EE1C01 - Electronics Engineering Bootcamp | Moe Salih | Skillshare

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EE1C01 - Electronics Engineering Bootcamp

teacher avatar Moe Salih, Electronics Engineer, Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 13m)
    • 1. Electronics Engineering Bootcamp Promotional Video

    • 2. EE1C01L00 - Introduction

    • 3. EE1C01L01 - The atom

    • 4. EE1C01L02 - Electric Current

    • 5. EE1C01L03 - Voltage

    • 6. EE1C01L04 - Resistance

    • 7. EE1C01L05 - Basic Circuit Principles

    • 8. EE1C01L06 - Power and Energy

    • 9. EE1C01L07 - Basic Circuit Control

    • 10. EE1C01L08 - Cells, Batteries and Power supplies

    • 11. EE1C01L09 - Basic Lab Tools

    • 12. EE1C01L10 - Practical Circuit Examples

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About This Class

Electronics engineering is a discipline of Electrical engineering which focuses on the design and construction of circuits that process information and control of electric power.  Unlike most electronics engineering courses offered online or in universities, which are highly academic, this course uses a hands-on approach to learning, and focuses heavily on practical applications.

The purpose of this bootcamp is to teach the bare minimum in math and theory to provide a solid foundation, while focus heavily on practical design methodology, applications, and electronics know-how that is typically only learned with years of industry experience. By the end of the bootcamp, all students shall be able to design professional, industrial-grade embedded systems and electronic circuits that can process and transmit high speed signals, and control of high power circuits.

This is the first course in a multi-course bootcamp, that requires no previous knowledge besides high school math, chemistry and physics. It will build an intuitive understanding of electronic theory and provide the bare minimum knowledge to get started building very simple circuits, such as controlling LEDs, adjusting brightness of LEDs, operating relays, mixing colors, and a few others.

Meet Your Teacher

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Moe Salih

Electronics Engineer, Educator


Electronics Engineer with many years of experience in embedded systems development. An avid learner and a motivated teacher. I have run many courses on electronics design and embedded programming over the past 5 years and have taught roughly 500 undergraduate and graduate students in Canada. Teaching online is my next step to reach a far greater audience.

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1. Electronics Engineering Bootcamp Promotional Video: Elektronik circuits are everywhere from the computer you are using to wash this video. Smartphones that lady communicate across the globe, medical equipment that monitors air health, robotic arms that automate the manufacturing process. Avionics that power's fear and control every feature of airplane to the autonomous rovers explore other worlds beyond our reach. Electron ICS has had a significant impact as the cost of components continue to get cheaper available. A table increase caused tronics trip is to become more common and in places you wouldn't expect. This'll will result in an increasing demand for skilled electronic engineers who can disaster Matics lay out their printed circuit board android embedded code for integrated processors. Unlike most of the material currently available online, which is highly academic, this course utilizes a practical approach to electronic engineering. In this force, we will start with the most basic circuit power and led and progressively build more complex circus throughout the course, Way will explore using very switches to power led ease control. The brightness makes red, green and blue eyes to great any color in the visible spectrum, our buzzers control relays and a couple of other surgeons before diving deserted building way will start with basic information regarding currents, voltage resistance, power circuit principles and a few other topics. Most of the material is animated presented in a way that is, you need to understand. By the end of the course, you will be able to read and draw electronic schematics, build very circuits based on provided cinematics, have an intuitive understanding of electronic theory and know many terminologies that only learned industry. This course has no questions asked 30 day money back guarantee. If you're interested in electronic engineering or have product ideas started business, this course is for you. 2. EE1C01L00 - Introduction: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners, Basic Electricity. This is the first course in a multicourse boot camp that will teach you everything you need to know about reading, understanding, analyzing, designing and building electronic circuits. Each course covers three primary cornerstones that must be grass to become proficient in the electronic engineering discipline. They are knowledge theory and know how. Upon completion of this course, you will develop a solid foundation of basic Elektronik theory name and understand the core components used in circuits. Read and understand simple electronic schematics. Use basic tools to build and troubleshoot circuits, including switches to control and led control of buzzer. Use a potentially OMETER to control the brightness of an led control. A relay state makes red, green and blue lights to create any color in the visible spectrum and a couple of other circuits. This course is composed of 10 lectures, starting with the Adam current Voltage Resistance circuit principles, power and energy circuit control cells and batteries, lap tools and finishes off with practical circuit examples. A short mobile choice test follows each lectures to ensure the core points are understood. The total course duration is 70 minutes in lecture time, excluding circuit building time. This course is designed for anyone without any other tronics experience, but who has knowledge in high school level physics, chemistry and mathematics. This course is also recommended for hobbyists or undergraduate students who are currently studying electrical computer mechatronics or embedded systems engineering to make full use of the learning material. It is recommended that the student attains the electronic components using this course. After all, the best way to learn how to build circuits is to actually build circuits. Ah, full list of the required material is provided This concludes the introductory lecture. 3. EE1C01L01 - The atom: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp, Beginners, Basic Electricity. This video will explain the basics of the atom and answer some questions such as. What are the parts of an atom? How do they combine to create materials? How do Adams become ions? What is an electric charge in housing measured and why do conductors conduct electricity All matter whether gas, liquid or solid is made up of tiny building blocks called Adams Adams Air, made up of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and surrounded by electrons. Protons have a positive electrical charge, Electrons have a negative electrical charge, and neutrons have no electoral charge. Particles with similar charges repel each other, and opposite charged particles attract combinations of atoms air called molecules. For example, a water molecule contains 200 atoms and one oxygen atom. A method molecule contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. The structure of how atoms combine is called lattice, and this is a bit more clear when comparing graphite and diamond. They're both made out of carbon atoms, but the latter structures differ. Graphite contains carbon atoms arranging a simple hexagonal structure, while diamond contains carbon atoms arranging a face center diamond Cubic structure. Having different ladder structures gives rise to varying properties. Specifically appearance, electrical and thermal conductivity an element like gold or in or silicon has a unique chemical and physical identity, primarily determined by the number of protons it contains. Gold contains 79 protons and 79 electrons, while Iran continues 26 protons and 26 electrons, and silicon contains 14 protons and fortune electrons. The number of protons is given by the atomic number and can be found in the periodic table of elements. All atoms are electrically neutral because they have the same number of electrons as protons. This is unless they have been modified by chemical, mechanical or electrical processes. Adams that gain electrons and end up with more electrons than protons have a net negative charge. Adams that lose electrons and end up with more protons and electrons have a net positive charge. Adams of the net positive or negative charge are called ions, and we'll have a force acting between them. This force is called the Electrostatic Force and is proportional to the charge of the first and second particle denoted by Q on and key to the distance between them denoted by our and some constant value. K. The force increases if the distance is reduced or if the charge increases electric charges measured using the S I unit called cool ums. One Coolum is denoted by the letter C and is equivalent to 6.24 quintillion electrons or protons. For example, consider to metal balls containing the exact same amount of protons. If the one on the left has 6.24 quintillion, more electrons than protons, it has a charge of major one. See if the one on the right has 6.24 quintillion, less electrons than protons. It has a charge of positive onesie. Since medal is conductive, bringing the balls until they touch will cause the imbalance of electric charge to re distribute itself evenly. In this case, both objects will now have a charge of zero C. A molecule is a group of Adams held together by chemical bonds. Adams combined to quit molecules for the purpose of gaining stability. Stability can be attained by maintaining a neutral charge and or by filling up the electron orbital's. Their first orbit or shell needs to electrons to fill up the second requires eight, and the third requires 18. There are three ways in which Adams Bond, Ionic bonding, Covalin bonding and metallic bonding an ionic bonding. One or more electrons from one Adam are removed and attached to another Adam in a sodium chloride reaction and electron leaves sodium to fill chlorine out of orbit. In Covalin bonding, Adams combined to fill their orbital's. For example, a carbon atom needs an additional for electrons to fill it out orbit it bonds with 400 atoms to do so and forms a methane molecule. A copper Adam has a single outermost or valence electron in metallic bonding. Copper atoms combined to share this electron to fill the orbit. This electron is weakly bound to the Adam and can easily move around and between multiple copper atoms. This creates a sea of moving electrons through a network of copper atoms. In the next video lecture, we will use this characteristic to describe electric currents. This concludes the lecture on the Adam 4. EE1C01L02 - Electric Current: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp Beginners Basic Electricity. This video lecture will explain the basics of electric current and cover how current is measured, the difference between electronic and conventional current and introduced the concept of electromagnetism and coils. Electric current is a total amount of charge that passes through some cross sectional area per second. This cross sectional area is typically that of a copper wire. One Coolum of charge passing through the area A in one second is one ampere or am too cool Arms of charge. Passing through area A in one second is Tuapse. We use the unit and peer as a way to define how much charges moving per second. This could be better visualized using the flow of water Here is a water current of one milliliters per second time of leaders per second, 100 milliliters per second and so on in a copper wire. The nucleus of the atom remains in his position, preserving the structure of the wire while electrons move around freely through a lattice of copper ions. The net movement of electrons is roughly a couple millimeters per second, and they push each other in a chain like manner. As shown here, however, they propagate energy at the speed of light. This can be better visualized using Newton's cradle. The velocity of each ball is small. However, energy propagates from the first the last ball at the speed of sound in metal roughly 5500 meters per second. A simple circuit shown here contains a battery and a light bulb. A continuous loop is needed to keep electrons flowing from the negative terminal towards the positive terminal. If any point in the circuit is cut or disconnected, all electrons will instantly stop. The direction of electron flow is called Elektronik current, and they flows from the negative terminal towards the positive terminal. However, conventional current is defined as a flow of positive charge. That is, the current flows from the positive terminal towards the negative terminal and is denoted by the letter I. This is the definition that is widely used in all electronic engineering formulas, literature and in the industry. This may seem confusing because there are no positive charge particles that flow through a conductor. We can simplify this by imagining that conventional current is a flow of holes. That is when electrons move to the left holes or empty space is moving to the right. We use this model because back in the 18 hundreds, Benjamin Franklin had a 50% chance to guest the direction of current, and he got it wrong. All the circuit models and equations developed during that time used his definition and got carried through history until today, because the math still works. From this point on any subsequent courses, we will only use conventional occurrence. A current carrying wire generates a magnetic field that wraps around the wire as shown the direction of the field lines can be determined. Using the right has drool. If you place your right hand on the wire with a thumb pointing in the direction of currents , the remaining fingers show the rotation of the magnetic fields. This can be seen by placing a wire on top of a compass. Applying current in one direction alters the compass is heading. Flipping the direction of current will flip the rotation of magnetic fields and cause the compass needle to point in the opposite direction. Wrapping the wire a second time around the compass and keeping the current constant doubles . The strength of the fields by creating a coil with multiple loops. We strengthen the electromagnetic fields enough to magnetize and pick up small metal objects. And here is the chart of the different orders of magnitude of current we experience in our daily lives. A more detailed list is available at the Wikipedia link. This concludes the lecture on electric currents. 5. EE1C01L03 - Voltage: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners, Basic Electricity. This video lecture will explain the basics of voltage and discuss what voltage is, how it causes current to flow, what reference or common points are, and the concept of voltage drop to get electric current to flow from point A to point B. A voltage difference has to exist between these two points. This difference can be between one and zero volts one and zero point and falls 10 and 9.2 volts or any numbers you can think of as long as there is a difference. Current will flow from the higher potential towards lower potential. When a 1.5 volt battery is connected to a label, the negative terminal is usually called reference comment, or ground, and zero volts is assigned to it. The positive terminal is 1.5 holds higher than the ground or common point. Since there is only one load connected, we say that there is a 1.5 old drop across label. If we had two exactly identical light bulbs, there would be a 20.75 foot drop across each one, some of which, as to 1.5. If we had three exactly identical lightbulbs, there would be a 30.5 foot drop across each one, some of which still asked to 1.5 holds. So how does voltage cost trends Free Electrons near the negative terminal are repelled by one another and push each other away towards the positive terminal. This process continues until the charge difference between the two terminals becomes so small that the current stops we can visualize Vault is using the following analogy to balloons connected to a pipe with different pressures. Pressures P one and P two. The voltage equivalents, in this case is the difference in air pressure. Let's call that Delta P once I allow air to flow air molecules from the balloon with higher air pressure moved towards the balloon with lower pressure until both pressure is balanced out in an electric circuit. Once the circuit is connected, current flows from the point with higher voltage potential towards the point with lower voltage potential until they equal out once they are equal. The battery is considered that the S I unit for voltage is the vault and is denoted by the letter V. Some common voltage sources are batteries. Was generator voltage difference from an electrochemical reaction. Power supplies, which takes in a certain voltage and outputs a different voltage level. And solar cells, which generates of altars, difference from a photovoltaic reaction. And here is a chart of the different orders of magnitude of voltage we experience in our daily lives. A more detailed This is available at the Wikipedia link. This concludes the lecture on Voltage. 6. EE1C01L04 - Resistance: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp, Beginners, Basic Electricity. This video lecture will explain the basics of resistance and answer some questions regarding what is a resistor. How does it resistor work? How do series and parallel combinations of resistors, effect resistance? And what are some common applications? Resistance is the measure of how well a material resists the flow of electric currents. It has an aside unit of own and denoted by the Greek letter omega. This diagram is an excellent representation off how voltage current and resistance work together in a stricken voltage pushes electrons to great currents while the resistance limits its movements. This is the U. S. And European schematic symbol for a resistor in a typical circuit drawing, all resisters will have in a company name and value. Resistors come in many shapes and sizes. The size of the resistor typically determines the wattage, or how much heat anticipate without burning from right to left. A 1/8 watt quarter what one watt, five watt, 10 watt, 20 watt and so on. The value of the resistor is typically either color coded or written directly on its surface through a whole resistors contained four or five bands of varying colors that describe the amount of resistance and tolerance for each resistor from the table to the right. The first and second bands represent the first and second significant digits. The third band represents the base 10 multiplier, and the final band represents the typical tolerance value for the four band resistor above the charted. The first band is green, giving us a value five. The second is blue, giving us a value of six. The multiplier is yellow, with a value of 10 kilo and the tolerances gold with a value of 5%. Putting all the numbers together, it gives us a resistor value of 560 killer homes, with the tolerance of plus minus 5%. Resistance depends on three properties. The diameter of the conductor, the length of the conductor and the material of the conductor. The diameter of the conductor limits the amount of electrons that can pass through. The conducting material also affects its resistive ity. Different conducting materials will have different densities, lattice structures, electron affinities and other factors that come into play for simplicity. Density is used to show how different materials can have more or less electron collisions as they pass. The third method is by controlling the length of the material. An electron traveling through a longer conductor of the same material will interact with more Adams losing more energy in the process. Using these three methods, manufacturers manipulate the material diameter and length of the conductor used in resisters to achieve a precise resistance value. The total resistance of resistors connected in series is the sum of their individual resistance, while the total resistance of resistors connected in parallel is the reciprocal off the some off the reciprocal of the resisters, for example, putting ah 100 home and five killer own resistor in series. The total resistance, as measured across the terminals A and B, is 5.1 killer homes connecting a 100 ohm and the five killer ohm resistor. In parallel, the total resistance becomes the inverse of the some of in vs and results in 98 OEMs. A good way to remember parallel resistance is is that the total resistance is always smaller than the smallest resistor in the parallel chain. Resistors are commonly used to adjust signal levels, limit currents, divide voltages, generate heat vice active elements and terminate transmission lines. We will only cover the 1st 4 applications in this course, while the remaining obligations to be discussed in future courses. The most common use of resistors is delimit currents. For example, connecting and led to a novel battery will draw the maximum current. The battery can supply and damage the device by putting a to 20 ohm resistor in series. The current is limited to a level that is tolerable by the led. Another common application is faulted and current division, and this is accomplished with series and parallel resistors. Two similar valued resistors in series connected to a D. C. Voltage source. Well, output half the sources voltage in the middle. Generally, the voltage outputs of a divider is equal to the value of the bottom resistor divided by the sum of all the resistors in series and multiplied by the total voltage across the entire divider. If we increase the resistance at the bottom relative to the top resistor, the voltage output will increase if we decrease the resistance at the bottom relative to the toppers is their the voltage output will decrease. Voltage dividers are useful for providing a constant voltage signal that is a fraction of the input voltage potentially ometer czar. Variable vaulters to butters. The voltage division ratio can be justice by turning in up. It has this schematic symbol containing three pins representing the top and bottom contact of the resistor divider, and the centre outputs between the resisters called the wiper. If you apply a voltage across the first and third pins, turning the knob will vary the voltage on the center pin. Potentially ometer achieves this using a resistive track and the metal wiper that contacts the track As you turn the knob, the equivalent full distributor ratio changes varying the output. Voltage potentially ometer is come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they're used to just signal levels in many familiar devices, most commonly that volume controls in audio equipment. This concludes the video lecture on Resistance 7. EE1C01L05 - Basic Circuit Principles: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners, Basic Electricity. In this video lecture, we will cover some basic circuit principles concerning circuit topology, reference Common and Ground Points Homes Law, Kershaw's Current and Voltage Law. This is what we call a schematic schematic is a diagram or representation of an electronic circuit. However, it is not the physical layout of the circuit. A circuit is composed of three major parts. A power source, any number of loads and conductors. A power source provides electrical power to the circuit. This could be a battery, a solar cell, a power supply or a generator. A load is any device that consumes power. This could be a resistor and led a motor. A speaker, among many other things conductors. Any material that provides a pathway for electrical current to flow in one or more directions. This can be a copper, aluminum, gold wire or a copper trace on a printed circuit board. The's points over circuit are called notes and these air branches. A note is any point in a circuit in which currents can divide into multiple paths. A branch is a unique conducting path between notes. A series of rashes that make a complete current path back to the source is called a loop and the circuit. There are two loops. Reference points are points in a circuit for which we compare oh voltages to sometimes also called common or ground. Essentially, since voltage is a relative term, the negative term is declared to be zero volts, and all voltages measured on the circuit are relative to that point. So when you see six folds on this point, this means that it is six false relative to ground or three volts relative to ground. The most common reference symbols you will see in circuits are the common signal ground, earth, ground and chassis Ground. Earth ground is a literal connection to the earth, usually done by connecting a copper rods some distance into the ground chassis ground is the use of a metallic chassis of a machine as an electrical connection between multiple circuits and systems. Holmes law is a very useful formula that describes the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. It states that the voltage difference across device is equal to the product of current and resistance. This formula can be rearranged to solve for current and resistance, depending on the problem of interest. And the simple circuit of alter stores is connected to a resistor, since every point on the red Line, its rivals and every point on the Bulan is revolts than the voltage across. The resistor is also three bowls. The voltage across the resistor and its resistance is known, but not the currents. Rearranging owns lots of software, Kranz as substituting the voltage drop across the resistor and the resistance gives a current value of 13.6 million appears. Another, slightly more complicated example contains three resistors and Siri's within a loop. Since there is only one loop, the current is consistent at each point throughout the entire circuit. This means that all resisters can be combined in series for the purpose of simplifying calculations and then applying homes law across the equivalent resistance to find the current in the entire circuit. A circuit containing two loops can also be solved with owns law when solving each group on his own. Since every point on the red line is swivels, and every point on the blue line is, your bolts there exists at the revolt drop across both resistors, applying Onslow at our four gives the current through the R four branch and doing the same with our five gives the current for the second branch. Kershaw is current law denoted by K. C L states that the sum of all currents entering and exiting a note is always equal to zero . This can be written as I want equal to the sum of I two and I three, or rearranged to the sum of all currents equal to zero. For example, if one ampere of current exits two wires from a single note than two amps of current is entering that note, currents entering a note are positive and currents exiting and note are negative. Has the total sum of positive Tuapse negative one app and negative one app equals zero K. C. L could also be used to solve circuits using a system of equations. Consider a circuit containing of alter source and three resistors in parallel. Applying Casey L at node one gives I want equal I two plus I three. Applying K. C. L. At No. Two gives I to equal I four plus I five. Since every point on the red line is at the same voltage potential of the battery and every point on the blue line is at zero volts. Holmes log can be used to calculate the current through each branch. This provides five equations and five unknowns. First, by stopping the currents through each branch than usual substitution to find I to then I won. Just ask your into pods across resistors in parallel vaulters. Devise across resistors in series Kirsch Office Voltage Law, denoted by KBL, states that the sum of all the voltage drops across the loop is always equal to zero. For example, on my Volt battery connected to three resistors of equal resistance will have a three volt drop across the 1st 2nd and third resistor two o'clock aviall clockwise around the circuit , increasing voltage is added and decreasing. Voltages subtracted, for example, starting at the ground point and adding non volts as removed from negative to positive through the battery, Then subtracting three volts across the first load than the second and third load equals zero. Applying KPL to a slightly modified circuit shows how it can be used in practice, adding V bats from the start, then subtracting the voltage drop across our one. Then r two and R three produces the first equation. The voltage drop across VR one, BR two and VR three can be found using ALMS law, substituting these values back into the equation. Then factoring the current out and isolating, I give 6.7 million years for a more complicated circuit containing two loops. KBL can be applied to each loose separately. The first equation is generated by declaring all the currents starting with I one is equal to the sum of I two and I three at Loop number one, starting with the battery voltage that subtracting the voltage drop across our one then R two and r three and setting a equal to zero gives the second equation at loop number two, starting below our two and moving clockwise provides a voltage increase. Since we are going against the direction of voltage, drop essentially a voltage gain, then subtracting the voltage drop across our for our five and are six provides the third equation. Using owns law to solve for all the voltage drops and substituting them back into the equations provides three equations with three unknowns. Proceeding further and solving the system of equations by hand is unnecessary. since computers can do it very quickly. However, understanding the process of deriving the system of equations helps build an intuition of how surface work. A three loop circuit will have four equations, and for unknowns, a four loop circuit will have five equations and five unknowns. Adding more loops to the circuit will only add more equations and unknowns, increasing the complexity linearly, but can still be solved easily with the use of computer equivalent. Circuits are used to supply a complicated circuit for making analysis easier to resistors. In series can be Simplot to a single resistor, saying the some of those resistors three resistors in parallel can be simplified to a single resistor. Continue the parallel resistance of the network. A combination of series and parallel resistors can be simplified to single resistor each in the first step, then simplified it again in the second step. The equivalent circuit can then be used to calculate the total current draw from the voltage source using alms law. This concludes the lecture on basic circuit principles 8. EE1C01L06 - Power and Energy: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp, Beginners, Basic electricity. In this video lecture, we will develop an intuitive understanding of how energy applies to circuit theory and answer the following. What energy is, what energy does, what power is power ratings of electronic components and what efficiency is a force applied to an object will accelerate that object to some specific velocity. Energy is the property that is transferred from the force to the object when the force was applied. If he object, contact the table. The kinetic energy is depleted from the object and converted to sound and age from the friction. The Assad unit for energy is the Jewell denoted by the letter J. A jewel is defined as the energy transferred to an object by moving at a distance of one meter against the force of one union, a real life example of when Jewell is raising an apple one meter against the force of gravity at the top. The apple has gained one joule of energy and started in the form of potential energy. Electric energy is the energy that is transferred to the electron by battery or some power source. That energy is then transferred from the electron to the load and converted to useful work such as heat, light, electromagnetic sound and so on. Going back to the example of raising an apple against the force of gravity. Regardless of how fast you ese apple for the same distance, one jewel of energy is used. However, the time used to expend Wendell of energy is different in all three cases, and this takes us to the concept of power. Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred to load by an electric circuit. The S I unit for power is the watts, defined as jewels per second. This is equivalent to the amount of jewels transferred to load per second. Turning on this light for one second uses one Jewell, keeping it on for three seconds uses three jewels. This means that this light and seems one jewell every second or consumes one. Watts of power in electrical engineering, A common term used for measuring electrical energy is the walk. Our one watt hour is equivalent to 3600 jewels. This unit of energy is used instead of the jewels because it makes it easier to measure energy in electrical assistance. For example, a circuit that consumes a constant one kilowatt of power over one hour period has used one kilowatt hour of energy. If it's consumed one kilowatt for three hours, it has consumed three kilowatt hours of energy. This is also useful to predict how much energy is stored in this out of a battery pack, as well as how long a circuit can run, depending on the power it consumes. The Chevrolet Bolt has a 60 kilowatt hours battery. This tells us that the battery can provide one kilowatt of power over 60 hours orgy kilowatts of power for 30 hours, three kilowatts for 20 and so on. If an electric motor is connected to the battery and it consumes five kilowatts of power, how long would it run before draining the battery? Dividing the stored energy by the rate of energy use results in their manning. Time to deplete the battery. Remember the what is the rate of energy representing amount of jewels per second? The what Our is a unit of energy representing jewels. The killer. Our is a unit of energy, representing 1000 watt hours. There are three common formulas for calculating how much power load consumes they r p equals three times I v squared over r and I squared times are consider a simple circuit with a 10 volt battery connected to a resistor where all of his electrical energy is converted into thermal or he energy. The current through the resistor can be found using OEMs Law or V over R. The power dissipated in the resistor can be found using any of the three formulas. Three times I is the voltage drop across the load, multiplied by the current through it 10 volts times. One app gives 10 watts b squared over R Is the voltage drop across the load squared, divided by that lows resistance. 10 volts squared is 100 divided by 10 OEMs gives 10 watts I square times are is the current through the load squared multiplied by that lowers resistance. One AB squared is one amp multiplied by 10 OEMs results in 10 watts. Regardless of which formula is used, the final result will be the same. However, in some situations it is easier to use one formula over another. All electronic devices confer energy from one form to another. The most common undesirable conversion is the generation of heat, and this is directly correlated with the amount of input power, the higher the input power, the more he is generated. And since there is a limit to how hot a device can get before getting damaged, there is a limit to how much power can be fed into a device before causing damage. This limit is called the power rating, described as the maximum continuous in for power. In a previous lecture, you have seen how resistors come in a variety of packages and how their sizes determinant of their waters. The bigger the resistor there more surface area it has and has taken dissipate heat easier resistors to the power rating of 1/4. What should not dissipate more than 1/4 of a lot. Otherwise they will catch fire. It is important for the designer to understand the power rating of the various devices within a circuit. For example, if circuit three requires 100 watts, but circuits wanted to have a power rating of 10 watts each, they will catch fire. This can be fixed by upping the power rating of circuit one and two above the requirements of circa three, usually twice a requirement is a good start. All systems convert incoming energy to some other form of energy. Now, if the system does not contain any storage devices like batteries or capacitors, we can extend this and say that the input power is equal to the upper power of any system. The system can be any circuit or individual component, like the light emitting diode, a mortar or a speaker for a speaker. The input power is electrical, and the output power is composed of sound, heat and electromagnetic. For this case, we are only interested in the sound output. While the electromagnetic and heat outputs are considered lost power, the efficiency of a device component or system, is the useful power output divided by the total power consumed. Knowing the efficiency can help us in numerous ways. First, they can help us predict the hidden costs that will only be noticed in the long term. Second, it can tell us how much power must be supplied in order for it to generate the upper power of interest. For example, an incandescent light bulb has inefficiency of about 2%. That is 2% of the power supplied is converted to actual lights, and the remaining 98% is converted to heat. A fluorescent light bulb has an efficiency of up to 9%. A white led bulb has an efficiency of up to 80%. If the goal was to generate one lot of lights using the known efficiencies, we can predict that 50 watts are needed for the incandescent light, 11 watts for the fluorescent light and 5.6 watts for the led lights. The system efficiency if cascaded systems is the product of the efficiencies. For example, a system that contains a 20% efficient solar panel connected to a 90% efficient electronic converter whose charges a 94% efficient battery the overall efficiency of the system becomes 17%. This concludes the Lecture on power and energy. 9. EE1C01L07 - Basic Circuit Control: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners. Basic Electricity. In this video lecture, we will learn about the common components used to control circuits more specifically, covering switches, relays and fuses. Switches are devices used to either allow or stop current to flow into a specific circuit. Switches fall into two categories. Mechanical and electronic. Mechanical switches contain moving parts and require physical contact to operate electron ICS, which is contained no moving parts and can be operated electrically. We will discuss electron ICS, which is in more detail in another course. The most common mechanical switches used in Elektronik stricken are the push button, toggle dip, slide and rotary switches. Switches are normally designated by the number of poles and throws that they contain. For example, this which contains one poll and one throw and is called a single pole single throw switch . This wish contains one poll and two throws, and it's called a single pole double throw switch. This, which contains two poles and each ball, has two throws, and it's called a double pole double throw switch. In this example, a single pole double throw switches usage deliver power between two l ladies in the first state the top led is powered, and in the second state, the second led is powered. Here is an example of how a double pole double throw switch can power to separate circuits in the first states. Both the positive and negative rails are connected to circuit one, and in the second state, both rails. Our diversity circuit to a second example shows how to switch polarity across a mortar. In the first state, the top terminal of the mortar receives the negative connection. And in the second state, the top terminal receives the positive connection. A single pole single throws, which can operate in two methods normally open and normally closed. A normally open switch is opened by default and disclosed when acted upon. A normally closed twitch is closed by default and open when acted upon. Switch has come in many forms, sizes and ratings. The most important ratings are the voltage and current handling capabilities. The voltage rating tells you the maximum voltage across the terminals before our king happens. The current rating tells you how many amps this wish can see if we allowed to pass before it gets too hot and gets damaged really is a mechanical switch that is opened and closed electrically. It is composed of a coil that becomes magnetized when electric current is applied. The magnetic field attracts and closes a physical switch, creating a path for current to flow. This path can be used to power other circus that handle a higher power level, just like switches. Relays have multiple designations. Such a single pole, single throw, single pole, double throw, double pole, single throw and double pole double throw relays have to current and voltage ratings. There is a current and voltage rating for the coil and another current and voltage waiting for the switch. The contact current and voltage rating is always much higher than the coil ratings. This allows low power circuits to control higher power circuits while maintaining electrical isolation between the two circuits. For example, suppose we wanted to power a toaster using a push button. A typical toaster requires 120 volts, a C and nine abs to run a small push by and cannot handle the voltage and current requirements of a toaster. To get around this, a relay is chosen where it's secondary side can handle the voltage and current rating of a toaster. The push blend will control a 12 volt supply with 200 million amperes to power the coil of the relay, and the relay will control the 120 volts, a C 15 AMP source that powers the toaster. There are many types of electronic components in the industry, and like everything that has a function with continued use, where and chair components will eventually fail. Components can fail in two ways. They can fail open meaning no longer able to conduct or fail short meaning they turn into a conductor. That is, the components that feels short, that pose the highest risk to the safety of a circuit, since they might cause a circuit to draw more current than the design originally intended. So what inherent design considerations can be made in order to Medicaid? These unwanted the results. There are a variety of safety devices that can be used primarily fuses, circuit breakers and ground fault interrupters. In this lecture, we will mainly focus on just refuses if uses an element that's often struck's when the current through, it becomes greater than I pre defined limits for a certain amount of time. It is used for the purpose of protecting circuits from over current damage. Fuses come in a variety of shapes, sizes and ratings. There are three primary ratings for a fuse they are the current rating fault is rating and response time. The current rating is the maximum amount of current diffuse will safely carry without blowing the voltage rating of a fuses. The maximum voltage applied across the terminals of a blown fuse. Before our king happens, the response time of a fuse describes how fast or slow Fuze may blow during an over currents. Consider an important circuit that is connected directly to a power source. If a conductive tool or object is dropped into the circuit, causing the components to short, it will pull enough current from the parts apply to damage the circuit. So how could a fuse be used to protect the circuit by choosing a fuse that has a current rating above the current requirements of the circuit and below The minimum power rating of the circuit, and placing it between the power source and the circuit will provide the best form of protection now off the circuit shorts for any reason, it will draw high amount of current and will blow the fuse. This will automatically disconnect the circuit from the power source before the components have had the chance to heat up and get damaged. This concludes lecture on basic circuit control. 10. EE1C01L08 - Cells, Batteries and Power supplies: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners, Basic Electricity. In this video lecture, we will learn about cells and batteries, their characteristics, series and parallel combinations of cells, limitations and terms such as open circuit voltage and short circuit currents. S L is a device that can generate electrical energy from chemical reactions. Thes. Are you comin Double A Triple A coin cells, lithium polymer and lithium on cells. A battery is some Siri's and or parallel combinations of cells. This is your common 12 volt and nine volt battery. As their combined of multiple cells in series batteries are characterized by their voltage capacity charge and discharge rate and energy density. The voltage of a battery is the voltage difference across his terminals. When fully charged, a typical double a cell has a maximum voltage of 1.5 volts, and it's called a 1.5 volt cell, even though it spends most of its life operating below 1.5 volts. Also note how the voltage decreases quicker as more power is drawn from the cell. The cell will last 900 hours at a constant power draw of five mil watts, 420 hours at 10 Mila Watts, 1 60 hours that 25 million watts, 80 hours at 53 2 hours at 113 at 200 four hours at 500 and less than two hours at 1000 megawatts. If we calculate the energy inside the cell for all these cases, a trend can be observed as more power is drawn. Less energies livered over the cells. Lifetime. So where did half the energy go? The secures? Because the efficiency of the cell decreases as more power is drawn and released in the form of thermal energy. Capacity is a measure of electric charge and is usually measured in either app, hours or 1,000,000 powers. It is useful for determining how long a selcan power circuit, depending on the current being drawn. For example, a 1500 million power battery and supply 1500 million amps for one hour or 500 millions for three hours or 100 million apps for 15 hours. And so on Note that I am power is not the same as whatever empower is one app of current for one hour or 3600 cool homes of charge what our is one watt of power for one hour or 3 600 jewels of energy. The charge rate is the maximum current that can flow into the cell or battery that results in an increasing charge. This charge rate is a current that exits a cell or battery that results in a decrease in charge. The charge rate of a battery is usually lower than its discharge rate. Charging is only possible with certain electrochemical reactions, most commonly with nickel, cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lead acid with him, ion and lithium polymer. Ah, common term used to describe the charge and discharge rate of a cell is the C rating. The capacity of any battery is named. One See a one AMP Hour battery has a sea of one app hour. A 15 AMP hour has a C 15 AMP hour. Hence, see just means the total capacity of that battery. The maximum charge and discharge rates are then provided as a fraction or multiple of the battery's capacity, such as to C three C and so on. For example, a lithium polymer battery with a capacity of 5.2 AM Powers has a discharge rate of 35 c This means that it can discharge at 35 times its capacity in APS or discharge at 182 amperes. The C rating is simply used to relate the charge and discharge rates with a capacity. Energy density is the measure of energy per leader called volumetric energy density or energy per kilogram called gravimetric energy density. This chart shows the different cell types ranked by decreasing gravimetric energy density. Adding cells in Siris will produce a battery with the output voltage equal to the sum of all the individual cell voltages. However, the maximum current will remain the same as that of the lowest single cell currents. For example, four cells in Siris will have the upward voltage of the battery equal 5.7 volts and the up with current equal to 0.7 amperes. Adding cells in parallel will produce a battery with the up with current equal to the sum of all individual self currents. However, the voltage will remain the same as that of the lowest single cell voltage. In this example, four cells in parallel will have the output current of the battery equal 3.7 amperes, and the output voltage equal 1.2 volts to create a battery with a specific up with voltage and output currents. A combination of Siri's and parallel cells is required. For example, consider that we wanted to make a six volts battery with a two hour output capability using double A cells pulling out. A standard Duracell data sheet shows discharge curves for various currents. We can see that you sell s capable of delivering one app. Since seashell has a voltage of 1.5 volts, putting foreign Siri's will create a six volts battery. However, since each cell provides one app of maximum current and they are Siri's, this configuration will only provide one app maximum. In this case, we need to add 26 volt battery strings in parallel to get the combined current to achieve Tuapse, a double A cell has roughly 4.5 hours of energy. Putting to double A cells in parallel creates a nine watt hours battery. If those same cells are reconfigured in Siris, the battery is still nine watt hours. The same cell also has 1.5 AM powers of capacity. In parallel, this becomes three AM powers, but in series remains 1.5 emperors. This is because the current of cells and Siri's does not add up. Only the voltage does. Batteries and sales are not perfect conductors. They have some losses, since there's some internal small resistance. This is called equivalent Serious Resistance and his represented schematically as an internal resistor. Consider a 10 volt battery with an eternal resistance of 0.5 homes and is connected to some load if the low draws one million, the voltage drop across the internal resistance of the battery is one million times 0.5 bombs equaling 0.5 millet balls, and the measured voltage across the terminals of the battery will read 9.995 volts. If the low draws one AM, the voltage drop is one app. Times your 10.5 homes equaling 0.5 holes, and the measures voltage will read that 0.5 balls now off the low draws 10 APS. The voltage drop. This fireballs and measured voltage will read five volts. This is an inherent problem that exists in all batteries and power supplies. The more currently draw the output voltage will drop. You will often hear the tram's open circuit voltage and short circuit current being used to describe measurements of circuits. This is essentially a method to measure the correct maximum voltage and current of a cell or a circuit without being affected by the load. For example, measuring the voltage across the battery that is connected to a load will give you a wrong measurement. Disconnecting the load from the battery first and then taking the measurements will give you the correct voltage. And this is called the open circuit Voltage. The open circuit voltage of the batteries. The voltage difference across the battery when no current is flowing for a typical double a battery, this is 1.5 holes. The short circuit current of the battery is the current flowing through the battery when there is a short circuit across his terminals. This tells you how much current the battery can supply when there is very little resistance . Now, obviously should never short circuit a battery to find its Max current because it could catch fire or release toxic fumes. Consider a simple circuit that powers and led. Suppose we wanted to know the maximum output, voltage and current of the circuit. How would we go about finding this out, Removing the load and taking the open circuit? Voltage gives nine volts. This tells us that the maximum voltage the circuit can provide is nine volts. Replacing the load with a short gives us nine volts over 420 homes or 21 million piers. This can be measured by setting the multimedia to current mode and using it aligned with the circuit. This tells us that the maximum voltage and current of specific circuit is nine volts and 21 million piers. These numbers help us understand the maximum keeping bullies of the circuit, regardless of the connected load. Power supply is any device that can convert electrical power of a certain voltage entrance on the input to a specific voltage and current on the outputs. This can be your typical laptop power brick phone charger, bench top our supply etcetera. Best stop D C. Power supplies usually taken at 1 20 volts a C on input and provide the stable DC voltage on the output that can be controlled by the user anywhere from 0 to 36 volts. Just like batteries. Power supplies are not perfect conductors and will have the up What voltage drop as you draw more currents. An important note is that apart supply or a battery that can provide 10 abs only provides synapse if the load requires it. Otherwise, if the load only needs one app, then one app will be supplied. However, if the load needs 20 amps, the supply can only provide 10 abs maximum. This concludes the lecture on sells batteries and power supplies. 11. EE1C01L09 - Basic Lab Tools: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners, Basic Electricity. To get started with building simple circuits, you will need some basic lab tools, specifically a bread board, jumper wires, a wire stripper, a spool of solid core wire, a multi meter, a power supply module and an aye vote wall adapter. A bread board is a reusable construction based for prototyping electronic circuits. I like a perf board or a printed circuit board. A bread board circuit is a temporary solution. The platform contains multiple holes called tie points. The horizontal type points on the edges electrically connect across the entire length of the board and are called the bus trips. These air used to supply electric power to the circuits on the center of the board. The remaining tie points are electrically connected vertically as shown in the right highlights, and they're called criminal strips. Providing power to the board can be done by playing the red and black wires of a novel battery to the power rail. Connecting an led and a resistor can be achieved by placing the shorter lead of the led into the Blue Power Strip and the other lead into any terminal Strip, then Plug Inc. One of the resisters, leads into the same terminal as the led, and the other lead into the red power bus completes the circuit. A jumper wire is used to electrically connect components within a bread board circuit. The tip is solid enough to friendly plug into a tie point, while the rest of the wires flexible to provide greater reach. A rubber plug at the end makes it easier to handle with your fingers. Jumper wires come in a variety of colors and lines. Color coding. The different signals, or voltages within a circuit is usually done to make it easier to debug if the circuit isn't working. Typically, the red wire is used for the positive voltage supply. Black is used for ground, and they're raining. Colors are used for everything else. Sometimes you might need jumper wires of a specific length. In this case, you will need a school of solid core wire and the wire stripper. The stripper contains a cutter to cut wire to the desire length and various hole sizes to remove the insulating material of a wire and expose the conductor. The wire is then bent and place onto the bread board to connect components within a circuit . A multi Peter is a measurement tool that combines several measurement functions in a single device. The probably functions are measuring resistance, voltage, current and continuity. When you first get your multi meter hook up the black cable to the calm or common port and the red cable to the voltage port, we can measure the value of a resistor by setting the multi meter to resistance mode and applying the probes across the resistor. If you don't get a reading, this usually means that the resistor value is higher than that of the setting. Simply increase the setting until the Value piers. We get a reading for 10 and the setting is at Cologne's. This tells us that they're resistor values at tanka loans. Increasing the 7200 kilograms gives us a reading of 9.9. Increasing the measurement setting again to mega homes will give us a reading of 0.1 multiplying 0.1 by one. Mega home still gives us 10 kilograms. We can use the voltage measurement function to measure the voltage difference across the battery. Applying the red probe to the positive terminal and the common probe to the negative terminal gives us just over non volts. If we reverse the polarity, we will measure the same magnitude, but with a negative reading. This just tells us that the measurement polarity is opposite of the battery polarity of voltage. Drop across the component can also be measured with a multi meter for a circuit containing a novel battery, every sister and an led. The voltage drop, measured across the 220 ohm resistor, is 6.2 volts, and to drop across the led is 2.1 folds. Measuring current, on the other hand, is a little bit more complicated. If the current you're interested in measuring is less than 200 million amps, as noted on the multi meter, then leave the pope's as they are. If it exceeds 200 million amps or you are unsure of the current value, then connect the red probe to the 10 AB max connection before measuring trends just as a caution. If the current through the multi meter exceeds 10 amperes, the internal fuse will blow and the current measurement function will no longer work until your place fuse to measure currents, place the multi meter in Siris with the circuit. This requires you to open the circuit at any point and connect the multi meter's probes to close the circuit. In this example, as soon as the multi meters connected, the circuit is closed and the measure current is 28 million APS. One of the most useful functions of a multi meter is continuity. It is typically shown as a diet with an audio symbol and is used to detective. A connection or path is electrically continuous when it beeps. This is useful if you have broken connections that can't be seen, such as broken wires, traces, switches, etcetera and you were trying to troubleshoot your circuit. The circuit board is called a par supply module, and its main purpose is to provide power to the bread board. It has two pins on each end that connected the bread boards par supply rails and provides either five holes or 3.3 volts, depending on the jumper setting. It also contains a power indicator and the power switch for five olds set the jumper to the five old position and for 3.3 volts, the other position, The module can be powered by any 9 to 12 volt source. This can be a novel battery or a 12 foot wall adapter a wall adopters recommended, since batteries will run out of power. This includes a video lecture on basic lab tools. 12. EE1C01L10 - Practical Circuit Examples: Welcome to the electron ICS Engineering boot camp. Beginners Basic Electricity. This video lecture will use the beginner electronic skit to rein forced learning material covered in the previous non lectures, providing over a few of some of the components and get you familiar with building and troubleshooting basic circuits. The kit continues the multi meter a bread for it jumper wires wire, stripper wire, spool power supply module, which were all discussed in the previous video lecture. Additionally, included in the kid or some momentary switches toggled Ipswich Slights, which an assortment of different colored led. He's an RGB led a buzzer, a relay, an assortment of quart er, watt resistors, a novel battery, a novel by re plug and a wall adapter. The momentary switch closes when pressed and opens will let go. It has four pens divided into two terminals. The depths Wish Block contains for individual switches that toggle between open and closed each, which has two pens and eight for the total block. The slide switch has a single pole double throw configuration. The central pin is the pole, and the two n pains are the throws. The relays, composed of two schematic symbols, the switch and the coil. This, which has a single pole double throw configuration and can be accessed by the blue terminal block. The center terminal is the common and the other terminals. Other normally closed and normally open contacts, the coil can be accessed using the pin header. The 1st 2 pins are the negative and positive sides of the coil, and the last pin is the coil signal, the different colored led. These are yellow, green, blue, red and whites. They all have to terminals Catholic and Anote. Theano is the positive terminal and is longer leg of the led. The cathode is the negative terminal and can be determined by either the shorter like or the side of the lens that contains a flat edge. Led is only conduct current in one direction from the annual towards the cathode. This can be determined schematically by the led symbol. The flat edge blocks current from flowing in this direction, but the arrow allows current to penetrate from the opposite direction. Led is also require a minimum voltage difference across his terminals to turn on, and this is called the forward voltage for a red led one volt across Does nothing. 1.9 volts also does nothing but a students to falter, applied the led turns on and starts conducting. Forward voltage is two volts for red, 2.1 for yellow, two points you for green, 3.5 for blue and 3.3 volts for white. Led is must operate within a specified current range known as the forwards currents, and it's typically around 20 million apps. Currents much higher than this range will damage The device the RGB led is three. Led is combined into a single housing. The longest pin is the common Anote and is shared between all three, eh, ladies and the remaining three pins are the Catholics for the red, green and blue led ease. The buzzer is a true terminal device. The positive pen is labeled with a plus sign and the other pin is negative. To build an led circuit. The positive and negative terminals of the battery are connected to the Elegies, Catholic and Anote To ensure that the current through the led does not exceed the forward. Current limits are resistor is placed in Siris. Now we must choose a resistor value such that 20 million amps of current passes through the led. First, we set the common point as zero volts Now with a battery provides 0.1 volts, we will C 0.1 volts across the led. This is also the case for a 0.20 point 91.9 and two faults. This secures because the led does not turn on unless there is two folds across the terminals, meaning that there is no current flowing through it now if there is no current through the led and there is no current through the resistor and hence no voltage drop once the body voltage exceeds the forward voltage of the led, the led causes the voltage across it to clip at the forward voltage, which is juvenile's. This creates a voltage drop across the resistor and homes. Lock can be used to determine a resistance value that will provide 20 million amps of currents. Since the battery is nine volts and the voltage at the annals of the led is clipped at two volts, this means that nine minus two or six schools exist across the resistor entering Sis Falls , divided by 0.2 ABS results in 350 homes for the remaining videos, a to 20 home or 4 70 ohm resistor is used since they're widely available and pretty close to 3 50 owns to build the circuit. First, the novel battery plug is connected to the power rails of the bread board. Second, a to 20 Omer sister has one of its legs connected to the positive supply rail and another leg connected to a terminal strip. Third theano out of the led is connected to the terminal strip, joining the resistor and the Catholic to the negative supplier ill. This completes the loop and turns on a light emitting die out. This is the same previous circuit, except this time a single pole, single throw tactile switch is used to control the led first place. The tactile switch on the bread board, such that each pin gets its own terminal strip. Second, use a jumper wire to connect the positive rail to one of the switches spins third place a to 20 home resistor, such that one of its legs joins the output of the switch and the other leg to an unused terminal strip Finally connected the annals of the led to the Resisters Terminal Strip and the Catholic to the negative rail. Pressing and holding the momentary switch will pass current and turn on. The led and instantly disconnect were let go for Circuit three, starting out with the same led circuit in the first example, then adding another led and resistor in parallel and finally connecting a single pole double throw slice, which between the Battery Positive terminal and the Tooele Edie's, creates a single switch that can alternate power between two circuits. First place the slice, which such that all this spins get a dedicated terminal strip. Next, connect a center pin to the positive supply rail using a jumper wire. Third, place a to 20 ohm resistor on one of the M paints of the slash switch and the other leg of the resistor to an unused terminal strip. Then connect the an old oven, led to the resistor and the Catholic to the negative rail and finally do the same thing for the other pen of the slide switch. Now talk ling. The switch will alternate power between the two led circuits circuit for is the exact same previous circuit where power is alternated between two circuits, except this time it will be powered by a power supply module. First removed a novel battery from the bread board and plug in the power supply module, such that the positive five volts and ground pins line up with the red and blue line of the bus trip. Connect the wall. A doctor to an outlets and the Barrel jack connection to the bread board, part spy module passed a switch to turn on the power. Using this set up will ensure a constant voltage that does not drop over time, unlike a battery. Additionally, it's a good idea to check the voltage being provided by the supply module to ensure that expected voltage is being delivered. Faulty nous can put out high voltages that will damage your circuits. Circuit five will show how a potentially ometer is used to adjust the brightness oven led First. The positive terminal of the power supply is connected to one of the outer pins of the potential ometer. The wiper output is then connected to the annual Terminal of the Led and the Catholic Ground. This forms of variable resistor that will vary the current to the led as the potential OMETER is adjusted when the pot is adjusted. The resistance poor very from maximum about 10 colognes and provides your 100.3 million amps to minimum about zero homes and provide the maximum current available from display. Since the maximum current from the supply will be far greater than 20 million amps, the led will burn. To avoid this, a series to 20 ohm resistor is placed before the led. If we now consider the maximum and minimum resistance is, we can see that the entire resistance range will no longer damage the led first place. The pot, such that all three pins get a dedicated terminal strip. Next, connect the outer pin of the potentially ometer to the positive rail using a jumper wire. Third connect and led is an O to the potentially ometer center pin, and it's cathode to an unused terminal strip Finally connected to 20 homers. History to the led is cathode and the other end ground. Now, turning the knob of the pot will vary. The current that has the power delivered to the light emitting die out circuit six is similar to the second led example where a tactile switches used, However, this circuit uses a dip switch to control. Three led separately. Place the dip switch block, such that each pin gets its own dedicated terminal strip. This is accomplished by placing it near the century isolation line off the bread board. Next, use a to 20 ohm resistor to connect the positive rail toe. One of the dip switches pins. Repeat this for the next two pens. Finally connect the and out of the L ladies to the output of the dip switches, pins and the catheters to the ground spiral. Turning on the par supply and toggle ing the dip switches only affects their respective led loads. Circuit seven is similar to circa five. However, three separate potential monitors are used to adjust the brightness of three separate ladies. Place three potential ometer is such that each of the three pins get its own terminal strip . Second, connect the outer pin of each potential Alberta to the supply rail. Next, connect a to 20 own resistor from the center pin of the potentially ometer to an unused terminal strip and finally connect the annals of the led to the resistor and cathode to the ground rail. In this example, three different colored led. These were used, and the brightness of each one can be adjusted separately. Circuit Eighth uses a common an ode. RGB led to combine red, green and blue colors to generate any color from the rainbow, the common ano disconnected to the positive terminal. Off the power supply. The cathode of the first led is connected to a parts outer pens and the wiper output to ground to avoid over current on the led. When the potential number is set to zero owns a resistor is placed in Siris. This is repeated for the second and third led Loht. First take the RGB led and Bendis pain. Such that spacing matches the bread board taipan spacing. Next place the led, such that each Ben gets his own dedicated terminal strip. Third, connect the common and out of the led to the positive supply rail using a jumper wire. Then I resistor on any one of the red, green or blue cathodes to an unused terminal strip. To test out whether this is a common anote or common cathode, a jumper wire is used to connect the other end of the resistor to ground the led turns on confirming that this is a common adult. If it didn't, then you led is a common cathode, and the circuit will be slightly different. Next, connect a to 20 ohm resistor for the remaining cattles toe an unused terminal strip, then place three potential mater's and connect ground to all the center pins. Finally connect the resisters of each cathode to the outer pen of the potential monitors. Each potential ometer will now control the brightness of either red, green or blue. Separately, combining blue and red light creates all the shades of purple. Combining blue and green lights creates all the shades of science. Combining red and green creates all the shades of orange and yellow light, and combining all three colors creates warm and cool white lights. A buzzer circuit simply produces Ah, high pitch sound when trained on to power a buzzer. The positive and negative terminals of the parts supplier connected to control the device. A tactile switch is placed on the positive side, and the red led is added in parallel. To give a visual signal, place the buzzer, such that each pin is on a different terminal strip. Second place a momentary switch on the central isolation line there. Connect one of the switches pin to the five will supply rail using a jumper wire and the other end of the switch to the buzzers positive terminal using another jump war. Then connect the negative terminal of the buzzer to the ground rail and test the buzzer. Finally connect a red led and the resistor in parallel with a buzzer. This is done by placing the led on to on used terminal strips connecting its cathode ground , using a to 20 home resistor and the and no to the output of the switch using a jumper wire . This single relay contains two separate schematic symbols. The coil and a single pole double throw switch. The positive and negative terminals off the supply are connected to the positive and negative terminals of the coil to turn it on, the positive output is controlled by switch to the signal input of the coil. The common terminal of the contacts is connected to the positive terminal of the par supply . A red led is connected to the normally closed terminal, and the green led for the normally open terminal, using a male to female jumper plugged the female side into the three coil pins of the relay . Second, insert the regular jumper wires into the terminal block of the relay and tighten the contacts using a flathead screwdriver. Repeat this for the remaining two terminal block contacts now connect the positive and negative size of the coil into the positive and ground tie points on the bus trip. Then place a momentary switch such that over spins, get a dedicated terminal strip. Next, connect one of the switches pins to the five or rail and the coal signal to the output of the switch. To ensure that the coil control circuit dysfunctional to an on the supply and test the circuit, you will hear a mechanical click being generated by the movement of the contacts inside the relay and then led turn on to signal that current is flowing through. Next connect. The common poll of the relay to the five or rail and place to led is onto the bread board with their cathodes directly to ground and the animals to an unused terminal strip. Finally, plug one end over to 21 resistor to the animals of the led and the other end to the normally closed or normally open contacts over relay turned on the power supply and tested circuit in the default states. A normally close contact of the relay powers the red led when the tactile switches pressed the coil is energized, causing the normally open contact clothes and delivers power to the green. Led. This concludes lecture on practical surfing examples and completes the course of beginners basic electricity.