our present continuous tense. 13. USE ONE- Actions happening now: Let's jump in and have a look at how to use the present continuous tense. Now, the present continuous tense we can use in five different ways in English. And that's made up of present uses and future uses. Now, it's strange, isn't so far we have learned the present simple and understood. Hey, we can use the present simple in the future. And now we're learning the present continuous and it's the same situation. So some of our verb tenses like Present Simple and present continuous, are across changeable. If I can use that as a word, what I want to say is that you can use these verb tenses in different situations and different time, both present and future under certain conditions. So your static to become a little bit more comfortable with that for those of you who are beginners in English, this may take a little bit more time for those of you who are intermediate or advanced, this is a really important point for you guys to start to understand and to learn. Because when you are, for example, taking your IL-6 and writing an English essay or just wanting to demonstrate your overall English level, being able to use the present tense in the future demonstrates a much higher level of English. It's a lot more native and colloquial and how we use and speak English. So this is a really important point for you guys, for all of you guys start getting comfortable with and using. So that said, let's jump over and have a look at our first uses of the present continuous, and that is how to use them in the present tense. Now the first very basic use of, I'm sure that you guys already know is using the present continuous tense when we are talking about things happening in this moment, temporary actions. You can think of this as the complete opposite to when we use the present simple for habits. So instead of an action, we always do like in the present simple. This is for an action with just doing right now in the moment of speaking. So I want you to stop what you're doing and seek what are you doing right now in this moment? For example, I am sitting, I am speaking English, I am recording a video. What are you doing right now in this environment? Now, try to put this action in the construction of a present continuous tense. I am rich, hoarding a video, for example, for myself. I am sitting on my couch. I am speaking English. What are you doing in this moment? Very good. Can you try to tell me that same sentence in a negative four? For example, I am not sitting on my couch not recording a video. What are you not doing? 14. USE TWO- Temporary actions: Now let's move on and have a look at the second years. And in this use, we are using our present continuous for a temporary actions that are necessarily being done at the time of speaking. Now, this is when we're looking at actions that it could be that we're doing this action for two months, for one year, for three days. But they are temporary because we are aware that they will stop. We are aware that we will only be doing this action for a certain period of time and then the action will change. For example, I can say I am currently living in Italy. Now. I can say this sentence. If I am living in Italy now and I have the intention, however, after one year to move to another country. So I can say I'm currently living in Italy next year I'm going to move to So-and-so another country. This is very different to the sentence, I live in Italy that we were looking at in our present simple, I live in Italy is what I assume to be a permanent action because I cannot see or predict or want any change in the future. I feel like this will continue forever. On the other hand, I am living in Italy. I am living in Italy now, but you know, in the next few months I'm going to move and use the present continuous because I feel like this action will change either because I feel like a boot chain or I've actually taken a decision and action to stop this action some point in the future. It's temporary. It's only happening for a temporary period of time. Let's have a look at some more situations like this. I'm reading a really good book. I'm reading a really good book. Now, obviously, in the moment that I'm speaking to you, I'm not reading a book. I'm talking to you about the book, but it's an action that I am doing in my life at the moment. It's a temporary reaction and or when the book finishes, I'm not going to be reading it anymore. Another example is they are working in a bar to pay off their student loans. They are working in a bar to pay off their student loans. They're not going to work in a buffer ever. It's not a fact. It's not a permanent situation. It's just happening temporarily until they pay off their student loans. They are working in a bar until they pay off their student learn. Now, can you think of a situation in your life, a real situation that's actually happening, that you can use the present continuous width in this sense, what is something that you are temporarily doing now in this moment of your life that you're not going to be doing forever. Whether you try to put that into a situation, into a sentence using the present continuous. 15. USE THREE- New habits : Now, the third way we can use the present continuous is when we're talking about mu habits or temporary habits that we just started now. So imagine a situation where he just started learning English and it's something that you've just begun to do in the recent days. You could use an expression like at the moment, I am learning English, at the moment I am learning English. Now let's dissect this example a little bit. Now, learning English, ok, this is a habit. It's a new habit. You just begun, but we've used it with the expression at the moment. I'm learning English. Now using the expression at the moment, company with the present continuous makes me understand that this isn't a normal habit for you. This isn't a habit that you have done all your life and that you will do or your life. I understand that you're just doing it now because maybe you want to change job may be for a particular project you're working on. You need to learn English. So you are learning English momentarily, temporarily for a particular period of time, and then you're going to stop this habit. So new habit you've just introduced in your life for a temporary period of time. Another example I can say is these days I'm playing a lot of tennis. These days I'm playing a lot of tennis. I didn't play that much tennis before. It's actually quite new, but I am enjoying it these days and playing a lot of tennis. Again, this sentence makes me understand that plane tennis. It's not something normal for me to do. It's not a habit that I've had for a long time, but in these recent days, I started getting into tennis. These days I am playing a lot of tenants. I've introduced the new habit into my routine to play tennis. It's temporary. It's happening just now for a particular period of time. It's a new habit and it might not stick into the future. Give you another example. She is working a lot these days. She is working a lot these days. This is not a common thing for her. Generally her work hours at between 95 o'clock, but they have a new project and the new project requires her to work overtime. So these days she is working a lot. She's staying back at work until ten o'clock. Now this is only a temporary habit eternally happening now because she has a project that she's working on once the project is finished. So is this temporary situation of the habit of working late and she's going to go back to her old working hours. So I was clear enough for you meet breaking down those examples. Now want to give you a chance to give me your example. Try to use the present continuous to talk about a temporary habit or a new habit you have got going on in your lives at the moment that accompany this with expressions like at the moment or these days, just to express the fact that it's only a certain period that you are doing this action and it's going to stop in the near future. Go ahead and try that in an example. 16. USE FOUR- Add emphasis: Okay, so let's move on and have a look at the fourth way we can use the present continuous for a present tense use. Now there is a v. Who are your intermediate, upper, intermediate, even advanced level of English. This is the point you want to start switching on your ears and paying a little bit more attention. Because it's a really important way that I'm going to explain now how to use the present continuous. We can use the present continuous to emphasize an add expression when we are speaking. And we do this when we want to exaggerate and almost complain about somebody always doing a particular action. Now, we want to exaggerate the fact that this actually is annoying. It is frustrating and they are always doing so a want to complain about it. We can use the present continuous to do this, to complain, but a particular action somebody's always doing because it's very annoying. Now when we want to do this, we can accompany it with some adverbs. The adverbs we can use are constantly, always and forever, constantly, always and forever. And when we're using these adverbs, now that I'm going to give you some examples, I want you to not just listen to obviously construction of the sentence. Listening to my intonation, which means listen to how my voice goes up and down and the word stress, because this plays a key role in constructing your sentences to use the present continuous in this way. So let's have a look at the examples now, I can say you are forever losing your keys. You are for ever losing your keys. So let's have a look at this construction. I have my subject and I have my adverb. Remember, adverbs come before the verb URI for ever losing your keys. You are for ever losing your keys. And we have the exact same construction, the verb to be with a verb in the I-N-G form. However, we are needing to add our adverb. Now, listen to the torn, the intonation of my voice. You are forever losing your keys. Now remember this particular sentence. It's used to complain about something. It's used to complain about how annoying someone's repeated actions. Which is why I am putting particular emphasis on for ever. And I'm really putting a lot of weight into this word. I'm dragging out the sound. I'm emphasizing it. Because by emphasizing for forever, I'm emphasizing how annoying this action is you are for ever losing your keys. Let's have a look at another example. He is always complaining about being tired. He's always complaining about being tired. Again, emphasizing always, there's a lot of weight behind this word. Like all my god, it's so annoying. He is always complaining about being tired. She is constantly missing the train. She's constantly missing the train. Again, emphasizing my adverb constantly. She's constantly missing the train. Now why don't you go ahead and try to give me an example of an annoying habit that you want to complain about that somebody does every day, you can choose which ever adverb, like always, constantly or forever. Just remember to play on the intonation. Tried to stress your voice a little bit on the adverb in order to really open up and over-exaggerate this action, gives you a few minutes to go ahead and do that. Okay. Did you feel a little bit funny having to really stress your voice? It's normal, don't worry. Hopefully you are doing this course in a quiet environment where you can practice and experiment a little bit with your voice. But if not, you know, when you can, you can go ahead and do this exercise. It's really great to try to copy my voice, especially when you have this chance to give examples, just an extra exercise in order to increase your pronunciation and of course, your competence with English. 17. USE FIVE- Future arrangements : So now that you've gone ahead and done that, let's have a look about how we use the present continuous for the future. Now there is one key way we can do this and it's when we want to talk about future arrangements. Now for those of you who are aware of our expression, going to for the future tense, using the present continuous in this way is the same thing. We use a present continuous for the future when we talk a bat lands and arrangements that have already been organized, that have already been planned because you've made an appointment, you've written it down in your calendar, you've taken some form of action in order to arrange and organize that future action. Let me go ahead and give you some examples. I can say tomorrow I am working at nine o'clock. Tomorrow I am working at nine o'clock. Two key things to understand from this sentence. I am working at nine o'clock. I'm using my basic present continuous tense verb to be in the I-N-G form, a time and working at nine o'clock. Now, how is it that I can understand that this is a sentence about the future, not a bad a general action. I do every day. My time expression two morrow. I am working at nine o'clock and that's a key thing to remember when we are using our present continuous to express a fixed arrangement we have in the future, we need to accompany it with a future expression tomorrow, on Monday into weeks, and expression that pushes us into the future. This is very important because without this, we don't understand that we are using the present continuous for the future. And we think we're using the present continuous for a temporary habit, something that is happening now in our lives, but weren't happened for the future. So it's very important to accompany this with your future time expression. Let me give you some more examples. I can say I'm meeting my mother at 08:00 AM on Monday morning. I am meeting my mother at 08:00 AM on Monday morning. Today is Wednesday, so I made it her own Monday morning meeting next Monday. I am seeing the doctor tomorrow at five. I am seeing the doctor tomorrow at five, meaning I have an appointment that has been organized and scheduled because I call the doctor's office tomorrow at five o'clock. Can you think of any plans or arrangements you have in your life at the moment that are actually real. And try to express that using your present continuous. Remember these need to be plans and arrangements, not that you're thinking about doing, not the ive made up just now on the spot that you actually take an action steps to plan and organize. And they are all really fixed. But you go ahead and try to do that now. 18. Present Perfect Rule: Let's move on and start talking about the present perfect. Now, the present perfect is a verb tense that I didn't know. Some of you are sitting there rolling your eyes saying, Oh my God Gaia, I don't want to learn the present perfect because it is so abstract and unclear and just overall difficult. Trust me, I am going to break down these tents in a very practical way for you in order to give you a real-life examples and situations of when you can actually use this verb tense. So before we get started having a look at how we can actually use the present perfect. Or they're going to have a look at how we can construct it. Do you know how we can form the present perfect in a sentence? What are the verbs and auxiliary verbs needed in order to form the present perfect? It's quite simple. We simply use have or has with the past participle of the verb. That is the third form of the conjugated verb. So if it is regular, it is simply the ED ending verbs. However, and as most cases require, if it is irregular, then you need to go ahead and try to remember all of the different conjugations. So in our affirmative sentences, that's in our positive sentences, we are simply using have or has, depending on the person plus the third form conjugation of verbs. For example, I have eaten breakfast, she has eaten breakfast. Now what about in our negative form? Again, it's very straightforward. We have the same construction, we just need to add not she has not eaten breakfast or she hasn't eaten breakfast? I have not eaten breakfast. Or again, using a contraction, I haven't eaten breakfast. Now in our question form, standard like any other verb tense, we just simply need to use in version. Meaning we begin a sentence with the auxiliary verb rather than with our subject. And we could say something like, have you eaten breakfast? Has eaten breakfast. Have they gone to school? So why don't you try now asking me a question using the present perfect and see how you do. Great, fantastic. Okay, so now that you've understood the construction of the verb tense, now we're ready to have a look and understand how to actually use this verb tense in English. 19. USE ONE- Length of actions: So we can use our present perfect in two different ways. We can either use this verb tense to talk about unfinished actions or finished actions, which is not commonly Nard. So we're going to begin by looking at the unfinished actions and then we will have a look about how to use it without finished actions. So the first use of the present perfect for our unfinished actions is to talk about the length of an action. So the first use for the present perfect when we're looking unfinished actions, is when we want to talk about something that began in the past, but continues up until the present moment. And we are generally doing this when we are using expressions like four. And since we are indicating the length of time something occurred, now there are situations when you are going to be using this verb tense. In this way, is when you want to explain how long you've been doing a particular action that to this day, you are still in the process of doing generally when we talk about where we live, what we have studied, how long we have known people for. I'll give you some examples. I can say I have known Jane for two years. I have known Jane for two years. This sentence means this sentence means that I met Jane two years ago. I don't know exactly when I met her. I don't know if it was in the morning or if it was in the afternoon or if it was on the second or the third of October, but it doesn't matter. We're not interested in the action itself. We're interested in the fact that I've known her for two years and interested in the fact that today, as I stand here speaking to you, I still know Jane. And so far, this action has been happening for two years now. Will it happen for three years? Will it happen for two years? And one day may be, may be not. Again, using the present perfect. It's not about understanding how far into the future and action will continue. Likewise, it's not about understanding the precise moment in the past the action began. We just want to know about this transitional time. This little snippet, meaning this little piece of time that connects our past to our present. I have known Jane for two years. I began knowing her here and right here two years later, I still know her. Let's have a look at another example. I can say have studied English for five months. I have studied English for five months. She has lived in America for two years. She has lived in America for two years. Now we can also use the adverb since in these situations. And I can say, I have lived in America since 2005. She has been a teacher since October. Now, what is the difference between four and since when we're using the present perfect in this way. Well, I think you know, but I'll give you a chance to try to answer this question. You remember what the difference between four and since is? Well, for we are using to talk about the length of an action for ten years, for one month, for five minutes. And on the other hand, we are using to talk about the precise moment and Aktion began since Monday, since the 12th of May, since 1984, birthdays adverbs can be used when we are forming sentences in the present perfect using this type of construction. Then when we want to ask a question about an action that started in the past and is continuing up until this point. Well, I can use the expression, How long? And I can say, how long have you studied English? How long have you studied English? I've studied English for one month. I've studied English since May, and we can use both for or since in order to answer these questions, one is not better than the other. Just remembering that if we are using for, you are talking about the duration of the action. Whereas if you're using since you're talking about the precise moment the action began. So why don't you try now to give me a sentence using the present perfect to talk about an action that began in the past and continues up until now. Fantastic. Let's move on and have a look at the next way we can use the present perfect in English. 20. USE TWO - Life experiences: Now I'm going to move ahead and have a look about how we can use the present perfect with finished actions. He just finished off learning how to use it with unfinished actions, things that started in the past and continue. Now, let's look at finished actions. And the first way we can use the present perfect with finished actions is when we're talking about life experiences. Things that you experienced in your life, in the past that are not happening at all now in the present. And when you think about it, it's strange to use the present perfect in this context because you think, okay, well, if I did an action in the past and that action is finished, why am I using a verb tense with the word present? Shouldn't I be using the past? And you're right, this is a little bit complicated, but the reason why we use the present perfect to talk about our experiences is because the way we think about our experiences in English is very different to the way we think about past actions. Now, an experience comes from a particular action you did in your past. That is true. However, what happens after that particular action is that you may learn something. You may change your idea, you may change your character and you begin to acquire new qualities and experience. Thanks to these past action that you then bring with you throughout the rest of your life. See the experience that you created from a past action never finishes and it never dies. Because for as long as you are alive, you have the memory of that experience. You have the feeling of that experience, and you have hopefully the things that you learned from that experience with you every single day in your present life. Now, it is four. For this reason that when we are using the present perfect to speak about our experiences, we need to remember that the person must be alive. We can only use the present perfect to talk about the experiences of a person who is alive. If the person is no longer alive, then we must use the past simple, because the person is no longer able to fail to think, to remember the experience itself. Now, I'm going to give you some examples and then we're gonna talk about, well, how does this verb tense relate to your life? And when are the situations you can actually use this. A little bit complicated verb tense. Now some examples for you. I have been to Australia, I've gone bungee jumping. She has tried kangaroo. Now, as you can see, the construction of these sentences are completely the same as any other construction using the present perfect. However, maybe the information we are speaking about is a little bit different because we're talking about experiences rather than the length of actions, for example, like what we're speaking about in the US one. Now how does this relate back to your life? And when are you going to use this verb tense? Well, generally we are using the present perfect in this way when we meet somebody for the first time or when we need to begin a conversation, I want you to think about this situation. You go out for dinner with friends and they are friends of maybe your spouse. You've never met them before. And you're all sitting at the table in your thinking, how do I start a conversation where, where can I find a topic to speak about with these new Paypal in English when we are presented with this situation, what we tried to do is to find a common interests or a common ground, something that birth you think, feel, or have experienced and the other person has as well in order to generate a conversation that's well Present Perfect comes in. We say things like, it's nice to meet you. Have you ever been to this restaurant before? Have you ever come to this area? And we begin to ask questions using our present perfect in order to understand if the person we're speaking to has had a similar experience to us. Now, in the case that they have had a similar experience to us. And we may say, you know, Have you been to this restaurant before? And I say, Yeah, it was great meeting. Yes, fantastic. We have a common topic in interest. Now it can develop a conversation and we then use out past simple to transition into a conversation and ask more detailed questions, such as, that's really interesting. When did you come here for the first time, deemed you enjoy it when you came? Yeah. What did you eat when you came to this restaurant? And what you can see here is this very smooth transition from the present perfect to the past simple, using the present perfect to understand if the person we're speaking to shares a common experience with us in order to begin a conversation. Once we establish whether they do or they don't have the experience, we begin our conversation by asking more detailed questions about the action. Now, because we want detail about the experience, we need to use the past simple because the past simple is concerned with the past action where the experience began. And we use our questions like, did did you go there? Did you not go there? How did you feel in order to get more information and continue our conversation? This is the most practical way. We can actually use the present perfect to speak about our experiences and the most common way we are going to do that. So I hope this explanation was clear enough for you. Why don't you now try to give me a sentence talking about your experiences, but using the present perfect. Fantastic. Now, let's move on and have a look at the next use. 21. USE THREE - Ever and Never: The next way we can use our present perfect is when we're using adverbs like ever and never. And this is actually used when we are using the present perfect to speak about our experiences like what you just learned in the previous video. Now what is the difference between ever and never? Do you, nor have you ever used these adverbs before an English. They're used quite similarly. Now, ever we are using to form how questions and our negative sentences. Now I can say for example, have you ever traveled abroad? Have you ever traveled abroad? And in my reply, if I want to use a negative sentence, I can say, I haven't ever traveled abroad. I haven't ever traveled abroad. You need to remember if you want to use ever in the negative form, you can, but you need to add the negative to your auxiliary verb. I haven't Have not. I haven't ever traveled abroad. Now, if the answer to this is positive, then we don't use ever. We just simply say, yes, I have traveled abroad. Never helps and we use never. Well, we simply use Never in negative sentences. Have you ever traveled abroad? Nor I have never traveled abroad. I have never traveled abroad. Now, never is a negative word. It's a very strong negative word, which means we don't need to use it with a negative auxiliary. We do not say, I haven't never traveled abroad. We don't say this because here we have presented a double negative, which in English, I'm sure you guys know, means a positive little bit like mathematics. So when we're using Never in our negative sentences, we simply say, I have never, she has never near the hand. If we're using ever, we can use it in questions. Have you ever or negative sentences. Remembering to add a negative. I haven't ever she hasn't ever. Fantastic. Okay, let's move on and have a look at the next. Use. 22. USE FOUR -Unfinished time expressions: We can use the present perfect when we are using and finished time expressions. What are unfinished time expressions and unfinished words? Let staff from the beginning in English, when you want to talk about the time a particular action occurred, we have expressions that indicate this time. We have future time expressions like tomorrow or in ten days. We have past time expressions like yesterday, two years ago. Or we have these strange expressions that we call unfinished time expressions. For example, today, this morning. And they are referred to as unfinished because they, they don't talk about a a set time that makes us understand the action has finished. Its an open time. If you think of the expression this morning. Well, if I do an action this morning, maybe I'm also going to do the action in the afternoon and the evening. Say this morning indicates that the day is still open, the door is still in process. The day hasn't finished. So there are many hours of possibility that we will either repeat the action, stopped the action, or do the action again. And for this reason we call them and finished time expressions because the time itself hasn't finished. If you compare this to yesterday, well, yesterday is yesterday and today is today. So just the fact that a whole day is between these two time expressions makes us understand that anything that happened yesterday is finished because there is a very big time differences, 24 hours of time difference. Let me give you some examples. I can say I have drunk a cup of coffee this morning. I have drunk a cup of coffee this morning. From this, you understand that it is still the morning FOR ME, which means the rest of my day hasn't even begun yet. And so far I've drank a cup of coffee. It is an unfinished action because I could drink another coffee in the afternoon. I could even drink another coffee in the morning, seeing as the morning is still not finished. That's why we call these unfinished time expressions. Let's go ahead and have a look at the next years. 23. USE FIVE -Past action with a present result : The next way we can use our present perfect is to talk about an action that happened in the past but has a result. Now in the present. A result that we can see, we can feel or we can sense. Now, often, you probably would've seen that can also use the past simple, and it's true in British English, it is more common to use the present perfect when talking about the result of past actions. However, in American English, they tend to just use the past simple in this way. However, the reason why I'm sitting here and I want to speak to you about it is because obviously, if any of you are thinking and preparing to take an English exam, for example, your ILC exam or a Cambridge exam. They do follow the British English model of grammars, which means you do need to be aware and know these rules inside that in order to apply them in your exam and passed successfully. Let's try to understand this concept of a result, past action here in the present. And I'll give you one simple example. Imagine the situation where you go to your friend's house for dinner and you always go to your friend's house for dinner. She has a beautiful house and normally she has a very brightly colored living group, which has a very what living group. And on this particular occasion you go to a house and you look at the walls and you realize, and you see that they are now dark blue. Anything where you have painted your house, you have painted your house. The reason we are using the present perfect in this situation is because in the present, in the moment that you are in her house, you are seeing her walls a blue. This is the result of the action of her painting, her house yesterday or last week. So this is evidence of the result of a past action. You have painted your house. Another situation is you go out for coffee with your friend. And your friend normally has beautiful long hair. And all of a sudden you see her and she's chopped all her hair off. So this is how we use the present perfect. In this way, you're gonna try to give me an example of using the present perfect to talk about the result of a past action. Very good. Now before we wanted the next US, I wanted to explain another US combined with this one year, they work quite closely together, like I was telling you in American English, we wouldn't use. The present perfect in this way, even sometimes in Australian English. So for those of you who are living in Australia, you see a little bit of confusion here because what you're hearing out in the street is different to what I am explaining to you here. However, it's important to know that in Britain, America, and Australia, when we are talking about past actions that occurred very close to the time of the present and are still true and relevant today. We always use the present perfect. Whenever, Pete, that actions that happened pretty close to the present. I'm not saying actions that happened many years ago, but actions that happened pretty close to the present and that are true and relevant today, we use the present perfect. Let's look at the example of xi has hurt her leg. She has hurt leg. Now, why did I choose to use the present perfect in this situation? We can actually analyze it in two different ways. We can think, okay. She has hurt her leg. She hurt her leg in the past. And today she's limping. She can't walk properly, so I can see the result in the present of a past action. She has hurt leg and this is one way we can look at it. Another way we can look at it is understand the situation and the context behind this sentence. Tomato, use a few more words and will say if you can understand this a little bit better, what about if I say she has hurt her leg so she can't play football today to be really dangerous for she has heard her leg, so she can't play football today. It's gonna be really dangerous for her situation. I'm talking about a past action perfecting her leg, but it is relevant and true in the present. Why is it relevant? It's relevant because it determines what she can do in the present. Why is it true? Well, simply because her leg is still hurting. So in this situation, I'm using the present perfect to talk about a past action. The action of her hurting her leg, and using the present perfect to express that today, this is still relevant and today this is still true. Let me give you another example, using it in this context to help you understand the difference of why we would use the present perfect and for example, not the past simple in this situation. So let's have a look at the sentence. I have started a new job, a heavy started a new job. When I hear somebody telling me I have started a new job, in my mind, I think, wow, it's time to say congratulations, you just got this job. Maybe you got the job a week ago or two days ago. And I start forming questions in my mind, I've How is it going? Do you enjoy it? How was your first day? And I treat the action of you having started your job as something that only just occurred it just occurred in the recent present. However, if somebody says I started a new job, I think. Ok. And now what are you doing? And in my mind, I automatically associate, I started a new job is something that happened quite a while. Loop guard. Something that is not relevant and true today. Something that was relevant and true at some time in the past. But now, like yeah, you've been there for one year so you didn't start the new job. You are working in that company. You have been working for a long time. Another example still using the same context is, for example, you are feeling a little bit stressed and Joe behavior has changed a little bit. And one of your friends say, what's going on, why you sorry, snappy and rude. And you can say, I'm sorry, sorry, I've just started a new job and I'm feeling stressed app I'm sorry. Sorry. I have just started a new job and I'm feeling stressed. And we are justifying out present behavior. The way that we are acting in the present with present perfect action. I have just started a new job because we want to tell our friend or the person that we are speaking to, that we're behaving this way now because in the recent past, like maybe two days ago, we just started a new job and we're feeling a little bit stressed. And it's for this reason our behavior has changed. We use the present perfect in this context because the act of starting a new job is something that is very true in the present. And it's relevant in the present because It's affecting the way you are acting and behaving in the present or help the situation based. Examples were helpful for you and you're starting to get a feel and understanding of how you can actually use this verb tense in your everyday English. Before I move on with our next use, please try to put the present perfect in a sentence. Expressing this use. We have just gone our eval. Fantastic. Alright, let's go ahead and move on to the next use. 24. USE SIX- Introducing news : So we can also use the present perfect when we want to introduce news to somebody. We want to sell them something that is interesting, eventful, and only recently occur. Again, we're still playing on the fact of an action that occurred in the past, but are very close past to the present, maybe five minutes ago or one regard. And like I'm saying, we can do this when we want to tell somebody something new, something exciting, something overall interesting or beneficial to that person. Now when we're doing this, we are accompanying our sentence with words like just yet, already and recently. Let me give you a some examples. I can say I have just seen Jane, don't worry. She told me all about it. I have just seen Jane, dont worry. She told me all about it. Now, I'm using the present perfect in this situation because I haven't, I'm not seeing Jane now, but adjust saw Hermann Hesse over five minutes ago. And this is important news for the person that I'm speaking to because they're just about to tell me something and I'm saying no, I've just seen Jane. She told me all the bad, save your time. You don't need to tell me. Another example is, and I'm gonna give you a situation based example to help you understand a little bit lighter and imagine you're at home and your grandmother calls and says, oh, we're going to come out with your auntie and your uncle and all of your cousins. And you tell your mother and you say, Hey grandma, just code and the families coming over and she says, oh, but I haven't done the shopping. I don't know what to cook everyone for dinner. And you can reply, don't worry, they have just eaten dinner, so they're just going to pop Brown for a visit. Darwin worried they've just eaten dinner. Pop round four visit. Now, why are we using our present perfect in this situation? Well, mom is freaking out because she needs to cook everyone dinner. So it is important to news for her, to relevant news. It's interesting news for her to understand that they have just eaten dinner in a time in the past, but close to the present. Her family ate dinner, may need now. She doesn't need to cook. So this is true. It is relevant and it is important news. And that's why we use a present perfect. They have just eaten dinner eater and have to cook anything. That is how we use the present perfect in this way. Your turn now to go ahead and try to give me an example using the present perfect in this context. Great job. 25. USE SEVEN - BEEN and GONE : Now there are two very common words. Well, another two very common words because he just learned ever and never. But another two very common words that we use when we are using the present perfect. And those are the words bean and gone. I think that they are one of the two Merced, confused words in English, which is why I'm here and you're here and I'm going to teach you all about how you can use them correctly with the present perfect verb tense. Now, the word we use when we want to talk about our experiences using the present perfect. And I can say, I have been to America, she has been to the beach, would have been to Italy in April when we are talking about experiences that we have had or that another person has had gone, on the other hand, is a little bit different. Gone. We use still when we are talking about a person going to a place. But we use it under the context of a past action that has a present result because Gone implies the person traveled somewhere and remains there. They don't come back. Whereas bean implies a person go somewhere and then they come back because it's used for an experience. Gone is not used for an experience. It's used to talk about the fact that we have a particular result now in the present. Or give you an example. I can say when the Aimee Amy account find her anywhere and you could reply, she's gone. She's gone home, she has gone. Now, in this case, I'm using my present perfect with gone because sometime in the past that was very close to the present. Amy left work. She left work, she was sick, she had something to do. She left work. And now in the present, we have a result. What is the result? There is no Aimee. I am looking for a libri Come find her. Aimee went home and she stayed home. She didn't come back to work. So Amy, she's gone home. Another example is and has gone to London, and has gone to London. Now this is very different to the sentence. Anna has been to London and I had been to London and I has gone to London. What's the difference? Why don't you try to tell me what is the difference between these two sentences? Anna has been to London and has gone to London. Could you write, has been to London means that she has this experience. Means that in the past and I went to London, but now she's back. She's not in London anymore. On the other hand, has gone to London. It means that she went to London sometime in the recent past and she's still there. She's not here. She's living there. She stayed there for a few months. So remembering a Bane we use for experiences gone, we use for the result of a past action and indicates the person is still wherever they have gone to. Can you give me an example using BIM and gone in a sentence using the present perfect. Fantastic. Well guys, you did a great job. This brings you to the end of understanding the present perfect and all of the uses. 26. Present perfect Conclusion: Alright guys, that brings you to the end of understanding how to use this tricky present perfect tense in English did a great job before I send you off to do your exercises, let's do a quick recap because there's lots of information we went through and then we can get ready and move on to the next section of this course. So we learned that the present perfect, it is constructed with our auxiliary verbs, have or has, using the past participle of our verb, that is the third conjugation. We can use the present perfect for unfinished actions and for finished actions, we use the present perfect when we want to talk about our life experiences, remembering that the person must be alive when we want to talk about actions that started in the past and continue now in the present. Can also use the present perfect when we're talking about actions that have a particular result. Now in the present times, something that we can think, see or feel. However, remembering this is more common in British English and American English and Australian English, as well as British English. We use the present perfect to talk about actions that happened in a recent past time that are true, the relevant right now for your conversation. We also use the present perfect to tell somebody something interesting, exciting, relevant, or helpful in regards to a past action that is connected to our present. We also use words such as bean and gone, ever, never, or adverbs like all ready, just yet and recently to construct sentences using the present perfect segue guys, you did a really great job learning the present perfect. This is quite a heavy grammar topic here, so I would pause if you are a newbie, meaning, if you are new to learning the present perfect, spend a little bit more time on this section. Maybe re-watch the videos, go and do the exercises, practice some speaking exercises as well with me like we were doing in our lessons before moving on to your next section, I'm going to leave you here. Go ahead and complete your exercises. Make sure you check your answers. And I will see you when we get started learning about the present, perfect, continuous, and even longer verb tense. 27. Present Perfect Continous Introduction: Jumping and talk about the present perfect continuous, a little bit of a longer verb tense in this video is that you're going to understand how to make up the present perfect continuous in your sentence. Had construct the sentences and how to ask questions and formulate affirmative and negative sentences. From there, we're going to learn how to use this verb tense correctly in English. By understanding the main uses the main situations that we use this verb tense. Deconstructing many examples so that this verb tense becomes as familiar and as relatable for you, cause, you know, by now you need to participate in these classes. I'm going to ask you lots of questions. Get you to give me lots of examples in order for you to practice the content as you learn it. Once that's all done, go ahead, complete your exercises, check your answers, and come back and cross-check any mistakes you have made by watching the videos. Let's go ahead and begin. 28. Present Perfect Continuous Rule: Moving on and talking about the present perfect continuous. This is going to be our last verb tense in this section of your course. And we're gonna talk about how we can use the present perfect continuous and how you can construct it in sentences. The present perfect continuous is like any other continuous tense in English, where it needs to be formed using the image, you'll see a very common trend in all the continuous tenses. They always use the ing form of the verb accompanied by an auxiliary verb. Now, because we're looking at a present perfect tense than our auxiliary verb is, have or has. Therefore, we can construct the present perfect continuous by simply using has or has in accordance to the subject plus B plus L verb in the I-N-G. For now we always use bean regardless of the person, regardless of the actual, it is a fixed. We must use in the present perfect continuous tense. I'll give you some examples so we can say, and I have been eating for one hour, she has bean eating for one hour. The construction, very straightforward, very simple. Have or has plus B plus L verb in the I-N-G form. Now, let's go and discover how we can actually use this tense in English practically in your everyday conversations. 29. USE ONE- Action that continues to the present : So the present perfect continuous can be used in two main different ways. With finished actions and with unfinished actions, much like our present perfect. So let's start off and talk about how we can use this tenth in an unfinished actions. First way we can do it is when we want to talk about actions that started in the past and are continuing up until the present moment. This is the same way that we can use the present perfect for those of you who are really listening to the course in the previous videos, you will understand that the first use of the present perfect was actually the same first use as the present perfect continuous, dark, free Gaddafi, owner Gaia. So if we can use these tenses in the same way, how do I know whether to use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous? After this section of the course, we are going to be doing an analysis and understanding the key differences between present perfect and present perfect continuous. And when we can use either one. So for now, leave your questions aside because I am going to answer them at the end of this section. Let's just try to wrap our head around the fact that we can use a present perfect continuous when we are talking about actions that started in the past, continuing up until the present moment. They are unfinished actions. And generally, in this way, we are using this tense to talk about how long an action has been happening. Remembering, that is when we can use our adverbs four and since, Do you guys remember how to use for and how to use since and what the difference between these adverbs are. What are you trying to tell me? When do we use for good and when do we use since? Grape, the remembering we use four to talk about the length of an action for years, for five days. And we used to talk about the precise moment the action happened since 2011, since October tenth, for example. Now, let's have a look at some examples of using the present perfect continuous in this way to describe an unfinished action that is continuing from the past up until the present moment. For example, I have been filming this course for one hour. I haven't been filming this course for one hour. What does this sentence mean? Let's deconstructed together. So this means that obviously right now, because you can see me, I'm filming this course, but this action of filming began in the past. It is an action that started in the past and is continuing up until this moment in time because I am still here filming the course. So in order to show that connection between past and present, I use my present perfect, continuous. And in order to understand the length of the action and use the expression for one hour. Uh, have been filming this course for one hour. I have been living in Italy for seven years. She has been learning English since she was a child, is starting to understand how we use the present perfect continuous. In this way, it simply used exactly like how we would use the present perfect. Again, I'm going to explain the key difference between this and the present perfect in the next section. So why don't you try to give me an example sentence out loud using the present perfect continuous in this context to talk about an action that started in the past and continues up until now. Go ahead. Great. Let's move on to the next way we can use this verb tense. 30. USE TWO- Temporary habits: The second use of the present perfect continuous, is to speak about habits or situations that are temporary, that started in the past and is still continuing now. And this is very, very similar to the first use I spoke about. However, if you can remember, in the first year, we were using adverbs four and since. And we were putting emphasis on the length of the action and specifically saying when an action began and for how long the action was occurring. However, in this second US doing the same thing, but we're not giving any specific information instead of using adverbs such as for. And since we can use adverbs such as recently or in the past few days, in the past few weeks. And in this case, we don't give any specific information. We generalize a temporary situation or habit that's been happening. Let me give you some examples. I can say I have been reading a lot recently. I have been reading a lot recently. What does this sentence mean? Well, it means that I started a new habit. I started the new habit of reading. Now, when did I start this habit didn't start at just now, as I am speaking to you, I started in the past. I don't know exactly in the past when that is because I am not specifying specific information, but I know that it is recently. So it could have been yesterday, like could've been one month ago depending on what recently means to you. I also nerve because I'm using the present perfect continuous tense. But this action is still occurring today. That right now in the moment of speaking with you, I'm still reading, I'm not literally reading in this norman, But this habit is still a part of my life. I haven't given up the habit. I have been reading a lot recently. Another example is, I have been going to bed really early these days. I have been going to bed really early these days. Again, this is a temporary habit. Normally a good late. But these days and specific time could have been these days in the last two days, like in the last seven days, and began the new habit of going to bed early. I began this habit in the past maybe seven days ago. And right now in the moment speaking to you, it's still occurring. I'm still in this habit. Will it continue in the future? We don't know. We're not getting any information about that. We're just talking about a new habit that Ben introduced in our lives that we started in the past. We're doing now in the present and we're not specifying the length of the action or when the action actually happen. So why don't we try to give me an example now using the present perfect continuous tense in this way, using a time expression like recently. Go ahead. Great job, Perfect. Let's move on to the third use of the present, perfect, continuous. 31. USE THREE- Result of a recent past action : Third way we can use the present perfect continuous is to talk about actions that were happening at a particular period in the past, the recent past, the very recent past. And have just stop and they have created a certain result. Now in the present moment, when a lead straight in with an example to help you wrap your head around that. And then we would deconstruct this use. So for example, I can say I have been walking for hours, I'm so hungry. These two sections of my sentence with one word. So I am, so I have been walking for hours, so I'm so hungry. Now, the first half of my sentence, I'm using my present perfect continuous. And I am telling you that some time ago in the past, but the very recent past, I began the action walk up until this point in the present. Now, I can mean two things, and this sentence can be interpreted in two ways depending on the context. It can either mean I'm still walking now or it can mean I've just recently stopped walking. In order to understand this difference. It depends on the conversation you're having an what's going on. So if you are with a person who is a oh my god, I've been walking for hours. I'm so hungry. And you can see that they are still walking. Obviously, the action is still continuing. If maybe you are on the phone to the person and you can hear that they're sitting down and they're not walking, then you can understand the action has finished. But it's very important to understand that understanding this difference is situational based. So you're going to need more information from the rest of the conversation that you're having. I have been walking for hours. Regardless of this, it still means that the action of walking is an action that began in the past and continues up until the present. It is an action that began in the recent past. Okay. We're talking about something that is very recent. Two are present. Why? Why is it so recent two are present? Because the next half of an action is the result. I am so hungry. So what we're doing in this tense is we're showing the relationship between an action that began in the past and continues in some way to the present. Whether we stop the action in the present or we continue the action and it's caused a result. It's caused me in this very moment to be hungry. I've been walking for hours, So I M hungry. And I use my present simple tense. I am hungry right now in this moment. Now the result of being hungry, this is a result that we can feel. You had seen that a person is hungry. And when we're looking at the present perfect continuous used in this way, the type of results that we are looking at, our results of feeling, of appearance, of senses will give you another example. I can say. And I'll give you the example in a question that you could probably use when you're having a conversation, say you been running your faces so red. Have you been running that your face is so red? Now, let's put this into context. Imagine you are going out for lunch with a friend and you arrive to the restaurant and you sit down. And then you say your friend who walks over and she sits down in front of you and she's flustered, meaning she's read, She's a little bit sweaty and she's huffing and puffing. And you look at her and you say, well, what's going on? Your faces or read, have you been running your face is so red. You're asking her if at some point in the recent past if she was running because you notice in the present she has a red face. So in your mind, you start imagining, oh, maybe she was late to lunch and she ran to lunch so she wouldn't miss the bus. And you start associating past actions that she did in a very recent past, like two minutes ago or five minutes ago, that may have caused the present result of her having a red and flustered face. So we can ask a question like, have you been running your face? Is so read another example we can say, and I'll give you another situation. But first I'll give you the example of a teacher who says, have you been doing your homework? You keep failing the test. Have you been doing your homework? You keep failing the tests. Here the situation is, for example, we have a teacher's speaking to a student and the student has just completed a test, but he fails. And the teacher looks at the test and says, your present result is a test that's failed. So have you been studying meaning in the recent past in the past few days leading up to your test. Did you study for these tests? Did you do the action of studying for this test at some point in the past up until last night because you're present result chars me, you fail. Have you been studying because you're failing the tests? Again, this is another example to demonstrate how we use the present perfect continuous to speak about a past action that happened in the very recent past. Whether it be continuing in the present moment or finished in the present moment, and demonstrating the result that we have in the present. Now, it's important to note that when we are using the present perfect continuous tense in this way, where normally always accompanying it with the result that we can see. So it's always quite a long sentence where we're saying, you know, have you been studying because you're failing your tests? Have you been running because your face is red and we are always combining our present perfect continuous with a second clause that demonstrate the evidence and the result that we can see now in the present moment part that was a clear enough explanation for you. Please try to use the present perfect continuous. A sentence now showing the result of a past action that just recently stopped or is continuing in the present moment. Go ahead. Fantastic guys. 32. Conclusion Present Perfect Contunous: Great job, sir. That was the present perfect continuous. Before we move on and begin your exercises, let's do a very quick recap of what you've learned so far. So in this section, we have learned how to construct the present perfect continuous tense. You have understood that we can make up this structure by using have or has in accordance to the person plus b, which never changes, plus the verb in the I-N-G form. Now we can use the present perfect continuous for both finished and an finished actions. When we're looking at unfinished actions, we are using the present perfect continuous to talk about the length and duration of an action using for and since talking about an action that began in the past and is continuing up until the present moment. Likewise, we can use this tense to talk about new habits and situations that began in a recent past time and is still occurring today. When we are focusing on our finished actions, we can use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that were in progress at a particular past-time, very close to our present and have resulted in a result in the present, a feeling, a thought, a sense that we can see in our present time. Okay, so that was our recap of the present perfect continuous. I'm going to ask you to now go ahead and complete the exercises, but I'm gonna tell you something very important. Now, this was the first part of understanding the present perfect continuous. There is still a little bit more information I need to give you, which we are going to go through in our next section where we looked at the key differences of present perfect and present perfect continuous. Because as you've noticed, the rules are pretty much the same and you still need to understand exactly how to separate, use an identified these two verb tenses that said, Try to do these exercises in order to better understand the construction of this rule in a sentence. However, if at times you get stuck or you start making mistakes that you are not understanding, it is most likely because we still need to learn one more thing about stative verbs. Try the exercises, whatever you get lost in, it's not a problem. Come back. We'll finish off the next part of this lesson and then he can go back and complete the same exercises again and see if it starts making a little bit more sense to. So let's move on now and start understanding the difference between the present perfect and the present perfect continuous. 33. INTRODUCTION PRESENT PERFECT VS PRESENT PERFECT CONT Gaia Massara English Coach Complete verb te: Now it's time to tie everything together and have a look at the difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. So here in this part of the course, we obviously work be talking about how to create the present perfect and present perfect continuous because you already learned that. But I am going to be teaching you a little bit extra about the present perfect continuous in regards to stative verbs, in order to help you understand how to use the Serb tend a little bit better, then we are going to go through and analyze and dissect the key differences between present perfect and present perfect continuous. Because as you have probably realized it a little bit of an ambiguous tenths and can be a little bit difficult to completely understand. So we are going to be going through lots of examples, lots of situations that are very relatable, I hope a very relatable to you. So you can go ahead and understand exactly when you should be using the present perfect and the present perfect continuous. Once that's done, you have your exercises that you can go ahead and complete. Make sure you check your answers and then cross-check any mistakes by watching the video, let's go ahead and begin. 34. STATIVE VERBS : So what we're looking at, the present perfect and the present perfect tense, they can seem like the same verb tense. And you're probably thinking well at an angel and both of them, because we can use them bird in the same way. And sometimes that is true. But a lot of the time there is a very key difference and we're gonna start to go through that now. The first thing I want to go through IIS, stative verbs and allow you to understand how stative verbs are really the key feature that differentiate these two tenses. Now you've learned up until now that we can use birth, present perfect, and present perfect, continuous, to talk about the length of an action, you could say sentences like, I have lived in Italy for seven years. He using my present perfect or I have been living in Italy for seven years. And what is the difference? Well, good to know, there is no difference. We can use both these verb tenses to talk about this situation. You can choose whether you prefer to use present perfect or the present perfect continuous to talk about the length of an action. However, we have stative verbs. What are stative verbs as anybody nor you want to try to tell me. Stative verbs are verbs that cannot be used in the ing form. Now I want you to think about verbs for a second. We have many verbs that can be repeated, not because of the verb, but because of the action they represent. If you think of the action of walking, walking, that is an action that can continue on forever. You can walk and walk and walk and I can say, I am walking, you are walking. It's not an action that when we think of just happened and then finishes. But what about the action of starting? Starting? Think about this action for a second. When you start something, you started and then subsequently you do whatever it is you started. You don't continuously start something and then stop and then start again and stop in an instant moment. In order to repeat the action of starting, it's impossible to start something. This is a stative verb. It is an action that happens once and subsequently. There is another action involved. You do whatever it is you started. So when we're looking at the verb start, this is a stative verb, and I cannot use it in my present perfect continuous tense. I can't say a sentence like I have been starting to learn English. I have been starting to learn English. This does not make any sense because in my mind, it creates the picture that all of a sudden my life is frozen and all I'm doing is starting and stopping and starting and stopping to learn English. And it's impossible. But instead, I can say I had started to learn English. I have started to learn English because in this situation, the action of starting does not need to be repeated. The information that I'm given from this sentence using my present perfect is that I started to learn English in the past. And now up until this moment, the present and most likely still learning English. So the only action that is repeated, which is an unspecified action, meaning I didn't say specifically This action, the action of learning English. I have started learning English. This is very, very important. So now, when you are thinking about whether to use present perfect or present perfect continuous, you need to start to think that an action that can be repeated doesn't make sense to repeat this action over and over, or maybe not, I should be using my present perfect. Now accompanying, obviously, all of the lessons that you have here in the course is your PDF. You've got all of your lesson note and your exercises. And I'm going to include a separate PDF which you can access bright now if you like, a list of the most common stative verbs in English, it's quite a long and exhausting list, and unfortunately, there isn't a rule to help you understand exactly what is a stative verb. However, slowly, slowly, you know, practicing your English more and more and referring back to that list, you start to gauge a little bit of a better understanding. Sorry that said while he tried to give me a sentence, I want you to try to give me a sentence using the present perfect to describe an action that began in the past and continues now. And the present perfect continuous. But why didn't you try to choose a status, a verb that you can't use, the present perfect continuous, and you can only use in the present perfect just to get you to start thinking about what stative verbs are, I'll give you a minute and go ahead and do that. Great. Let's move on to the next key difference between these two verb tenses. 35. NO DIFFERENCE: Like I was saying previously, sometimes there isn't a difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. And you're free to choose whichever verb tense you want to use. Now this commonly happens when we are looking at the three main verbs. The verb to live, study, and work, and common verbs to use in English. So it's, it's quite handy to understand this because whenever you needing to introduce yourself, you're at a job interview, you trying to speak to somebody for the first time. Conversations about where you live, what you study, and what you do for work. Our conversation status, they are everyday things that we actually speak to that. So it's very handy to know that when you are talking about these three topics using these three verbs, you can use either present perfect or present perfect continuous, again with this example before, but I can say I have lived in Italy for seven years or have been living in Italy for seven years. You can say, I haven't worked as a teacher for seven years or I haven't been working as a teacher for seven years. And you can even say, I have studied English for ten years, or I have been studying English for ten years. There is no difference. So this is an easy rule for you to remember that when we are looking at live work study, we can use birth present perfect or the present perfect, continuous. 36. DIFFERENCE ONE- Adding emphasis : Another difference between these two verb tenses is that we can actually use the present perfect continuous to emphasize and action. Now, do you remember when we were learning the present continuous and I explained to you that we can use the present continuous to complain about the repetition of a habit because it's frustrating. Well, we can do the same thing with the present perfect continuous, but not to complain just to emphasize. Because in English generally not all the time, but sometimes when we are using out in the form of our verbs, they are used to add emphasis because they emphasize the effect of an action being in progress at a particular time. There are stronger verb compared to, for example, the infinitive. So when we want to emphasize the length of time of a particular action, because we are frustrated by it or because we are complaining about it, or we simply want to emphasize to make a point, we can use our present perfect continuous. And this is not something that we can do with the present perfect. Or give you an example. I can say all my, I have been waiting in line for ten hours. I have been waiting in line for ten hours. Now let's put this into context. You go to the post office and you live in Italy. So for those of you who are Italian student and you live in Italy, you know, go into the post office, does feel like a one year experience going to the post office and there is a long, long line and you're waiting and you're waiting and you're looking at your watch saying, oh my god, it's late, I've gotta get to work. Um, Cerf frustrated. It feels like I've been here for ever. You can say, Oh my God, I have been waiting in line for ten hours. You started waiting in line in the past, not ten hours ago, but we are over exaggerating. You started waiting in line in the past. This past action is still continuing now in the present because you're still waiting in line and you're frustrated. And you want to emphasize the fact that, hey, I've been here for a really long time. You need to work fast dot. And this is the situation that you can use the present perfect continuous tense in order to add emphasis. Now you want to remember to do this intentionally. We change our voice a little bit because again, we want to emphasize something. So instead of simply saying, I have been waiting in line for ten hours because it sounds like a very normal sentence. There is nothing new or interesting here. We over-exaggerate out voice. I have been waiting in line for ten hours and we put stress on the word. We elongate our voice and we increase our peach in order to add more emphasis accompanied with the use of the present perfect continuous makes people understand that you frustrated. Hey, now we cannot do this without present perfect tense. This is something that we can just do with present perfect continuous. 37. DIFFERENCE TWO-Quantifying actions : When we are looking at the present perfect tense, we can use to talk about the quantity of something. And this is something that we actually cannot do with a present perfect continuous. So I can say sentences like, I have drunk to coffee's this morning, have trunk to coffee's this morning. And I am talking about the quantity of coffee. I've told you that the quantity of coffee I have drunk is too bad. I cannot say sentences like, I have bean drinking two coffees this morning. We cannot use the present perfect continuous to quantify and action only use the present perfect in this way will give you some other examples. I can say I have eaten two sandwiches. I have filmed two causes this morning. All the examples that we can use, just our present perfect and we cannot use a present perfect continuous for this one each ride. To give me an example, try to give me an example using the present perfect to quantify a particular action. 38. DIFFERENCE THREE- Intention: Really important difference between these two verb tenses is the intention of these verb tenses. Now, I've spoken a lot in this section, how, when we are talking about actions that started in the past and continued up until now, you're free to choose whether to use our present perfect and present perfect continuous. If obviously you've remembered the rule about stative verbs, however, I want you to also understand that this is true. Present Perfect Continuous has more of the intention and failing to concentrate on the action of the sentence. Whereas out present perfect is more intended in regards to the action having been finished. So obviously, this can change situation by situation and under the context. That's why when we're looking at these two verb tenses, it's also very important to look at what it, what, what are we speaking about, what are all the other bits of information we've included in this sentence? Because generally, and this goes for all of your verb tenses and tents, meaning using the gerund with Al verb always paints the picture in our mind that the action is still happening. That's why we use it, for example, for a present continuous for the action that's happening now in this moment. So it always gives the feeling of continuing an action, an action that is still happening. Whereas with the present perfect tense, we are using past tense of the verb. We're using the ED form, for example, if it's regular and this gives us the feeling of completion that the action has been completed. Now, regardless of this, they can be used interchangeably On this point, like I explained before. But it is important to understand this because it depends on the rest of the conversation you have given. If your whole conversation is more intended about a past action and something that has been completed. It could sound a little bit strange to be using the present perfect continuous, even though it may be correct because you create a contrasting image in the person's mind. Because you've set up the story that gives the feeling that the story is finished. And then you go ahead and use your present perfect continuous. So it's a little bit of a contrast. Let me try to give you some examples. So in the basic sentence, like, I have been reading that book you recommended, I love it. It's such a good book. I have been reading that book. You recommended. I love it. It's such a good book. Now, in this situation, this makes me understand that you started reading the book in the past, but you're still reading the book now. And why is this? Well, because one, use the present perfect continuous. I have been reading the book you recommended. And already we are more intended to think present perfect continuous is highlighting the fact that the action is still happening because of the form. And the second thing is you have followed this sentence with, I'm loving it, I'm loving it. And in this part of the sentence you were telling me now, in this moment you are in the process of enjoying the book. Sorry, it makes me understand that you began reading the book in the past. You're still reading the book now and you're really enjoying it. You're like in the process of reading the book, you haven't finished yet. Let's compare this to another situation. I have read that book you recommended. Let's talk about it. I have read that book you recommended. Let's talk about it now here. Same sentence, but a completely different situation. By using the present perfect, I'm starting to make the person understand that. Reading the book, you read the book in the past and now you're not reading anymore. And the second reason I am leaning towards this feeling is because you have accompanied the sentence with, let's talk about it. So we are able to have a conversation now about this book because you've read the entire book. Unlike the first sentence where I have been reading the book you recommended, I love it. I'm saying that I'm in the process of reading this book and I'm really enjoying it. So we can see two things here. Obviously we've used two different verb tenses. And just by using two different verb tenses, we start to create a different feeling. Accompanying that with a second sentence. That highlights the situation even more. It highlights the situation that either the action is continuing or the action has finished. This I know and I am aware is a very subtle difference. And it's one of those differences that when you are moving towards a more upper intermediate, advanced level of English, they going to become a lot more clear to you and you'll become a lot more aware of it. But it's really important that even now for those of you who are beginners, you start to wrap your head around this context because English grammar, as much as it can be straightforward there. So grey areas and those gray areas come from your understanding of the situation, the context because a grammar rule, yes, it is a rule, but it's not a 100% like mathematics where whenever we say one plus one equals two for ever, it will equal to. Grammar rules can change a little bit depending on context, depending on feeling, depending on situation. And when we're looking at this particular point, there is a little bit of a gray area, and it does take that one step more of understanding of not just the verb tense, but everything else in the sentence. Everything else you want to portray to that person in order to use this particular rule here correctly. So why don't you try to give me a sentence now? Why don't you give me one sentence in the present perfect continuous, and one sentence in the present perfect. The same sentence. But one, you're emphasizing the fact that the action is still continuing. The other, we're emphasizing the completion of the action. Go ahead and try to do that now. 39. DIFFERENCE FOUR- Yet and already : When we're using adverbs like yet, and already, we cannot use them with the present perfect continuous. We can use this word only with the present perfect, which is another key difference between these two tenses. So I can say sentences like, Have you finished yet? I have all ready finished. But I can never say Have you been finishing yet? I have been finishing all ready. We cannot do that already. And yet either express the completion of an action where we're using old greedy or ask whether an action has been completed yet. And remember that our present perfect continuous gives more of a failing of an incomplete action. So it's impossible to use these two verbs. These two verbs yet and already are only used with the present perfect. Why don't you go ahead and give me an example. Try to use yet in a sentence with the present perfect, and already in a sentence with the present perfect. Go ahead. Let's move on to the next difference. 40. DIFFERENCE FIVE- The result of actions : All right, so our last key difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. I wanted to talk to you about how I was teaching you that we can use present perfect and present perfect continuous for a past, recent action that has a result in the present. And I said that both of these verb tenses can be used in this way. However, there is a very subtle difference in feeling that I want to explain to you when we're using the present perfect to talk about the result of a past action. We are focusing on a result that is caused that comes by the completion of an action. Whereas when we are looking at the present perfect continuous, the result is coming from the action itself, not from the fact of completing the action. Let me give you some examples. I can say I have eaten dinner. So let's go out. Have eaten dinner. So let's go out. Now, I understand in this sentence that the action of eating dinner is completed. And because the action of completing dinner is finished, is completed, I can go out. So my result in the present of being able to go out is coming directly from the completed action of having eaten dinner. I have eaten dinner. So I can go out because I have eaten dinner, because the action of eating dinner is complete. I can go out. Now let's compare this to the present perfect, continuous. I have been cooking, so the kitchen is a mess. I have been cooking. So the kitchen is a mess in the present moment, I have the result of the kitchen being mess because of the action of cooking. Because I was cooking at some point in the past up until some point. Now, this is a key difference because they result in my present of having a messy kitchen is not coming from a completion of an action. It's just coming from the action itself. And this is the key difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. When we're looking at the certain result we have in our present, present perfect focuses on a result that happens because of the completion of an action. Present perfect continuous focuses on our result that happens because of a particular action. Not because the action is completed, but because we simply did and action. Ok, so why don't you try to go ahead and give me some examples. Try to use the present perfect to talk about a result caused by the completion of a past action. And then try to give me an example using the present perfect continuous Talking about the result caused by a past actions. Go ahead and try. 41. Conclusion: Alright, so you have come to the end of understanding the difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. And you have also come to the end of the whole of the section of the present tenses. Congratulations for I move you on to do your last exercise in present tense section. Let's do a very quick recap to understand better and remember that the difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous. Now we learned that we can use birthday, present perfect, and present perfect continuous to talk about actions that started in the past and continued. Now, however, we need to watch out for are stative verbs, because where there is stative verbs, we can only ever use present perfect tense. We also learned about the feeling behind these two tenses. We learned that out Present Perfect has the feeling of completion. Whereas our present perfect continuous gives us the feeling of a continuous action. And to understand exactly which tense is appropriate, we need to take into consideration the rest of us sentence. We also learned that sometimes there is no difference between these two verb tenses. And this happens when you are looking at your verbs, live, work, and study. You are free to choose whether you want to use present perfect and present perfect continuous. We revise how we can use the present perfect continuous to add emphasis and exaggerate an action. Often when we want to complain or demonstrate a feeling associated with a particular action. However, when we are using our adverbs such as already and yet, we can only use our present perfect. We can't use the present perfect continuous. And lastly, when we are talking about the result caused from these actions, we are using present perfect continuous to talk about the result that happens from an action. Whereas we use our present perfect to talk about the result that comes from the completion of an action. So I am quite confident now, after having revised all of these, you guys are feeling pretty confident about using your present perfect and present perfect continuous. And I think that you are ready to go ahead and complete those exercises. For those of you who did have a little bit of trouble the first time doing the exercises with the present, perfect continuous Before you understood the difference, go back, try those exercises again and see if they make a little bit more sense to you can go ahead and do the exercises, and then we can get started with the next verb tense where we're going to be having a look at the past tenses. 42. Introduction Past simple : In this section, we are going to be talking about the past simple tense. You are going to learn how to construct the past simple, how to use the past simple, and how to understand the past simple in comparison to what it is you are speaking about maiming, how to understand the ways and situations. You can use this verb tense practically in English. Now, obviously you're going to have lots of video lessons here. But what I want you to do is once you have finished watching the video in regards to the past simple, go ahead and complete those exercises. Now accompanying your exercises, of course, there is your answer sheet so you can go ahead and also correct your answers and make sure to take note of any mistakes that you're making. Comeback to the video and see if you can correct your cell. Also remember throughout this video, I'm going to be asking you questions. I'm going to be getting you to actually use these verb tense and give me examples to make sure you participate doing that as well. Cuz it's really going to help you out with your English. 43. Rule Past simple : Let's begin by having a look at the past simple tense. Now, the past simple tense is one of the most common verb tenses to use it English because obviously, when we are talking to friends, when we want to express and talk about things that happen to us, certain events in our lives, we need to use the past simple tense. So let's start off to understand how to construct our sentences using this verb tense. If we want to say an affirmative sentence, we very simply just need to use our subject. And in the second past form, which if the verb is a regular verb, you simply need to add ED, for example, walked becomes walked. However, if the verb is irregular, gets a little bit more tricky and you need to remember the irregular conjugations of the verb. For example, speak becomes spoke. So for affirmative sentences, we just have our subject plus the past tense conjugation of our verb. For example, I worked yesterday, I studied English two days ago. What about when we are looking at are negative sentences? With negative sentences, we need to add the auxiliary verb, didn't. However, it is important to remember that when we use the auxiliary verb didn't in negative sentences, the verb after, which is our action verb, does not need to be in the past. Like when we were looking at the affirmative sentences, we need to use the verb after did it in the bare infinitive. For example, I didn't study English Yesterday, I didn't work yesterday. You can notice that I use didn't plus my present tense bare infinitive of the verb. Now why is this? Well, because by using didn't, we already understand that we are using the past simple, so there's no need to use two verbs in the past. Generally in English, we only use one key verb to demonstrate what verb tense we are talking about. And in this case, our keeper is, didn't. I didn't study English yesterday. Now with we also need to use a verb, did our auxiliary verb, and again, our action verb, the verb coming after did, does not need to be in the past, it remains in the present. And like all other question forms in our verb tenses, we need to use inversion, meaning we need to begin our question with the auxiliary verb, subject and then our verb. For example, did you study English yesterday? Did you work yesterday? Great. So that is how we construct our sentences. The passive portents. Let's move on and understand how we can use this verb tense in English. 44. USE ONE- Past actions: Sorry, the first use of the past simple is to speak about actions, habits for situations that happened and finished in the past. And when we do this, we accompany our sentence with a finished time expression. What is a finished time expression? Well, what such as yesterday, two years ago or five hours ago or 20 years ago. These are finished time expressions because they communicate. An action was occurring in the past. It started in the past, but it also finished in the past. Let me give you some examples. We all worked yesterday. We all worked yesterday to here I am using my past conjugation, worked. It's irregular verb, accompanied by a past time expression yesterday to what I'm doing is I'm telling you that obviously now I'm I'm not working, I'm I'm filming because however, yesterday we all worked that Aktion began and finished yesterday. Now we're all doing something else. But yesterday we all worked. Another example I can say is she got up at nine o'clock on Monday. She got up at nine o'clock on Monday or they went out for dinner last week? They went out for dinner last week. She ate breakfast at ten. She ate breakfast at ten. They're all of these examples here. I am doing two things. I'm using my passive pollutants to talk about a finished action, habit or situation in the past. It started in the past, it finished in the past. And I'm accompanying that with a past time expression to emphasize the fact that the action is no longer happening. So why don't you go ahead and try to give me an example using the past simple in a sentence. Great, let's move on to the next use of this verb tense. 45. USE TWO- With present perfect: The next way we can use the past simple is when we are using with the present perfect. Now, once we have finished learning the past simple, towards the end of this section, we are also going to do a whole lesson based around the difference between simple, present, perfect. So if at this point you start to have questions and doubts and getting a little bit confused, Take a deep breath. Don't worry. There is a whole section devoted to talking about this one particular topic because it's a really common area of confusion. So for now, I just want you to start to wrap your head around the fact that we can use the present perfect with the past simple. And when we are using the past simple in this way, it's because we have introduced something for the first time using the present perfect and we then use our paths in booted. Give more information. I'll give you an example. I can say I have been to America. I went there when I was ten. I have been to America. I went there when I was ten. I have been to America. I'm introducing the experience to you or to who I'm speaking to that I've been to America. I then want to give you some more information about that experience. I want to give you some more detailed information. And in order to do that, I go ahead and I use my past simple. I have been to America. I went there when I was ten. Another example, I have eaten lunch. My husband took me out. I have eaten lunch. My husband took me out. I've been on holiday. I went to Spain and Portugal. I've been on holiday. I went to Spain and Portugal. So now that we have gone through that, that we use the past simple to give more information when we have introduced something using the present perfect. He tried to give me an example, give me an example of a sentence using the present perfect to introduce an experience or something. And then the past simple to go ahead and give some more detailed information in regards to that. Great job, let's have a look at the next way we can use the past simple. 46. USE THREE - With the past continous: Like I was telling you in the very first video for this section, we use a past simple to talk about events and stories that happened in our life. And we use this tense a lot, while predominantly when we are storytelling, when we want to tell people about certain things in the past. And when we're doing this, we are using a few different verb tenses. But I want to go through obviously here for the purpose of this class, just how we're using the past simple in this way. And then throughout the rest of the course, we'll touch on the other ways of using other verb tenses. So when we want to talk about the specific actions in a story, we use the past simple. However, when we want to talk about the background situation that Homer using our past continuous. So we use the past simple to gather with the past continuous in order to formulate a story. Let me give you an example. I can say I work up at five o'clock. The sun was shining. I brushed my teeth and I ate breakfast. Now, let's look at this sentence again. We have three parts to this sentence. Even though it's one sentence, we have, I work up at five o'clock. Simple. The sun was shining past continuous. I brushed my teeth past simple. I ate breakfast past simple. So in this situation, I have three actions and one situation, my three actions, I use the past simple. I work up at five o'clock. I brushed my teeth. I'm pretty sure that's what I just said. If not, I apologize. I actually had a blank, but it's a past action and I ate breakfast. Then we have one situation, the sun was shining. So here what I'm doing is I am talking to you about something that happened in the past. In order to talk about the specific actions of this event, I used by simple, but in order to create the situation, the context, the background situation, I used the past continuous because the fact that the sun was shining, this is something that was happening while I was getting up, while I was brushing my teeth, while I was eating breakfast. It's like backdrop to our story here. You can understand that when we are retelling stories, we are using out past simple to highlight specific actions and our past continuous to give the background context. Let me give you another example. I walked into the shop. People were speaking, sorry, gladly. So I sat down and I kept my head down. I walked into the shop. People were speaking so loudly. So I set down and kept my head down the same situation and talking to better Story in the past three actions. Walked into the shop, sat down, kept my head down. One situation, one context that was happening throughout the whole time. These three actions were happening. People were talking so loudly. Again, this is another example how we are using our past simple to list the actions that were happening in the past and our past continuous to set the context. Now that you've gone ahead and understood that, why don't you give me an example or tell me a short story, something that happened in the past. Using the past simple to talk about the separate actions and the past continuous to set the context. Perfect, Great job. Now we have actually come to the end of all of the uses of the past simple. So let's go ahead and do a really quick provision. 47. CONCLUSION Past simple : So far you've learned quite a few things about the past simple. We've understood how we can construct it in sentences. We have learned that in affirmative sentences we are simply using our active verb in the second past conjugation. If it's regular, then we just add ED. However, if it's irregular, we need to remember that new conjugation in a negative sentences we are using the didn't, however, remembering that by doing so, our verb coming after didn't, our action verb is in the present tense. Likewise, without questions, we are asking questions. When did we are practicing inversion? And our action verb again is in the present tense. We learned a few different ways. We can use the past simple in English, we most commonly use the past simple to talk about finished actions, events, situations, states of being that began in the past and finished in the past. And when we're doing this, we're accompanying our sentences with a finished time expression yesterday, 5-years ago, at five o'clock. Now we can do the exact same thing with our time. When we are talking about general knowledge, historical facts, or when the person is dead. We also learned that we can actually use the past simple with the present perfect tense. And this is done when we introduce something for the first time using the present perfect, we want to give a little bit more information and specific details about what has been said. And therefore, we accompany our sentence with the past simple. And just lastly, we learned that we can use our past simple when we're telling stories. When we wanted to talk about this specific actions in a story, we use the past simple. We want to talk about the background of what's going on behind the story, the context of the story. We use a past continuous. You did a great job guys, learning about the past simple. I hope you enjoyed it. Why don't you go ahead now complete your exercises, check your answers, crosscheck any mistakes, and then we can move on to the next verb tense. 48. INTRODUCTION PAST SIMPLE VS PRESENT PERFECT : Okay, so in this section, you are going to learn the difference between the past simple and the present perfect. You've already learned how to construct these verb tenses. However, in this part we're going to specifically understand what the key differences are through doing an analysis and comparison, we are going to be analyzing particular examples as well as uses to identify the very subtle differences. So that you're going to be able to go ahead and interchange between these two verb tenses correctly. 49. DIFFERENCE ONE- Past simple vs Present Perfect : As promised, here we are learning about the key differences between present perfect and past simple. A very commonly confused area because we actually use these verb tenses together. However, there are some specific rules that enables you to only use present perfect or only use past simple. Let's jump in and have a look at those. So the first key difference is that our present perfect, it concentrates on unfinished actions, whereas our past simple is only for finished actions. Let's have a look at this sentence here. I can say I have known her for two years. I have known her for two years. Obviously, you know that the sentence means I still know her now. If I look at a sentence like, I knew her for two years, I knew her for two years. This means that I no longer know her now. So I know that when we will using our present perfect previously in the course, there were some gray areas and sometimes the Present Perfect had the intention of feeling that the action was completed when compared to the present perfect continuous. But you need to remember that it's not definite. What is definite is the past simple is always a finished action. So whenever in doubt, always look to the past simple, because the passing who has a very black and white rule, the past simple is always for an action that has 100% Payne completed and finished in the past. The next key point of difference is in regards to experiences. Now the present perfect. You've learned that we use to talk about our experiences, appearances that happened in the past, that continue now in the present because we have the result of that experience within us and we're looking at the past simpler, we can use it in this way. In fact, we only ever use the past simple to talk about a person's experiences if they are dead. If the person however, is alive, we must use the present perfect or give you an example. I can say she has been there twice, she has been there twice. She is alive. So I must use the present perfect. But what about a sentence like this? My great, great, great grandmother went there twice. Obviously, my great, great, great grandmother is no longer with us. She is dead, so I cannot use my present perfect, I must use the past simple. The next key difference is when we are talking about results. Now as you know, we are using our present perfect when we have a result in the present. However, we use the past simple when there is no result in the present because remembering the past simple is a verb tense that has absolutely no connection to our present time. It is just talking about an action that happened and finished in the past. It is not related at all to the present moment. Let me give you an example. When the present perfect, I would say a sentence like, she has lost her keys, so she can't get in a house. She has lost her keys. So she can't get in her house. Obviously from this sentence, I understand that she lost her keys in the past, but the present result is that, hey, she's locked out of horror. She can't get in her house. Let's compare this to the same sentence using the past simple. She lost turkeys yesterday. She lost her keys yesterday. Okay. She lost turkeys yesterday. Today. She's sitting at home on the couch having a cup of tea. Say, We have no relation between our past action and the present because we are talking about a finished pass action that has nothing to do with the present moment. And the last key different. And it is the most important early because it's the most commonly mistaken is when we're talking about time expressions. Again, present perfect is for an unfinished actions. There are actions that are happening somewhere between past and present and are in some way connected to the present. And because of this, we use all person-time expressions. Time expressions that are not locked into the past like four seats this morning today. However, when we're using the past simple pieces for a lot, past time, things that are just in the past and have nothing to do with the present. Which is why we can only use past-time expressions yesterday, two years ago, last year at two o'clock. These are expressions that we cannot use with the present perfect, but only with the past simple to when you are constructing your sentences and you're trying to understand, should I use present perfect? Should I use past simple? Always take into consideration the time of the action. What is the time expression? As soon as you are using work such as yesterday or two years ago, you can orderly use the past simple. You can't use the present perfect. Okay, so those are the key differences between past simple and Present Perfect did a really good job at home. It was clear enough for you to understand. Why don't you go ahead now and complete the exercises, check your answers, and then we can begin with unmixed verb tense. 50. INTRODUCTION PAST CONTINOUS : Now we're going to be looking at the past continuous. Now, in this section of the course, we are going to begin by having a look at how we can construct the past continuous. What are the conjugations of the verbs and how the construction of this in a sentence by looking at our committee's negative and our questions. We're then going to go ahead and have a look at some examples and deconstruct how we can actually use this verb tense are going to be analyzing the examples and trying to make them as practical and as real as possible. Once that's done that you are going to give me some practice examples through speaking. And then you can go ahead and complete your exercises, crosscheck any answers with the answer sheet and go ahead and read the lesson notes as well. 51. RULE- Past continuous : Let's move on now and have a look at the past continuous. Now the past continuous, like all continuous tenses and uses the I-N-G form of the verb. We create the past continuous by using the auxiliary verbs was and were accompanied with the verb in the I-N-G form. So when we are wanting to construct affirmative sentences, we will use Waze. We're plus the I-N-G form. For example, I was teaching English at five o'clock, came was learning English at five o'clock. They were walking yesterday at six. Instead, when we are looking at are negative sentences, it's the exact same thing. We just need to add the negative word, which is of course not. And I can say she wasn't working yesterday at five. They weren't studying English last week when we are moving on to having a look at our questions, again, we are practicing construction of inversion, so we will be using was where as auxiliary verb, a subject and then I'll actions. For example, were you working yesterday? Was she bike riding last way? Perfect. So now that we have understood the construction of this verb tense, let's jump in and have a look how we can use the past continuous in English. 52. USE ONE- Action in progress: And the first way we can use the past continuous is when we want to talk about an action that was in progress at a particular point in the past. Often, when we do this, we actually highlight the exact point or time the action was occurring. Now, it's important to note that this action has nothing to do with the present. It is not continuing up until the present. There is no result in the present. It is simply an action that was in progress at a particular point in the past. Or give you an example. I can say yesterday at five o'clock, I was studying English. Yesterday at five o'clock, I was studying English. Now, what do I understand from this sentence? While I understand that yesterday, at the hour of five o'clock, I was in the process of studying English. How long was I studying English? I don't know. Did I finish studying English for yes, absolutely, because I'm using a past tense. When did I finished studying English? I taught, nor when was I in the process of studying English at five o'clock. So what you can understand is this verb tense doesn't give us that much information. It just gives us information about two key things. This action of studying English occurred at five o'clock. It occurred in the past and it occurred for a particular period of time. All other things we are not aware of. Let me give you another example. I can say I was watching TV yesterday at ten. I was watching TV yesterday at ten. Now, why don't you try to give me an example using the past continuous in this way? Great. Let's move on and have a look at the next years. 53. USE TWO- Different past actions: The second way we can use the past continuous is when we are talking about different actions in the past, when we are talking about the past. And we want to highlight that one particular action was occurring when another action overlapped that action. And this is commonly done when we are connecting our sentences. Past continuous with past, simple. Now, past continuous because it's a continuous tense, it always represents the longer action, the action that was happening for a longer period of time. And the past simple always represents the smaller action that either interrupted out past continuous action or began occurring at the same time as our past continuous action, where we are wanting to show you this particular situation in English, we are using two key words, and those words are When and why and when we are accompanying with LPA simple. Whereas, while we're accompanying with L past continuous, and that was a lot of information. So let me try to give you an example and let's deconstruct it so we can understand it a little bit better. Let's have a look at this example here. Why? I was studying English, my phone cold while I was studying English, my phone cord, we have remained things we can see firstly, I'm using the word while, then I'm using my past continuous, and then I'm using my past simple. Now as I explained to you before, we accompany this particular construction, either with or with while. In this case, we used while because we are beginning a sentence with the past continuous, and Y0 is the word we always used with the past continuous. Now, what am I saying? What's going on in this situation? Well, the context is I was studying English. I was studying English. I was in the process of this particular action occurring in the past with nothing to do with the present. And while I was studying English, my phone call. So what we have here is one long action being interrupted by a smaller action. And the smaller action is the action in the past. Simple, while I was studying English, my phone call while I was cooking, my daughter called me while I was working. I checked my email is here. I am making you understand how and when I was completing particular actions, understanding the longer action behind this very small action that I was doing. Now, like I said before, we can also use When in these particular constructions. And we do that when we are using a past simple. Because when we always use with the past simple, and I can say when my phone called, I was cooking. When my phone called, I was cooking. I can also simply say I was cooking when my phone called, I was cooking when my phone corridors alternatives are correct differences instead of using while I am using when. Another example I can say is when my boss called me, I was speaking to my colleagues. When my boss called me, I was speaking to my colleagues here. I'm just explaining to you what I was doing. What is the background of this situation when a smaller past action happened? Now, in all of these examples I've just given you, we're talking about how one smaller action intersects a larger action happening in the past. However, we can also use the past continuous to talk about two actions happening at the same time. And to do this, we use a linking word while, but instead of accompanying my past continuous tense with my past simple, I accompanied with another sentence in the past continuous. Give you an example. While I was cooking, I was talking on the phone. While I was cooking. I was talking on the phone. What does this sentence mean? While I was cooking at the very exact time, I was talking on the foreign hours, doing two actions at the same time, very different what we were speaking about previously. We're talking about one action being intersected by another action. Here we have two equal actions occurring at the same time. Another example I can say is, I was speaking to my husband while I was entering my emails. I was speaking to my husband while I was answering my emails. This means that in the exact same moment I was speaking to my husband, I was listening and I was answering my emails. So why don't you try to create some examples to give me an example of a sentence you using past continuous and past simple and connecting those sentences with either while and when. Great. Now that you've done that, try another sentence. Give me a sentence using past continuous and past continuous connecting those width Y0. Fantastic, Good job guys. Let's move on to the next use of the past continuous tense. 54. USE THREE- Background story: The next way we can use the past continuous we already touched on briefly when we were talking about the past simple. So we can use, as you know now, our past continuous when we are setting the background of the story. When we are retelling a story in English. And as well as talking about specific actions that were happening that we use our past simple four, we want to give the context of what's going on to give feeling and to paint the picture. And in this case we use a past continuous. For example, the wind was blowing. People were talking and I decided to go inside. The wind was blowing. People were talking, and I decided to go inside. So here, as soon as you hear this sentence, you start to imagine a situation where there is wind blowing and whether people talking. And this is the context and background of your story where you need to use the past continuous, then of course, the actions that thinks that you actually did use the past. Simple. Why don't you try again because we already did this before, but try again, give me a another sentence using the past continuous to set the background of a story. Perfect, let's move on to the very last way. We can use the past continuous tense. 55. USE FOUR- Complain about past habit: The last way we can use the past continuous tense is to emphasize and always complain about a past habit that happened in the past, that doesn't happen anymore now, that was a little bit annoying or in your opinion, happened too much. Now this is exactly how we use the present continuous for the same thing. However, the present continuous because well, hence the name present is a present tense. We use it to talk about habits happening now, instead, past continuous, we use it in the same way. But to talk about those temporary past annoying habits that happened just at a particular point in the past. Let me give you an example here was always complaining when he lived in London. It was always complaining when he lived in London. Dear, I am telling you that when he lived in London, he was in this temporary habit of always complaining. And note how I've used the adverb always. This is one of the adverbs that we commonly use with the past continuous when we are emphasizing an action, always, forever, constantly. These are the common adverbs we use over emphasize this action. I'll give you another example. She was constantly screaming when she was a child. She was constantly screaming when she was a child. They were for ever planning new holidays? They were for ever planning new holidays. Scare. Very simply, I am talking to you about a temporary past habit that was happening in the past and overemphasizing it using my adverbs and there is no connection here to the present. So why don't you go ahead and try to use the past continuous here in an example. 56. CONCLUSION Past continuous: Great job everyone. We've come to the end of learning about the past continuous. Let's do a quick revision before you move on to your exercises. So in this part of the course, we learnt how to construct the past continuous. We learned that we use our auxiliary verbs, was and were plus L verb in the past in affirmative sentences, and we simply use our subject class was worth and the I-N-G form negative sentences, the exact same thing. However, we add not end for our questions, we use inversion, we use was worth plus a subject plus verb, and j form. Now we learned a few new ways we can use the past continuous in conversation. You revised the fact that you can use the past continuous to demonstrate the background of a story when we are storytelling, we also learned that we can use the past continuous accompanying with the simple. We want to talk about particular actions being interrupted by other actions or two actions happening at the same time. In order to do this, we are using outward while and when remembering while is used with the past continuous, and when is used with the past, simple. And lastly, we are using the past continuous to talk about a temporary POS, action or habit that we want to overemphasize in some way or another by using our adverbs always, constantly or forever, generally because we are complaining or explaining that something was done too much or was quite frustrating. So guys, you the fantastic job in this section of the course. I hope you enjoyed it before you move on to the next verb tense, go ahead and complete these exercises, check your answers and crust check any mistakes by rewatching these videos. 57. INTRODUCTION Past perfect : Now let's move on and start talking about our past perfect. In this part of the course, we are going to learn how to construct sentences using the past perfect and how to go ahead and use the past perfect. In English, we're going to be going through the mainly uses and breaking those down into very practical examples in order for you guys to feel as confident as possible to go off and begin using this verb tense. Now, like everything we've done up until now, you also have lots of exercises that you can go ahead. And once you have watched the video lesson, accompanying verse exercises are the answers that I urge all of you to go ahead and check and then cross-check any mistakes by watching the video. Now I've said it a million times now, but I will say it again. This is a very practical coarser. Remember, while you're watching these videos and you hear me ask you a question, or you hear me say, Give me an example. That is your opportunity to actually start speaking and practicing using the content. All right, so that's the introduction. Let's begin straight away. 58. RULE Past perfect: How can we construct the past perfect? What verbs and verb conjugations do we need to use in this verb? Well, it's quite simple. We just simply need to use had plus the past participle of the verb. Now it's really good to know that we use head with all of the people. We do not need to change Head for the third person singular, it remains the same. So when we are looking at our affirmative sentences, we just use a subject plus had, plus the past participle. I had eaten lunch, she had gone to work when we're looking at are negative sentences. Again, it is the same construction, however, we also need to use the negative of head, which of course is headed not or hadn't. I hadn't eaten lunch. She hadn't eaten lunch. In question forms, we have the same situation like all questions in our verb tenses, we need to be using English version. So we use had plus our subject. In the past participle. She eaten lunch. You studied for the exam. Fantastic. So that is how we are constructing sentences using the past perfect. Now let's move on to understand how we use the past perfect. 59. USE ONE- Multiple past actions: Now, the first to use for our past perfect is when we want to talk about different actions happening in the past. And we want to make what we are saying more understandable by highlighting the chronological order of those actions. Now, to do this, we use the past perfect and the past perfect. It highlights the fact that a particular action happened before a point in the past. That point in the past could be the beginning of an action or a particular time. And we do this in order to make what we are saying a little bit easier to follow and understandable. Because imagine you are telling a long story in the past with lots of actions and lots of events. And, and for some time, it can become confusing to understand what happened first and what happened after. We have linking words and time expressions to help us through this process. But sometimes it's necessary to really emphasize and highlight the completion of a certain action at a certain point in the past in order to make our story make more sense. And in those situations, that's when we need to use our past perfect. Let's go and have a look at some examples to make this a little bit easier for you to understand. Let's have a look at this sentence. When we arrived, the film had started. When we arrived, the film had started. This is one sentence using two verb tenses, past simple. When we arrived, past perfect, the film had started. Now what is it that we're understanding from the sentence? We're understanding that we arrived at the cinema late. The film was already in the process of being shown. The film had started. A film started before we arrived at the cinema. And when we arrived at the cinema, maybe we missed the first five minutes. Maybe we missed the first ten minutes. The important information we are expressing here is that the action of the film happening occurred before the time we arrived. When we arrived, the Phil had started and it makes us up and that we missed a little bit of the film without having to give that specific information. It's already understood through the division of time. Another example is another example is when her boss coater, she had already finished the report. When a boss Coulter, she had all ready, finished her report. Again, this is presenting the exact same situation. We understand that in the moment her boss coater, before this time, she had finished the report, which means when she went ahead and answered the phone call, she was already to say, hey, I finished the report. I can present it to you. Now that we have understood that what he tried to give me an example, give me an example of the past perfect used in this particular way. Fantastic. Let's move on to the next way we can use the past perfect. 60. USE TWO- Length of action: Next we can use the past perfect when we want to express the length and duration of particular actions. Now, this should start to ring the bell because it's very similar. Or in fact, it is how I using out present perfect tense. However, if you can remember and if you've studied well, you will remember that we use the present perfect for an action that started in the past and continues up until the present. But the past perfect, we need to tweak this a little bit. We need to change this a little bit. So instead concentrating what an action that started in the past and continues to the present, we use the past perfect to speak of an action that began at the pass and continued up until a specific point in the past. Because we need to remember that out past perfect tense. Well, it's attempts completely and totally in the past. It doesn't have anything to do with the present, like for example, at present perfect tense. So let me give you an example. On the 20th of October, I had worked here for five years. On the 20th of October, I had worked here for five years. Now, what does this sentence mean? Well, here I'm giving you two pieces of information. I have a specific date on the 20th of October, and I have an action. I had worked here for five years and in this case I'm explaining the length of the action because I'm using a double for for five years. And what I understand from this sentence is that i began working sometime in the past, and this action continued until the 20th of October. A random time in the past up until a specific point in the past in this case, on the 20th of October, I had been working for how long? For five years. Let's have a look at another example. When he graduated, he had been in London for six years. When he graduated, he had been in London for six years. Here we have a very similar situation. We have a specific time when he graduated, which is our point in the past, and then we have the length of an action. He had been in London for six years. And this sentence makes me understand that He arrived in London at a random point in the past. However, at the specific point of when he graduated, the length of time he had spent in London reached six years. When he graduated. He had been in London for six years. So what you can see here is we have two examples that demonstrate how we use the past perfect when we want to say that a particular, it occurred for a specific amount of time in the past. And this specific amount of time is highlighted through using a set point in the past, a sit to time in the past, like when he graduated or on the 20th of October. So why don't you go ahead and try to use the past perfect in a sentence using this type of construction. And then we'll get started with the next way we can use the past perfect. 61. USE THREE- Optional use : Now the last piece of information that I want to tell you about the past perfect is actually quite an easy rule. It is a rule about when you don't have to use the past perfect or when it is more or less optional. Now what we're understanding here from these uses is that the past perfect is really used to indicate the understanding of time when a particular action happened in the past. To make it easier when we're talking, to make it easier when we're storytelling. So when, for example, we are using words such as before or after. These are words that in general, in English, we use to indicate time and when we use before and after. They enable us to understand what action happened before a particular action, what action happened after a particular action. And if you've understood well enough, understood that well, we actually use the past perfect for these two to understand what past action happened before or after a particular time, action or situation. Now, because of this, when we are using our words before or after, past perfect is optional, meaning you don't have to use it. And this is where actually a lot of confusion comes in for students because you will hear native speakers like myself, like the actors in your TV series, possibly saying sentences where grammatically it sounds like they should use the past perfect, but they're not because they're utilizing before and after, which means they are just using the past. Simple. Let me go ahead and give you an example from the film started before we arrived. The film started before we arrived. This is a classic example of where we want to demonstrate what action happened before another action in the past. And obviously first the film started and then we arrive that instead of having to say the film had started when we arrived and utilizing our past. Perfect, I can use the work before film started, before we arrived. And you can notice that with just using a simple past tense, film started simple tasks. We arrived simple past connecting these two sentences with before. So that's a pretty easy one that you can remember if you're earning to avoid using this tenth, sometimes wider, you go ahead and try to practice using before and after in a sentence when we are talking about the past and trying to understand the chronological order of actions. 62. RULE Past perfect continuous : The past perfect continuous, just by its name because it is a continuous tense. By now, a little bells should be ringing in your ear initially thinking, oh, I'm pretty sure that the construction is going to include the I-N-G form of the verb. And you are correct when we are looking at our past perfect continuous, we simply formulating it by using had plus b plus the I-N-G form of L verbs. A plus b plus the I-N-G form of adverbs. Now, when we are moving on and having a look at our affirmative sentences, like all affirmative sentences in English, we adjust using our basic sentence construction, where we are beginning with our subject plus head, plus bn, plus the chosen verb in the I-N-G form. For example, I had been studying for five weeks. She had been studying for five weeks. Taking note that because we are using past tense of the verb to have had, we do not need to conjugate it based on the person. Which means that for all the people, whether it's plural or third person singular, with just simply use head. Now moving on with our negative sentences, much like our positive affirmative sentences, we simply need to add not and we'll use the construction subject had not plus verb in the I-N-G form, cause, if you are speaking English, opposed to writing English, you're more than welcome to use the contraction hadn't instead of head not in order to be a little bit less formal, I hadn't been studied for five hours or I had not been studying for five hours. She hadn't been studying for five hours. She had not been studying for five hours. Moving on and looking at our question form, much like all of our other questions in English, we need to practice the technique of inversion, which means we starting straight off without auxiliary verb had followed by a subject, followed by b. And then the chosen verb in the I-N-G form, for example, had you been studying for five hours? Had she been studying for five hours? Perfect. So that is the very straight forward rule on how to formulate sentences using the past perfect, continuous. Let's go ahead and have a look at how we can use this verb tense now. 63. USE ONE- Past action: The first use of the past perfect continuous, is to speak about an action that occurred in the past and continued up until a specific point in the past. Now this is very similar, pretty much the same as to when we are using the past perfect that you learned earlier. When we want to talk about the length and the duration of a specific action that started in the past and it continued up until a specific point in the past. However, remembering in this case, because we are using our past perfect continuous tense, okay, here we are using verbs that can be utilized in the I-N-G form. So it's really important to remember and you would've learned this when we're comparing the difference, specifically in our previous section with the present perfect compared to the present perfect continuous, we need to watch out for stative verbs, which means that there are particular verbs that cannot be used in the continuous tense, which means you cannot use the past perfect continuous and you must use the past perfect. That said, on this case, using this particular use, you guys can interchange whether you want to use the past perfect or the past perfect continuous, depending, of course, on the verb, you are choosing whether it's negative or not static. So that said let jumping and have a look at some examples. For example, I can say they had been working together for three years when she got promoted. They had been working together for three years when she'd got promoted. Now what's going on in this sentence? I am talking about how a particular action was in progress in the past up until another point in the past, what was this action? Can you understand which action was the one in progress? They had been working together. This is the action that was in progress at a particular point in the past. They had been working together the length for three years. This action happened and continued up until a specific point in the past. Did you understand when was that specific point? Let's see if you can remember when she'd got promoted. When she got promoted. So the moment that she got promoted further into the past, there was an action that began, they had been working together and continued up until a particular point in the past. Now what you can see is this is the exact way we can use the past perfect and we can use both tenses in the same way. I do wanna stress, of course, the fact of stative verbs that have already said more than once. And also the fact that remembering when we are using our perfect tenses, whether that be out past perfect or are present perfect or even our future perfect that we will get to. This tends gives the feeling of completion. And it gives us the feeling that the action has finished and a particular result has occurred due to the completion of that action. However, when we are using our continuous tenses, in this case L past perfect continuous. It gives us the feeling of an unfinished action to the picture I'm creating in my mind when I hear a sentence, she had been working for three years when she got promoted. Is that okay? But, you know, maybe after she got promoted, she was still working with that person. And I feel like the action is still continuing after this particular point in the past. Now a detail you also, in our previous videos, it is based on the situation. So it's not easy to understand, it's just from one singular sentence. You need to understand the context around it, but it is important to have that in mind when we're trying to formulate the exact difference between past perfect and past perfect continuous. So why don't you go ahead now and try to give me an example using the past perfect continuous used in this way. 64. USE TWO- Reason: The next way we can use our past perfect continuous is where we want to give reason to a particular past action. That is, when we are looking at the result of an action. And we want to say that something happened in the past. Something is evident in the past because before that time there was something else going on. Let me lead in with an example. The floor was whet because it had been raining. The floor was wet because it had been raining. The what's happening in this situation is in the past. Remember I'm speaking just totally in the past. I noticed the floor was wet and I thought, oh wow, the floor, it's wet. I wonder why. And I gave reason to this past situation by using my past perfect continuous and saying because it had been raining, which means at a point before I noticed the floor being wet, it was raining. And this past action caused a particular result in the past, but a past that is closer to the present. This is exactly how we use a present, perfect, continuous. However, instead of concentrating on the present, of course we are concentrating on the past. Let's have a look at another example. She was red. She had been running. She was red because she had been running again in the past. I noticed her face was red, happened yesterday. Yesterday when I saw her, she was red because she had been running. She was red because at a time before that particular time in the past, she was running maybe she was running for one hour, maybe she was running five-minutes. It doesn't matter. But the act of running caused the result of her face being read, which I noticed yesterday when I saw her. We'll have a look at one more example that children had been playing. And so the room was a mess. The children had to be playing. And so the room was a mess. Again, I have a past situation. The room was a mess and I think oh, why was the room a mess? Okay. Because at a time earlier than the time I noticed the room being CMS, the children had been playing. Maybe the children were playing at 12:00 PM in the afternoon and at two o'clock in the afternoon, I noticed what a mess we had in the room. The children had been playing 12 o'clock. And sir, the room was a mess at two o'clock. Again, a past action that demonstrate a particular result, not in the present but still in the past. Because by speaking totally and utterly just in the past tense, though, I heard that was a clear enough explanation for his very similar, if not exactly the same, how we are using a present perfect continuous. But instead of speaking about the present with directly speaking just in the past. So now that you've understood that, why don't you go ahead and try to use this verb tense in an example under this context. 65. Conclusion Past perfect continuous : Fantastic. So you've come to the end of having a look at our past, perfect continuous Before we move on and we begin a new section which is L, future tenses. Let's do a very quick revision based on what we learned so far about the past perfect continuous. We learned the past perfect continuous is constructed by using the auxiliary verb had plus bn plus the I-N-G form of the verb. And we have two main uses. Two uses that we actually use with the present perfect continuous. However, instead of speaking about a present point, we're directly speaking about a past point when we're looking at the past perfect continuous. Now the first way we can use the past perfect is of course, to talk about an action that began in the past and continued up until a point in the past. Highlight the length and duration of an action. For example, when he arrived in New York, he had been studying for five years. We also learned that we can use the past, perfect continuous when we want to highlight the result of a past action. And we can do this through sentences such as the floor was wet because it had been raining, the flow was wet because it had been raining. Now you also understood to watch out for the steady verbs when you are using, this tends to, You can only use the past perfect continuous with verbs that can be used in the I-N-G form with stative verbs, which are verbs that now urinary cannot be used in the I-N-G form. You need to opt, meaning you need to choose to use the past perfect tense. Fantastic, so that's down. There you go, that's your revision. You can go ahead now and complete your exercises, check your answers and cross check any mistakes by coming back and watching these videos. 66. INTRODUCTION Future Simple : Welcome to the very last verb tense you're going to be learning in this course. We're up to the feature section. And in this part, I'm going to be teaching you all about the future, simple. Now, we are going to be having a look at three areas of the future. Simple that is, using will, using shell and using the construction going to now in this section of the course, obviously, like all of the other sections, you're going to first learn how to construct the future simple, meaning what verb tense you need, what conjugation of the verb you need. Then we're gonna move on and analyze how we can use this verb tense. Deconstruct some examples, and then lastly, have a look at some exercises. Remember the main key here is your participation. So when I ask you a question or when I tell you go and do an exercise, it's really helpful if you do, go ahead and do that, cuz it's gonna help you absorb the information that much easier. 67. RULE Future Simple : How do we construct the future simple tense? Well, as I mentioned to you, we're gonna look at three different ways of constructing the future simple. Now the first way is when we are using will, and this is your most basic way of having to use the future simple. And in this case, we are simply using the auxiliary verb will, accompanied by the infinitive form of the verb. I'll give you an example. I can say tomorrow, I will help my mom. Tomorrow, I will help my mom. I have a time expression tomorrow, which is subjective. You can either put it at the beginning, you can put it at the end of the sentence. It does. It's up to you, held, followed by that we have our subject, I plus will plus the infinitive tomorrow, I will help my mom. Now, if we're looking at our negative sentences, again, we just need to add not like all of our other verb tenses. And I can say tomorrow, I won't help my mom, which is the contracted form or I can say tomorrow i will not help my mom. Moving on to questions, again, we are using inversion, so I begin with the auxiliary verb and then follow that by the subject. They will, I help my mom tomorrow? Will I help my mom tomorrow? Now this is the basic construction of the future simple when we are using goodwill in this part of the course, we're also going to learn how to use the future simple, using the construction. Going to now don't freak out and everything out. Oh, it's too many constructions that don't know the difference. In the next videos, we're going to start to understand the uses of these two a's and it'll be a little more clearer for you. So for now, let's just understand how we can construct this in a sentence. And when we're using going to, it is just followed again by the infinitive. I'm gonna take the same example I gave you before using, we'll just say you can see how it changes when we're using going to and I can say tomorrow, I'm going to help my mom. Tomorrow. I am going to help my mom. Now what you can see here is when using the construction going to, we're first using the subject I. We then need to use the verb to be and conjugate that appropriately depending on the subject. In this case, I, so I say I, M, And then we simply use going to and the infinitive verb after that, tomorrow, I'm going to help my mom. Now having a look in the negative form, like again, other negative constructions we just need to add not. And I can say tomorrow, I'm not going to help my mum. Tomorrow. I'm not going to help my mom in the question form. Again, practicing inversion, we're gonna put our auxiliary verb to be at the beginning of our sentence and say, am I going to help my mom tomorrow? Am I going to help my mom tomorrow? Now, I mentioned in the introduction video to this part that we have a third way of using the future simple, which is utilizing the word shell. However, I'm not going to go through its construction because it's just a basic verb. Am I just going to talk about it in the next video when I explain the uses of these three different structures of the future. Simple. 68. USE ONE- Will: So let's begin talking about the uses of wheel. Now, the first use of will is to make a future prediction. Now what does that mean? Well, it means to make a guess, to make a hypothesis about what you believe will happen in the future. This is commonly done when we're talking about the weather, for example. Now if you think about the concept of the weather, as much as we have a lot of information and data and evidence to tell us if it will rain tomorrow. Sometimes the weatherman gets it wrong. And that's because he needs to make a prediction. Sorry, for example, when we are speaking about the, whether I can say, I think it will rain tomorrow or will it rain tomorrow? It won't rain tomorrow. And in this case, I'm utilizing the verb will in the future simple in order to make a future prediction. Let me give you a few other examples. I can say the sun will rise at 06:00 AM, or she will arrive at ten AM. Or even I think he will win the next election. So here are just a few examples to help you understand how we can use will when we are making predictions about the future and we're guessing about a particular situation that we're not a 100% sure what the outcome will be now that I've gone over that, why don't you go ahead and try to give me an example. Tell me a sentence using a will in order to make a future prediction. Maybe you want to predict about the weather, which is a nice, easy way to predict. You'd like to predict about what's going to happen this year, or make a prediction about what somebody will do sometime in the future. So you can go ahead and do that now. 69. USE TWO- Will: Moving onto the second use of will in the future. Simple. Now here we can use will in three ways. We can use will make a request and offer or to refuse something. Request, offer or a refusal. And this generally happens everyday conversation. And normally when we want to be nice, when we want to say that we want to help somebody when we see somebody in need. Obviously, we are making offers and requests. Also, if you want to decline the offer, you want to decline that request, then you're making a refusal. And we can also utilize will. Let me go ahead and give you some examples. So an example of an offer is, I will help you with your English. Don't worry. I'll do the dishes, I will put the rubbish L. So here you can simply say that we are offering our help. We are offering an action to somebody else. That generally means that we're helping them. So we can even use this simply in the present tense. Imagine a situation where you're having dinner and you finish the dinner and you want to say, you know, this Jenna was beautiful. Thanks so much for cooking. I will do the dishes. In the present moment, you are offering up your help as a gesture to say thank you for the beautiful Dina. And you can use the future simple in this Wednesday, I will do the dishes. Now, don't get confused. We are still talking about a future time. Because you are saying in the present moment that in a very close future, maybe in five minutes time, you will do the dishes. So we're still utilizing the future simple for a future time. Now we can use the future simple well, woman making a request. Normally, a request comes in the form of a question. So I can say, will you drive me harm, will help me prepare for my exam, will come to the party tonight. So a request is when you're generally just asking information about a future time and you are requesting that information from another person. Again, we use this when we're speaking in the present moment and asking about a future time. So if we were, well, we are, but if we were having an English lesson and you want to ask me something about the next lesson. And you can say, well, Gaia, Will you teach me this verb? Next lesson? You are requesting information from me and you're requesting me to teach you this verb next lesson in say Gaia. Will you help me with my IOLs preparation? Again, you are twisting my help for your ILS preparation. So this is how we use the verb will in order to make a request. And lastly, we were looking at out refusals. We can use sentences simply like, I won't help you, I won't go. I warned helped you with your IaaS preparation. Here we normally are using the negative obviously because a refusal means to say no to something. So you can either construct your sentences and utilizing we'll not all the contracted version like I was using now and say warned, I won't help you. I won't come to the party. I won't go to work tomorrow. Now, when you're having to make a refusal, it can either be that you just simply state your refusal without being having asked a question or your refusal can be in response to a request. So if somebody says, will you drive me there tomorrow? And if you want to refuse this request, you can say I won't drive you there tomorrow. Truly important to keep in mind that when making a refusal using our verb will, it's a little bit harsh. Now, as much as English is a direct language, we also like to be extremely polite. So anytime we need to refuse something, anytime we need to say No, we like to soften that, meaning make it a little bit more gentle. Cser two, immediate Lee stay. I will not or nor can feel a little bit word. So just bear that in mind. If you are making a refusal and you're using will, it's going to be quite a strong refusal. I will not drive you. Absolutely not. So you just want to bear that in mind. 70. USE THREE- Will: Now the third way we can use the future simple and will is to talk about a decision made in the exact moment of speaking. Now this is easily understood as a spontaneous decision. A decision you make instantly without having thought about it or organized any plans. I'll give you an example to make it a little bit easier for you to understand. So if you are, for example, cooking dinner, new cooking dinner, everything is okay. And all of a suddenly Philippine code, that moment of feeling code, you may decide to do an action in order to make yourself feel a little bit warmer. So you can say it is cold. I put on a jacket. I meaning I will this is the contracted form. I'll put on a jacket. And here we are utilizing future simple with the verb will. Now why are we doing this? Well, because you didn't not organize to put on a jacket. You didn't tell yourself at eight o'clock in the morning that when Me you will be cooking dinner, you're going to feel cold and you're going to put on a jacket. It was a spontaneous decision. It was a spontaneous decision made instantly in the present moment because you suddenly felt code. I feel cold. I will put on a jacket. And this is how we use will in the future. Simple in this context, when we are just making spontaneous decisions at the time of speaking. Again, if somebody says to you, hey, what are you going to do tonight and say, I have given it much thought. I think I will watch a movie. I think I will watch a movie. A 100% sure. If you're actually going to watch a movie, you have made any official plans. You haven't bought a movie to watch. However, in the time of speaking, for those two seconds that you thought about what you are going to do, you thought, hey, I decided now in this moment may be I will watch a movie. Another simple example in order to help you really understand this, again, is if you're at hard, period, the firm remains and your husband looks at you and you say, don't worry, I will get it. Don't worry. I will get again, you didn't organize to answer the farm. We didn't know the foreign was going to be ringing. However, in the moment you heard the phone ring, you took the spontaneous decision to say, hey, I will answer. That is how we use the future simple willed when we're talking about a spontaneous decision, we take in the moment of speaking. 71. USE FOUR- Going to: Now, moving on to how we can use going to for the future you just learned about. We'll never going to learn about going to. Now the first use of going to for the future is to talk about future plans and Arrangements. Now you just learned that when you're using will for the future simple, it's for a spontaneous decision we made at the time of speaking. Well, the first use of going to is for the complete opposite. It is for a decision that has been planned and arranged, a future intention, a future arrangement that has been some what organized. Let me give you some examples. First one is the situation, for example, you're at harm and you open the fridge knees her own nor the milk is finished. I didn't know now I can't make a cake. And your husband pops in and he says, don't worry, I know I am going to buy some. I am going to buy some. Now. Why has your husband said I know I'm going to buy some well, because he had already arranged in his mind to go and get some milk. There is an intention to go and get some milk because he realized before you that there was no milk in the fridge. So he is not deciding in the present moment, o I will go and buy some. He decided sometime in the past, the very recent past. He made a mental arrangement and he has an intention to go and buy some Mill. I am going to buy some. I'll give you another example, Morrow, and going to wash the car tomorrow. I'm going to wash the car now. Again, I have organized myself to go and wash the car. I've decided to do it because while I looked at my schedule and tomorrow, I have the afternoon off, so I've made an appointment. I've organized my time in order to do this particular action. It is a pre meditated decision. Tomorrow, I'm going to wash the car. Another example is she is going to France on Monday. She is going to France on Monday. She bought the tickets for friends two weeks ago. She has the tickets in her hand. She is packing her bags. Her trip has been organized. It's been arranged. She's paid for a ticket and it's been booked. Therefore, we can say She is going to France. We wouldn't say she will go to France because, well, that's not a decision that is 100%. Remember that either is a prediction or it talks about something you spontaneously decided in the present moment without any concrete planning. So instead, we can say on Monday she is going to France. This is really easily used when we're actually talking about making an appointment second say on Monday and going to the doctors because I have an appointment at five o'clock on Monday and going to the doctor because I have an appointment at five o'clock called the doctor who made an appointment come five o'clock. He's sitting there, he's waiting for you. So it's a planned arrangement and intention. So that is how we use going to when we're talking about arranged plans and intentions. 72. USE FIVE- Going to: The second use of going to ease when we're making a prediction. However, a prediction that we have present evidence of something. So it's a little bit different to how we're using will, using well-wishes. A general prediction, regardless of the knowledge we have going to, is a prediction based on evidence. Based on evidence you can see in the present moment, this makes a little bit of a difference. Let me go ahead and give you some examples. Look, the sky is getting served cloudy and dark. I think it's going to rain. Look, the sky is getting soil cloudy and dark. I think it's going to rain. And let's deconstruct this a little bit. In my present moment, I open my windows and look up to the sky and I can see a dark, cloudy sky. That is my present evidence. Based on that evidence, I then make a prediction. Because the prediction is based on present evidence and need to use going to look, it's cloudy and dark. I think it is going to rain. Another example I could use is, Wow, look at those girls dancing. They are going to be stars one day. Wow, look at those girls dancing. They are going to be stars one day. Nor a 100%. If there's girls or going to the stars because I'm predicting. However, based on the present evidence, meaning based on what I can see, because I can see them dancing now, I'm making a prediction based on this, and I think they are going to be stars one to K. So this is the second use of going for the future, simple to make a prediction for the future based on present evidence. 73. USE SIX- Shall: So we've looked at, going to have looked at will and we're missing the way we use l features simple, which is with the verb shell. Have any of you heard this verb before? Shell? I'm not going to lie to you. It's not a 100% common to be used in English because it is a little bit formal. However, I do believe it's my duty to explain how we can use this firm because there are particular occasions that it could come up and you could hear it. And of course, I want you to be able to speak English correctly. So when we're looking at a verb shell, we only use this verb in two constructions. Either we say shall I, or we say shell. We, we cannot use shell with any other subject, or we use shall I, or we use shall. And we use this verb or may want to suggest something or offer something for the future, or give you some examples. I can say it's a little code. Shall I close to Winder? It's a little bit code, shall I closed the window? Now, in this situation, obviously, I realize it's code. I want to be very polite and I want to ask the people that are around me. If they want me to do a particular action, I'm asking for their suggestion or their advice based on something I am asking to do in the future. Shall I close the window? Now, this is a very polite and formal way to simply say, Do you want minute lawyers, the Wynder? And if you want to be a little bit more elegant and a bit more refined with your English, you can say shell, I close the window. You're offering up a suggestion to do a particular action and then asking if they think it's okay or it's not k. Another example is, shall I cooked dinner? Shall I cook dinner? Again? You're offering up a suggestion to cook dinner and asking if the people or the person in front of you agrees or disagrees with that shell, I cook dinner. Now moving on. When we're using Shall we normally we use this to offer a suggestion, again in regards to doing something or future plans. So imagine a situation where you are with a group of friends, neural sitting around trying to understand what to do. And you can say, I don't know, Shall we go to the movies? Shall we go to the movies? Again, you're offering up a suggestion of a particular activity you can do altogether. And then asking for their opinion that I think it's a good idea. Do they think it's a bad idea? Shall we go to the movies? Shall we go out for dinner? Shall we just stay at home and watch a movie? So this is how we use shell for the future, either using Shall I or shall we. And we want to make a suggestion about a future plan or action and ask for people's opinion. Toni tried to give me an example. You can try to give me two examples. One using Shall I and one using shall we. 74. CONCLUSION Future Simple: Fantastic job everyone. So here we are at the end of the future. Simple. Let's go through a bit of an overview to conclude this part of the course. That way you'll all and ready to go ahead and have a look at your exercises. So we learned all about the future simple. In this part, you learned that the future simple can be constructed using three different formulas we can use will, we can use going to, and we can use shell when we are utilizing the verb will for the future simple, we have three main uses. The first use is to make a future prediction. It will rain tomorrow, the sun will rise at seven AM. The second use is to talk about offers, refusals, and request. I'll help you with your English. I won't take you to work tomorrow. And the third way to use will for the future simple is to make a spontaneous decision in the moment about the present. Don't worry, I'll answer the foreign. I do the dishes tonight after dinner. Now moving onto going to, we have two main uses. The first one was to make a prediction of future prediction based on evidence in the present. All look at the cloud. They're so dark and gloomy. I think it's going to rain tomorrow. Or look at those girls. They are such great dancers. I think they are going to be famous in the future. And the second way we can use going to, is to talk about planned, arranged future decisions, organized plans that you have an intention about. For example, I'm going to the doctor five o'clock on Monday. I'm going to my English lesson at 12 o'clock. And the third way we're using our future simple is with Alvert shell. Now when we're using shell, we can just say shall I or shall we. These are the only two subjects that we can use and we are utilizing shall in order to make a suggestion about a future plan or a future action by asking for people's opinion whether they agree with that suggestion or they don't agree with that suggestion. To fantastic everyone, I heard this part of the feature simple with nice and clear for you. You ready to go ahead and have a look at the exercises. Make sure you complete those exercises and then cross check any mistakes by referring to the answer sheet. 75. INTRODUCTION Future Continuous : Alright, so now we're gonna move on and learn about the future continuous tense. In this part of the course, we're going to learn how to construct the future continuous, How you can accurately use it in everyday conversation through analyzing some examples and the key uses. We're also going to do a review and summarize everything you've learned. And then we're going to finish off by going through exercises and checking out answers like all other sections of this course, just remember to participate, remember to do your exercises and I hope you enjoy learning about the future continuous. 76. RULE Future Continuous : Now the construction of the future continuous is like all other continuous tenses, meaning we need to utilize our I-N-G form of the verb, as well as our auxiliary verb, The. However, because it is a future continuous tense, we need to add an ingredient that makes us understand we are speaking about the future. Therefore, we use will when we are constructing sentences using the future continuous tense, we use simply will plus the verb to be plus the I and G form. Now it's important to note that the verb to be does not need to be conjugated. It simply remained it infinitive form because it comes directly after will. And if you remember correctly, all verbs after, we'll do not need to be conjugated because will is actually a modal verb. So the construction I use is, I will be plus an ING form, or she will be, he will be plus owl in form. When we are looking at the negative sentences, again, we just need to add not I will not be she will not be plus ink. Or if you'd like to use the contracted form, they want B plus the ing form of the verb you choose to use. Heading over to questions. Again, we are using inversion. Will he be in form of the verb? Will be plus the ing form of the verb. And that is the basic construction of how you can formulate the future continuous correctly. Let's go ahead and have a look how we can actually use this verb tense now. 77. USE ONE - Two future actions: Now the first use of the Future Continuous is when we are talking about to future actions. However, one action overlaps another action. What does that mean? Well, it means generally that there is one action happening and another action interrupts that particular action. Let me give you an example. It will be the easiest way to wrap your head around it and then we'll deconstructed. I can say, for example, I will be eating dinner when you arrive. I will be eating dinner when you arrived here I have two actions. I will be eating dinner is action number one. When you arrive is action number two. Which action overlaps? Which action? Well, I will be eating dinner because we are utilizing the continuous form. It makes us understand that this is the longer action. This is the continuing action that may or may not continue after the second action takes place. My second action when you arrive is the action that overlaps. It's the action that interrupts. I will be eating dinner when you arrive. Makes me understand that in the time I will be eating dinner in the future, when you arrive, when you complete this action, I'll still be eating dinner. So you will arrive at the moment that I will be eating dinner. Meaning that when you come to my house, you will see me at the dinner table eating dinner. To put it in simple terms, let's have a look at another example. They will be eating at nine o'clock. There will be eating at nine o'clock. Now here you're probably thinking Gaia, other two actions, or are they one action? They will be eating at nine o'clock? Well, while you're right to be asking questions in this example, we just have one action. They will be eating dinner. However, we have a time at nine o'clock. And when we're looking at the future continuous, We're talking about actions that are happening and are overlapped or interrupted by another action or another time. So deconstructing this action, it means that before nine o'clock, I was probably watching TV. At nine o'clock. I will definitely be watching TV. And after nine o'clock, I may or may not be still watching TV. But the important information I want to give to you is that at nine o'clock, I will be doing this exact action. Nine o'clock, I will be watching TV. So now understood, you know this Use and I've given you some examples hacking you actually use this in your spoken English. Well, if you're talking to, for example, your colleague and you are trying to make plans about the future. And he says, Okay, I guess we can have a business call tomorrow. Is that okay for you? And you can say nor Tamar doesn't work because tomorrow I will be working at another office. Tomorrow I will be working at another Office, meaning, hey, tomorrow is not ok for me for a business call because tomorrow, which is my point in time, I will be working in another office. I'm not available. So here you can see we've utilized our future continuous in our conversation in order to tell a person what we are doing at a particular time in the future so that we can refuse a particular request. Another way that you can practically use this in conversation is if you're on the thorn to your mom and she says, hi darling, I'm going to pop by after work and bring you a casserole. And you can say, okay, well, I will be studying for my exam, but I guess if you really want to come over, you can. I will be studying for my exam. But I guess if you really want to come over, you can hear we are utilizing the future continuous in order to tell your mother exactly what you will be doing at the time of her arrival in the future. And you've done this in a very diplomatic way in order to tell her, hey, it's probably not the best time because I will be studying when you arrive. So what you can see is here we're practically using our feature continuous to tell people exactly what we will be doing at a particular time in the future when they are deciding to do a future action because their future action is connected with L future plans, which is where you can see how we are in reality talking about one action, which is our continuous action being interrupted or overlapped by an external future action and external action of your mom coming over to bring you a casserole and external action of your colleague asking to have a business meeting. Hurt that clear enough for you to understand, why don't we do a little bit of practice now? Or you give me a sentence trying to use the future continuous. 78. USE TWO - Prediction based on expectation: The second way we even use the future continuous is to talk about something that will happen in the future if every thing has happened as expected, meaning if all plans and Arrangements go as they need to go. Now, in this case, it is a kind of prediction, which means in theory you are able to use the future simple here, however, we prefer to use the future continuous that way, what we are saying is not mistaken for a request for a promise or foreign offer, so that we are 100% predicting about the future. Let me give you a little bit of an example to make it a little bit clearer for you before you go ahead and get confused. So I want you to think of this situation. You work in an office and your team is just about to launch a new product. The product should be launched at five o'clock, and that entailed a meeting to the public. So it is the early afternoon and you are with your team and you're organizing the notes for the meeting and organized everything. And everything seems to be going smoothly and as planned and your own schedule. So you can say, hey, we'll be launching the project at five o'clock today. He will be launching the project at five o'clock today. Now, you can see that I've decided to use the future continuous in talking about a future plan. Because based on what's happening in my present moment, everything seems to be going as needed. Now, why didn't I use the future simple? Why didn't I say, Okay, great, he will launch the project of five o'clock. Well, because if I say He will launch the project of five o'clock, it could be mistaken by an offer, a promise, a request, and it doesn't give me the feeling that it is a concrete prediction. Because if I say He will launch the project a five o'clock, this could be interpreted as a general prediction, meaning I just thought of this but I'm not a 100% sure. Instead, when we are trying to organize something, we say, okay, well, we finished the meeting early. We have the notes written down. We have the okay to release this particular project. Everything is going as planned. So if everything continues going as planned, we will be launching the project this evening. Meaning we will be able to do this. I can make this prediction about the future if all of this in the present is going to continue running smoothly, if all of a sudden, our investors say no, we're no longer investing in this new project. We will not be launching the project. The launch of the project is in the hands of everything that's happening in the present moment. That is why in this case, we can use our future continuous to talk about something that will happen in the future based on what is going on in the present, based on our overall expectation, if everything goes as expected, that future action will happen. Another example, I can say is, if you think of the situation of politics when there are elections taking place, and we can say the government will be making their announcement this afternoon. The government will be making their announcement this afternoon. While their announcement being made depends on the expected outcome of our present, what's going on. This announcement will only be made if they're able to tally up the numbers. If all of the voting goes as planned. If they are able to make a decision, well, then they will be making their announcement this afternoon. If not, they weren't be able to make their announcement. Again, we have a future action that will happen or won't happen based on an expected outcome, a hope that was clear enough for you to understand. Why don't you go ahead and give me some examples and try to practice using the future continuous tense in this way. 79. CONCLUSION Future Continuous : Fantastic. So here we have learned how to construct the future continuous tense, as well as its two main uses. It's go ahead and do a little bit of a recap just to refresh your memory. So remembering the future continuous tense takes al ING form, including the verb 2B, which does not need to be conjugated subject plus a plus B plus L ing form. I will be leading the meeting tomorrow. I won't be leading the meeting tomorrow. Will I be leading the meeting tomorrow? And when we are looking at the uses of the first use of our future continuous is to talk about a future action that will be overlapped or interrupted by a second action. Whether this future action continues after the second action, it's not learn. Could, it might not eat, isn't the relevant information. So it's not really important. I can say, for example, I will be eating dinner when you arrive. I will be studying for my exam when you come over tomorrow. The second way we can use the future continuous is when we are talking about a particular future event, situation or action that will happen only if our present circumstances go accordingly, go as planned and as expected, she will be launching the project tomorrow at five o'clock. If everything goes as planned, government will be giving a meeting to the public if they are able to come to a conclusion. This is how we use our future continuous correctly in English conversation. Why don't you go ahead now and practice using this construction by completing the exercises. Go ahead, do those exercises. Crosscheck any mistakes by referring to the answer sheet. And if you're lost on anything, if you need to revise anything, simply come back to these videos or go ahead and read the lesson darts. 80. INTRODUCTION Future Perfect : Moving on to the future, perfect, you've almost finished the course. Now, here we are going to be learning how to construct the future perfect, correctly meaning the formula and the rule you need to use to make up your sentences. And then we're going to go through the main uses. We're going to understand those uses, deconstruct some examples so that the very relatable to you and you're going to understand how to use this in your everyday English through conversation and through socializing. Once you've gone ahead and done that, you can go over and practice doing the exercises, complete the exercises, crosscheck any mistakes by referring to the answer sheet, and of course don't forget to read the PDF notes. It's a great way in order to assimilate this information even better while watching these videos, you can read the lesson nerds. After watching these videos, you can read the lesson notes just to make sure that you've understood everything. 81. RULE Future Perfect : So how can we construct the future perfect? Well, we construct the future perfect by using quill plus have plus the past participle of the verb, and know that we're using the past participle of the verb. However, we're talking about the future and it doesn't mean we're not talking about the future, so it is correct. We need to use the past participle of the verb because we are utilizing our perfect tenses, the perfect tenses always take the past participle regardless whether we're talking about future, past, or present. So in affirmative sentences, I begin with my subject. For example, I plus will, plus have, plus the past participle. I will have studied English for two years. She will have studied English for two years or they will have studied English for two years. Important to note that in our third person singular, he, she, or it, we don't need to change. Have we do not need to use has we use have for all of the people? She will have. It will have, he will have or I will have. Now, when we are looking at a negative sentences, again, simply add not, i want have been plus the past participle. She won't have been plus the past participle, or even we won't have been plus the past participle. Moving onto questions, again, practicing inversion. We will have plus past participle or will we have plus past participle? So let's move on and understand how to use this verb tense. 82. USE ONE- Length of Action: The first way we can use the future perfect is to talk about the length of a particular action in the future up until a particular future time. Normally we are utilizing this width preposition for because we are talking about for ten years, for five hours, we're talking about a length of a particular action at a particular point in the future and at this particular point in the future can either be a second action or it can be a time expression. Let's have a look at some examples. For example, when we get married, I will have known Robert for four years. When we get married, have known Robert for four years. Let's deconstruct this. We've got to future actions. When I get married is my first action. I will have learned Robert for four years is my second action. I have my time expression for years talking about the length of the action. I have my preposition for expressing the length of these actions. And what can I understand from this sentence? I can understand that at the moment I get married, the action of knowing Robert will have lasted four years. So I knew Robert before we got married. And when we get married, I am going to know him for four years. So here I am talking about the length of a particular action in a future point in the future. When I get married, I will have known Robert for four years today. I'm not married yet, so I don't know Robert for four years. Maybe I've learned him for three years, but when I get married in the future, I will have known him for four years. Let's have a look at another example. At four o'clock. I will have been in this office for 24 hours. At four o'clock. I will have been in this office for 24 hours. What does this mean? Well, now, in the present moment, I haven't been in this office for 24 hours. However, come for clock. It will have been 24 hours in this office. I'm telling you the length of an action the action of being in this office. And I'm telling you the length of this action at a future point in the future. I'm telling you how long the action of being in this office is going to last for at a point in the future. It almost like a prediction, but I'm not predicting because I know that if I continue to stay in the office, naturally, the our add up one hour, two hour, three hour, all the way to arrive at 24 hours. So how can you actually use this in your English conversation? Well, we can use a few different ways sometimes when we want to exaggerate a particular action. When you want to talk about how long you've been doing something for and how long it's predicted that you're going to be doing it. If you're talking about simply your IOLs exam and you can say, all my god, by next year, I will have been studying for my IL-6 them for four years. And you want to just exaggerate how long this particular action has been continuing and will be continuing for just to express a little bit more emphasis to what you're saying. By next year, I will have been studying for IOLs for four years. It's a really long time. And another way that we can use is just simply to change up the construction instead of saying, you know, yeah, you know, I've been studying for IOLs for three years. If I still have an intention to study for iOS for the next two years, I can then take my point in time from the, from the future instead of from the present and say I will have been studying for four years, come this next year. I'll give you another example. I'm often people ask me how long I've been teaching English for and I actually started teaching English in the month of September, if I remember correctly, when I arrived here in Italy. So every September marks my anniversary. So when it is close to September, I would say, well, in September, I will have been teaching English for eight years or by September I will have been teaching English for eight years. And I use September as my point of referral because it is almost September and every September I clock over another year that I've been teaching English. So I prefer to use the future perfect to express this, to make them understand that come every September I add another year of teaching experience. So these are the most common ways that you can actually utilize this verb tense in your everyday conversation. But as you go ahead now and give me an example, try to use the future perfect in a sentence. 83. USE TWO- Finished future action: The second way we can use the future perfect is to talk about a particular action that will be finished at a particular point in the future. Very similar to our first use, hover and our first use, we were talking about the length of an action at a particular point in the future. And now we are talking about the completion of an action at a particular point in the future. And we're using this verb tense when we want to simply express certain things that we'll be finished by a particular point in time. And obviously like you can just here in my sentence, we are utilizing risk commonly the preposition by when we are using this construction. Or give you some examples. I can say by nine o'clock this morning, I will have finished filming the future section of this course. By nine o'clock this morning, I will have finished filming the future section of this course. What does this tell you? Well, it tells you right now, as you can see, I'm filming this course, however, by nine o'clock. So when the time nine o'clock arrives, I will have finished filming. I will not need to film this section of the course anymore. Now, it could mean that I may finish filming before nine o'clock. I could finish filming at eight o'clock at 830. But what is certain is that by nine o'clock, I will be 100% finished, okay, the action will not continue past nine o'clock. Let me give you another example. Can say by the time I'm 65, I will have retired. By the time I'm 65, I will have retired. Again. This doesn't mean that I'm necessarily going to retire at the age of 65. It definitely doesn't mean that I will retire off to 65, but it means that I will retire somewhere near the age of 65, be it 59 or 62. It's a rough estimation. However, it's a 100% that by the time I'm 65, I will have been retired. One more example you can say is by ten o'clock, I will have finished my work. Ten o'clock, I will have finished my work. Now in all of my examples, I've used my time expression by ten o'clock, by a particular time at the beginning of the sentence can also use it at the end of the sentence. I can say, I will have finished my work by ten o'clock. When you have finished your work by ten o'clock, using the same construction of affirmative, negative and questions as I mentioned to you in the first video of this section. And we can alternate where we go into book by and our time expression. Why don't you go ahead and give me a example. Tell me a sentence using the future perfect. 84. CONCLUSION Future Perfect : Fantastic, so you've just learned all about the future perfect. Let's do a very quick recap. So our future perfect we are constructing with will, plus have, plus the past participle of our verb, regardless of the fact that we are speaking about the future, it is important to remember that we do not need to conjugate the verb. Have a remains the same for all people. Will she have? She will have, it will have, or he will have all plus L past participle. Now when talking about how we can use this verb tense, we have two main uses. The first use is to talk about the length of a particular action at a certain point in the future to talk about how long a particular action will have been in progress at a particular point in the future. When I get married, I will have known Robert for four years. A second use of the future perfect is when we are talking about the completion of particular actions at a particular point in the future. Remembering that we utilize the preposition by with our time expression either at the beginning of this or at the end of the sentence. And I can say by ten o'clock, I will have finished my homework, or I will have finished my homework by ten o'clock. Fantastic. Now that we've gone through that, you're ready to go ahead and have a look at your exercises. Go ahead and do those exercises. Crosscheck any mistakes by looking at the answer sheet and you can revise the content by rewatching this video or having a look at the PDF exercises. 85. INTRODUCTION Future Perfect continuous : In this section we're going to be talking about the future perfect continuous. You're going to learn how to construct the future perfect continuous correctly in sentences. We're going to learn the main uses. Breakdown some practical example so you can understand how to actually use this verb tense. And then you are going to practice by doing some exercises and double-checking your answers. Like all other parts of this course, I'm going to be asking for your participation, asking you questions and trying to get you to actually speak English. So make sure you do go ahead and participate. And again, like all other parts of this course accompanying these videos, you have the lesson notes I do recommend you to. Once finished watching these videos, go ahead, have a look at those lesson notes. They've got everything that I've said, but written down with all of the examples, just to help you really understand all of the information that much better. 86. RULE Future Perfect continuous : How can we construct the future perfect continuous? Very similar to all other perfect continuous tenses, we start off with a subject. For example, I, accompanied with our auxiliary verb will cause we are speaking about the future. I will have, I will have. And the verbs be in, I will have been. And then in four, it is a very long construction. I will have been studying for ten years. She will have been studying for eight years. As you can see from my examples that whether we are speaking in the first person or the third person singular, none of our verbs need to be conjugated. We simply always use have and we always use bean. We do need to remember, however, to use the I-N-G form of the accompanying verb, because we are also utilizing a continuous tense, the future perfect continuous in the negative sentences simply add not. I want have been studying English for ten years. She won't have been studying English for five years. And in our questions, again, practicing inversion. And we have been studying English for so-and-so years. Will they have been doing a particular action for so-and-so years? So that is the basic structure of how to formulate the future perfect continuous correctly. Now, let's move on and have a look at how we can actually use this verb tense. 87. USE ONE Length of action: Now the first use of the future perfect continuous is actually how we can use the future perfect. Remember when we were talking about our past tenses and our present tenses. And there was always a bit of similarity between perfect and perfect continuous. And the only difference really is based on the type of verb you are using, whether that be a stative verb or not a stative verb. While the exact same rule applies when we're looking at our future perfect or our future perfect continuous. So here in our first use, we can use the future perfect continuous when we want to talk about the length of a particular action at a point or time in the future. However, we utilize authored the future perfect in this tense, so we can use the future perfect continuous. When we are using our non-static verbs. Meaning are verbs that we can actually use in the I-N-G form. Let me give you some examples. I can say in June she will have been teaching for seven years. In June, she will have been teaching for seven years. Teaching is a verb that we can use the I-N-G form, so we can simply use l continuous tense. She will have been teaching for seven years, or I can even say in June or she warned, have been teaching for seven years just to practice using our negative form. Another example, I can say is by this time next year they will have been living in Italy for ten years. By this time, next year they will have been living in Italy for ten years. Again, the verb live is a common verb that we use in the I-N-G form. Therefore, I can use the future perfect continuous. Why don't you go ahead and try to give me a sentence and practice using the future perfect continuous. And remember to pay attention to this stative verbs. 88. USE TWO - Finished future action: The second use of our future perfect continuous, again, very similar to our future perfect, is to talk about the completion of a particular action at a point in the future. However, we are also adding that due to this, there will also be a particular result in the future, which is something that we don't have when looking at our future. Perfect. So we want to talk about an action that will have been completed by a particular point in the future. And because of its completion, something else is going to happen. There will be a another action, a particular result caused by that completion. Let me give you some examples. When I see you, I will have been studying so hard, sir. I'll be a little tired when I see you. I will have been studying so hard, so I'll be a little tired. Let's deconstruct this a very long sentence. It has three parts. The first action we have is, when I see you action number one, then we have our second part. I will have been studying really hard. This is an action number two. Then we have our result. So I'll be tired. I am using. So in order to express that this will be the result of the action of studying sir, I will be tired and I am simply using my future simple. I will be tired. When I see you. I will have been studying so hard, so I'll be tired. I am talking to you about the completion of a particular action at a point in the future. And I'm talking to you about the result that action causes. In this case, I will be tired. Another example we can look at is when he comes or Yvonne, I love been cooking all day, so the house will be a mess. When he comes over. I will have been cooking all day, so the house will be a mess. Three parts, again to the sentence, two actions when he comes over. Second action, I will have been cooking all day. The result of me cooking all day, sorry, the house will be a mess. Now, what is the intention of a sentence like this? The intention is to express a particular result that will happen in the future due to a series of events. Sir, if we take my second example, when he comes over, I will have been cooking all day, so the house is going to be a mess. A main information that I really want to tell you is the house is going to be a mess. And I am almost justifying myself and giving reason to why the house is a mess because I don't want you to think that I'm a messy person. I'm a little bit embarrassed by the mess. So I want to make sure that you really understand why my house looks like a mess. Well, because I will have been cooking all day when he comes over. So by house will be a mess. This is the most common way we are using our future, perfect, continuous when we really want to give reason for a particular action that is happening in the future. Maybe in order to justify ourselves, in order to make a situation a little bit more comfortable and not feel embarrassed or not feel like, hey, we've done something wrong. Sorry, that is how we are using our future. Perfect continuous. Why don't you go ahead and give me an example. 89. CONCLUSION Future Perfeect: Fantastic. So you've come to the end of the future, perfect continuous, and let's do a very quick revision. So in this section of the course, you learned how to construct the future perfect continuous. You learned that we use will, have plus and bean, and neither of these verbs are conjugated plus the I-N-G form of the verb. You were reminded that when needing to use any of the continuous tenses, we do need to pay attention to he verbs because stative verbs can not be used in the continuous tense. I mentioned to you earlier on in the course that accompanying the lesson, there is also a PDF with all of the main stat he verbs. I will remind you now that if you're feeling a little bit lost and you can't remember all of those stative verbs. You can go ahead and access those in the lesson notes. Now, the two main uses of our future perfect continuous tense is firstly, to talk about the length of a particular action at a particular point in the future. Again, the exact same way we are using our future perfect tense. However, again, when we're not having stative verbs and we can opt for and use ELF future perfect continuous. The second way we are using this tense is when we want to talk about the completion of a particular action at a point in the future or at a particular action in the future, and then give reason for a particular result caused by that action. Fantastic. So your did a great job in this part of the course. Now that we have a revised the uses and the construction, you can go ahead and complete thirds exercises right up your answers, crosscheck any mistakes with the answer sheet. And also remember you've got your lesson notes that you can revise and read over any extra information as needed. 90. COURSE CONCLUSION : Congratulations everyone, you did a fantastic job making your way through this course and you've successfully come to the end of it. I really hope that you enjoyed the content and you were able to understand how to use the verb tenses in English. But more importantly, how to relate the verb tenses to practical experiences in your life so you can actually stop speaking in English. Now before I leave you, I just wanted to let you know that if there are any women here participating in this course, welcome. And for those of you who don't know, I have a online women's community to help women connect with each other, improved confidence, conversation, and just build some really great connections in order to practice speaking English. I'm gonna leave you some links that you can access over in the lesson notes. However, you are welcome to join the English for women community Facebook group, Instagram page, as well as YouTube channel. Now for those of you who are new to my courses, this isn't the only course that I have. You're also welcome to have a look at my other English courses regarding IOLs preparations, vocabulary, and some fantastic courses in regards to mindset, in regards to English productivity and in regards to planning an English routine, establishing your goals, and creating an English study plan. Thank you so much everybody for participating in this course and I will see you in the next course. Take care, bye bye.