Dynamic Simulations in Cinema 4D | Ozgur Gorgun | Skillshare
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25 Lessons (2h 29m)
    • 1. Welcome

      1:04
    • 2. Animating a Bouncing Ball With Keyframes

      10:32
    • 3. Intro to Dynamics

      3:30
    • 4. Gravity

      3:13
    • 5. Collider Bodies

      3:16
    • 6. Bounce, Friction, Collision Noise

      8:26
    • 7. Animating Collider Bodies

      4:10
    • 8. Collision Shapes

      3:53
    • 9. Custom Initial Velocity

      9:54
    • 10. Compound Collision Shapes

      3:01
    • 11. Triggers

      4:29
    • 12. Initial State

      9:47
    • 13. Bullet-time Style Animations

      6:48
    • 14. Follow Position

      4:40
    • 15. Forces

      5:33
    • 16. Centre of Gravity

      8:21
    • 17. Hinges

      6:57
    • 18. Visualisation

      8:42
    • 19. Steps Per Frame

      6:01
    • 20. Caching the Simulation

      5:28
    • 21. Angular Damping

      5:05
    • 22. Switching from Collider Bodies to Rigid Bodies

      3:39
    • 23. Course Exercise

      0:41
    • 24. Creating the Final Animation

      21:40
    • 25. Goodbye!

      0:23
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About This Class

If you want to take your 3D animation skills to the next level by creating amazingly realistic interactions between 3D objects, then this course is for you!

This hands-on training will teach you everything you need to know about Rigid Body Dynamics in Cinema 4D. 

We will start the course by looking at when and why you should use Dynamics. We'll then move onto the foundations of working with Dynamics, covering topics such as rigid bodies, colliders, gravity, bounce, friction, velocity, triggers, hinges, forces and much more.

You will also learn how Dynamics can be used together with MoGraph in order to create some very interesting animations.

And at the end of the training, you will be given a task to create a dynamic animation with the skills you’ve learned on the course and bit of your own imagination!

Together with the course, you also get access to all of the project files so you can download and use them as you watch the lessons.

Join me on this course and let's create some dynamic animations together!

Meet Your Teacher

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Ozgur Gorgun

Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Teacher

Hello, I'm Ozgur. I'm an award winning filmmaker, photographer and motion designer. I've been been working in the film and TV industry both in the UK and abroad for over a decade. 

I'm an Adobe Certified Expert, Video Specialist and Instructor. I'm also one of the very few Maxon Certified Cinema 4D Trainers in the world.

I've taught and worked with some of the biggest names in the industry such as SKY, BBC, Sony Pictures, ITV, Google, Microsoft, to name a few.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome: hi and welcome for this course on dynamic simulations in Cinema 40 where you will learn pretty much all there is to know about rigid body dynamics. Dynamics are used to create realistic interactions between three D objects without the need of any key frames. So if you want to take your three D animation skills to the next level than this course is for you, we'll start, of course, by looking at when and why you should use dynamics. Well, then we want to the foundations of working with dynamics. We'll cover topics such as rigid bodies, colliders, bounce, friction, velocity triggers and much more. We'll also look at some practical examples and see how dynamics can be used together with more graph in order to create some interesting animations towards another course. You look at the solutions to some of the common problems that you're likely to encounter when working with dynamics, and at the end of the training, you'll be given a task to create a dynamic animation with the skills you learned on the course and a bit of your own imagination. Together with the course, you also get all the project files so you can download and use them while they watch lessons. So put your animation hats on and let's learn how to work with dynamics in cinema 40. 2. Animating a Bouncing Ball With Keyframes: in order to understand how amazing the helpful dynamics are in cinema, 40 were first going to create a simple animation off a bouncing ball using just key frames . So for that, I'm gonna start with Jakub and I'll make me to be little smaller going that way and then maybe a little wider on the X and then maybe a little deeper on the set as well. Off then critical inner on Add a cube inside the cloner on the selected well to object increased the why amounts or the cubes are separated away from each other like that. Also pushed them back in, said going that way. Let me now go to the side view so I can see what's happening. So I'm gonna go middle, click on the middle click, let's say on the right for you and then press hate so I can see everything off, Then go and pushed this further in this that space and then maybe slightly higher. Oppa's well like that also now going increased account. So I'm gonna add 10 in total, and then I'll press hate again so I can see every single one of those steps in view. I'm not gonna go. Incredible. So that's gonna be a sphere, which I'll lift up and in fact, I'll make it smaller. So I'm gonna press t to make this smolder somewhere around there. Maybe, let's say 50%. So I'm gonna hold on the shift key to go to 50%. Exactly. Empress E now pushes further up above that step here, and I'm gonna go and key frame this fear to start from here and then bounce off the first step and then skip the 2nd 1 and then bounce on the 3rd 1 and then it will skip the fourth and it bounced onto the fifth and so on. I'm gonna start again somewhere here, go to the coordinates off this fear, keeping the why and they said, often advanced by 15 frames and then pushed us down to touch the first step. You can be as processes you like with this so we can zoom in and then make this touch just perfectly. And there's amount. I'm gonna add the key frames again. Well, then advanced by 15 more frames. So frame 30. I'll skip the second step, like I said, and I'll just jump straight to the 3rd 1 and then add the key frames again and then go forward by 15 more frames. So frame 45 and I'll push this fear here and then add the key frames again and then go to frame 60. Let's get this one and then jump straight onto this one. I had the key frames again and then forward by 15 more frames for Frame 75 and then pushes fear on top of this step. Then add the key frames and then go forward again to frame 90 and then skip this last one and then push this old way down here and that had the key frames again off them. Press hates to zoom out. In fact, I'll go to my perspective you, by middle clicking or clicking on this button here and then clicking on either this bottom here or middle, clicking anywhere in the perspective. You then I'll press age so I can see everything in this view. I'll then go back to the beginning of the timeline and then play to see what we just got. I can see the ball is going through the cubes here, which is what we expect this is called blocking an animation blocking, is telling the ball there to be on any particular frame. And then we had to go to those in between frames and change the appearance or the behavior off the ball. That's called a key frame interpellation. So on frame 15 for example, we want the ball to be on top of this step, which is where it is, So that's great. But between frame 15 and frame 30 we don't want the ball to go straight through that cube. We actually want this to go up and down on. That's what we mean by key frame into operation. So to see the graph that represents the interpolation of the key frames, we're gonna have to open up a timeline by going to window Timeline F curve. Or we can also switch our layout to animate. That's going to open up the timeline down at the bottom here, and it shifts some of the panels around. You see, the attributes panel is no longer near the bottom, right, but rather up here on by default. The timeline that opens up is the dope sheet timeline, which is this one here. I only want the F curve to be displayed. So to switch back and forth between the truth. You can use these two buttons here. So this is a dope sheet. This is the F cker. And in their kermode, I'm now seeing the graph for the set and the Y position off the sphere. That is representative Blue. Why is represented in green? So I'm gonna go open up just a why and then press hate. So that's all I'm seeing. Now, The way to read this graph is that the higher this line, the higher the ball is going to be in space. In this view, just to show you that point, let's go to frame 30 on. Let's say if I increase the height off this point here, you see how high the ball goes in this view. So look, if I just go click and drag this up, you see that the ball is changing heights in the perspective, you as well. So the higher this line, the higher the bold is gonna get in this view. I'm gonna do that with that in mind. What I'm gonna do now is to go back to the beginning and I'll create a graph that represents a bouncing ball. So let me just make a bit more space for this panel here first by pushing this up and then I'm gonna go and use the one and two keys here to zoom in on pan around like that. Women in my perspective, you as well so you can see what's happening. Clearly, that's now instead of the ball just going through that first cube, I actually want this to bounce off it. And for that, I'm gonna go select the second key frame here. And this is the best way I find to select key frames in the graph editor or the F curve here. So you click outside and just draw a rectangle like this. Otherwise, if I just click on the key frames like that, I tend to knock them out of place. So I'm gonna under that and then just click and draw a rectangle that goes around it with the key frame highlighted. You'll see the tangent handles here. So if I go and click on the second handle here and then pushed us, that's a up. This is the kind of graph we want for right inside. But as I pushed us up, you see that the left hand side is actually dipping them. So I'll under that in order to control this handle independently, Then this handle will be using the shift key on the keyboard. So I'm gonna hold our shift, then click and drag this up. And you see, this handle is no longer affecting the handle on the left. So I lift us up. And as I do this, you can see how this ball is actually bouncing off that now. So if I just go and exaggerate this like that's you see that the ball here is bouncing up before it starts fooling them. So I just previewed this goes down then with an abrupt bounce, just goes up. But it's actually coming down quite softly here. So if I just push in, you see if I just play this, it's extra coming in a curve, which you can also change. So I'm gonna hold on shift and then push this up. You can see how I'm changing the incoming part of that animation like that, and you see, as soon as we start playing, the ball actually just drops down If you want this to go up first, then drop down. Well, that's also an easy fix. I can set the first key frame here and then push this up and you see it's going to start from here. Go up then down. So if I go play this back again, you see it starts from there goes up Vendome, which is good, not gonna zoom out and that Zuma from here as well and I'll do a similar thing for pretty much all of these key frames. So I'll just go here, select that key frame shift, click and drag this that way, and you see how that's affecting that first balance. Well, then, hold on shift, click and drag this handle that way. And that's like this. Hold on a shift, click and drag this handle up and you can see how I'm creating this bouncing animation here . I'm just keeping this with the shift key. I'll just select that shifted, drags up, he pulling the shift on you go up, Same here again. So shift drug up, their shift drag up, and then the final one here shift Androgel. And now we've created a simple animation off a bouncing ball. So I'm gonna go switch back to my standard layout and you see, five grand plate is now Sphere isn't going through those cubes. In fact, it's actually bouncing off them. Let's say you wanted this last one to be slightly higher up. So you want the last bounce to be greater than the previous one. So I'm gonna go and open up my timeline again. Linguine press hates to see everything. I'm gonna go into the sphere, select position. Why? And this is the last bounce. I'm gonna go push this off the way a little bit and then more my view up so I can see that last bounce here. And then I was women to here to the last pounds in the timeline with the two key and the one key off that select this key frame as I increase the height off this with shift Gegen. You see how this increases as well? So look, hold on shift. Push this up. I'm changing where the ball is going between these two key frames, so I'll do the same here. Shift pushes up and there we go. I'm gonna come out of this press h and I'll go back to the beginning and preview this. This is the animation we have. No, I'm gonna go back and we can still improve this animation. For example, this area here can be improved a little more so I can make the ball go higher between that key frame on that key frame so that this curve is smoother. I'm not gonna do that now, but I just wanted to show you how tedious and time consuming a key frame animation can be. Although it can be very precise with key frames so I can get the ball to do pretty much whatever you like on any given frame, you're going to spend a little time tweaking those handles and then moving the key frames around. This is where dynamics coming. Instead of using key frames and those tangent handles, you'd be setting up some parameters like gravity friction bounce, mass weight and so on, and then just set animation free. And cinema 40 will work its magic to create an amazingly accurate dynamics. Assimilation. That's what this entire course is going to be about. In the next lessons, we'll have a look at how to set these interactions between objects 3. Intro to Dynamics: Let's have a look at how dynamics work in cinema 40. For that, I'm gonna go and critic you. And when I press play, you see nothing happens to the Cube, and that's what we expect. Objects by default are what I call passive objects so they don't do anything by default unless or until you had a tag to them. And the tags that will be working with are called the simulation tax. So I'm gonna go rewind, go to the cube, right click on it, or I can select the Cube and then go toe tags and then come down to its assimilation tags. On these are your dynamics tags in cinema 40. Like I said, you can either add them here or on the right click. You'll find them on the simulation tax here on Well, first start by adding what's called the rigid body attack as soon as I add this tag. If I dander preview, look what happens to the Cuban Now the cube starts falling down and it will keep falling down forever or until the end of the timeline. So let me just go to a different angle here. I'm just go back fly around and I'm gonna rewind. And then if I play again, you see this will just keep pulling them. If I get this more time, let me just go an increased overall time to take 250 frames. And if I go back, preview again, the cube will start falling and it will keep on falling until they're not a timeline. Let me pose this and then go back to the beginning of the timeline and then I'll reframe everything. I'll just go to view frame default. Now the reason why the cube starts falling is because of this tag. Now, a couple of things here you can lift the cube up, rotated scale it do whatever you like, as long as you're on the first frame off the timely. What that means is, if I go forward by a couple of frames, that's out. Play it on my stop. If I go back, if I want the disk you to go higher up or sideways or whatever when I try you see it won't respond. It won't let me pull the cube anywhere. If I try and I'll take this you see, I won't be able to rotate it. I can still change some parameters, like fungal to cube object. I can change some parameters, but I will not be able to change the coordinates or the rotation of the Cube. That's because right now I'm on frame 30 on the position on the rotation of the Cube. Here at this frame depends on very wells on the previous frame. So in order to update the position or the rotation of the Cube here, I would actually have to go back a step to frame 29 updated there in order to update is on frame 29. It had to go back to frame 28 updated there on this goes all the way back to the beginning of the timeline. So in order to change the appearance or the position order rotation off the Cube at this point in time, you'd have to go all the way back to the beginning, Then make your updates that say you rotated or you move it. Then you play. That's how you change the position or the rotation off any dynamic object. So all of those changes have to be made at the beginning of the timeline, so you can't make any changes once the timeline starts playing. That's one thing I want you to keep in mind. Every time I make a change, you're going to see me going all the way back to the beginning on the shortcut for this is Shift F. It's this bottom here. It's shift F. You go all the way back to the beginning that make changes, then press play or F eight on the keyboard. With that in mind, in the next lesson, we'll have a look at why this object is falling down and how to control the speed off it. 4. Gravity: when an object has a rigid body tag and you play, the timeline you see will just start falling down. Let me rewind. The reason why it's falling down is gravity. Gravity is intrinsic to every single scene that you create, and you'll find it under the project settings, which is command or control de Or it can also go toe edit and then come down to project settings. And then here. If you go to dynamics, you see there's an option here for gravity, and it's set to 1000 centimeters, which is just a rounding off 981 centimeters by second squared, which is the gravity force on Earth. So if I went increase this, that's a from 1000 to say 3000. That's just going to go much faster so three times faster, to be precise. So if I knock, go zoom out and then play this, you'll see the object before three times faster. So let me just go back. I'm gonna zoom all the way out and then increased this from 3000 to, let's say, 13,000. And if I now preview you see, it goes even faster. So the higher the number here. This stronger the gravity force is going to be. I'm gonna reset this back to its default by right clicking on these arrows here. And I'll just go back to the beginning on my timeline by pressing shift F and then hates to center everything in view instead of using a positive number. Here are connect to go to a negative number. If I'm not going to set this to, let's say, minus 1000. Now, instead of falling down, the object is going to start floating up. So if I play, you see it now goes flying up, I'll start the playback. Go back to the beginning. And if I want this to go faster, I just going decrease this number even more so if I go and sit still, let's say minus 5000 and then play. That's gonna fly up much faster, and this is something you can actually key frame. So if I go back to the beginning on, let me zoom out a bit of it and I'll start with the default. 1000. Let's say on frame 60 I'm gonna go and key, frame the gravity and then go to frame 80 and then changed us from 1000 to, let's say, minus 2000 and then key frame again. If I know, Go back, play this from the beginning. You see, for 60 frames, the cube is gonna fall and that from frame 60 frame 80 it's going to slow down on that from 80 onwards. It's gonna start floating up, so take a look so it falls down, then it slows down on. Then it starts floating up again. There we go, but you'll notice that we don't actually see the key frames here in the timeline. The key frames that you added, two dynamics here will only show if you open up your timeline from the Rino menu here and now you actually see the key frames off dynamics and in particular, the gravity here, you can separate them even further. You can delete them, move them around, do whatever you like, but you won't be seeing them in this summary timeline at the bottom here. So just delete these key frames first and then come out of this and then go back to my project settings by pressing command D and then just double check that this is set to 1000 which is the default. I'm not gonna go back press H and on the next lesson, our show you how to create an object that is coop can interact with. 5. Collider Bodies: let's now have a look at how to create an object that this cube can interact with. So I'm going to start by adding a plane to the scene and you see, as soon as I hit play, the Cube is just gonna go through that plane. So there's no interaction between the two. In order for a dynamic object like this cube to interact with another object like the plane , both objects will have to be dynamic. Right now, the plane isn't a dynamic object, therefore, to Cuba doesn't interact with it. So I'm gonna go on, add a dynamic tag to the plane as well. I'm gonna go right click on it and then go to simulation tags. And instead of getting a rigid body tag, which means that the plane will also start falling down because of gravity. I'm gonna make the play, Nikolai their body, which means it's going to be calculated inside the dynamic simulation. But it won't be affected by gravity. Therefore it won't fall down. So let me just make this circle either body and I'm gonna hit play again and you see that Cuba actually shoots down much faster. Let me rewind zoom out. And then if I play again, you see that the cubes actually fooling now much faster than it did before. This is another really important thing to keep in mind. If you're working with dynamics at the beginning of the timeline, when the dynamics start, the objects that you're working with shouldn't intersect each other. Here. The Cube is trying to fall down on the planes trying to remain static. And because the two intersect each other at the beginning of the timeline, Cinema just doesn't know what to do with them. So it tries to separate them away from each other on the first frame. So if I go in advanced by one frame, you see that the first thing cinema does is to separate them. So the cube just jumps down here so they no longer intersect. And from here it starts to calculate properly. But because it moved from there to here, it's now got an initial velocity, which means the rest is gonna be much faster like that. So an important point to remember is to make sure that at the beginning of the timeline, no two objects intersect each other or otherwise. You'll get some really weird results. So to avoid this, what I'm gonna do is to go and select the Cube and then lifted up above the plane. Now that the cubes above the plane. And in fact, I'm gonna lift this up even more if I play you see that the cubes gonna start falling down and the plane will remain static. Therefore, the cubes gonna be stopped by the plane. So if I play there we go. And if I now want this cube to move around, let's say if I zoom in and then I want the cube to be on the side, you remember from previous lessons that we can't do this because in order to change the position or the rotation off this object, you have to make sure that you're at the beginning of the timeline. So I'm gonna go rewind back to the beginning, then I can move this around and fight play, you see will now interact with that plane a little differently. I'm gonna go back. I'm gonna push the cube back, and I'm gonna make it smaller by pressing tea and then just scale this down a knife fight, play you see that the cubes gonna be stopped by that plane because the animation still goes on. I can select the plain and then more this around it safe. I go and select this, then get my rotate tool. And then if I start rotating it, you see, this will still interact with the cube there. I'm gonna pulls the playback back to the beginning and isolate the plane on reset its PSR position. Scale orientation. In the next essence, we'll have a look at outer just the properties off the simulation tax. 6. Bounce, Friction, Collision Noise: in this lesson. We'll have a look at some properties that I write the foundation off any dynamic object Name me. We'll look at the bounce, friction and the collision noise off objects. So here I have floor, which I'm gonna turn into a collider body by right clicking and then coming down to simulation tags on Collide the Body, which means now that the floor is a collider, it can interact with other objects. And I'm actually gonna go and critical of other objects. Let's say we start with a cube and also a sphere, and I'll select them both with the shift key and I lift him up and I'll separate them away from each other sideways like that on toe both of these objects. I'm gonna go on, add a rigid body attack. So right, click simulation tags, Richard Body. Right now, if I just going to play, you say they'll both fall down and they'll be stopped by the floor because the floor is a collider, so it doesn't get affected by gravity. But the objects are rigid objects, which means they do get affected by gravity. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and I want to start with the bounce, but I'm gonna change the balance on Lee off the sphere so we can compare this to what the Cube does. So I'm going to let this fierce tag and then go to collision bounce and you can think of bounce almost like the energy that's returned back to the object when it hits the surface. So a 5% value here means only 5% of energy will be returned back, meaning that it won't bounce too much. So I'm gonna go select is 5% on, let's say increase it to 25%. And if you now watch what this fear does and compared it to the Cube, you see, that sphere will bounce more than the cube does. So here we go. Let me exaggerate that even more. I'm gonna go back, increased this from 25 to, let's say, 75 and now much. What happens? So this fear bounces even more. I could do the same for the Cuba's well, So if I said it the coops tag. Make sure that I rewind and change the balance from 5 to 75. But because the Cuba some right angle, edges and polygons When it bounces, it's going to be a little more unpredictable than this fear. Let me show you what I mean. If I just going to play, I don't If you notice they're the first bounce was quite straightforward. So if I just go and play this you see the first time it bounces, it's almost perfect. But the second time in the third time it bounces off the floor. It's going to have a slightly different tilt or an angle to it, which makes it more erratic. So if I now go and play and if I lift these objects even higher, you see the effective and more so if I select both of them, make sure I'm at the beginning of the timeline and I left both of these up and then play again. You see, this fear is gonna bounce more or less in the same place where the cube is gonna be flying all around the place. Now, look, I'll start the playback In order to calm this cube down a little bit, I can go back to the beginning, select it and then go to fill it and then turn us on and then maybe increased the radius. So it's now got some round edges. If I now go and play it back, you see it's gonna be a little more predictable. Then I'll start the playback. Mind you. If I go back to the beginning and start the cube at an angle like that, then if I press play again, it's going to be a little unpredictable. And eventually it falls off that floor. As you can see, I'll go back to the beginning again. Second property I want to show you is the friction property. So for that, I'm gonna go and delete this fear for the time being. Select my Koob and reset the PSR, and I'll lift a cube up a little bit and then maybe push it that way. And then I select the floor and then rotate it. It's an uncle like that again making sure that the floor and the Cube don't intersect. Because if they do, let me just show you what happens. Some unpredictable things like that will happen again. I'm gonna go back. We'll take the floor back a little bit that if I press play, you see that cube doesn't actually slide off the floor, although the floor is at an angle, so we expect the cube to slide off it. It doesn't. That's because both the cube and the floor have a property called Friction. So let me start with the cubes Friction first. So I'm gonna select the cube, go to collision, down to friction. You can think of friction almost like the stickiness often object. So if I lower this down, the object is gonna be less sticky, meaning that's going to slide more. So if I now lowered us down from 92 let's say 25 and then press enter and then go back to the beginning and preview. You see, it's gonna start sliding a little bit, but again it stops. It stops because the friction isn't just the property off the cube, but it's also a property off the floor. If I go and select the floor, lower its friction, down from 100% to, let's say, 10%. If I now go back and play, you see, start sliding off the floor. Now when you have multiple objects that are interacting with each other and they have the same properties like the friction exists for the floor. It also exists for the Cube. You can work out the overall value by adding this and this number together. So the friction off the floor and the friction off the cube together. So that gives us 35. So 10 plus 25 is 35 taking half of that value, which is 17.5. So if this was, let's say, for example, 50 on the floor WAAS 30 so the two of values added would be 80% divided by two would give us 40% and 40% would be the overall friction value off this interaction. So why not go and play this? We now have 40% of friction, or 40% of stickiness between the two objects. The reason why cinema gives us the option to control the friction off both of these objects separately is because you can create a floor, let's say, covered with the carpet, and then it can still control what bounces off that floor by how much. For example, you can throw a tennis ball onto that floor and it can bounce. But if you throw a bowling ball on it. It can stick the next property I want to show you is the collision noise. Let me go back to the beginning and then I'll reset the PSR off the floor. Also, that the Cube resets. It's PSR and I'll lift it up. Let's say like that, I'll just pull back there. And now if I play this, you see that the Cube starts falling down on the second Mount It does is slightly different than the 1st 1 That's because if I go back to the beginning, select the tag. There's this collision, Noyce. Collision noise is the random ization factor off the animation, the higher the number less predictable than emissions gonna be. So if I go in increases from 0.52 let's say 15% and then preview this it's gonna do something different than it did before. This would be more obvious when you have multiple objects in the sea. So I'm gonna go delete this cube and then add a sphere to the scene, lift it up, and then make this a rigid body and then duplicate this my command, dragging it sideways. I'm gonna go back to the beginning. Also two spheres increase the bounce from five to, let's say, 75 and I'll lower down the collision noise to zero. You need to remember, though, that the collision noise isn't only for rigid bodies. It also exists for colliders. So I'm gonna go to the floor, lower down its collision noise to 0%. If I now go back to the beginning and play this, they'll do very similar things now. Whereas if I go back on increased the collision Miles, let's say on all of these objects from 0% let's say 25% on the preview, the bounce off in different directions like that. But remember, if you increase this number too much, let's if I go crazy with this, say, 75% that's gonna create some again unpredictable animations so you don't go too high with this collision. Nice. This is gonna make the animation that's predictable. That's because the collision lawyers commercial surface that's interacting with another surface into more of a rough surface so that the interaction is less predictable. So there you have it. Those are the three main properties off dynamic objects, bounce, friction and collision noise 7. Animating Collider Bodies: The fact that the objects are dynamic doesn't mean that we can't have any key frames to them. Here I have a floor with a hole here and have a golf club and a golf ball, and what I want to do is for the ball to fall down. And once it's on the floor, the club to hit it and we'll see if it can put the ball inside this hole, Let's see how it's done. I'm gonna start by making the floor collider and I'll make the golf ball rigid body so it can fall down on the floor will block it. So if I now go back to the beginning and preview this, that's exactly what happens. The bull falls down on because of the floor. It stops now. I'm not gonna make the club a rigid body, because if I do, let me show you what happens if I go and make this club also a rigid body that's gonna fall just like the ball. So if I go back, play this, you see, just like the bowl the club falls down, I'm gonna go back to the beginning and instead of delete this tag on make the club a collider as well. Which means it can interact with objects like the ball, but it won't fall down because of gravity. So I'm not gonna go back to the beginning. And what I want to do is to find out when the ball hits the floor first. So I'm gonna play this on in order to see that a little clearer. I'm gonna do this frame by frame, either by clicking on this button or pressing G on the keyboard. So I'm just gonna go tap G a couple times suitable is falling down and around about hair. So that was framed. 13. The ball hits the floor so it wants. The ball is on the floor. I'm gonna swing the club to hit it, So I'm gonna go back a little bit. First, let's say maybe frame eight. All that. Select the club, go to coordinates and I'll adjust its pitch. So a pitch is this angle. Here. I'll start with zero key. Frame it off, then go forward to. That's a frame 13. Well, then pull this back and then keep frame that and then I'll go forward a little more. Let's say frame 20 and then increased this to go past that point and then keeping it again on Here's the animation we should have. No, we just missed that whole. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning. I'll actually go to a top for you. My middle clicking. And then I was coming here, then will the club towards right so that the center of it lines up with the ball and see how that works in the perspective. You now. So I'm gonna go and hit play. That's F eight on the keyboard. We went too far. I'm gonna pose this, go back and then pushes back a little bit towards left and then go to the perspective. You and then try again. Just missed it again. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then pull this left just a tiny bit more on. Try again. No, I think the reason why it's not going down is because it's too fast. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning, select these key frames, and they're stretched him like that and then pushed him left. So the whole thing is that is a slower now, so why not play this, and now it can go back to the beginning and the mood object towards left a little more, and then he play and see if you're getting that right. No. One last time, I'll go put this towards right again, though that was almost apart. So I'll slow these down even more. I'm preview again, and that was a perfect shot. Let me not go back, zoom out and then go to a side angle like that so we can see what's happening from a slightly higher angle like this, Um, preview again on you. See that the ball is traveling from left to right slowly into that hole because the objects we're dealing with are quite small. It took a couple of tries to get this exactly right. So it's worth keeping in mind that the larger the objects were working with, the easier it is to control the dynamics 8. Collision Shapes: in this lesson, we'll talk about a common problem that you'll come across when you're working with shapes that have holes in them. Let me start by adding a tube to the scene, which has a hole, and I'm gonna make the cynical shorter and I'll increase the inner radius a little bit like that's and I'll add more segments to the rotation of this. So it's a smoother shape like that, a van going at one more trip to the scene and I'll make this one much bigger both on the outer and the inner radio I like. That's I'll make this short to as well, and I'll add more segments to This is well on. I'm gonna change its orientation from Plus why two plus it and I'll go to slice and then turn its lights on. So I'm only seeing the bottom off this on the animation I want to create now for this troop and in fact going rename these. So the new one I just created will be derail on the 1st 1 is the ring. So what I want to do is for the ring to fall down. I'm gonna move it here. I want the ring to fall down from here on to the rail and then the rail will go through it so eventually the ring will hang off that part of the rail. Now let's see how that works. I'm gonna leave this up first, then go and make the rail a collider body. And then I'll make the ring a rigid body so that the collider body, the rail isn't affected by gravity, but the ring is on. What I expect to happen now is exactly what I just explained. The ring to fall down and then the rail to go through that hole there. Let's see what happens. I'm gonna hit play, and you see that cinema doesn't actually care that the shape the ring has a whole insight. And if I preview again, you see the rail here just bounces off that whole. Let's see how to fix that. I'm gonna go to my ring, which is the problem shape here, and I'm gonna go to the collision tab and is an option here. That's his shape. Shape refers to the shape that cinema is using to calculate the interactions between objects. Automatic means that cinema isn't going to spend too much time trying to create an accurate simulation. Instead, it's going to do a quick simulation without being too accurate. Now, if I wanted to be more accurate, I would need to change its shape from automatic to one of these two options here, either the moving mesh. If the object is moving like the ring is or a static mesh like the rail, I'm gonna set this to the moving mesh and then go back to the beginning. And if I preview again, you see that the ring will fall on the rail will hold it. I'm also gonna go and decrease the friction on both of these objects. So I select them both and then go to friction. And I'll set this, Let's say, 15% for both. And the bounce also to, let's say, 15% Now. If I go back and preview, they should slide a little better. I can also make this look a little nicer by adding some fill it to the ring, so I'm gonna select it and then go to object and then turn on the fillets and then I'll increase the radius first. Now, if I go and play. They should be slightly smoother, and I'll actually do the same for the rail here as well. So it's got some smoother edges as well. I'm gonna go to the rail, turn its fill it on and then increase its radius to, let's say, five. Then I'll play again on that will give us a smoother animation. I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then copy during a couple of times, so I'll selected that's Amounts, Then hold on command and dragged us here and then again and then again, then I'll go any play and see what happens. That's how easy it is to tell cinema to calculate interactions properly when the objects you're using have holes in them. 9. Custom Initial Velocity: in this lesson, we'll have a look at how to give an object an initial push or a spin as opposed to just simply falling down because of gravity. Let me show you what I mean. I'm gonna create something that looks like a spent up on although that by creating a cube first and I'll make the coup creditable by pressing C on the keyboard events, which to my polygon mode here and then said at the top on the bottom, hooligans at the bottom of Angwin scale this down on the y axis like this of Empress I to get my extra inner tool and then I'll just create an inner extrusion like that. And then I pressed d to get my extra tool and then push this towards right so they get extra did upwards, and then I'm gonna go and put this simply inside the subdivision surface. So I'll just go and create one here, drop my cube inside of it, and then I can go and do 30 tweaks. So I'll select my Koob and to start with all, select all of these polygons on the side Might getting my loop selection, which is you l on the keyboard or you could go to select and then loop selection here or you l And then I'll go and creative loop selection around these particles here. And then I'll Christie to get my scale tool. And I'll just scale this up like that on a scale this bound on the why like that, then on top and the bottom polygons again. So I'll get my selection tool selected top polygon and then the bottom one. I'll make them a little smaller, so I'm gonna press t But when I pressed T And if I try make this smaller, you see, they'll go towards the centre off that selection. So both of these are now scaling down toward the center of this object. I don't want that. I'm gonna under that on both of these polygons to scale towards their own center points and that's called normal scale. On there's a tool for that which is available when you right click. And here you have normal move. Normal scale normal rotate. This means they're rotate or scale or move based on their normals. So based on the surfaces or the directions they're facing towards, I'm gonna go and set this to normal scale. And then if I go and scale this you see, both of these polygons will scale towards their sense of points individually like that off . Then go and get my move tool and then select justice pulling on so I can move this up and then I select the bottom one on Move this up a little bit on. In fact, I'm gonna make the bottom on a little smaller by pressing tea and then just scaling this down. And then maybe I'll select these polygons here by pressing u l again to get my loop selection tool and select these polygons Just assure you the polygons I have selected if I turn off myself division surface, these are the bottom polygons off the cube. I'm gonna go turn its back home. I'm just going to scale this down as well, by pressing t on a scale these down and then maybe push them up in it of it like that. And then I'll select that top polygon here and then lift this up and then select all of these polygons by pressing U L again and then scale these down as well, like that and then maybe push the top one even further like that. So that's gonna be the base shape for my spin top on that. We just come out of this polygon more here so I can see the entire shape by clicking on this button here, and then I'll click outside so that everything is de selected on because of the subdivision surface. I'm getting a really small shape here, which is great when it comes to creating dynamics. And if I turn off the subdivision surface, this is basically the shape that you created. I'm gonna turn his back on. If you want this to be even smoother, it can select the subdivision surface and then come down to the editor and the render our subdivision amounts and increased in both to, let's say three and three. This is going to slow the on the computer a little bit, but I think my computer can handle this right now, so I'm gonna leave this as it is. And then what I'll do is to go and add the dynamics tag to the subdivision surface. So I'm just gonna go right click on this. I'll make this a rigid body instead of just falling down, which is what this is going to do now. If I just play this, you see, it just falls down. Let me rewind on. What I'll also do is to add a floor to the scene. So I'm just gonna go and creative floor here and I'm gonna lift the subdivision surface up above the floor like that. Let me zoom out and I'll make my floor a collider, buddy. So I'm gonna go right click on the floor simulation tags collider body so that when I play this spin top is just gonna fall down onto the floor and eventually it tips over. So I'm gonna get this any more time to play with. So I'll just go and increase this from 92. Let's say 300 and then I'll double click here to extend the preview range to be the same length as my timeline off. Then go back and rewind and then play again on you see, it will fall down and just tip over slowly on. That's quite a realistic animation. When oppose this here and then go back to the beginning when I do want to do is to give this an initial kick so it doesn't just fall down, but maybe travels in the positives that direction as it falls down. So I'm gonna select the subdivision surface and then I'll select its tag. And then under the dynamics tab here, there's something called the custom initial velocity. Right now it's turned off, meaning that it will just fall down, or depending on the gravity settings, you can also float up. But if I want to give us an initial kick, you gonna need to turn us on, which will reveal these options. Here, let me make a bit more space here like that, and you have two main options here. The initial linear velocity and the initial angular velocity. The linear velocity is used if you want to simulate something like a push or a kick that you give to the object as it falls down. Where is the initial angular velocity is if you wanna start spinning the object as it falls down? Let me start with the linear velocity option here. Let's say I want to spent up to be pushed in the direction as it falls down. So instead of just falling down on the negative by. I want this to go also in the posters. That direction that way. So I'm gonna go to the 3rd 1 here. So that's X. Why, Zed? Well, then give this an angel kick off. Let's say 250 minutes. Let's see what that looks like. I'm gonna go and play. That wasn't too much that you go back an increase this like crazy. I'm gonna go, let's say to 2000 and then presenter. And now I'm gonna preview this again. And this time it's gonna have a stronger push in the positive direction. So take a look. There you go. Opposed this. Go back. Now, instead of just going in that direction, I'm gonna set this to zero again. I actually want us to start spinning. I wanted to start spinning on the y axis. That's the heading off the object. So just to confirm that I'm gonna create something like a pyramid that looks similar to this on following the pyramid to spin on its Y axis. That would be the headings if I say the pyramid coordinates. This is the access. I want the perimeter spin on and the same is true for a spin job as well. So I'm gonna go select Spin Top, which is the subdivision surface off, Then go to the tag off it. In fact, I can delete the pyramid. Now I'll go to the tag off it and then I'll go to initial angular velocity. So we had heading pitch on banking. We're interested in the heading now, so we'll rotate this around the y axis. I don't know by how much I'm gonna go and try this. I'm going up This, let's say to say 3 60 and if I know, preview this now in order to see this little better. Actually, what I'll do is all going at the texture to it. So that will make things easier to preview. So I'm gonna go back on, create a simple material by double clicking anywhere here off, Then apply this material to the object. The cube order subdivision surface doesn't matter. Sanguine. Open the material up and then go to the color channel, not texture. And I'll add something like a tiles texture here. That's the title Shader on that select Al Shater and I'll go and change of Pattern from squares to Let's say lines and then I'll change the orientation from U to V. So it looks like that. And in fact, I'm gonna change. Do you be mapping on this as well? So I'm just gonna go push this down, sell it the texture here. And instead of the u V w mapping, I'm gonna go and make this look more like a cylindrical shape. So I'll just go and change the projection. Two cylindrical and then I'll go and change colors here as well. So I'm gonna go and change the tiles. Color one. Let's say green something like that and then tiles color to to a lighter green. Something like that may be I'll also change ground color to White like that's on. I'll make the ground with, say, 1%. And I'll make the devil with a little smaller as well. Let's say there maybe it's a bigger like that's and now it's gonna be easier to see what's going on with this object here. So I'm gonna go come out of this. And then if I now play this, you'll see how the object is going to start spinning on the Y axis on the heading because of the custom initial angular velocity I gave it. If I now go and play Perego now, this isn't quite enough. So I'm gonna go stop this, go back to the beginning off, then go to my tag and then go and give us a bit more of a spin that say, I increased this to of, say, 800. And then if I go and play this you see this will start spinning much faster. And given that it has enough time, it's eventually going to stick to the floor because of the friction values off the subdivision surface on the floor together. Let me stop this and I'm gonna go and increase the friction value on both of these. So I'll go and select the subdivision surface. Got a collision. Increase the friction from 92 let's say 150. And although the same for the floor, select the floor and increased this from 100 to let a 1 50 You see that spin top isn't going to be sliding on the floor, but rather it's going to stick to it as it spins. Let me just go and play so its initial drop points or the drops on is more or less the same as it spins around 10. Compound Collision Shapes: when you have a model that's made out of multiple objects and you wanna combine all of these objects into one As far as the dynamics are concerned, you're gonna need to use what's called a compound shape. Let me show you what I mean. I'm gonna create a simple table by using some simple cubes. I'm gonna start with one and then just eyeballed these. I'm gonna make this the tabletop, Let's say, just extended that way. And then there goes that way on maybe a little shorter as well on. Then I'll create another one and that's a that's gonna be one of the legs like that and I'll go to the side views. In fact, the right of you to start with penguins women by pressing h I just push this down here. That's a little too thick still. So I'm gonna go and make this a little thinner like that. Another the same from the top view as well like that. And then from the top view or press H again also going places in one of the quarters and then command drag this year and then shifts like them both and then command dragged them down like that on theirs are simple table. And what I want to do now is to group all of these inside that mall. So I'm gonna select them all and then the old G to create a group and put them inside that group or a null and put them inside a null. And I'll call this now, table master on. What I'm gonna do now is to go and select a null and at attack to it. I'm gonna make this a rigid body and also create a floor and then lift the table master up above the floor and I'm gonna make the floor a collider. So I'm gonna go and right click simulation tags at collider right now. If I play this, you see what happens. All those different objects are actually broken apart. Actually, that was a little lucky. They don't all fall down and break apart, but they actually forced them to break apart. I'm gonna go back and then lift the table master up even higher like that. And then if I go and play this, they should break apart there. Go My can see All of these shapes are treated as individual shapes or objects. Now, if I rewind back on their selected table master tag, the reason why these are all treated as separate objects or separate entities, as faras dynamics are concerned, is because inside the table masters tag the first option on the collision, where it says inherit tag is set to apply the tag toe all the Children. So each object here is treated as a separate object modify changes to the compound collision shape. That means that all of these are gonna be treated as one big object. If I now go back in play again, you see, they don't break apart anymore. Let me just go and add one more thing to the scene. Let's say if you go and create something like a pyramid and then lift this up and I make a little told her like that. There you go. And if I make the pyramid at Collider as well, you should see now if I play this back, that this gets stopped by the permit, but the legs don't fall apart. So all of this is one single object 11. Triggers: there'll be a time when you want your dynamic objects to be inactive until something collides into them that's controlled by using what's called the trigger. Let me show you how that works. I'm gonna create something that looks like a wall. So I'm gonna go start with the Cube and then make it shorter like that. And then why they're on the X and then maybe told her on the why on I want this cube to be broken into pieces. And the easiest way to do that is by using what's called a voluntary fracture object. So I'm just going at this to the scene, and then I'll drop my coop inside. If it's and right away, you can see that the cube is broken into smaller pieces and I want to have more of these pieces. So I'll go to the formal fracture and then go to sources and then come down and select the point generator here and then come here and increase the point amount. This refers to the amount of polygons you have in here. I'm gonna go and increased this to, let's say 100. So we have smaller pieces. Here are then go and make my vote. No fracture, rigid body. So it starts falling down because of gravity. Like that's. I'll go back to the beginning off, then at the floor to the scene and then lift up my voluntary fracture. And I'll make the Florrick Aleida like that so that when I go back and play it, you see that the wall will fall down on all those individual pieces will break apart. No, I don't want this to happen as soon as I hit play. I only want this world to break apart. When something actually hits it, I'm gonna go back and then create that something. Let's say that's gonna be a sphere. And then I'll push this fear that way and then lifted up in its of it and then make it smaller. And I'm also gonna make this fear a rigid body there. And you see, right now that this will just fall down just like the whole I don't want this fear to fall down, but I want this to actually go in that direction towards the wall. So I'm gonna go select this fierce tag and then come down to dynamics and then turn on the custom initial velocity now increased the linear velocity on the said, Because I want the ball to move in that direction. That's the positives, that direction. So I'm going increased this to, let's say, 500 see what that looks like. That's not quite enough. So I'm gonna go and push this further. So I'm gonna go, let's say to 2000 and then if I play, that's going faster. That's great. I actually want this ball to go up as well as if it's being shot from below up in that trajectory here. So I'm gonna go and increases on the why as well, let's say by 500 and then played us again. That's looking nicer, but I don't want this wall to full down as soon as we hit play. I want the world to remain there, and they will only start breaking apart when this fear hits it. That's what I mean by trigger. So let me go back to my Varna fracture tag, and then I'll come down to here, which is dynamics and then down to a trigger, and you see here, it says immediately immediately means as soon as you play. This object is going to be a dynamic object on because of gravity, it falls down now. I don't want this to be the case, so I'm gonna go and change us immediately to on collision, which means the objects going to remain there until something hits it. Then it becomes dynamic. So if I now go and play, that's what happens, Mom, I'll go back to the beginning and then if I zoom in a little bit here now you see that the ball is actually going through the center part mainly. But most of the other segments here are also falling down once the boldest through. So let me show you what that looks like. I'm gonna play after one. You see that these pieces that weren't actually being hit by datable are also falling down in order to control. When these segments actually start falling down, you can use what's called a trigger velocity threshold. This value here tell cinema are strong. The collision has to be before the object to start falling down. Let me go and increase this to something like 5000 and then come back to the beginning and then if I play now, you see, because the collision isn't stronger or faster than 5000 units per second, these individual segments don't get affected as if they're rigid bodies. Whereas if I lower this value down there, you go back to the beginning on Lord, its value down to, let's say, 250. Then if I go back and play on those center areas are being affected by the ball, the lower this number and let me go back to the beginning. The lower this number, the easier for these pieces will fall down. So if I said this to something quite low, let's say like to. And if I play you see, most of those objects are gonna fall down. Whereas if I increase this to something like 500 only those center polygons here or the center segments are gonna be affected by this fear. So if I go and play this, that's what it looks like now 12. Initial State: Sometimes you want to start a scene where the dynamic objects are already in place. In other words, you don't wait a certain amount of frames before they settle down so that it can take a steel render or create a cool animation from them. Let me show you what I mean. Here I have a simple model of a coin. I'm gonna go and duplicate this coin by adding this inside a cloner. It's all grand created. Kloner, Drop the coin inside if it of anger and change Kloner from a linear cloner toe a Gregory off that increased account Let's say we go for five by 10 by five of Empress hates to see the whole thing and I can see that the distance between the UAE grid lines here is a bit too much. Children decreased this like that and I'll changed angle. So I get closer twits and I'll bring them closer to each other on the excess. Well, so just grand decreased excise and also said like that I'm making sure that objects aren't actually intersecting, so they're not touching each other. If the objects were touching like that, if you remember from the previous lessons. This will create all sorts of different weird looking results. So you want to make sure that objects do not intersect when animation starts. So I'm gonna extend us again ago on. Then I'll score. She's done a little more on the Why like that. Now, what I want to do is to create a box that I can use to hold these objects. So I'm gonna start with the Cube and then make the cube a little bigger like that on. I'll do this from the top for you, and I'll just extend that and then this side here, I want to create a hole inside the Cube. So I'm gonna go and press, see, to make this edible from the perspective. You I'll select a polygon mode and that's a top Pentagon and then press I to get my extra dinner tool so I can create an inter extrusion like that and then the to get my extra tool so I can click and drag this down or left to create an extrusion going down. And I want to see the size off the extrusion. So I'm gonna go and check the height between this line on that line here. So I'm gonna get my move, tool, push this photo down like that. And in fact, what I want to do is to squash the entire shape down. So I'm gonna go and get my scale tool than the model mode here so I can scale the entire model down like that. And that's the shape I'll be using toe hold these coins or go and maximize my perspective. You And now that's going to set the dynamics up. I'm gonna make my cloner a rigid body, so it falls down because of gravity. And I'll make the cube collider so it can hold these coins like that. It's going if the clothes are up on, I'm gonna push back my program play. You see that the cubes gonna hold all those coins there. Now, depending on the specs off your computer, this maybe a little slower than what you see here on my computer. It actually go and push my computer to its limits as well. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then go to the corner and then I'll increase the overall count from 10 to 25. So I have quite a little coins. And if I never in play this, you see that the playback isn't gonna be quite smooth. So it's a little slow, especially when there's a lot of interaction between objects like this. So it's not playing real time. One way to speed the play backup would be to go and change the instance mode from instance to render instance, this will speed up the animation by a great deal. So if I select that and then come back and play again, you should see the difference in the playback speed, so it's might smoother. Now I'm gonna pose the playback, go back to the beginning. I don't want that many copies. That's a bit too much. So I'm gonna go back to the cloner. Lowered is down back to 10 Onda, play this, You see that they will fall down, but they kind of fall down in a uniform fashion. So we have little stacks like this. So all of these coins are stacks together on these are well on top of each other. So what I want to do is to go back and rotate the initial cloner. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning. Andrea, take this. Say like that. Then if I play, you see, some of this will go outside the box. Now, that's gonna fix that as well. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning, select the box, and I'll extend it to go sideways on that way. And maybe I'll make a little shorter like that as well. Then I'll play on. They're still gonna be a few that are kind of escaping here. So I'm gonna go back, make this even bigger, like that's and then play again on that. Should be enough. I think ago. Now I'm gonna get this a bit more time overall. So I'm gonna pause this for an increased overall time from 92. Let's say 2 50 and then double click here to extend this old way. Now, if I play from the beginning, you should see that they'll kind of settle down eventually inside the box. That looks great. Now what I want to do is actually to fill this up with more coins. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and now at a couple of more maybe on the why. So I'll go to the cloner. Go to count up this to, let's say, 15. Maybe on. I'll make this coop a tiny bit larger, like That's I don't play again, See what that looks like. Great. Now what I want to do with this now is to wait until they all settle down and then posed animation. And I can record that state off the clothes here off the accordance as the initial state. So I'll stop it here and then I'll go back to my cloners tag the simulation tag and under the dynamics tab, there's an option here. It says Set initial state. If I click on this bottom, it's going to look at the current state of all of these coins and it will record this as their initial states. Otherwise, if I go back to the beginning of the timeline, all of these coins would just jump back up to where they started from. I don't want that. So I'm gonna go and click on this set initial statement in here, and this state here is now recorded as the initial state, which means if I go back to the beginning, old objects here remain in place, and if I now play this. It's going to start as if this is their initial states. So if I not play, they're still dynamic object. So some of them are still kind of moving around, as you can see that these women so some of these are still moving around. And the easiest way now, to stop this from happening, I compose this and then go back to the beginning. The easiest way to stop this slight movement from happening is to change the trigger from immediately, which means as soon as I hit play, these are gonna be affected by things like gravity, bounce, friction and song. I'll change it from immediately toe on collision. So until something hits these, they're not gonna be affected by anything. I'm gonna pulls the playback there. I'll actually go in, turn off my great for the time being. That's just bothering me at the moment. I'm gonna go to filter and then come down to grid and turn it off on right now that they're set the on collision. Which means if I now go and create another object that's a like a sphere and if I drop the sphere from a distance, let's say from there. If I make this fear rigid body until this fear hits these, nothing's gonna happen to them. And if I play, you see only when this fear hits these coins they start moving around. I'm gonna pulls this, go back to the beginning, make my sphere much larger like that, and that is what counts on lift it up and then play again. So it's a heavier sphere now, or what I can do is to stop this again, go back to the beginning and then lower this fear down here. And what I want to do now is to turn this fear into a collider body. Right now, it's a rigid body, which means if I play, it will still fall down. But I don't want this to be a rigid body anymore. I wanted to be a collider body, and instead of deleting this tag and then creating a collider tag, what I can do is to select it and then come down to hear dynamics. And then here, too. It's a dynamic and change it from on off. This is now a collider body, which means it won't fall down. So if I go and play this. This fear doesn't fall down. What that also means is if I pause it, go back to the beginning and maybe make my spear and it's a larger What that also means is that I can keep frame this collider body now. And this is animation I want to create. Now I'm gonna press play on is the play. It is moving. I'm gonna lift my sphere up on you See how that interacts with objects the coins Here, I'm gonna press play and as the players moving, I'm gonna click and push this fear up. That's animation we can create. So let me go and keep frame this I'll go back to the beginning and then push this fear back down here. In fact, I'll make this a little larger, so I'm gonna press t and scale this a little more like that and then I'm going animate. It's why coordinates Wilson atmosphere go to coordinates. Keeping the why. Then I'll go to the tape frame 30 and then increase the height of this. So I'm just gonna go push this here and then key frame that again. And if Uncle that can play, that's animation. We should have no on. I can hide this fear now so I can go back. Hide this fear. Mind if I make this fear disabled by clicking on this stick here that's going to have no effect on the entire animation anymore. So if I go and play, this is if this fear doesn't exist instead of making this disabled, I'm gonna enable it. But make it invisible by clicking on these traffic lights here, you know, change both the ran the review and editor of you at the same time. I'm gonna hold down the old key and then click on one of these grey dots so they both get updated and then click again. So they turn off. Then if I couldn't play this, you see that this fear is still going to interact with those coins. I can make the cube invisible as well, by holding down Holt and clicking on one of these grey dots twice. And then if I go back, maybe changed my angle to something like that's And if I press play, you can create a really cool animation like this 13. Bullet-time Style Animations: in this lesson, we'll have a look at how to create the infamous bullet time kind of animation by key framing the time scale off the dynamics. Let me show you how that works. I'm first going to start by creating a cube and I'll make the coup. But it's a smaller let's say 45 by 45 by 45 off that at the cube inside the cloner by holding down old and creating a cloner. So this makes the cloner the parents of the Cube. And I'm gonna select the cloner, go to mold and change it to grid. And I also increased account Let's say five by five by five and on lower down the size of just going pushed us that way. And then I'm gonna is actually 50 here and that 50 here, 50 on the set. There you go. If I know onto increased overall count detailed why in this new version the size is automatically going to update. So if I go and increase this, you can see that size is also changing, which is great. We'll add more on the X as well like that. Then push by cults on. I'm gonna make the cloner any rigid body. So it falls down If I play, you see all the cubes indeed, fall down. But I don't actually want them to fall down right way. So I'm gonna go and change the trigger from immediately to on collision so they wait until something hits them, which is great. Go back and it's going to create that something. So I'm gonna go and critics fear and then pushes fear that way on, I'll make this fear a rigid body as well. And right now, if I play this, you see that it's fearful is down, but the cubes don't, and I'm gonna go and give this fear and initial velocity so it can shoot in that direction . So I'm gonna go and turn on the custom initial velocity here and I'll increases said, let's say through 1000 start with Let me see what this looks like. It's not quite enough. So I want this fear to go really fast through these. So I'm gonna set this to, let's say, 3000. Let's see what that looks like. Maybe a little more so I'm gonna go and increase this to 5000 and I actually want this fear to move up slightly as well, so I'm gonna go and increase the Y two. Let's say 500. Let's see what that looks like now that's great. I'm going to go back and then pull back out on push this fear back a little bit on. What I want to do now is to give this first a bit more time. So I'm gonna go an increased overall time to, let's say, 300 frames and I'll extend these. And what I want to do now is to freeze the time when this fear hits these cubes so that when the time is frozen, I can have a camera that flies around. And then as soon as the camera stops moving, I can continue the animation so that the cubes will continue to fall down. That's how that's done. That's first go and find the frame where the cubes actually start falling down. So when this fear hits the cubes, so I'll advance forward by one frame at a time. On it looks like a roundabout. Here is a good point to stop the animation, so that's frame 11. So what I'll do now is to going up about my project settings, which is command or control de on the keyboard or giggle to edit and then predict sittings . And then I'll come down to the dynamics tab and down here there's this time scale. This is what's used to control the timing off the dynamics. This is different than the timing off the entire animation. So by using the time scale, you can actually slow down the dynamics or speed them up. But the play head will still move at a normal pace. So let's go to the time scale and at that point, our key famous town, the percent. And on that once where, one frame. And then I'll change this from 100 person, let's say 20%. And if I keep for him again, then go back to the beginning. What should happen now is if I play this, that this fear should shoot, and on the 11th frame the dynamics will freeze. But the players will continue to move. If I play this, it freezes, which means I can now create a camera, fly to somewhere here, and then I can keep frame this again to continue. I'm gonna pulls the playback, go back to the beginning. If you want to ramp that, you can actually separate the key frames you just created apart. And you'll notice that the key frame don't actually exist here. So to see the cue frames that you create on the dynamics level here, it had to go to the timeline here, uses the dynamics key frames. I can then zoom in here by using a two key so I can see the two key frames like that. If I separate these away from each other, that's not gonna be a gradual shift from 100% to 0%. So if I now go back and play this from the beginning, take a look. I just did a slowly for you, so you can see so it still moves, but it slows down, then it stops. I think that's looking a little slice of actually. In fact, I'm actually gonna extend said it's a more so the transition from on the percent of 0% happens over 15 frames or so. So let me go back to the beginning and then play. That's good. I'm gonna pull the playback here, and then I'll go and create, Let's say, around about 100 and 50 frames so somewhere here or going create a key frame again. So I'll go impress. Command d Review My dynamics. Timescale are key frame this that'll advance forward by 15 more frames to somewhere around here. And then I'll change a time scale back to 100% and the key famous again. Let's see what this looks like now. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then play. It stops. Then it's all static, then rather, 150 it will continue to play back. That's great. I'm gonna pulls the playback, come back, and now I can create a camera to animate. I'm gonna fly to a different angle. Let's say here to start with and I'll add a camera and then look through the perspective of the camera here off, then go through the frame. Marius Fear hits the objects here, so I'm gonna go forward around about there, and I'm gonna keep fame, the camera's position and the rotation. So the easiest way to do that would be the turn off the parameter recording here, and then the scale recording here so I only have the position and rotation turned on off. Then click this key. I come here. That adds to the camera. Six key frames. So three for position 34 rotation and then I'll advance forward, Let's say to about 545 just before the animation actually continues. And then I'll fly the camera to a different angle. Let's say here and then keeping the camera again and then go back on. This is the animation we have. No, As you can see, we managed to create a really interesting effect by key framing the time scale of the dynamics. 14. Follow Position: Now I'll show you a really useful parameter called follow position. You use full of position to give the dynamic objects a tendency to go back today. Initial starting places. So let me show you what that looks like. I'm gonna create a couple of random objects. Let's say a cube on a pyramid and then maybe a sphere. I'll make the most small sore sec, Nimal Presti. I'll get all of them to be smaller like that. Then, at all of these inter cloners, I'm gonna create a cloner and then drop them in. I'll change a cloner from a linear mode, toe a Gregory, and I'll increase these numbers. Let's say to a five by five by five. And then press hates does amounts. In fact, I'm gonna make these objects a little bigger, so I'm gonna select them all, press tea and then make them slightly larger like that on. I'll change my cloner size as well as what the objects are closer to each other. I'm gonna go and score, sees it. It's a bit like that. And then here on here, that's good. I can also randomize the distribution of thes. So if I go to a clones and change from its rate toe ran them so they'll be distributed randomly like that on. What I can do now is to get the cloner to be a rigid object on you. Looked assistant is like play. Of course they're full down. Let me just course these objects a little more so that they actually explored when I start animation. So if I get the cloner to be slightly smaller like that, so the objects are now touching each other, and that will result in a slight explosion like that. I'm gonna go back to the beginning. If I want to give these objects a tendency to stick to their current positions, I can go to attack off the cloner and then come down to the four stab and then change the full of position from zero to something higher than zero. The higher the number, the more of a tendency they'll have to stick to their current positions. So they were just going to say this to one. And if I press play, you see they'll explode. But they won't get separated away from each other as much as they did before. So the full of position value here is making them stick to their original positions. That increases a little more. So I'm gonna changes from month to, let's say, five and then go back. And now they'll have a stronger tendency to stick to their original positions. That means women. It's a bit you notice. Some of these objects are actually trying to rotate, but they're not really trying to rotate. They're just falling down because of these polygons here because of the angle of these polygons. But what you can do is you can get the objects to full of the rotation as well. So if I go an increase, a full rotation from zero to, let's say five, that means they're gonna try and go back to the original rotation values as well. Now, these objects don't have enough time to do that. So let me just going to speed this up a little bit, so I'm gonna increase the full rotation from 5 to 15 a knife. I play this back, You see, they don't rotate this much. And if I give these more times, if I go an increased overall time to let a to 50 and then extend this and then press hates to zoom out. And then if I go back and play, you see they'll have this initial kind of hiccup like animation, and then they slow down, and then eventually they stop. Now, you may be asking yourself, Well, though, I use this for let me show you. I'm gonna zoom account on, create one more object. Let's say a sphere, I'm gonna make that severe, quite large, like that. On that, make that sphere collide. There is well, and then lift this up. Now is I go back to the beginning. And as I play as this fear tries to go through these, you see, they'll want to go back to their original position so they don't actually allow this fear to break them apart. Let me give this a bit more time to assure you what I'm talking about. I'm gonna make this 500 frames and then extend this and I'll go back as I play this. Look what happens when I push the sphere through these. I can move this fear around the nation. Is there kind of free to go back. They will snap back to their original positions. I can do a similar thing by moving the cloner around. So if I press play, get the corner. And as I move the cloner around, look what happens as soon as they get near the other is that kind of collect them like magnets? Of course, I can make this fear invisible by holding on salt and then clicking on one of these great or twice. Then if I press play, I think, is Walmart it a bit. You see, As soon as I pushed his around, the sphere is going to block them. But of course I'm not seeing this fear, so that's great. So basically, the individual objects inside the corner are trying to go back and re form that good shape . 15. Forces: Dynamics will also accept forces which are usually used with particles. But let me show you how that works here. So I'm gonna go and create a cube again on I'll add the Cube inside the cloner by holding down Holt and creating a cloner. And I'll make my cube a little smaller. Let's say 45 by 45 45 then I'll go to the corner and then change it from linear to a grid array. And then I'll go and add more on the X. Let's say 15 and then one on the why on 15 on the said and our Lord is down to 50 by one by 50. So basically, we just created a floor made out of cubes. I'm not gonna go back and then create an actual floor and then click on the cloner. Lift this up above the floor like that, and I'm gonna go and make the floor a collider and then the cloner rigid body. If I can play this their full down, as expected, just to be sure that these are all individual objects, let me go back, just lift us up and then play again. And in fact that'll separate objects. I'll stop this. Go back to the beginning, Give this a bit more time to play with. So I'm just gonna go and increase that and pushes back on. What I'll do now is to lower down the cubes. So I'm just gonna go to my front view and then Lodi's down like that on the maximize the perspective, You again on the cloners selected. I'll just go to my simulate menu at the top and then come down to forces and then add a wind force. If I go and play it, you see that the wind force doesn't have any effect on the cubes because that hasn't been added to the tag here inside the four stab. So with the four stops selected, I'm gonna go and drop the wind in this force list. Also need to change the four smoke from exclude to include. So the wind is included in the calculation off these dynamics. If I now go back and play and still we don't see any effect, that's because there's a little friction, so I'm gonna go back and increase the speed of the wind first. So I'm gonna go to the wind object on up the wind speed from five to, Let's say to a 50 in life I play. You see, all these objects are being affected by the wind. That's a bit too crazy. But I'm gonna pose this. Go back and show you how we can limit the effect off that wind on. Go to the wind effect or to be in force. I'll go to full off right now because we have no fields in here. The wind is set to an infinite macho. It's affecting every single cube there is. If I go and add a field, let's say a box field. This gets created. Let me zoom in So we end up with what's got the Tesseract. So it's a cube within the Cube. I can now either lift the entire wind up because the box field gets created inside the wind . Or I can just click and drag the box field around like that just to make it a little easier to see. I'm gonna click on the wind and move this around so that fan shape here also moves around. And right now, if I got to play it, you see none of the cubes are being affected by this wind ongoing. Push this down and still these cubes are being affected because there's a lot of friction on the floor. So I'm gonna go back. I'm going to select a tag off the corner on the floor and then come down to friction. And I said this to something like 15. Then I'll go back and knife. I played back. In fact, if I make the wind a bit bigger, you see more of those cubes are being affected by it. I just posed animation, go back to the beginning and then just flat two different angle like that. And if I push to win back a little bit that way and then play again, take a look on because of the friction will slow down and eventually stop. I'll start the playback on our way and duplicate the wind, my command dragging it up like that and that gets duplicated with the box field. I'm gonna select my cloner tag and then I'll add the new wind in here as well. So the 2nd 1 is also included. I'll go back to the beginning and I'm gonna take the second win here and then push this entire thing that way. But right now I can see only the boxes moving. So I'm gonna make sure that the wind is selected and then I push it so that it goes with the box and then I'll rotate this that way by 90 degrees in life. I go back, I'm preview again. This one here will make these cubes go in that direction on this one object will make them go up. If I want them to go up and keep moving forwards. I can rotate this that way a little bit. Let's say by 45 degrees on my go and play, you see what happens. You can combine multiple forces like that. I'm because of gravity. They still full down. So let me rewind and play again. And there you go. I think the forces are a bit too strong. So I'm gonna go and select both of the wind objects with the command key, Then goto object and then come down to the wind speed. And the reason why this is different than 500 is because I must have scaled the wind up on That's how you increase the speed of the wind as well. So I'm gonna go and lowered its down to, let's say 2 50 and then go back and play again on that should be a little calmer now like that if I will take the second wind further. So if I just push this up further by 45 degrees that if I go and play you said the 1st 1 is gonna push this towards right, and the 2nd 1 pushes them up and then they fall down because of gravity. So by using these forces on your not just limited to the wind force, you can actually use most of these others as well. With a few exceptions, by using these forces, you can create some really interesting interactions between dynamic objects. 16. Centre of Gravity: There's something called center of gravity for dynamic objects in cinema that sure what that is and how it works. I'm going to start by creating a cube, and I'll make the Cuban rigid body also creative floor on all Go and live to Cuba above the floor like that, then press age to see all of these on. Then, if I gotta maximize my perspective, you like that. I'll make the floor ical either. And if I just go and play this as we expect, the cubes just gonna fall down onto the floor. But if I want to change where the Cube is actually heavier, I can do that by using what's called the center of gravity. Let me show you how that works. I'm going to select the tag off the KUB, and I'll come to Ritz's Mass and then down here it's this custom center by default. This is turned off, which means that the center of gravity for each object is going to be dependent on how big object is based on the size of the polygons. Here's what I mean by that. If I go and create something like a calm so far, Gwen had this into the scene on if I just moved sideways and then up. And if I go to the front to you again, and then press H and I'm gonna make the corn also a rigid body and right now, this point here is actually the access and not the center of gravity, and this will always be in the geometric center off the object. It looks like at the moment that this is slightly higher up. That's just an illusion. If I just go to the cone and then change the top radius, you see that this is actually in the dead center there because the top was pointy. That's why it looked like that. But if I actually want to reveal the center of gravity where the object is heavier, that would be somewhere down here because there's more mass down at the bottom here. Now, in order to visualize that there's actually a field inside the Project settings dynamic tab called Visualize, let me just go to my perspective, you again. And if I open up my project settings by pressing command D, and then if I go to dynamics, the last option here is visualization If I enable this, nothing's gonna happen right away. But if I hit play or advanced by one frame, things are gonna appear a little different. Now I'm gonna turn everything off except for the collision shapes or going turn off. The bounding box is the contact points and the connectors. Right now, what I'm seeing here is, if I zoom right into the cube, for example, the cubes access point on its center of gravity are exactly in the same place. But if I look at the comb, it's got to access points here. This one is the actual access point off the com. Where is this one is the center of gravity. So if I now go to my front view, you can see that the center of gravity is actually down here. So the subject is bottom heavy, and the good news is, you can change this. I'm sure you how that works on the cube first. Then we'll come back to the corn and adjust it there as well. I'll just go to my perspective. You and there's women, too. The cumulative it again again. Remember, In order to enable this view, you have to make sure that this option here is turned on and you have to advance forward by at least one frame in the timeline so that the dynamics kick in and you can see all these different parameters. Not if I go to the tag off the Cube and then come down to Mass and then go to Custom Center and enable this if the Cube is 200 by 200. And it just confirmed that the Cube is indeed 200 by 200. If I go to the tag on, let's say, for example, I want this cube to be left heavy. If I got X and set this to B minus 100 and then answer again, I'll have to rewind. And if I go back to the beginning and then hit the Ford, But months, you'll see that center of gravity is actually on the left wall here. Which means if I go and play this, the cube is actually gonna be heavier on the left, so it's gonna bounce a little differently than it did before. So let me just show you that if I play nickel so it hits the floor and it kind of feels towards left because it's heavier on the left. No, I'm just going to leave the Cube and then go to the cone and then go back to the beginning . And I'll do the same for the corn as well as women on advanced by one frame so that you can see the center of gravity is here. And if I want this to be higher up, I can go to the tag off the corn again and then go to mass, enable custom center and then just goto why? And sit this to something like 100 again. And if I go back and then advanced by one frame, you see, that's exactly at the tip here. If I know play, this is gonna be heavier at the top than it is anywhere else. So it tips over. Now let's see how we can use this in a bit more. For a practical example. I'm gonna get rid of everything and then reframe my scene and I'm going create a capsule. Also, I planed I'll make the plane and collide there on the capsule, a rigid body so it falls down. I'm also gonna tape for the top of the capsule. So I'm gonna go and at the Taper, the former here, onto the capsule on their future parents on. Then I'll just lift everything up like that and then all state capital on change. A tight to, let's say 1 50 on all bangle to taper increased the strength. Sweet looks more like a neck shape. In fact, I'm gonna make the capsule a little fatter. So I'm gonna go and select the radius, Increase that as well like that. That's looking good. I'll also add more segments to this. Let me just zoom in so we can see how many more segments we need to add to make this look smooth. I'm gonna go to cap segments first. Increase that. And I think that's actually enough. My if I just want to play a strange thing is gonna happen if I played this. You see that the object is falling down, but the taper isn't so. It's actually changing the way it tapers if I go back, play again. You see, as it kind of leaves the object, it doesn't taper anymore. That's because on the capsule where we had the collision tab, we had this inherit tag said to apply tag to Children, its changes to the compound collision shape. So all of these objects are treated as one and life I play. You see that The objects that you're gonna fall down and all these colors are because of that visualization option that we turned on. So I'm gonna go and turn that back off for the time being all press command d to get to my project, settings on the dynamics, visualization off the same of this. And if I go and play this, it will fall down. And what I want this to do now is to fall down but be built from heavy so that when it falls down, it's going to be stable on the floor, almost like a rebuilt toy. And I wanted to wobble around, but I never wanted to tip over. So to do that, I'm gonna have to change the center of gravity so that it's heavier at the bottom. So let's do that now. I'm gonna go and select the capsules tag and then go to a mass on rewind back so I can see what's happening, and I'll actually enable the visualization so I can see what's happening. So I'm gonna press command D and then individualization have enabled this and then go back to my tag and then turn on the custom center on to find out the height of this. I'm gonna go to the capsules object on it. Turns out it's 1 50 So if I lord a center of gravity down by 75 it should be right at the base. So I'm gonna go to the tag, then go to mass center our cities to B minus 75 on the why. And if I just advanced forward by one frame, we should see now that the center of gravity is actually here there. And that's exactly what we want. I'm gonna go and disabled visualization for the time being and my fiber and press play. You'll see it will fall down, but it won't tip over. No, let me get this a bit more time and in fact, a bit more. So I'm gonna set this to 500 like that and also turn off the visibility of the taper there . So I'm gonna go to filter and then turn off the d former visibilities here on. I'm gonna create a sphere. And then I'll leave this up, make it slightly smaller like that, and then push it sideways even smaller actually like that. And I'm gonna make this fear collider so that when a press play, I can actually start moving this fear around. And as soon as it hits this object, you see the objects gonna tilt, but it will never tip over. That's because it's heavier at the bottom than it is anywhere else. So its center of gravity is right at the bottom of the object. So I cannot move around and then just keep moving this fear around like that and you can see that object never tips over because the center of gravity is right at the bottom. 17. Hinges: in this lesson, we'll have a look at how to write with connectors in particular hinges for that. Let me go and create a cube and I'll make the call a little smaller. I'm just eyeballing this. I don't have to be quite precise with this. So something like that will do. And I'm also going create a hinge that's under simulate dynamics connector. And you see, by default the type off. This is a hinge on. This is what it looks like and you can think off this almost like an actual hinge so it can use it to protect objects like the doors and the windows to their frames. Or in this case, I'm just going to make sure that this object here, the Cube, is actually stuck or connected to space so to nothing, but it's gonna be hinged from the top. So for that I have to visually place the connector or the hinge. So I want this to be at, because I want the Q B eventually to swing that way. So I'm gonna rotate the hinge like that by 90 degrees on on the connector on the object where it says object A an object be We're gonna drop the cube inside. Object A. And if he had one more object which we don't know, we could drop that inside object. Be on. That would mean that the two objects would be hinged together. In this case, I'm going to leave this as it is. And if I just go and play this, you see that the hinge turns red. That means that it's not active. So there's something wrong with this. I'm gonna go back to the beginning for the hinges to work. You need to make sure that the objects were using as objects. Here are dynamic objects. In this case. I'm gonna go make the cube a rigid body. So I'm gonna go on at their rigid body tactic, a cube. And if I now go back to the beginning and play this you see that object will now remain in place. Now it looks as though it's just a standard cube, but it isn't. It's a dynamic cube that's being connected to nothing basically in space. Let me show you what that means. I'm gonna go and create a sphere and I'll make this fear a collider. And again just to test things. I'm gonna go and extend my overall time. Let's say two or three on the frames and then push yourselves. And then all modus fear that way make it smaller and I'll make sure I'm at the beginning of the timeline and hit play and is it plays? I'm gonna move this fear from here to here and look what happens to it to the Cube as I move this fear through it all did it again. You can stop it if I go slowly. Door opens up for the flap, opens up slowly. If I go fast, it goes much faster. Like that's so I'm gonna go and make this look a little more interesting. I'll start by creating a tube, and I'll just move this out the way that way, and I'll make this told her That's a bit more on. I'll make the inner radius a little wider on all. Create a bandit, former and at that inside the tube, and the 50 parents starts in the same place. I can't see the bandit former now because my d former options ordered former filters are turned off, so I'm gonna go to filter turn on the D. Former. So that's my bandit former there I'll go and change the strength to 90 degrees and then I'll have more segments to the tube. So I click on the tube. I'll go to hide segments and increase that and then to make these areas smoother, I'm gonna add more rotational segments like that. And then I will take the entire tube that way by 90 degrees. And then I'll rotated that way by 90 degrees and then I'll push it back, going that way. And now I'm gonna go and create a floor. And if everything up above the floor like that just do it is from the front view so we can see what's happening. There you go. Well, then go back. To my perspective, you maximize it. Take my sphere, pushed us. Now on top of this whole like that, just to be sure that it's in the right place, I'm gonna middle click on, go to the top view and press age, and it does indeed line up with this whole. I'm thinking of going maximize the perspective, you again. And now what I want to do is to make the troop a collider. So I'm gonna right click on the tube simulation tags at collective body, so the truth is gonna remain static. The floor also is going to remain static by making sickle either buddy as well. And now, if I play this. But of course, this fear is also collided, buddy, right now, which means it won't fall down. So let's just delete this tag and then create a rigid body tag on there. And now if I played this bike, But what happens? I can make that sphere go a little faster by giving this an initial push down on the why. So if I go to the tag off the sphere, come down to dynamics and then the custom initial velocity, I can give this a negative. Why push? So I can set this to let se minus 1000. That means it's gonna shoot down much faster. So let's reframe and then play. It's still until two week, so I'm gonna go back and make this fear a little larger. So I'm gonna press t make this a little larger, making sure from the top view that this doesn't exceed the hole in there that looks about right. If I'm not going play again, that should be strong enough now to open that flap. There you go. Just to make things a bit more fun, I'm gonna take the cube and the connector. You know, command dragged them there, so I create the second flap there. But on the second connector, I need to make sure that object A is set to the new Cube old school and drop the new cube in here. And now we have two flaps. So if I go and play this, it's if that's fear is strong enough to open both of them doesn't like it. So I'm gonna go and select this fierce tag and then go to dynamics on the initial linear velocity. Also, system minus 2000 them press play and see if this fear is strong enough to open up both of those flaps. Almost there. So I'm gonna go back and make this a little faster. First, I'm gonna and drop this from a higher distance. So I'm gonna go and increase the height here. Language. It's tag and said they still had se minus 3000. So I make it even faster when animation starts I'll go back and play and see if that works . Now this fear bounces a lot of time to go back and take. The spheres bounced down. So I'll select the tag, go to collision and then set the bounds toe 0%. And also the floors bounce to 0% so it doesn't bounce and knife. I try again. Let's see what this looks like. I quite like the way that the first flap actually spins around and it's this fear from behind, and I'm gonna leave it as is, so I'll reframe again and play it one more time. And that's how we can create a basic hints set up in cinema 40. 18. Visualisation: in the next couple of lessons. I'll show you some of the most common problems that the designers come across by working with dynamics in Cinema 40. But before we look at them, it would make sense to understand how cinema is actually calculating all these dynamics. So if there was a way off visualizing these, that would really be helpful and good news. There is a way. Let me show you and just start by creating a floor, a simple plane this time. And I'm also gonna go and create a cube and then make the Cube smaller and then playing a little larger on. I'll live to Cuba above the floor, and I'll make the cube a rigid body and then the plane a cool either. Now, if I go and play this, something's happening. Yes, but I don't really know how cinemas calculating this. There's one way of visualizing this, which really helps. I'm sure you how I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then in my project settings, which is command or control de or you go to edit and then project settings. There's the dynamics tab, and underneath that there's the visualization tab. If I click on this and then if I go and enable this, you'll remember We talked about this very briefly when we talked about the center of gravity. But now I'll explain this in more detail are going enable this and nothing happens right off the bat. What you need to do is to advance forward by one frame so that the dynamics start getting calculated. And now that I'm on the first frame, the visualization kicked in and I can start seeing all these different colors and different icons are on these objects that place a little bit and you can see. Actually, there's a white box around the Cube and there's a green month around the Cube, and some of the points are gonna be highlighted as well. Now, like that one there. Let me explain what each one is going to rewind and then pull back, and then I'm gonna turn off everything else except for the collision shapes. So when I play, it will not only show us that shapes around these objects that are being used to calculate the collisions. Let me go and create one more object. Let's say something like a pyramid and then I'll push this up as well and then move it here and make it smaller. And I'm just going to rotate the pyramid at it a bit first and then take the same tag from the cube onto the pyramid by command, dragging it. And if I keep playing, you see when the objects are falling down there, one color when they're on the floor there, another color. And then when we wait enough, they'll actually change color once again. So take a look, they start yellow. As you can see, the cube is still fooling now, so that's yellow. The pyramid just touched the floor, so it turns green. And when they wait for a while, they'll actually turn blue. So take a look. We didn't actually have enough time on this timeline. So I'm gonna go and increased overall time and then extend this and play again. And you notice that they go from yellow to green and eventually to blue. What do those colors mean? If the colors around these objects are yellow, that means they're currently being calculated by the dynamics engine. So cinema forties working on them If they're green, that means they have started that the actuacion process, which I'll get to in just a moment. And if they're blue, they are deactivated. What is the actuacion mean? The actuacion is controlled in these tags on the dynamics tab based on these two values here. What the linear velocity threshold means is that if an object starts moving less than this much every second, it's going to start getting the actuated on. If that's the state, the object is in for two seconds, then it gets deactivated and turns blue. So the objects gonna be green when it starts moving slower than this. And if that happens for two seconds, then it'll turn blue and the same happens with the angular velocity as well or the rotation . So if the object stops rotating by less than 10 degrees a second, that's going to go into a state off the activation. And then as soon as that happens for two seconds, it'll just become the actuated and stop. So these are like triggers working backwards. So when do you want animations to be the actuated? That's what these two values control. Now let's see that in action. I'm gonna go and create a cylinder on a little either. And if a shorter that way, and then increase the height off this by pressing Alter the again so I can see the arrows again. No pushed is here, and I wrote it s a little bit like that. And then I'll take the same tag from the pyramid onto the cylinder. Um, and I go back to the beginning and then if I play you see this in the extra. I'm gonna go and get this a bit more. I'm gonna go back. We'll take this a little more like that and then separate that from the cube, then play when it falls, it should start rotating it of it, You see starts rotating just a tiny bit. I assure you that again, I'll go back to the beginning and then if this up, maybe a tiny bit more, and then play. It falls down, and then it starts rotating. But it's green because that happens for two seconds, it stops. That means that rotation that was happening to the cylinder was less than 10 degrees. That's why after two seconds off rotating less than 10 degrees, it stops Now. How do you change that? How do you get to sit in there to keep rotating? So I'm gonna go back to the beginning, and that's like the tag off the cylinder and then come down to angular velocity threshold and then Lord is down to That's a one degree and then play again, and this will keep rotating. And you see this is not green anymore. It's still yellow, meaning that it's still being calculated because it doesn't rotate less than one degree per second. So that's how it can control an object by means off linear velocity or angular velocity. Let's go back to our project settings by pressing command D And then on the visualization, I'll turn off the collision shapes and turn on the bounding boxes, and now this is a box that you can fit the object in fully. So just to visualize how big an area and object occupies, it can reveal the bounding boxes. If I go back to the beginning and if I advanced by one frame, you see that the bounding box off this still in there is a little different than it will be in just a second. If I go and play this, you should get the bounding boxes. Keep updating. So if I go back and if you check the bounding box off the pyramid as well, let me go back to the beginning and then play. You see, because of this point here, the bounding box extends old way, and as it keeps playing, the bonding books shrinks. That's what the bounding box is, a box, a cube that you can fit the entire shaping. Let me go back to the beginning, and then I'm gonna turn on the contact points, and what the contact points will show us is when the two objects touch each other. So if I play this, you see some of these points will start getting highlighted. And these are the areas when the objects are touching each other. If I go back to the beginning and then play again, you see nothing's touching each other, so there's no contact point around is like you playing forward frame by frame. The shortcut for this is G on the keyboard, so I can just press G a couple of times. You see, as soon as this hits it, there's a contact point there, and then there's the same for the pyramid on the Cube is still in midair, so there's no contact went there. And also, if the objects actually touch each other, you see those points on those contacts as well. So if I go back, move this up here maybe so that when it falls down, it will actually touch the Cube. If I play this, I don't. If you saw if I go back to the beginning and play again, although this frame by frame by pressing G a couple of times on their the objects touch each other, that's what those contact points are. So these are the things that are being calculated. Let me now go back to my visualization again by prison. Come on D and I'll turn off the contact points and this time turned on the connectors. And to explain to you how the connectors are visualized. I'm gonna go and delete everything and then create a cube. I'll also refrained my seen by going to view on their frame default, and then I'll make this cube a little shorter on the set and then going at a connected to the scene by going to simulate Dynamics connector and then we left the connector off. It's red right now because I'm not at the beginning of the timeline, So I'm gonna go back to the beginning. Well, then rotate this corrector that way by 90 degrees, and then I'm gonna make my cube a rigid body and then go to the connector, drag the cube inside, objects a And if I go back to my visualization, my prison command D and then with the connectors turned on, if I go in advance forward by one frame, you see a black area around this connector. Let me zoom. Art, This is the area that I was talking about. This is the limit off the connector. And here's what that means. If I take this connector and push this connector to say, somewhere here, an advanced forward by one frame You see, if I now play this, that's the limits off the connector. So that's how far it can reach. So with the visualization, we just see the limits off the collector in black. So those are the four options that we have under the visualizations have off the dynamics inside the project settings and having access to these options will really help when it comes to troubleshooting some dynamic simulations 19. Steps Per Frame: When you have fast moving dynamic objects in the scene and these objects interact with each other, some strange things tend to happen. Let me show you what these are and how to fix them. I'm gonna start my creating this fear, which I will rename to be Cage, cause that's what I'll use this says as a cage off. Then go and create another sphere and I'll make the cage much larger. Let's say we set this to 2 50 and then I'll make a smaller one even smaller. Let's say 50. I'm gonna make the cage and X ray so I can see what's happening on the inside. And what I want to do now is to duplicate this small sphere inside the larger one. So for that, I'm gonna use the cloner, and then I'll drop my sphere inside the corner. And right now you can see that because the cloner is set to a linear mode, it's actually duplicating these spheres on top of each other. I'm gonna go to the cloner on goto object change. It's more from linear toe object. Then I can put the cage inside object field here, which means that small spheres are being created on the cage. No, I don't want them to be created on the cage. I actually want them to be created in the cage. So I'm gonna go and change the distribution from surface two volume. That means the spheres are now gonna be inside of the cage. I can then go and increased account. But say to 50 I'm then gonna go and make my sphere the small one. A rigid body on the cage. Cool, either. And if I just wanted play, it's gonna create an explosion effect, which is what we expect if you remember from the previous lessons. If the objects touch each other at the beginning of the timeline, they're gonna be exploded like this. So in order to avoid this, I'm gonna go to the tag off the cage and then come down to coalition and then change shape from automatic, which will process faster toe static mesh, which will be a little slower to process. But it's going to respect the holes inside the shapes so that the small spheres here can actually fall inside the whole off the cage. So if I know when play this you see that's exactly what happens. Oppose the playback. Go back to the beginning. I'll actually make my spears a little smaller, so I'm gonna select it and then come out a radius and let's say we sentenced to 30 and then on the cloner I'll just go and increase the count from 50 to, let's say 100. Then if I play and you see the small spheres are gonna fall inside the cage again on that looks nicer. But in order to show you the next problem that you run into, I'm gonna go and add more frames to this. So let's say we said its to 500 for the time being. Well, then extend this so that we have time for this to play on as this is playing. Now, if I select the cage and start moving this around, you see that small spheres are actually gonna go move inside, that the larger one like that. But if I go too fast, you see some strange things happening. I don't If you can notice what some of the spheres are actually escaping the logical I'm sure that again I'm gonna zoom out a little bit and then I play as it's playing as I am with a cage around. You see, the small ones are actually dispersing out. I'm gonna pulls the playback, go back to the beginning and then more the cage back to the zero point. Instead of manually moving the cage around, I'm gonna add attack to it so that we can automate this. That's a vibrate tag on, right Click on the cage animation tags by bright. And this will allow us to randomize the position, this scale or the rotation of the object. I'm gonna enable just a position for the time being on right now, it's only set to 100 units on the X with the frequency of two. If I play this, you see, this will just go left and right. My 100 units, Max, I'm gonna go and update this to, let's say, 500 on decks and 500 on the why in the 500 on the set. And then I'll speed this up. Small change of frequency from tool to let's say, five on your getting that same issue again. Small spheres escape the large one. I'm gonna pulls the playback, go back to the beginning. This is something you'll run into every time you have fast moving objects that are dynamic . In order to make this work a little better and more accurately, you're gonna need to go to your project settings, which, if you remember, was command D or edit project settings. And then on the dynamics Inside the expert tab, there's an option called steps per frame. You can think of steps per frame, almost like the resolution off the animation. So in between each frame, say, for example, from Fremont of Frame to our detailed Do you want that emission to be the highest number, the more detailed or the more accurate animations going to be? But the slower it will be to process. So that's just going increases from five to, let's say, eight and I'm gonna hit, play and see if this actually improved the results. It looks like fewer spheres air escaping the large one, but still there's an issue. So what I'm gonna do now is to hit the play button on as it's playing. I'm going to increase this number one by one and see when the small spheres stop escaping the large one and that's gonna be the number that I'll be using for this. I'm just gonna go play this on increases one by one. Let's say we come up to 10 on a few balls are still flying around. It's gonna increase. This 12 seems to have done the trick just to confirm when Go back, rewind and then play again on Indeed, none of the bulls are escaping now. Now I could, of course, just go here and use the high enough number. Let's assets to 20 on that will more or less ensure that none of those were issues are gonna be there. But that's going to make it unnecessarily slow in this case because the scene is relatively simple. We don't really see the effect off that, but if you have a more complex scene with lots off objects and polygons, this will slow down the machine. So use despairingly on one final touch Here. I'll just go and turn the visibility of the cage off by holding down bolt on double clicking on one of these traffic lights. So now we have the small spheres inside the cage and they're no longer escaping it 20. Caching the Simulation: When you create a dynamic simulation and you want to see what each frame looks like by simply clicking and dragging your played around, you'll notice there's gonna be a weight issue. Let me show you what I mean. Let me just go and create a simple object like a cube and then create a cloner. Put the Cuban side the cloner, and then, in fact, make my Cuba little smolder. Let's say 45 by 45 by 45 and then I'll slightly Kloner and then change its mold from linear to grid. And then I'm just going to increase the counter. Let's say 25 by five. My 25 of Empress hates to Zumar, and then I'll just bring all of these closer to each other, so just bring the wide down. First, let me just zoom in so I can see what's happening here. I was gonna bring their photo down like that's making sure that these don't touch each other and then all do the same for the X salts. Gran pushed his closer. In fact, I can just copy this number there so I can just go and said this to 48 and then the same force that as well, 48. Then if I press h now, we have quite a few 100 of these cubes in this scene. I was gonna go back on. What I want to do now is to make the cloner a rigid body and then I'll just go and critics fear as well, which I'm gonna lift up and make quite large. I'll make this fear a rigid body as well. And if you play, you see both who full down at the same time. But what I want to do is to pulls and go back and then set the cubes trigger to be on collision so that they only become dynamic. When something in this case this fear hits them. Let's see what this looks like. Now let's say that's good, but I actually want to rewind. Now let's say to frame 30 and see where these cubes were on frame. 30. So if I go back, you see, I can't rewind in time by just doing this because remember, you can only work forwards in the dynamics and not backwards. I can now go forward from here, So if I go push this forward again from frame 30 down till it's a friend 45 it continues, but if I go back, nothing happens so I can go forward, but not backwards. But what can you do if you want to find out exactly what happens on frame 30? Well, the answer is baking or cashing. Let me go back to the beginning And then, with both of these tags selected, I'll just come down to the cash option here and I'll come down to here. But his bake object. Or if you only had one of these tax elected, you could also click on Bake. All this will look at all the tags in the scene on Bake them all, and baking is just writing these frames onto the ram, which means you can go forwards or backwards in the timeline without the need delights. So let me show you what that looks like now. So if I go and play this you see, it's exactly the same animation. But the advantage of this now is that I compose it and then rewind on. All of those objects will actually go back to where they were on the previous frames, so these are not being read from the Ram, and this is all might space. These particular frames take on the run Now. The downside to this is that if I now go and update something, let's say, for example, I want this sphere to start from somewhere else. If I go back to the beginning and then if I was to move the sphere some arounds like here you see, it won't let me because this is not cashed and animation are depends on these cashed frames . If I also want to add something else instead of the spear, let's say if I went, delete this fear altogether. If I play this again, you see it will still act as if this fear was in the scene. Pulls the playback, go back again. And if I want to ignore the cached frame so I can go and make some adjustments that dynamics. I've had to go to the tag, which now has a filmstrip icon next to it. That's how you know if something's cashed. If I click on this than on the cash, I can clear either the cache of this object or the cash off all of the objects, so I'm gonna go clear all objects. Now you see, the Rams emptied, which means now that the cubes are no longer going to fall down until, of course, something hits them. Let's now go and create something else that can hit these cubes something maybe like another cube. I'm gonna make this and it's a larger lift this up. Then, right click on this new Cube rigid body tag and I'll Baykal of thes and then give it a few seconds. Once it's baked, you see that film strip will be applied to both of these tags. There you go, a knife I play. This will let me actually go back and forth in time line in any way I like. Although cashing is quite a useful trick, it will have its limitations. For example, if I want to change one of the properties, let's say on the small cubes if I go to its tag and go to collision. If I change in your these, let's say the abounds from five to 250. This will have no effect until I go back, delete the cash frames and then re bake them. So if I go back to the beginning. And then if I play you see, this will look exactly the same as it did before we found the bounce effect actually show I would have to pose it. Cilic along these tags go to cash, clear all the caches and go back. And then if I play again, you see that small cubes are now gonna bounce like crazy because they're now using the value of 250% rather than looking at the cached frames. 21. Angular Damping: you'll remember in the previous lessons that we looked at a property called friction. Friction was used to change the stickiness off a surface. Now that's gonna look a little different when the surface is around. One. I'm sure what I mean, if I just go and create a plane on, make this quite large like that. And if I just go and critics fear on lift this up on, If I just go and make this fear rigid body on the play nickel, either, let's say I want to shoot this fear from here. Just Lordstown. It's a bit I want to shoot it from here in that direction. But I wanted to eventually slow down and stop. Let me just going to select this fierce tag on Goto Dynamics. I'll turn on the custom initial velocity and then make a bit more space here on the increased the initial linear velocity on the set. Because I want this fear to go in that direction. That's that. I'm going up this to, let's say, 250 and if I just play it, you see this fear is gonna go there. Although it's quite slow, you will keep on rolling forever. I'm just going to increase the overall frames. So if I was going to say it's too, let's say 500 and extend this. And if I go back and play again from the beginning, you see that sphere doesn't stop or doesn't even slow down, let me pose this. The first thing that comes to mind is to increase the friction of this. If I go to the tag of the sphere, come down to collision. If I increase the friction from 90 which is already quite high, something even higher, let's say 400. If I don't come back, play she that has no effect on the stickiness off a rolling surface. I'm gonna pull the playback back to the beginning. We set this back by right clicking on these arrows on. In order to slow down a rolling object, you're gonna need to fake a friction. And that's under the four step here on the four stab, you see the linear dumping on the angular dumping. If you want the rolling objects to have some friction as well, you'd be increasing the angular damping value. This is like making the surface of it damp or wet so that man object falls in. It actually slows down. So let me just go increases from five to, let's say, 25. And if I play, you see the object with slow down and eventually it will come to a stop. Let me pose this. Go back to the beginning and increase this even more to, let's say 50. And if I play again, that's going to stop even quicker. That's going to be even more important when you have lots of these objects. Let's say, for example, we create a particle emitter and we put the sphere inside diameter and then I'll rewind back of them, move them. It's her back towards here and then make this fear smaller like that. I don't go to the emitter, Make it a little bigger like that may be, and I also go to particle and the show objects so I can see these fears when they're being emitted. If I play now, you see the spheres are gonna be created and they'll slow down as they go away from the meter. I'll just wait for needs to stop now instead of slowing down like this if you wanted them to slide all the way. All that had to do would be to select the tag off the sphere and then lower down the angular damping to, let's say zero. And that means is that it's actually gonna go all the way forever until something else, like another collider, stops them. But they have no friction or angular dumping. One final way to visualize this would be if I just posed this. Take the sphere out, delete damaged her. And if I now go and play this in order to actually see what's happening, I'm gonna quit a simple material and open that material up, go to color, texture and then at the surface off tiles, and then just drop this onto the sphere. Now you see, the reason why this fear is actually moving is not because it's sliding on the surface, but it's rolling on the surface like that. So the friction value here has no effect on the way this fear roles. You will only have an effect when this fear initially hits the floor. I'm sure what I mean, if I just go and lower down the fiction to, let's say 5% check what happened to the sphere the first time it hits the floor. It slides a little bit before it starts rolling again. If you could spot that this woman try it again, it drops, it slides, then it starts rolling. It slides because there's no friction. Whereas if I increase the friction, then play again. It will start rolling as soon as it hits the floor. That's the only time that the friction is important on rolling objects only when the first contact is made. After that, the force angular damping takes over. 22. Switching from Collider Bodies to Rigid Bodies: There will be a time when you need to convert a collider body into a rigid body. I'm sure you an example Here, 40 seen have modeled the simple box made out of five cubes. And I created a sphere, put the sphere inside the cloner and created multiple copies in a Gregory. And the animation I want to create is for the spheres to fall down inside the box and the box will hold the spheres. And that's your own frame. 50. I want the bottom flapped open so that spheres can actually fall down. I'm sure you how that works. I'm first going to go and make this fear a rigid body. So it falls down and I'll make everything else a collider. So when I play, this is what we have now. Great. I'm gonna get this a bit more time. That's 100 50 frames. And what I want to do is to play this until frame 50. So there, maybe one more frame, and then I'll get the bottom flapped open up so that it's fears can actually fall through. So in order to do that, I'm gonna go in at the connector to the scene. So I'm just gonna go to simulate dynamics connector on that score and push this connector here, and I'm gonna go to the beginning of the timeline. And inside the connector, I'll use this cube and also the bottom cube. So this one named left is going to go as our objects? A. So I'm gonna go and drop the left as objects? A. So the connector starts getting connected to that object. An object B is going to be the base. So I'm gonna go in, drop the bottom here as object be. And right now, both the bottom on the left wall Here are colliders, which means that the connector isn't going to work. So if I play you see it's gonna be read. If you remember from the previous lessons for a connector to work, it needs to be connecting a rigid object to something. In this case, I'm gonna need to make the bottom a rigid object, and that's going to be connected to the wall here, which is going to be a collector. So I'm gonna go to the bottom object, and I'm going to select its tag on in order to convert an object from being a collider into being a rigid object. You change the dynamic option here from off to on on means rigid on off means collider. That's pretty much the only main difference between the two objects the dynamic state being on or it being off. If I am not going play this from the beginning, you see that the bottom flap would actually open up. But the problem with that is that spheres just go through. I want this fears to fall through on the on frame 50 so I can keep frame this. Let me go to frame 49 said the dynamic to be off. I'm not going to see any of these right now because remember, on this we rewind all the way back to the beginning. This is not an update properly, but that's OK. I'm gonna go and key frame this right now and I go forward by one frame. Change it from being a collider which is off to being a rigid body, which is on. Then I'll go and keep frame this again. What that means now is that for the 1st 49 frames, it's going to be a collider And as soon as we hit frame 50 it turns into a rigid object. So here we go. I'll show you that from a different angle. I'll go back, play again. Everything's a collider, and then the bottom part becomes a rigid object. They just move these key frames down the line. It's a there. So for the first time that frames, nothing happens to the cubes. They're all colliders and on frame mano one, the bottom cube starts opening up, So here we go. 23. Course Exercise: Now you know all about dynamics are wanting to take a moment and think about how you can create an animation similar to what you see on my screen here. So take a look. I'll play that one more time for you. So the valuable comes in turns into a rug, people than that turns into a ping pong ball. And then all these baseballs full down. Think about how you can create a similar animation to this. I encourage you to pose the training here and see if we can recreate something that looks similar to this using the father provided Once you're done, proceed to the next lesson where I will be explaining how I did this from scratch. 24. Creating the Final Animation: So here's the same scene without any off the animations. Let me first talk you through what's inside this scene. We can then have a look at the animation part of it. Here I have the cage, which has got lots of cubes inside. And I added a glass material to most of these and some plastic material at the bottom and then put them all inside the mall. And then I have a plane which is going to act eventually as a light. And I also have a couple of light sources, and I have a floor here. And then, of course I had these balls. So I had a valuable that we're going to start with. And then we had the rugby ball here and then the Ping Pong ball and then the baseball. Now what I'm gonna do is to tidy up the scene a little more first by taking all the scene objects here the lights, the plane and the floor and putting them inside the null. Before I do that, I'm gonna go and turn the lights off by holding down old and then double clicking on one of these traffic lights and then dragging my mouse up, so I only have the floor visible. And then I select allergies with the shift key. And then I do old G. So I put them on inside the null and I call that see? And now what I'm gonna do is to go and create a layer by double clicking here and the renames layer to be look and then I'll just go and look this layer. And what I'll do now is to add these objects, the seen object inside that Locklear. So for that, I'm gonna go in middle, click on the scene. Now here. That's a middle click so I can select all of these objects inside. And then I'll drive one of these onto this look layer. Now that they're all locked, I can't even click on them here. I'll actually do the same for the cage as well. So I'm middle click on this and then dragged. That's inside the same layer here through the cage, and all of its contents are also looked. And if you remember from the example video, the valuable is the first thing that we see. So I'm gonna go and turn off everything else by old clicking on these traffic lights, so I only had a volleyball turned on. I'll just start by making available a rigid body. So it's grand, right? Click at a rigid body tacked to it. And if I know play, you see well, just pull down. Of course it goes through the floor and the cage, which I don't want, actually. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then unlock this for the time being and then go to the cage and then make this one eca lighter. So I'll right click on this simulation tags and make the sec Aleida body. Well, no grand looks again. My father screenplay. You see, the ball falls and it just waits there. So opposed this. Go back to the beginning, selectable, and you can see because I lock the cage, I can actually click through it, which is great. I then want to lift a ball up and then fly around. In fact, I'll just go and push the ball somewhere here, and I want the ball to a bounce in that direction. So I'm gonna give this a custom initial velocity. So going selected stag both attributes Goto dynamics and I'll turn on the custom initial velocity. And because I want the ball to go in that direction, that's a positive X direction. I'm just gonna go and increased the linear velocity on next, let's say 500. I'll just play to see what this looks like. That's a bit too much. Actually, I'll go back and load us down to, let's say, 300 and then try again. That's looking better. But the problem, of course, is that the ball doesn't bounce. So let me go to the collision tab ongoing. Increase the bounce from five to, let's say 90. And then if I go back, play again. Let's see what that looks like. That was too much. So I'm gonna pulls go back and that's a bee. Load us down to say 60. Then if I go back and play again, that's good. But I don't quite like the way it bounces off the surface here off the cage. So what I'll do again is to go back to the beginning and I'll go to my layers so I can unlock the cage and then select its tag and then come down to attributes. If I go and increase the bounce to, let's say 1 15 and then play again. You see well balanced once, twice. It doesn't bounce as much the second time, but that's OK because we're going to switch the valuable to the rugby ball on that second bounce point anyway. All I want really easy for the ball to bounce off the floor, then off the side wall on the next one is it hits the floor again or the base off the cage . It will switch. So let's go and find the point where we can actually switch balls. So I'm gonna go back then, just flying a little bit so we can see what's going on. And I was gonna go and hit play on Roundabout here. That's about Frame 51. The ball hits the base. Now let's go and find that exact frame. I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then play and then pose it somewhere here. And then from this point on, I'm going to go forward frame by frame, either by pressing this button here or by pressing G on the keyboard. But in order to see this a little better, I'm actually gonna go and switch my view to the four up for you. So I'm just gonna go click here or middle click and then in the front view as I press G. That's the first bounce. Let me just maximize this so it's easier to see. That's the first bounce. And then I want to switch balls on this point here that was framed 52. Actually, you remember. I won't be able to go back. If I press f to go back to the previous frame or it's this person here. It won't rewind, but I can go forward, but not backwards. You remember from the previous lessons that if you want to be able to scrub through time, you're gonna need to cash this animation right now. We don't need this because I know the bullets hitting the floor the second time on frame 52 . Now let me just go and confirm that again. So I just play just before 50 12 pause it and then just use G and then here on the next frame, it makes contact. Then it goes up. So what I'm gonna do now is to turn the voluble off on frame 52 I'm gonna go back to the previous frame. That's by pressing F, and I'll just go and turn off the visibility irritable on this frame. Now, in order to turn off the visibility off the object, you're gonna have to select it and then come down to basic and then down here, where it is visible in editor, invisible in render attorneys off. So I'm gonna go on key, frame this one frame 51. So I'm gonna go back by one frame by pressing f key frame both of these and you notice of key. Frame them on the default values. And the fault means that if this object has a parent, it's going to use its parents visibility as its own visibility. Right now, there is no parent for the valuable. So at the moment, default means on so many key friends on default that advanced forward by one frame by pressing G on the keyboard. Then I'll just go and turn these off, then key frame them again. And then at that point in time, the voluble is invisible. But the problem with that is that the voluble still exists, which means that if you drop something else in here that's actually going to interact with that valuable. Let me switch back to my perspective, you and make sure you what I mean by that if I just got fly out, let's say if I create another object like a say sphere and if I looked this up and then make it smaller and if I just go and make this fear rigid body as well And then actually, I'll just push this spear down here, say like that and then make it even smaller and actually create a couple more copies here like that. They pushed this that way on up. And if I play this now, you see that this valuable, although it's gonna be invisible, is going to interact with the other objects here. So take a look. It bounces off the other objects. Here, let me play again. They go and this can cause some problems, especially when you have quite a few of these objects in this cage. So what I'm gonna need to do is to turn off the valuables dynamics as well, so it doesn't get calculated in the dynamic simulation. I'm gonna go back to the beginning and the little these extra spheres first, and then I'll go to the valuable. And at the point when I turn this object off, which was here, I'm also gonna turn off its dynamic tack. And to do that, I'm going to select the tag and now go to dynamics and key frame. This enabled the bottom. This is our return. The dynamics on or off foreign object a key frame. This year I'll go forward by one frame again by pressing G turn it off and then key frame again. Now, at that point, the valuable is invisible and its dynamics are turned off. And you can see that by the gray icon instead of the blue one, which is what we had before. Let me go back and play again on that's It's Ford available. No, I'm gonna stop the playback and then go to frame 51 when the valuable is still visible and I'll go and turn on my rugby ball. I was gonna position this ready. Valuable is just to be sure that on frame 51 the valuable is actually here. I could go back, play again and it is indeed here. I'm just ruminative. It to this so I can see what's happening. What I'm gonna do is to get the rugby ball to rotate first. So I select the rugby ball about the coordinates of then click on one of these ours. Then why click and then reset the default so they're all set to zero. I also want the rugby ball to be a rigid object. So I'm going to right click and that simulation tags rigid body. And you see, if I go back to the beginning and play this, it kind of breaks apart because this has the stitches here as a separate object, you can see that's inside the same rugby ball here as stitches. So what I'm gonna need to do is to select the tag and then go to collision and then change this from apply tack the Children toe compound collision shape so that two objects are treated as one. So if I now go back and play, you see that they don't break apart. But of course, the valuable is sitting this now. No, I don't want the valuable to interact with this rugby ball. So what I'm gonna do is to turn the rugby ball off until frame 52 which is when the Valuable was hitting the floor. Let me go back to frame 52 here. At that point, I want the rugby ball to be visible. In fact, I'm gonna have to go back to frame 51 then go to the right people, turn it off here by clicking on the traffic lights. The reason why I'm old clicking, by the way is to change both of these at the same time. Otherwise, you'd have to do this twice like that. And then I'll just go to basic key frame the visibility here both in the editor and in the render on them press G to go forward by one frame attorneys on and keeping these again. Now, if I go back and then play, it's gonna be invisible until that point. Then it becomes visible. But of course, the valuable is still hitting it because I just made the object invisible, but I didn't disable its dynamic tack. So I'm gonna do the same thing for the dynamic tax. All go to friend 51. And as you're moving this play head, you can hold the shift key down. So it snaps to the key frames off voltage tag, but the dynamics key frame that enabled on the disabled state. So I'm gonna disable this first key frame it, then go forward by one frame, enable it thanki framing again. Why not go back? The rugby ball will act as if it doesn't exist until frame 52 now. So if I not go and play volleyball doesn't hit it. Then as soon as the valuable disappears, you see the rugby ball comes to play that no fly back out. And what I want to do is to give this rugby ball an initial kick up a swell. So I'm gonna select it and then I'll just go to Tag, then come down to the dynamics tab. Custom initial velocity. I'll turn us on. I want this to go up and also a little bit that way, so that will be positive. Why? Cause it's going up and negative X because it's going left. So I'm gonna push this ex down. I don't know by how far, so I'll just have to eyeball this and see if this is enough. If not, we can always go and increase this just go back and play. Now, that wasn't enough at all. Actually, I'll go back to the beginning. I think we're increased. The Why even more. And then lowered X down. They tried it again. Still not quite enough. So I'm gonna go back again, and then we little crazy with this. So I'm just going to end up this to let's say 7 50 and then x two, let's say minus 200 or so. Let me go back and play again. That wasn't too much, actually Announced. I'm gonna go back. What is down to, Let's say 500. And you see, this is what it takes. You're gonna have to do a lot, Sof trial and error with this one. So I'm gonna go back, play again. I think that looks about right. Actually, I'm gonna go back to the beginning, but I actually want to give this beautiful rotation as well. So instead of just going up, it's actually gonna go up left and also tilt that way as well. On that would be a rotation on the set. As you can see, the blue arrow here is said and I want us to rotate in the negatives that direction. So I'm gonna go to the angular velocity, go to Zed announced. It is to let se minus 200 see if that's enough. Let me go back to the beginning. Play again. That's looking right. But of course, the other problem with this is that it doesn't have enough pass. So let me go and select a tag. Come down to a collision, increase its bones to, let's say, 70% and see if this works better now. So let me play again. Just reframe this a little bit and play again. Maybe a bit more of a balance here will actually look better. So I'm gonna pose this. Go back, set the bounds to, let's say, 75 and in fact, on the custom initial velocity, I'll push this further left so it hits this left wall sooner. So let me go back and play again. I think I want to get this a bit more balance, said a collision got to balance and said, It's still it 8 85 and then play this one last time. That's looking good. And now I want to find no one needs to change to a Ping Pong ball, so I'm gonna pose it here back to the beginning. On after Frame 52 I'll play this frame by frame again. So I just got hit. Play on once. You're past 52 pulls it here, and just by using G on the keyboard, already wants forward by one frame at a time. So I wanted to have that bounce, that it bounces back and then maybe on that frame there. So that's frame one. All right, I want this to switch to a Ping Pong ball, so I'll do exactly the same thing again. I'll go to the object here and key frame its visibility. Go forward by one frame. Turn the visibility off for both the editor and the render. Well, thank Ephram. These again also disabled its dynamics tag by selecting it and then going to dynamics one frame one or eight. Actually, it's frame one on nine. I'm gonna go and key frame the enabled option. Here the violence by one frame to 1 10 disable it and key frame again. Soas faras cinema is concerned the rugby ball is not gone, both from the visibility and also from the dynamics. If I not going? Play this. You see it will start with a valuable switches to the rugby ball. Then the rugby ball disappears, and at that point I need to enable the Ping Pong ball. So let me go back holding down the shift key to frame monoline, Select the Ping Pong ball. Make it visible so we can see what's happening here. And I just push this down, say, to hear them just go to the front of you actually, so I can see what's happening a bit better. So I'm gonna middle click and then go to the front view here and maximize this long in a position to Ping Pong ball here and zoom in to see what's happening a bit better. Opposition in here. That's what's gonna appear from. I'm just going to make the Ping Pong ball invisible at this point and then go to the basic tub key frame its visibility go forward by one frame to frame on 10. Turn it on and then key Frame these again. Why not go back and play? You see, at that point this switch happens, I'm gonna go back to the beginning now. I also want the Ping Pong ball to be a rigid body. So I'll just go and right click on this simulation tags, rigid body. And in fact, I'm going to in turn off the dynamics for the Ping Pong ball as well. So I'll select a tag, built a frame one online with the shift key held down. And then what I want to do is to go to dynamics turn off. This enabled Wilton Key. Frame it, go forward by one frame, turn it on and key. Frame it again. No, I want the ping Pong ball to go in that direction now because the rugby ball was coming in that way, the Ping pong ball should continue that way. So for that, I'm gonna go to the custom initial velocity and then up the why and then excessive. Also, it goes right as well. Let's not go to the perspective. You and then just check what this looks like. I'm gonna go back to the beginning and then play again from scratch. So one second switch there and it bounces. It doesn't bounce a lot, So I'm gonna go back to the beginning again first increase its wide kick. So I'm gonna up this. Why also go to collision and increase its balance as well to, let's say, 50% this time. And if I go back, play again. That's looking much better. By the way. You may be getting a slight glitch between every switch off the ball, and that's quite normal. That's your computer's processor trying to work out when the dynamics should turn off and then the other dynamics off the other bowls should turn on. So if you're getting a slight delay that's normal on, that's going to disappear on the final. Renta, let me now show you the final part of this where we had the baseballs falling down from the sky. So for that, I'm gonna go and turn on the baseball, and I'm gonna add this inside the cloner like that's so I now have multiple copies here of incident. The cloner Goto objects change it from a linear cloner to a Gregory, Langen said, Mr Let's say, four by two by four, then lower the size down so they're closer to each other like that, that let's go to slightly higher angle so I can see what's going on there on what I want to do is to lift everything up, and I now want to randomize the order of these as well. So we'll go and select the cloner and then at the random, affect her to it. Here. I'm just going increase these a little bit. First, I'm gonna go and fly to a different angle on, Just increased the Y parameter up so they get separated away from each other. It's not a lesson x. I don't want to go all the way out and that slightly less on the set as well. Just a check that these are all still within the range. It looks like they are, if you're them, might escape. But that's fine. And I'll just go and turn in the rotation as well. Let me make a bit more space here. I can then randomize the rotation values with these balls as well like that so they don't hold of the same. I'm gonna make my baseball rigid body as well. And if I play at the beginning that see what that looks like, you see the baseball's will actually break apart as well. That's because the baseballs are made out of multiple objects as well. So inside the baseball, we have two objects. One is the ball itself. The other one is the stitches. So I'm gonna go select the tag, go back to the beginning and then come down to its collision inherit tag and I'll changes to compound shape. So if I not go back to the beginning and then play again, they should go full down inside the cage like that. No, of course, we don't want them to fall down right away. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning for the time being. Just disabled their dynamics. Then I'll go back so we can work out when these actually should fall down, go back and then see when the Ping Pong ball appears. So I'll just play. So that was the 1st 1 The valuable. Then we had the right people and the ping pong ball on Say around about their say Frame 170 upon these baseballs to fall down. So I go to frame on 70 key frame. This enabled bottom there, go forward by one frame, actually enabled this thanki frame again. I actually want these to fall from higher up, so just going lift this up and if you want, you can turn. The visibility is off as well. So if I go back by one frame by pressing F Well, the basic turned the visibility off a key frame. Go forward, attorneys on and key frame again. And now they'll only become visible and start falling down on this frame. Final touches here. I'm gonna go in at a camera to the scene. So first I'm gonna fly to a different angle. Let's say here, that's when at a camera and that's selected and I'll square and zero these out. So I'm just gonna go set is 20 on the rotation to zero as well. First, I'm gonna look through the perspective of the camera so I can see what's happening. I'm gonna set its banking to zero as well. And then I can change the position so I can leave the camera up, actually get that to look down like that, and then push that photo left and then closer and then a little down like that. And then a bit closer, maybe. Yeah, then I can go and turn my scene objects on. And now we have animation ready to be rendered in the final render actually turned on the global illumination from the render settings. By pressing command be I turned on the global elimination so that the lights would bounce around and they render looks nicer. And here's the final animation. 25. Goodbye!: on. That's it. Thanks for sticking until the very end. I really hope that you found the course helpful and learn some of your skills. Now that you know all about rigid body dynamics in cinema, I'd love to see what you come up with. So go ahead, create some cool animations and share them with me here or on social media. Once again. Thanks for watching my course, and I'll see you on the next one.