Drawing in Perspective | Liz Kohler Brown | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (2h 1m)
    • 1. Drawing in Perspective

      2:24
    • 2. One Point Perspective

      10:47
    • 3. One Point Inspiration

      2:38
    • 4. Designing Your Shelf

      11:56
    • 5. Objects in Perspective

      16:20
    • 6. Color, Highlights, and Shadow

      16:11
    • 7. Detail and Composition Options

      8:22
    • 8. Two and Three Point Perspective

      7:18
    • 9. Inspiration and Sketching

      4:57
    • 10. A Room In Perspective

      13:21
    • 11. Details in Perspective

      6:58
    • 12. Even Spacing and Finishing Touches

      8:30
    • 13. Color and Composition Options

      9:16
    • 14. Perspective Challenge

      2:03
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About This Class

In this class, you’ll learn how to draw in perspective so you can depict any 3D object from a wide variety of angles.

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In the class we’ll cover one, two, and three-point perspective so you’ll be able to incorporate objects at any angle into your illustrations.  I’ll be demonstrating these techniques on my iPad in Procreate, but you could use these principals for drawing on paper, canvas, or any digital drawing program.

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First we’ll look at the basic principals of perspective and go over the workbook I created where I outline every step of the perspective drawing process.  The workbook is a free download that you get when you watch the class and you can refer back to it anytime you have trouble figuring out how to integrate perspective into one of your drawings.

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Next we’ll use one-point perspective to draw a shelf with a variety of objects on it.  We’ll cover how to put any shape in perspective including cylinders and odd shapes, so you’ll be able to draw any object into your composition.

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Next we’ll use two-point perspective to draw an interior space like a living room or kitchen.  We’ll look at how to space things like wood floor planks and window panes evenly, and we’ll cover how to add some textile objects to your illustrations so your perspective drawings don’t end up too stiff and rigid.

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Drawing in perspective is one of those must-have drawing skills that artists and illustrators need to have to be able to accurately depict objects at various angles.  Once you learn this process you’ll see how you can use perspective to put the viewer in an interesting position in front of the canvas, so you aren’t just depicting flat objects shown at eye-level.

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If you’re afraid that drawing in perspective is difficult or that there are too many rules to learn, I want to show how simple the process actually is by both showing you the rules and then walking through the process step-by-step through creating some great artwork that you can share online or in print.  Let’s get started!  

You can get the class downloads and resources here:https://www.lizkohlerbrown.com/drawing-in-perspective-class-downloads-and-resources/ (the password is shown at the beginning of the class)

Music by BenSound

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Liz Kohler Brown

artist | designer | teacher | author

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Transcripts

1. Drawing in Perspective: Hi, everyone. I'm Liz Kohler Brown. I'm an artist, designer, and teacher. Today, I want to show you how to draw in perspective, so you can depict 3D objects from a wide variety of angles. In the class, we'll cover one, two, and three-point perspective, so you'll be able to incorporate objects at any angle into your illustrations. I'll be demonstrating these techniques on my iPad and Procreate, but you could use these principles for drawing on paper, canvas, or any digital drawing program. First, we'll look at the basic principles of perspective, and go over the workbook I created where I outline every step of the perspective drawing process. The workbook is a free download that you get when you watch the class, and you can refer back to it anytime you have trouble figuring out how to integrate perspective into one of your drawings. Next, we'll use one-point perspective to draw a shelf with a variety of objects on it. We'll cover how to put any shape and perspective including cylinders and odd shapes, so you'll be able to draw it any object into your composition. Next, we'll use two-point perspective to draw an interior space like a living room or a kitchen. We'll look at how to space things like wood floor planks and window panes evenly, and we'll cover how to add some textile objects to your illustrations so your perspective drawings don't end up looking too stiff or rigid. Drawing in perspective is one of those must-have skills that artists and designers need to be able to depict objects at various angles. Once you learn this process, you'll see how you can use perspective to put the viewer in an interesting position in front of the canvas, so you aren't just depicting flat objects shown at eye level. If you're afraid that drawing in perspective is going to be too difficult, don't worry, I'll take you through every single step of the process, and we'll practice creating some artwork using the rules, so you'll have plenty of instruction and practice so that you can start integrating perspective drawings into your own work. So let's get started. 2. One Point Perspective: Let's start by taking a look at the basics of perspective drawing. I created a workbook that contains all of the rules for perspective drawing, so you can reference that anytime you're having trouble with one of the techniques you learn in this class. You can find the workbook and all of the other downloads and resources I'll be mentioning today in the link in the project section on Skillshare. Make sure you're viewing Skillshare using a web browser and not the app, because the project section doesn't show up on the app. When you click on the link, you'll see that you need a password to get into that page, and I'll show the password on the screen right now. Once you get into that page, you'll see the full list of downloads below this image. It starts with the workbook here, a smaller version of the workbook for older iPads and non-Pro iPads. The workbook is also available in PDF version, so if you're not using Procreate, you can use that PDF version for most apps, and computer programs as well. There's also the Procreate Brushset, the Procreate Color Palette, and the Pinterest Inspiration Board. You can download the brushset and the color palette if you're using Procreate, using the same process that we are going to do to download the workbook. I'm just going to tap "Download the Workbook", it's going to open that in a new tab, using Dropbox and you should get the pop-up window for downloading. Sometimes it's down here on different web browsers. I'll tap "Download". Here on Safari it shows up on the downloads list up here. I'm just going to click on that tab on the workbook and then it imports it into Procreate because it's already a Procreate file. It's going to open whatever you had open last. Go back to the gallery, get out of a stack if you're inside a stack, and then that workbook's going to show up at the very top of your gallery. Again, you can go ahead and also get the Brushset by doing that same process, then you'll have the brushset over here. Same thing with the color palette, then you'll have the color palette all saved in Procreate. I want to start by just walking you through the workbook, so you know how to find everything that we'll be referencing throughout the class. First, we've got the cover. Each of these sections is just a different layer. Whereas if you get the PDF version, obviously you can just swipe a page by page. The first section is prospective types. We're going to look at 1, 2, and 3 point perspective, and these are just in little groups. You can use that drop-down menu to get to that. Next, we have the horizon line. We'll look at different areas where you can put the horizon line, and we'll talk about that in a minute. Next, we have the color palette that I'll be using throughout the class. If you're using a program like Photoshop, you can sample these colors and make a pallet. Next, there's just a blank page for practicing the perspective techniques that we'll cover. There's a section here called even spacing, and it'll help us create even wood planks or windows throughout an angled perspective area. We'll cover that when we get to that point. Next, there's a iPad perspective challenge that I'm going to tell you about at the end, where you can use your drawings from the class, and create a few more to do a drawing challenge with me on Instagram. Last, is the shadow section where we'll talk about how to add shadows to your perspective drawings. Let's go back to the very top here, and start with one-point perspective. Perspective in the one-point way has a very simple method. We just need to create a line, which is our horizon line, or you can think of it as the line you are looking towards as the viewer. Then we have the vanishing point, and that is the exact point on the horizon line where the viewer is looking. Let's say, for example, you're standing in the desert in Arizona and you're looking at some long road, and it just wines. Eventually, it gets so small that it seems to disappear, even though it's not actually disappearing. It looks like it's disappearing, so that's our vanishing point. That's the point where things vanish. If we had a sky here, this would be where the ground is. But with this box, we're not really talking about a road and a sky, but they're still a vanishing point, even though these landscape features aren't existing in a room or with a table or things like that. That's why we call it the vanishing point in the horizon line because it comes from landscape drawing and painting originally. You can see here these steps are numbered to keep things simple. The first thing we do is draw our shape, so a box, and of course, if you're using Procreate you can hold, to create a straight line, and put one finger down to make those lines perfectly straight up and down or horizontal. But for now, I'm just going to sketch so we can do this quickly. Next, step 2 is to draw this line, step 3, this line, step 4, this line. Now we know that angle of our box. If I have this box here, and I bring it over to the side a little bit. You can see we're looking straight at this plane. This is a perfect rectangle, and then this side here is angling smaller as it goes back to the edge of the box. That's what we're creating here. Most people have looked at this type of perspective. This probably isn't new to you. It's the most basic type of perspective, where the viewer is facing a flat plane. That could be this object, it could be a wall, it could be the back of a chair, anything where the viewer is facing some flat plane. One thing to think about as you're setting up your perspective drawings is where your horizon line is on the page. I'm going to make this perspective type section invisible, and pull up this horizontal line section or horizon line section. In the first example, we had the horizon line up here. That's normally where it is above the viewer's eye. But, there are cases where maybe you want the viewer to be looking straight at something, so then your box is just going over to the side, or maybe you want your viewer to be up high looking down on something, so then your box is coming down. You can see this is all the same original rectangle, but it looks very different when you look at the different places where the horizon line can go. As we draw today we're going to talk about, where do you put your horizon line? How do you know where it should go based on what you want to achieve in your drawing? That'll be an important thing to reference if you have any trouble getting that horizon line in there. Let's go to the practice page, and just do some quick practice before we dive into this drawing. I'm going to start by creating my horizon line, and let's make sure this practice layer's selected. I've got the sketching pencil from the perspective set, just going to grab any color here, draw a line, put one finger down, and that's my horizon, just put an H. Then I'm going to draw a little box holding down every time to create the straight line, so hold and then put the other finger down to get that horizontal line. Then I want to decide what angle do I want for this box. Do I want to go over here? Do I want to go over here? I'll just play around with that. Let's put it way on the opposite side of the box, so we can really see some dramatic perspective here. As you can see, I am crossing this all at the same point. This is called the vanishing point. We'll call that VP, and we talked about that earlier. The vanishing point here is going to be the same, even if I put a little box down here. Now I've got two boxes, and they're going to the same vanishing point. This is really important to always in one-point perspective, make everything go to the same vanishing point. There's no way physically possible that you could have another vanishing point. If you do that, you're really getting into another dimension of space which, there are drawings that contain that, but it's not going to represent reality. We don't ever want to just put another vanishing point on the page because the viewer can only be facing one thing at a time. As we go through this one-point perspective, remember that that one vanishing point, once you choose it, you're set with that for all of your objects. In this case, we're going to do a shelf, so all of your objects on your shelf will be pointing to that vanishing point. If you feel like you need a little practice with this, just go ahead and do a bunch of boxes and make them all lead to that same vanishing point, and that'll give you just a little bit of practice with that process. If you feel like you're good to go and this all feels familiar to you, let's go ahead and jump into the first project, where we'll use one-point perspective to draw a lot of different objects on a shelf. 3. One Point Inspiration: Now that we've covered the basics of One-Point Perspective, let's create an illustration using those rules. I'll be using a kitchen shelf as the theme for my project. So I'll include some cookbooks, some bottles, and herbs. But you could use any kind of shelf here. It could be a garden shelf, an art studio, or anything else that works for your style. I'm going to start out here on the Downloads and Resources page. If you look at the very bottom of that list, you'll see the Pinterest Inspiration Board. I'm just going to click on that to open the board. You'll see that there are two sections on this board, and I'm going to start here on the Shelves One-Point section. I've just saved a bunch of different shelves with various objects on them to give you a little bit of inspiration for the type of shelf that you use, the kind of objects that you place on it. Of course, you can feel free to just copy me as I do this process. But I think it's really helpful to just have a few little reference images nearby as you work. Just so you have something to pull from if you get stuck. Of course, we don't want to copy any of these people directly. But, for example, you might find a little pot that you really like or a shelf style that you like. I'm just going to screenshot that. I'll repeat that same process with a few other shelves. I found a few shelf styles I like. I found a few objects I'm interested in. Something like this is really nice. You could have a few potted plants. One that's dangling, one that's sticking up, and maybe a cactus. This is really just to get an idea for objects. Not to copy exactly what you're seeing in the image. Next, I'm going to open my photos app and go to each of those images that I've saved. Tap edit, crop, and just crop out anything that I don't really need in that image so that I have some easy reference images as I work. 4. Designing Your Shelf: Now that I have my inspiration images ready, I'll open Procreate and create a new document. I'll tap the plus symbol here, and you can tap "Create a New Canvas" using this button. I've already saved the size 3,000 by 3,000 pixels, so I'll use that. You can make your own saved size by just swiping left on one of those and tapping "Edit", and then creating a size that you like. So I'm going to use my favorite; 3,000 by 3,000 square size. I'm going to start by getting my inspiration image over on the side by just swiping up, and then grabbing that photos up and swiping it over to the left. Then I can just have these nearby as I work. I need to start by figuring out both the spacing of my shelf and the horizon line so I know what kind of angles I'm working with for these shelves. Let's just start by creating the front part of one of the shelves. I like to work in colored sketch pencil because that means every layer I have will be in a different color. I find it just makes it a little bit easier to stay organized, so I'm drawing, holding and then putting one finger down to get a straight line. Of course, if you're using pencil and paper, you just have to do that with a ruler. This is like the front of my box. If I was drawing a box in perspective, I would just start with the front of the box. The shelf is going to be like a box, but not exactly a box. I'll tap the Move Tool, and I'm trying to think where I want that first shelf to be. I want to have plenty of space for some stuff out of here, so I'm leaving some space at the top. I'm going to duplicate that layer. Turn on Snapping, turn on Magnetics here, and just shift this down so I can see where my second shelf will be. Merge those two together, duplicate that layer and shift that down. Now I have three shelves that are perfectly spaced. I may end up changing this but I like to just start with an idea of what I want to work with in terms of the width and the spacing, so when I put this horizon line and I have something to start with. Creating a new layer here for the horizon line. Let's say we put our horizon line right here, this is where the viewer's eye is looking. Let's say our finishing point is right there. If we do that; this shelf and this shelf, we're going to see the tops of, whereas at this top shelf you're going to see the bottom of it. Something like that. This is definitely an option if you want to see the bottom of that top shelf and the tops of the other shelf, you'd put your horizon line right there. I'll make that invisible and do a new version of this. What if I put my horizon line just above my shelves? I'm going to go right here. Let's do the vanishing point basically right in the center of the Canvas. New layer, new color. Then I'm going to see the tops of all of my shelves. I like how that looks. I just would prefer in this composition to see the tops of all my shelves. There's no right or wrong way to do this, so you can decide here which way you want to do it. Do you want to see the tops of all your shelves, or do you want to see the bottoms of some of your shells? So just play around with your horizon line until you get that to look how you want it to. Next I need to decide the width of my shelves, so I'm going to start with this bottom one and just have it like right before this previous shelf. Let's just switch to a new color. This is a little bit easier for you to see here. The green is representing the back of this bottom shelf. I'm also going to take a line and come up, because that's going to tell me exactly where the backs are for these other two shelves. I'm going to go across on that shelf and across on this shelf, and now I have the backs of all of my shelves. You can already see that things are getting a little bit confusing here in terms of how many lines we have going on, so I'm going to start by just erasing lines that I don't need. This was just to help me find the backs of my shelves. I don't need it anymore, so I'm going to erase it. Back to my orange layer with the sides of my shelves. I don't need all this extra stuff, I only need to see where the size of my shelves are. This is one thing I really recommend you do as you draw in perspective. Well, a few things here. Number 1, new layer, new color for every single piece. Number 2, make sure everything is on different layers, don't just go same layer. That's going to make it way easier for you to erase as you work and keep this clean and easy to see. Here is my vanishing point and horizon line layer. I'm going to drag that to the very bottom swipe left and lock it, that's a really important layer because that's where everything needs to point; all of my objects are on my shelves. I don't want to lose that layer, I don't want to accidentally draw over it, so I'm protecting it down here by locking it. I'm also just going to delete some layers that I'm not using. Also at this point, I can merge all of those layers together. My shelves are all taken care of. Now I can start new color, new layer, adding some objects to my shelves. I'm going to start by just doing a basic sketch of what I want on my shelves. You may want to just swipe around your inspiration images and see if anything sticks out. I really like these books that are angled. I was thinking one. Let's get a different color so that it's easy to see here. The [inaudible] one book that's sitting up straight, so I'm just doing the front of that shape. Just think of everything as a box. This is the front of the box, which also happens to be the spine of the book. I'm just working on that for now, I'm not worrying so much about doing the angles. I'm going to start with just drawing the fronts of these boxes. Let's do another book. We have a couple of options here. We can draw the book sideways or I can draw the book and then make it sideways. I can make it a little easier because I can play around with the angles and use the Procreate tools to shift things around, so I'm turning off Magnetics. I think this is a little too big. I can turn on Freeform, so I can make it a little skinnier. That's the nice thing about doing new color, new layer, and using all these move tools. If I turn on Freeform, I can really play around with the width and height. Now I know exactly how I want that book to be. I'm just going to repeat the same process, and add a couple of more books on this shelf. I forgot to put this book on a new layer, but I want to show you a trick here because that's really not a big deal. If you know how to use the selection tools, I'll just tap "Select". Make sure Freehand is on, make sure none of this other stuff is on. Circle that object, and then I can easily tilt. I'm letting these books to just fall, then I'm going to do a more neat stack over here. The reason I'm doing one stack that's messy and one stack that's more neat is I'm always thinking about variation in my drawings. If everything in your drawing is predictable, it's not as interesting for the viewer. But if you make a lot of interesting decisions and variation throughout your drawing, it keeps your viewer looking around the page and interested in what you're creating. I'm going to add a little recipe box right here. I like having these books and then a recipe box sitting on top. I'm also going to do a potted plant. But now, for my potted plants, I'm just going to sketch that in. We'll talk about how to do that when we start doing the perspective portion of our shelves. For now if you have cylindrical objects, just sketch those in. They're going to be really easy, so don't worry. But we're just not quite to that part of the process yet. I saw these little nesting bowls over here, and I was thinking it will be nice to have just a little set of nesting bowls. I'll draw the biggest one first and make sure that fits on my shelf, and then put a couple of smaller ones in there. The last thing I'm going to add is some bottles. I'm just going to try to do a lot of different bottle shapes. Again, these are our cylindrical objects, so we'll be looking at how to add these in later. Don't worry so much about how these are going to work in perspective, just know that we're going to get there in a minute. Again, I'm using that Freehand Selection Tool to help me play around with creating different shapes. 5. Objects in Perspective: Once you're happy with all of the spacing of this sketch, let's reduce the opacity of that layer and if you haven't merged all of your objects under one layer, go ahead and do that and then reduce the opacity of that layer. New layer, new color. Let's start adding some perspective to these objects. Here's our recipe box. We are using that same vanishing point and let's go with a different color because that's going to be hard to see on our shelves. I'm also going to reduce the opacity of the shelves so you can really see what's going on on this new layer. This red is my perspective. There's the perspective from my recipe box, so you have to think here about the physics of this. We've got a shelf right here, and then we have a recipe box right under it. Even though the recipe box ends about right there, you're not going to be able to see that in this drawing so there's really no point in drawing it. You can just leave that open. Let's see where this book ends up. We've got some perspective to that book, but we need to see the back of the book. I'm just going to cut across here and then erase the part that overlaps with the recipe box because my recipe box is on top of that book. Same thing here with that bottom book. This ended up being a weird pyramid shape. You may create one of these stacks and then realize you don't really like how it ended up and you can start over and change how your objects look. I'm going to go forward with this, I'm happy with how that looks. Let's repeat this same process with our books over here. Although the first thing I always like to do is clean up before I move on to the next section. I find the more I clean up, the easier it is to keep track of what's going on with my objects. I'm happy with how that stack of books looks. I'm going to go over here and start working on my other stack. We need to decide here how thick these books are and it has to depend on the back of the shelf. Let's look at this first book, for example. This book has to end before this green shelf line here. Because otherwise if we did it here, this book would be going into the wall. It would be like shooting into the wall, so we need to make sure that our shelf and our book are all on the same physical plane here. I'm just making sure that book ends right before that green line. Same thing with this other book and again, let's keep it super clean and clean up these lines before we get too far. You can see how this process can be a little bit tedious in the beginning, especially as you're learning how to align objects. But the more you do it, the easier it will get. I promise you, you will eventually be drawing something in perspective and not even thinking about it. I've got the back of this book here. Here's my book and there is a horizontal line because it aligns with this front plane. You always have to think about in one point's perspective, is this on the front plane flat or is this on the side planes which are angled? There we've got our few different perspective objects. Now we need to move on to our cylindrical objects. How do we know with this pot if the top needs to be really skinny like that, or if it needs to be really wide and open like that, what is the width of this based on the angle we're working with? What we can do is actually create a box and let's just start by drawing an actual box. Then we can turn that into a perspective box. Now I need to decide how far back this box can go. Again, it can't know beyond the back of the shelf because then it would be inside the wall, so it needs to end before the back of my shelf. I'm just going to go up and across. There's my little box. Now I just have a basic box sitting on the shelf. We know if I had a cylinder sitting on the shelf, it would have to fit inside this box, it couldn't be larger than this box. That's a good constraint to start with. What I'd like to do here is get a different color, different layer and you want your circle to touch here, here, here, and here. Because if you had a normal box like this and you put a circle in it, a perfect circle, it would touch all four of those parts. If you have the circle on top, it's the same process. It's just an angled circle. I'd like to create that circle and then just hold in Procreate and that gives you a nice little shape. Then same process down here, but we have to think about the back of our box and the angle of the back of our box. This just needs to go somewhere in the center of this bottom. You can mimic the angle that we have going here so you know if this oval is this size, that one's not going to be that size or it's not going to be like really skinny. It's going to be pretty similar to what we have going on up there. Now we have this nice cylinder and I can circle around that red box, swipe three fingers down and tap ''Cut'' so that box is out of our way, and now I have a nice little pot. The only problem that I see here is that I made it way too big. I got caught up in the tutorial and made my pot way too big, so I'm going to remake that pot using that exact same process and do the same process with these other two pots down here. I'm sketching in that shape, I think part of the problem is my original sketch was too big so that sketch is so important because we end up mindlessly following it. It's a good idea to don't do what I do and go back and double check your sketch before you get too deep into this process. I want my pots to all be the same size, so I'm using a little trick here to copy the box from that first pot. I made that little box to make my first pot, and now I'm just tracing that front square. Now I can bring this front square down to my other pots. Then I know that all my pots are the same size. Now I have three nice little pots for my herbs, they're all the same size, and they all have the correct perspective. So that if we were actually approaching a shelf with this same angle that we're looking at now, you would see this amount of opening in the cylinder. As you can guess, if I want to do these nesting bowls in the same process, we're going to have to do the same thing where we figure out what that angle is going to be. I have to admit that sometimes I just go for it, especially if I've already done some other cylinders on that row. I'll look at those cylinders and see how open they are. They're not like this. They're not like this, they're medium, open we could say. Sometimes I'll just cheat, and I don't think anybody notices. You certainly can do it the perfect way every time, if that feels good for you. Whatever feels right for your style and how you like to work, just go with that. I've got three nesting bowls here. I'm happy with those, I just free handed that. Now I'm going to start thinking about my bottles. One thing to think about what these bottles is, you're not going to see the opening of the bottle like this, you're not going to see the top of it because it's above the horizon line. It's like we're looking at it, if this was open, for example, if I hold it this way you see inside. But if I hold it this way, you don't. That's what we're seeing in this bottle. We're seeing the closed side of the bottles. What I'm going to do here is probably make one bottle, and then play around with it by duplicating it and resizing it for each of the other bottles. I like to just make one side of it, flip it, move that flipped part over, and then I've got a nice, even, symmetrical bottle. I also like these glass bottles with the big cork in them. So I think I'm going to add a cork to my bottle. I'm going to think about that as I finish off these shapes at the top. There's one of my little corks, and then these tiny bottles are going to have tiny little corks. The reason I add little things like this in is because, especially when you're working in perspective, drawings can get very rigid and predictable, so I try to find ways to add little visual interest elements like these little corks. It doesn't take much. Just some little hints of something different that's not shown in the rest of the composition. It really just adds something interesting for the viewer to look at, so I'm always looking for opportunities to do that. I like to draw the top of the bottle like this, and then I erase that bottom part, because we're not seeing inside the bottle, we're seeing the front of the bottle not open. That bottle got a little too big, so I'm just going to size it down. Also I think these two bottles are just a little bit too similar, so I'm going to use a freehand selection tool to select that, and I'm using the free form move tool to just shift those bottle shapes a little bit. This is one of my favorite parts of the process, it's a challenge to figure out how many different shapes can you come up with. You think you know just one bottle shape and then you do a few of these and you can come up with 10 or 20 different shapes. I think that's a great exercise for illustrators and artists to push themselves to figure out a lot of different versions of something. Sometimes you don't find the best version until you get to the very end. I always say just keep going in a drawing until you find the solution. I'm creating each new bottle on a new layer, but then after I make it, I just merge it onto the layer with the other bottles. I really only like to put stuff on a new layer as I'm working on it. Once I'm totally done with that shape, I'm fine to just go ahead and merge it with the other items that are similar to it. I do that partly to stay organized, but partly because we've got that layer limit and procreate, so we can't just keep going with layers forever and ever, we're eventually going to run out of layers. So I try to be proactive about that and get rid of layers as I think about it. I'm happy with how this turned out. I'm going to make my sketch invisible. This is a good time to just think through all of your pieces on your shelf. There may be some things that don't look exactly as you want them to, there may be some things that need to be adjusted a little bit. This is a great time to play around with the perspective, play around with the shapes and sizes of every object, because once we get going on this, you can't change the perspective at this point. It's a good time to finalize everything before we start adding in color. Then our next step will be to start playing with color. 6. Color, Highlights, and Shadow: Now that I'm ready to start playing with color, I really don't need this reference image, so I'm going to get rid of that. I'm going to start by just merging all of my objects onto the same layer. Reducing the opacity of that layer, I can get rid of my vanishing point, and my horizon line for now because even though I may need that later, I don't need to see it while I color. I've just got my object sketch, and my shelf sketch. I'll create a new layer below those sketches, and I'm going to be using this color palette, again, you can download this from the downloads and resources page we talked about at the beginning. I'm going to go to the perspective brush set and get the fluid ink brush. I'm just going to start filling in the shelves with the color. We're going to do every color on its own layer, so that we have the ability to change things as we work. This doesn't have to be or be-all-end-all color, and I do have a class where I go deeper into color, so I'm not going to talk a lot about that here. But if you feel like you need some help with color or you struggle when you're trying to choose colors, either use my palette or you can also check out that class, and start to get more comfortable with color. I'm just filling in that shape, and then dragging and dropping to fill it in completely. Of course, if you are working on paper here, you can work with any materials for the color. You could do acrylic paint, pastels, colored pencils, just whatever you have lying around at home. This would also be nice with watercolor, you could do a watercolor sketch and perspective, and then use some watercolors to color that. One thing I like to do at this point is really differentiate between the front of the shelf, and the actual top part of the shelf. I'm going to create a new layer above that brown layer that I just made, tap on it and tap "Clipping Mask". What that's going to allow me to do is choose a different color here, I'm just going to go with a slightly lighter color. Then I can come through and draw that new color, and it only shows up on my shelf. If I turn off that clipping mask, you can see this is just a mess. If I turn it back on, it clips it to that shape. I'm going to be using clipping mask a lot in this process, because when I do a perspective drawing like this, I like to use lights and darks to show the different parts of the object. So that's basically what I'm doing, I'm starting with all these colors and then going through with light and dark versions of each one, and shading it in to show the different parts of the object. I'm happy with how that shelf looks. I'll create a new layer below all that, and start with the background color. Of course, all of this stuff is flexible, so this is really just a starting point, but I do like to have a starting point because it just makes it a little bit easier to see what I'm working with as I draw. Let's start with our books, so I'm going to grab a color here. Let's just go with that green, and I'm going to start with this first book. Again, this is new color, new layer. I'm just following those perspective lines that we created earlier. Drag and drop. We need to know what the front of the book is, because if I take my sketch away right now, this is just a big blob. I'm going to create a new layer above it, turn it into a clipping mask, give a slightly lighter version of that color, and draw in the spine of my book. Just like we did with the cylinders, we started with a box and then we changed the shape, I'm going to do that with the book too. Because books aren't usually super flat like that on the edge, instead, I'm getting the fluid ink eraser. They have this curve to them, so I'm just going to add that in. I started with my box shape, turned it into a perspective object, and now I can start going through and giving it some curves, giving it a little bit more of a book look, so it's not just a book shape, it actually looks like a book. I'm going to get a cream color, and that's going to be my paper on the top, because if you looked at this book, you would actually see some of the paper through here. We don't have to go into a ton of detail with each of these objects because, we're going to see this at a small scale, but I want to do at least enough so that the viewer can see that this is actually a book and it has a spine. Now I'm going to repeat that same process with all of my other books. One thing I'd like to do with these is I don't use quick hold which is in Procreate where you just hold to get a straight line. When I'm doing my inking like this, I don't use quick line, because I just like to get that fluid feel. I use the quick line when I make my perspective lines so that my perspective lines aren't totally wonky. But then when I get to this part of the process, I really just like to do it by hand, I think it gives it a nice handmade feel. But again, that's a personal style thing that you just have to decide as you're working what works best for you. I'm also repeating the same process with the recipe box. I erase where my recipe box has overlapped with my shelf. What I'm going to do is tap on my shelf layer, tap "Select", go back to my layers panel and select by recipe box, get the eraser, and then I can erase. I'm just selecting my shelf, but then I'm working on my recipe box layer. Then the box clearly goes behind the shelf, rather than overlapping it in a weird way. I really don't like the color of this recipe box, so I normally would use a re-color tool but procreate changed this recently so I want to show you a workaround. If you tap the selection tool, tap "Automatic", and turn on color fill, let's get a different color, tap on that object. Then I can start playing around with some different colors that I could use for this. I want to go with a sandy brown I think, like a wood color. I'm happy with that. I'll create a new layer above that and then do another clipping mask layer like I've been doing. But rather than doing a full section like I did on the book, I'm just going to do lines, that show the viewer where the recipe box opens here. I've got that and then I've got the front of the recipe box, which will be just a little bit lighter than the box itself. Actually, I don't like that. Let's go with a little bit darker on the back part of the box. This is really just a process of playing around with color highlights and seeing what looks best to show the perspective and shadow of this piece. I'm happy with how these pieces look right now. I'm going to keep going with my parts. I want to show the interior of my pot, really clearly, because I want to have this nice perspective showing. I'll create a new layer above this layer. This doesn't need to be a clipping mask, but this will be my soil color. Actually, let's put this below the pot. Now, I have a nice soil layer in that pot. Now, I'll do the same process with my other pots. In terms of the plants, you can, of course do anything here. You can sketch these and before if you want, or you can just freehand it. I think I'm just going to freehand it and just do some really simple plants. This is such a small scale. It doesn't really make sense to do a ton of detail in this area of the drawing. That's one thing to always think about is what is the scale your project will be viewed in? For example, if I showed this on Instagram, it's going to be like this small. If I go through and put a ton of detail on the plan, what really is the plan of that? No one's ever going to see it. Unless you're doing an art print that's going to be a little bit larger then of course it would make sense to go a little bit deeper with your drawing and your detail on these plants. Again, I'm doing this new color, new Layer, because I'm pretty sure I'm going to want to change the color of these plants because as I zoom out, they almost disappear in this brown muddiness. I'm keeping all of these colors on a new layer so that whenever I need to go back in and adjust that to have it a little more sense, then that's clearly easy to do. I'm continuing this same process with my nesting balls, starting by just blocking in the shapes and then adding some highlights to show the shape and the shadow and the perspective. For example, on this one, if I create a new layer above it, I can use a slightly darker color to show where the shape ends. I think this is way too dark. I'm going to go tap on that layer, tap the adjustments, tap hue saturation, brightness layer. Then I can start playing around with varying this color so I can get a little closer to what I was hoping for. That looks a little better. Now, I can go to that clipping mask layer. Swipe two fingers right to out for locket, tap one time and tap fill layer. Now, I've got that new color on the interior of my bowl. I'm going to continue the same process with all of my other bowls. I do turn my sketch off a lot just so I can look and see how things are going. I do recommend that you occasionally just turn off that sketch and see how things look without all those lines in your way. Sometimes you can really catch some big mistakes that you're making, then you really want to adjust, before you get too deep into the process. I'm going to repeat the same process with all of my bottles and corks. I'm doing a clipping mask layer on these corks because I want to add just a tiny bit of that cork texture. I'm doing it a lot bigger than it would actually be in reality because I want to be able to zoom out to that level and still have the viewer see some of that cork texture. It's one thing to think about with more detailed drawings like this is sometimes you have to exaggerate details in order for the viewer to be able to actually see what you're doing. I'm just going in with white on a semi-transparent layer and adding some highlights here. Just so, it looks like there's some light coming in on these bottles. All I did was create that new layer and then reduce the opacity of that layer with the white, so I can play around with how intense those highlights are going to be. 7. Detail and Composition Options: Now, I don't really need my sketch anymore. At this point what I would do is just go through and add a lot of detail. I'm just going to show you a little bit of the detail I would add, and then I'll let you do the rest on your own. One thing I like to add is wood grain, so I'm just going to go through here and add. I'm using that fluid ink pencil, by the way, a fluid ink pen. I'm just adding that little triangular shape that you get on wood, varying the pressure of my pen, and trying to keep it pretty random. I'll do that on all of these tops, I'm not going to have you sit here and watch me do this. But I would do that on the tops, I would also do it on the fronts, of course, because we want the fronts to match the tops, so we just sample that color and then get a slightly darker version of it. There's no right or wrong way to do this, you can do really thin wood grain, you could do some other texture, whatever works for your style here. I would repeat that same process with all of these. I might also add in some text, so let's call this basal, and of course this needs to be above that plant layer. We could add text here, we could add text across these books. What I usually do is write some text and then rewrite it on a different layer, because that first time you write it, it's usually a little bit wonky. I would want this to say something like French cooking, and then I would adjust this size and rewrite that. You can also add in some just dark areas that help differentiate spaces. For example, between this light and dark on my little book here, I'm just going to add this line. That just gives this object just a little bit more visual interest, a little bit more depth, and when he backup you can really see that maybe there's a little crease right there in the book. I often will just go through and do that, I just add all these little marks that are basically just darker versions of this original color, and they're just giving the object a little bit more life. Because this class is about perspective, I'm not going to go really deep into that, but I do want to show you my final piece and how it turned out. I added just a little bit of tags on the books and all of the pots, just some highlights on the bowls to finish off the detail work, but I think you get the overall gist of how I completed this piece. I do want to show you a few others that I did a little bit more detail. This is a shelf where I use the same shelf process that we did today, but I added in an outer shell that is arched. Just to give the shelves a little bit more visual interest, just adding in that bald shape, and I played around a lot with different versions of the arch just to get a nice rounded edge. Again, I started with the box, and ended up with the rounded shapes. That's the rule here in perspective, everything starts as a box, and then you can turn it into any other shape, but it needs to stay within that box. You can see I'm just adding a few different objects, a couple of plants, a suitcase and a book, and just adding some light detail to each object, I'm not going too deep into detail on any one object. I'm also playing around here with overlapping, I'm letting that plant overlap the suitcase a little bit, and that just brings the objects out and stops this from being just a really flat object, that's your main risk with perspective drawing as things can start getting really rigid and flat. I do a lot of work to make it fluid and have a lot of interesting movement throughout the piece. Here's another piece where I went to the next level with this perspective and added in some other objects and perspective, so this little clothing hanger and a side table beside my shelf. Again, we're just using that same point for every single object, just pulling the edges of everything off of that vanishing point, and then the same process that we use today, just adding in all of those little corners of the shelves, adding in my arched shell for the top of the shelf, and some simple objects on each shelf. I decided to do a lot of plants on this composition, because I really wanted to emphasize the variation that can be created when you start with something in perspective, but then you add a lot of fluid things to fill it out. I've got these leaves, I've got a lot of movement going on at those leaves, and then I added a little coat and a scarf on the left, so that's really helping break up all of these really angular lines that you're seeing throughout the composition. I really spent a lot of time adding detail to these plants, and then not nearly as much time on the left side of the drawing, I think that gives it some nice variation as well. You have this really dense detailed area, and then you have some really wide open areas on the left. I like that contrast, I think it helps hide the rigidness of the items that are in perspective, and just adds a fluid field throughout the piece. You can see how I added in a book at the last minute, and that's why it's really helpful to keep that horizon line and vanishing point on a separate layer, because you never know when you want to go back in and use that layer to add in some extra objects. Another fun project that you can do with one-point perspective is a city, and just like everything else, a city is just made up of a bunch of blocks. I tried to break up the blocks a little bit by adding in some stairs and some archways, so we've got some interesting spaces in the city. Then I just went through and added a lot of different types of windows. Again, I'm trying to get that variation by just varying how I add in these windows in different configurations, different widths, so that when the viewer looks at this piece they don't just see a bunch of boxes, they really see a lot of movement and variation. I also wanted to add in some plants, so that we had just a little bit of visual interests that was breaking up the whole industrial city booking space, and I think having those plants and they're really adds some nice variation. Just like I did with the books in our first composition, I'm starting with one color, and then just adding a lighter version of that color on the front side. You can see how the building is broken up in perspective, and the sides appear to have these shadows, so that the front side looks like that's the sunny side. Last I just played around with color, adding some details and filling in those plants. 8. Two and Three Point Perspective: Next we're going to look at two-point perspective and draw an interior space using those rules. You could use any kind of interior space for your inspiration. I'll be using a living room and we're going to start by looking at some images of different rooms so you can get a little bit of inspiration for your space. I'm starting here on the two-point perspective page on the workbook, and this is exactly what it sounds like. There are two points showing the perspective of the object. In the last project, we were facing a flat plane of the object and then looking at the angled sides over here. In the two-point perspective project, we're just turning this way. Now you can see this angle and this angle and they get smaller as they go to the back of the object. That's what we're seeing here. You can see that vertical lines are perfectly straight up and down, and then every other line, every horizontal line has some angle to it and it's based on this point and this point. Just like in one-point perspective, these don't change, they're always going to be right there. Once you set them, they're always in that place. Again, if you need some help with this, I've numbered the steps. The first thing we do is we create this line that tells us how big this object's going to be, then we just start drawing out to the sides and then we can do the back parts of the cube. If you were doing a building, you would be doing this front part of the cube. We're going to do a room. We're going to be just doing the back part of the cube. We don't need the front part of the cube because if you're walking into a room, all you're seeing is that corner like this. You're not seeing the front part of the room if you're inside it anyway. What you can see here is this point dictates the opposite side of the room. That can be one confusing thing about two-perspective is this point actually determines the lines on this side, and this point determines the lines on this side. That's just something to keep in mind as we start drawing objects in two-point perspective. Let's go to the practice page and do a quick practice, making our horizon line, setting some points. You can put this line anywhere. We could put it over here, we could put it over here, down here. Let's just go right here as an example. That's going to be the height of my box. Just like we did before, we're pulling back to those vanishing points. Now we've got that nice shape. Now we have to decide how deep this box is. I'm going to go right here. That tells me how far to go on this side. Now we have to decide how deep it is this way. It could be all the way back here, it could be really skinny like a book. I'm just going to go right here. That tells us how far to pull back on this side. If we want to do the backside of this shape, we can do, let's see that in a different color, so it's easy to see, here to that corner. Sometimes you just have to think through these steps and picture an actual shape to know what line to do next. But of course, you can always pull up this document and look at these numbered steps to figure out what comes next. One thing I want to mention before we move on to our project is that three-point perspective is very similar to two-point perspective. I'm not going to do a full project on this type of perspective in the class, but I just want to show you this brief overview in case you ever want to use it. Basically three-point perspective, so let's say one-point perspective was that flat plane and we're seeing the angle from the side, two-point perspective we're just turning it this way. Three-point perspective, we're also turning it this way. We're getting the angles here, here, and here. You're just getting more angles in, and you're also just getting an interesting point of view. You can see from this drawing that it looks like the viewer is like coming up over this box. It's a good thing to do if you want the viewer to seem large, like flying over a city, or if you want the viewer to seem really small, you could put the horizon line down here and do this the opposite way. Then that's like a child looking up at a shell for something like that. You can certainly use three-point perspective. One challenge with Procreate is that you need to have your vanishing point down here for the third point. You're just going to run out of room on most compositions in Procreate. This is a little bit easier to do on paper. It's also a very complex viewpoint for a viewer. Let's say for example, you're an illustrator and you want to illustrate a coffee table. When you put it in three-point perspective, it has a dramatic feel. It's like the viewer is peeking over this table. It's like you're trying to communicate something more than it just being a coffee table. That's certainly something that you can do. To be honest with you, I always use one or two-point perspective. I think three-point perspective is more common for illustrators who are trying to get a dramatic point of view. That could be anything from showing how small the viewer is, to showing someone flying over a city. But essentially it's going to be the same process that we're going to use today for two-point perspective. We're just going to have one more point for our vertical lines, instead of just doing our vertical lines straight up and down. I just wanted to give you that brief overview on three-point perspective in case you ever want to try it. Personally, I don't use it. You can see all the steps for using it here. For my personal style, it isn't really helpful. But I do recommend you give it a try some time just so you can see what it feels like. 9. Inspiration and Sketching: We're going to use this exact process to design everything in our room illustration, and I'm going to start by going back to that downloads and resources page and going to the Pinterest board, instead of going to the one-point or going to the two-point for this one. I've just saved a lot of different rooms that I thought were inspiring, they have a lot of interesting things going on. Bold color, rags, a lot of different textures, so you can find something here that works for your style and maybe find a few different images, so you're not pulling all your information from one image. We don't want to copy any of these people, whoever took this photograph is the owner of that particular composition. But we can take inspiration and one of my main rules with taking inspiration is, when the original creator of that thing, look at your creation and say, "Hey, that looks like mine. If they would, then you're copying, if they wouldn't, then you're just using it as inspiration. I'm going to use this image, I'm going to screenshot that. This is a photo on Unsplash, which is a site that has images that are free for personal or commercial use. If you use those, it's a little bit safer because those people have agreed that it's okay to use their work for personal and commercial use and inspiration. But still, we don't just want to copy someone, we want to create something new and interesting. I cropped that image. Going back to procreate. I'm going to create a new image again, 3,000 by 3,000 pixels. I'm just going to start by sketching this overall room that I want to have. This is going to be the back corner of my room. Let's pull up my inspiration image. Make it a little smaller, so it doesn't take up the whole page, and then I'm just going to decide what I want these angles to be. In general, this doesn't have to be the exact layout that we're going to work with, but I just want to get close. Something like that and then I'm going to have a couch over here. It's got a rounded edge and then it has a recliner thing here. I'm going to have this nice big arched window. I love that window, I'm going to use that. You can see the sketch is very loose, this doesn't need to be a perfect depiction of what we're going to do. It just needs to help us figure out where to put our vanishing point. Once you get your basic gist of what's going on in your composition, it's really a lot easier to figure out where to put things. I'm realizing I don't have enough space here, so I'm just shrinking my sketch just a little bit to give myself more space. I want to put some little coffee table here. I don't really like where those are, that's not going to work for my square canvas. I'm just going to change this to be a more rectangular, chunky table. I'm also starting to think about the floor. I think I'm just going to do some simple tiles down there. You could do some wood planks, you can do ceramic tiles, you could do detailed tiles, whatever you want to do here. I'm happy with this overall layout, this part is really important because with perspective, once you set up your vanishing point, you can't change a lot, so it's a good chance here to just do the final version of what you think this is going to look like. We can make little tweaks here and there, but the overall layout is pretty much set at this point. 10. A Room In Perspective: I'm going to start by creating a new layer below my sketch, tapping on it one time, and tapping "Fill". It doesn't matter what color this is but I do need to have a background layer because of how I'm going to place these perspective marks on the canvas. Once you've got that background layer in there, you can tap the "Actions" menu, "Canvas", "Crop and Resize", and then pull out these bars a little bit. This is going to allow us to place our horizon line and our vanishing point outside of the canvas. That's the only way that two-perspective will look realistic. The problem with two-point perspective is it doesn't fit within the composition and I'll show you why as we create these lines. The first thing I'm going to do is follow my sketch with these lines and see where it ends up. Something like that. That would be a good place for my horizon line. I'm going to go across like that. This is just a sketch. This isn't your final decision, so take your time here. I'm drawing the back wall and I'm drawing the sides of each wall. Remember that the vanishing points dictate the opposite side of the room. When I'm coming from here, I'm working on this side of the room. When I'm coming from here, I'm working on this side of the room. I'm going all the way across the page. I'm just going to remove my sketch so you can really see what this looks like. All I've done is create my horizon line and pull some angles off of that line. Then I can go through, here, and erase the things I don't need so you can really get a look at this room. You can bring your sketch back and make sure that this overall layout is going to work for your room with the couch here, the pictures, and the window. I'm happy with how that looks. I'm going to create my final vanishing point and horizon line. I'm going to grab green as my color. Come across here, just like we did with the one-point perspective, creating that line, and I'm marking my two vanishing points, here and here. You can make that blue invisible now. That was really just a sketch to get me to that point. Just like I did last time, I'm going to drag that layer below everything else, swipe left, and lock it. That little green line looks not very important but it's the structure of the entire drawing, so it needs to remain safe on its own layer without being disturbed. New layer, new color. Let's get started on building our room. I'll make that sketch layer semi-transparent and I'm pulling from our vanishing point on the left to make the part of the room on the right. You get more and more used to this process as you do it but basically anything that follows the plane of that wall is going to be dictated by this point as well. For example, when we're doing the side of the couch, that couch recliner is up against that wall on the side, so we're going to have to use this point. You'll see what I mean. If that doesn't sound like it makes sense, you'll see what I mean as we get to that point. There's our wall. That's our overall structure for our room. Again, I'm always going in and erasing things I don't need so that I don't get confused later on. If you're having trouble keeping track of things, you can also start naming your layers. I could tap on that tab to rename and maybe I want to call this "Walls" so that way, I have my walls layer labeled. Some people like to work that way. Personally, I get a little bit distracted with trying to name everything, so I don't do that, but it's totally up to you here. Let's draw those pictures up on the wall. I'm going to use new color, new layer. I've got this frame here, going to be about that height. I also want to do the interior part of the frame, so I'm doing it another layer of that. Same idea. You can see I'm already differentiating my drawing from my inspiration image. My inspiration image has this cool scroll that I like with this plant on it. Definitely want to do something similar to that, but then there's nothing here and I really would like there to be a picture there. There are times when you follow your inspiration and there are times when you do your own thing and that's what makes it interesting. Try to always be looking for ways to do your own thing. I need to get rid of a lot of extra stuff here. All you really need is that picture frame and I want to remove all those extra lines. I'm going to tap the selection tool, make sure freehand is selected, make sure you turn that color fill off. Then, I'm going to go around and select all of those lines, so I've selected everything except for my picture frame, drag three fingers down and cut. That way rather than going through and erasing every little thing. You can just use that freehand selection tool. Let's repeat that same process, new color, new layer for my other picture. This picture is going to have a scroll, so I need to make sure that I include that scroll as part of the perspective. It's up against that wall, so I need to use the vanishing point on the right for anything here that's on the left. Then, for the vertical, we're always doing straight up and down. Then I'm going to see here where my scroll ends. One thing to think about here, where my scrolls are going to end needs to be a little bit wider from here to here than it does from here to here and that's because we're closer to this part of the wall, so I'm just doing it a little bit wider. We could actually measure that out and I'm going to show you a way to do that soon. However, when it comes to loose illustrations like this, I don't get so bogged down in measuring every little thing because I think it takes the fun out of it. But if you enjoy it, I'm going to show you some cool measuring techniques later on. I can erase everything that's not included in that scroll. Now, let's start working on this couch. This couch is a little bit complicated because it's up against this wall, so it follows the rules of this wall, but then it has that recliner and follows the rules of this wall as well. We're going to have to keep that in mind as we build our couch. I'm starting with the bottom back of the couch because this tells me how far up against the wall my couch can be. Your couch can't go through the wall unless you're in some alternate universe. We're staying in reality here. We need to make sure the bottom floor part of the couch fits, pass this wall, somewhere on my tiled floor. Let's do the top of the couch so that it's just below my scroll. Then, the actual seat of the couch, we'll put right here. I want that top part to be really tall, so we're going to have this curved part on the top. We'll worry about that later. That's my couch. I'm going to change the color for this because it's starting to blend in with other parts. We're doing the couch in blue now. I did that by alpha-locking that layer, and tapping on it, and tapping "Fill". Essentially what I need to do here is create a box. I'm coming from this side to create one side of the box and the other side to create the other side of the box. In the beginning, I just focus on the bottom of the couch because the bottom helps me constrain myself within the floor here. Before I even start thinking about the recliner, I'm just going to work on the main part of the couch. Here's the top part of the couch and then it needs to come over like this for the seat. I bet you can guess where I'm going to get that angle from. I'm just going to pull from over here. The next thing that the couch needs to do is go down. That's the front of the couch. Now we have the back where you lay your back, the seat where you sit, and the front of the couch. It helps me to sketch it out in that way as I work so I'm really seeing how this would look in reality. Now, we also need to remember here that we have a recliner, so I'm going to sketch that recliner in as well. That would come out to about right here. I'm going to use that line again to see where my recliner is going to go, and then the other side of my recliner will do right here. That's its top side and there is its bottom-front. I imagine this is a little bit difficult to follow if you're not doing this yourself. Do try to just build your couch up using boxes or whatever piece of furniture you're working on. Of course, as we've been doing, keep erasing, keep cleaning up, and don't let your perspective lines get so out of control that you're getting confused about what's what because I think that's the number one thing that people get confused about with perspective. They're like, "Now, what was that line, and do I need to keep that line? Why did I draw that line?" Just keep thinking about that as you're working, and if you get overwhelmed, that's a good time to stop and start cleaning up. I like how that looks. I did erase one thing I wasn't supposed to, but I'm just going to bring it back. Now we have this nice little recliner that's peeking out from my couch. 11. Details in Perspective: I'm happy with the overall layout of my couch. I do like these little packers that are in the cushions. I'm going to add those in by just doing some little X's, and they're getting progressively further away from each other. Again, I'm going to show you a way to space these, but you can also just do them by hand. So let's look at an easy way to space these. I'm going to do the first one, and then I'm going to do the second one. So then we've got two new layer, new color. I'm going to create these lines here and then draw an X. Draw a line that comes through the middle, and then a line that comes from this top edge to the middle edge. That tells me where my next pucker should be spaced. So I can go back to my original layer and draw that packer. If you're thinking, wow, how am I going to ever remember all of those steps? That is just too much. No problem. I've got that all here in the workbook. You just take a space, you draw an X. These are all numbered. You do a horizontal line across it. A line that meets this top corner and this middle corner and that's where your spacing meets and you can keep doing that to infinity. Here's an example of how that plays out in the exact same way in an angled space. Because that couch is on an angled space, this is a great way to help me space those little packers in the couch. This is also how you can space wood planks, tiles, things like that. We'll do more of this in this composition, but that's just a way to get started with this. Again, you can also just sketch in stuff like this. Nobody's going to look at your drawing and say, wow, you didn't even draw your puckers and your couch correctly. If someone does that, then they're probably just a little bit weird. I'm going to start working on my window. Coming from over here. Again, new color, new layer, and my window's going to have a little window sill. I've got the size of the window, but then I've also got these two lines for the window sill. I really want to know what the middle of this window is so I can put a nice bar down the center of the window. Is it over here? Is it over here? It's hard to tell by just looking at it because it's on an angled plane. One trick, and you get a new color so you can really see this, is to take the shape, whatever rectangular or square shape you're working with and draw an X in it. Even if it's an angled shape, this line here is the very center of the shape. That's a good trick to use when you're trying to do things like window panes. I'm going to make that semitransparent, go back to my window layer, and now I've got the middle of that. I don't need to find the middle of the top because I know I want that to be a high bar, but I do need to use my finishing point to create the bar in the correct angle. I'm also going to make these a little bit thicker. I have some nice thick window bars. I want to find the top of that window so I can draw a nice arch up here. I'm just going to lay this line down, that's going to tell me where the arch is going to start and stop. I can also pull this line up to tell me where the middle of my arch is. That gives me just a little bit of help in drawing in this arch. I have a dual pencil in this brush set for you because there are a lot of cases with the perspective drawing where you need double lines. So this is, I think one of those cases. I'm just going to come through here really carefully, and you can hold to get a more nice curve and procreate as you know draw something and then hold and it cleans it up for you. There's my arched window, but of course, I need to do some cleanup, I'll take just a minute to do that. Of course, if you have trouble with any of these shapes, that is a good time to step back and start doing more sketching. If you're just having trouble figuring out what line goes where? What part of the couch ends here? That's where the sketching really come in handy. I'm going to work on this coffee table now, and I'm coming from over here to do this side of the coffee table because that's on the plane of this wall, and I'm using this side to do the other side of the coffee table. So there's the top of my table. I'm just going to do some vertical lines down to get some legs. We need to thicken up that table, right now it's paper-thin, I'm going to come down and add this just extra thickening line, that looks nice. Of course, last step, going through and cleaning up all of our extra lines. This would be a cool thing to share on the Skillshare projects page if you've only gotten this far. I really like seeing people's perspective sketches because I am a perspective nerd. Feel free to share those if you want to in the project gallery. 12. Even Spacing and Finishing Touches: I want to start adding in my floor tiles, but I want to get rid of everything except for my room first, because adding in these four tiles takes a little bit of math and if we're trying to do that with all that other stuff on the page, it's pretty confusing, so I've just made those invisible for now. I'm going to go through and do a few of these just as sizing examples, so I just want to see about what size I want to use, that looks pretty good. This is going to be my guide for the sizing; these first two lines, just like we did with the couch cushions, I'm going to come through here, and there's my first tile right here. Now I want to know where do I put this next line? Is it here? That's impossible to know unless you measure it out, I'm going to get new color, new Layer. I'm just going to draw that X to measure out that square. Then I'm going to come from my left vantage point and get a horizontal line across that square. Remember all of these steps are outlined in the workbook so if you forget how to do this, you can go back to the workbook. Going back to my orange layer and now I know exactly where that next tile needs to be. Same process doing an X, coming across, going back to my orange layer. If you're doing wood planks, if you're doing anything that needs to be measured out that goes away from the viewer, we need that measurement system to help us. I'm really wishing I had started at the wall because now I've got this issue where my tile doesn't finish at the right spot, but my couch is actually covering that entire space, so I'm not going to worry about that for this composition, but I think in the future it's always better to start with the wall and move away. If I'd ever installed tile, then I probably would've known that. Now I need to figure out the angle for the opposite wall. I'm doing the exact same process, I'm just going the opposite way, horizontally instead of vertically. I always keep my measurement on one layer and my lines on another layer because it just makes things so much cleaner and you can just easily get rid of that measurement as soon as you're done with it. Now I can just make that measurement invisible and now I just have my nice tiles. I can use the free-hand selection tool to get rid of all that excess drawing stuff, and also bring back my table, window, couch, and wall art. I can also go through on this floor now obviously and erase some of it. I don't need any of the flooring that's on the couch, or on any part of the furniture that I've drawn so far. I'm happy with how everything looks on my image. I've used my inspiration image, but not so much that the original owner would say, "Hey, you're totally copying me." I'm also just going to get rid of that image now, so I'm using my own colors, my own blind work, and everything from here on out. I have all my basic structure taken care of. One thing I want to emphasize here before you do anything is that once we crop out these vanishing points, they're gone forever. So I recommend here just really taking a look at this composition and making sure it looks exactly like you want it to, that you're not going to want to change anything in 30 minutes or an hour because once this is cropped, then we can't see those lines anymore. There are a couple of things I've realized that I want to add in. One is some crown molding down here, that's just like a little tiny feature that's going to add some visual interests, and also some crown molding up here. Then obviously we need it on the other side as well. Just little details like that can help add a lot of interests to your room. Of course, if this is your first perspective drawing, you don't have to go into a ton of detail, just keep it simple and get used to the process and then later, you'll have plenty of time to go into more detail. I'm happy with how everything looks at this point, so I'm going to go ahead and press the "Actions menu", crop and resize, bring these in, I'm going almost to the border, but not exactly. Then I can zoom in and go exactly. That's one nice thing about this crop tool, it snaps to the pixel level, so as soon as I get to 3,000 by 3,000 pixels I can see right here, and now I'm back to my original ratio, press "Done" and now I can start playing around with color. Let's make everything invisible that we don't need. The couch has some extra lines here, this is the great time to do clean up so your work is easier as you're drawing. I'm also realizing that my window is just way too high. Nobody installs a window right up to the ceiling. I'm going to slice this off like this, grab the free-hand selection tool, use the move tool to just bring that down. Then right after I say don't crop until you know exactly what your drawing's going to be, then I do that exact thing, so it happens. I wish I could get the perfect angle for this, but I can't because I already cropped, so whatever, it still looks good, don't worry so much about things being perfect in these drawings. You're getting the overall perspective and it's a loose illustration style. We're not trying to achieve perfection here. I want to reduce my layer count because I'm afraid I'm going to run out of layers, so I'm just going to merge all of these sketch layers. The only thing that's on its own layer is my horizon line, just in case I end up needing that later on. Reducing the opacity of that sketch and now I'm going to start coming in with some color. 13. Color and Composition Options: Let's start with this couch. I'm going to go with a dark green. You may also notice things that are a little bit off with your perspective items as you're drawing. I noticed that my recliner went too far here. I'm not sure what happened there, but it doesn't really matter, just fix things as you're sketching. As you're coloring, you're just adding in detail, figuring out what went wrong, and adjusting as you work. I like this couch, but it definitely, if we take away the sketch, just looks like a big blob, so I'm going to add in some detail here using a darker color. I'm just going to emphasize these perspective lines. I'm making this a clipping mask layer. Again, sometimes I'm just adding in lines as I go, I'm not always doing exactly what I said I would do when I started the composition, but that's how I work, that's how a lot of people work. You have to just find the way that works best for your personal style. If you want to be more super-precise about it, you definitely can do that. I'm adding in these little packers on the couch. I think these give it a nice little puffy feel, whereas when it's just that flat back, it almost looks like a flat edge, but it really is supposed to be very curved. I'm just going to continue this same process with all of the items on my sketch. You can go as deep as you want with detail, and color, and interesting variations across the canvas. This is really your personal style here. We're just trying to do something that's a little bit different from what was going on in the original picture. I'm always thinking about ways to create variation and visual interest by just playing around with adding a plant here or a curtain there. Little things like that can go a long way. I'll take just a few minutes here to block out all this color. You can see that I'm playing around with having some bold color in the background. I think that really helps break up the monotony of a piece like this. Having that accent wall and having those bold pillows just draws the viewer in. I also added some hanging plants so that we're not just seeing that stark window and some curtains that are sheer, that just let the window peek through. I like how adding little elements like these breaks up all of those straight lines that's created when you're drawing in perspective. Same thing with the wood grain on the picture frame and the coffee table. Just adding in all that extra grain and texture really helps the viewer see how this is a very interesting piece and it's not just a bunch of lines crossing each other. I also threw a magazine on the coffee table because I thought that added just a little bit of visual interest at the end and a few details around the plants and the pillows just to make those pop. I just wanted to mention here that I did put this magazine in a different perspective than the rest of the room. You can definitely incorporate objects that are either one-point perspective or have different vanishing points. They do need to stay on that same horizon line, but you can use different vanishing points for various objects like books or magazines, or even I could have done that with that coffee table if I didn't want it to be aligned with the couch. Keep that in mind that those two vanishing points you create at the beginning are the structure of your room, but there can be other elements that use different vanishing points. I want to show you an example of a composition that I think went wrong, because I think this is really helpful to think about when you're drawing. I had a few things that went wrong with this piece that I hope will help you not make the same mistakes. I put this window way too high originally because I had no space for crown molding and it also just looks way too high and probably too big for the space. That created some issues for me. I also didn't draw anything in perspective down here. I wish I had done a coffee table or something else. We just have this huge open area and then this really detailed area here. There's just something a little bit strange about how stark that is. I tried putting other things in there, but it just was looking strange. One tip here would be to add in a table or add something in even if you don't know if you're going to use it because you may wish that you had. You also can do one of these pieces and include a lot more detail. If you look at this piece, you can see I just went crazy with the books, and plants, and pictures and just added a lot more pieces than I did for the last piece that we created. We've got all kinds of different detail aspects in the artwork. Then I wanted to do this really complex bookshelf that had a lot of different colors of books to add a real pop of color against this beige wall. You can see I used that spacing method to space the floor planks. You can use that exact method for spacing anything on the floor that you need to have in perfect increments. Then I just continued adding color and detail until I felt like there was enough going on on the artwork. I may have gone to a little bit too much detail with this piece because it's going to be viewed at a small size and some of the details are going to be lost. Just something to consider as you draw, you want to find that happy balance between lots of detail, but not too much that it isn't visible to the viewer at whatever scale you're working in. Another fun thing you can do with two-point perspective is just a single little table in the middle of a canvas. You don't have to do this huge complex room if that's overwhelming to you, you could certainly just do a nice little composition that's one table and throw something on it like a stack of books, or a plant, or anything that works for your personal style. You can see I did a really simple table here with two layers, and then just added some big chunky plants to partially cover it up, but then we still got that nice perspective drawing in the background. I did another one of these where I included a little rug under the coffee table. Something nice you can do here; just throw a couple of objects on the canvas that work well in perspective. This is a great way to practice your perspective skills. If you're having trouble with some of the more complex work in perspective, it's good to go back to the basics and just start with something simple. You can see I just did a single-layer table here and a simple rug all using the angles from the vanishing point, and then I just added some big chunky leaves to fill up the canvas, and just played around with some interesting patterns on the rugs. Of course, I used the vanishing point to get the angles for all of those patterns. 14. Perspective Challenge: I created a drawing challenge to go along with this class to help you practice your perspective drawing skills. You can find all the details for the challenge in the project section on Skillshare and in your workbook. I created a list of topics and I recommend you choose nine because I think nine is a nice number for Instagram and it's a great number of drawings to practice, so you really hone your perspective drawing skills. If you'd like to join the challenge, you can use the hashtag iPad perspective challenge, so that I and everyone else in the challenge can see your drawings. I hope you'll join me. I hope you enjoyed this class and that you feel inspired to start incorporating perspective drawing into your work. If you liked this class, you may like some of my other classes where I cover a lot more ways to design and paint on your iPad, like how to creating ink illustrations in Procreate. How to use layered textures and colors to build up varied illustrations, and how to create insect illustrations and animations in Procreate. Check those out of my profile if you want to see more. Also, I share a lot of free downloads and resources for iPad artists and designers on my website, so if you'd like to get more like you got for this class, check out my site. I would absolutely love to see some of your perspective drawing, so please share what you make. You can join me in the drawing challenge on Instagram. You could share your work on Facebook or you could use the project section on Skillshare. If you have any questions as you work through the processes in this class, please feel free to ask. You can reply to my discussion here on Skillshare, or you can contact me through my website. Thanks so much for watching and I'll see you again next time. Bye-bye.