Drawing Mastery : From Basics to Advanced Techniques | Mandar Marathe | Skillshare

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Drawing Mastery : From Basics to Advanced Techniques

teacher avatar Mandar Marathe, Fine Artist, Sculptor, Illustrator, Designer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (2h 27m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Drawing Materials

    • 3. Ergonomics Of Drawing

    • 4. Two Myths About Drawing

    • 5. Elements of An Image

    • 6. Drawing Circles, Ovals, Lines, Rectangles & Organic shapes

    • 7. Perspective Basics

    • 8. Drawing Cuboids

    • 9. Drawing Cylinders

    • 10. Fitting Drawing On The Paper

    • 11. Angle Measurement and Envelope Technique Part 1

    • 12. Angle Measurement and Envelope Technique Part 2

    • 13. Comparative, Negative Shape and Grid Technique Part 1

    • 14. Comparative, Negative Shape and Grid Technique Part 2

    • 15. Drawing what you know vs See

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About This Class

Welcome to the “Drawing Mastery” Course where you’ll learn the very basics of good drawing and practical techniques that give you guaranteed good results..

My name is Mandar Marathe and I’ll be leading you through this course. My artwork is in collections of individuals and companies in 8 different countries and I have taught more than 8000 students through my studio workshops and online art courses.

I’ve designed this course for anyone wanting to master the drawing skills and by the end of the course, you’ll be able to analyze and draw any subject accurately and confidently.

I’ll be teaching you the ergonomics for confident and smooth pencil marks, basics of linear and aerial perspective, techniques to take measurements, draw proportionately and double-check the drawing for accuracy.

These methods give you predictably good results no matter what subject you are drawing. I’ll not only be teaching you the details of the drawing techniques step by step with demos, but I’ll also give you several exercises to practice the skills you learn.

The ideal student for this course is a person wanting to learn how to draw like a pro and use this skill to advance in their career or pursue a personal artistic goal.

Willingness to learn and to put in the required hard work are the only prerequisites to taking this class.

Feel free to look through the course curriculum and I look forward to seeing you in this class.



Meet Your Teacher

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Mandar Marathe

Fine Artist, Sculptor, Illustrator, Designer


My name is Mandar Marathe and I am a fine artist, illustrator, and sculptor based in Pune, India.

Have a look at the classes that I teach here on Skillshare, see my projects and join me here to learn from me and feel inspired to create your own masterpieces! You do not need any previous knowledge or art experience to benefit from my classes. I'm here to answer any queries you might have.

Join in!

Follow me on Instagram to see my latest work and timelapse videos!

 Happy art making!


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1. Introduction: Hi. Welcome to this drawing master class in which we learned the basics off any good drawing and the practical techniques that almost guarantee good results. My name is Madonna Menard here, and I'm a fine artist and sculptor. My paintings are in private and corporate collections in eight different countries on more than 8000 people have attended my studio workshops on online courses like these. I will be leaving you through this course. I've designed the scores for anyone wanting to master the drawing skills, and by the end of the scores, you will be able to analyze and draw any subject accurately and confidently. Are we teaching you the economics off? Confident and smooth pencil marks basics off linear and aerial perspective techniques to take measurements. Drop proportionately on double. Check the trying for accuracy. These metals give you predictably good results. No matter more. Subject your drawing. I'll not only be teaching you the details on drawing techniques, step by step with demos. I'll also give you several exercises to practise the skills you learn. The ideal student for the scores is a person wanting to learn how to draw like a pro and use the skill to advance in their career or pursue a personal artistic gold willingness to learn Ondo put in the required hard work are the only two prerequisites for taking this class. Feel free to go through the course curriculum, and I look forward to seeing you inside the class. 2. Drawing Materials: Hi. Welcome to this lecture. In this lecture, we're going to talk about art materials, which we use for drawing. Actually, drawing is an art form which even our and sisters used to practice, and they used simple stone, a soft one and the gave wall became their surface on which they used to draw. Our tools are modern day tools, but they're still simple enough that we can do drawing pretty much anywhere. We need basically three types of materials for drawing. One is the surface on which you draw. The 2nd 1 is the pencil or the pool, which you used to make the growing or make the mark. And the 3rd 1 is an razor, which you use in case you mess up the drawing and you need to get rid of those months. Now let's talk about the papers. There are various kinds of papers available in the market, depending on the country, which you live in. That would be very high in papers, which you get for drawing and in poorer countries are where you there are no art material shops. You can get simple papers also, so drawing can be done on any kind of paper. But only thing you have to remember is that how long you want to keep the drawing if you want it going to be, are you? If you want to draw only as a practice, then I would suggest that New spring is the paper, which is available almost everywhere, and this is a very cheap paper with 10 1 and it's good for practice. It is cheap because it is very thin on it yellows in some time. So it's not an archival paper archival in the sense the drawings, which you make on this will not last for long. After some years or maybe one or two years, the paper will start to crumble and the drawing will be lost. Other than that, we have a number of other papers, which can be used for good drawing. I wouldn't give you their names off the brands because in every country or every shop you will get hundreds of brands to choose from. But I want you to look at the thickness of the paper and the surface off the people. Generally, ticker paper is better, and the surface has to be rough, but not so much that you are not able to make a very green line. It should not be smooth because then your mark making tool kind off glides over the surface without making any more. If you're using, are dry cool like a pencil or a charcoal to make your mom. Now let's talk about the material, which you use for making the mark or basically drawing something on the paper or any surface. The most common tool used is a graphite pencil. It has the markings over here. This one is a four B, and what these markings turned for is the hardness or softness, so you would have pencils. The most common one is HB. Then you have to be for B and so on till 10 B, and you have to edge for edge and so on. So maybe I think it it stands for hardness. So as this number increases the hardness of depends, it increases. These are normally the pencils, which are used for engineering kind of drawing and are not suitable for our kind of drawing . B stands for the softness of the pensive, so you would get pencils off to be for B, and so on I typically use ah four B because it has a good softness as well as it is easier to handle. The late doesn't break so often. In addition to graphite pencil, you could use charcoal. You could use a bend. It could be, ah, ballpoint pen. It would be a gel. Bennett could be ink pen with a nip. You could use that for drawing. Then you could use a brush for drawing, although this requires a lot off practice toe. Draw directly with the brush, but you could still user. Then you have. You could use crayons for drawing on, so the doings would be very fine in terms of details. But you could still use it to make basic drawings our basic sketches. And then you could use digital tools for drawing also. So just to give you an example, I've drawn these two drawings with a ballpoint pen. These ones have been drawn with this for be graphite pencil. This one was also drawn with graphite pencil, but I've added outlines with a ballpoint pen. Then these are drawn with graphite pencil again on. This one is drawn with charcoal, so I would suggest that if you're just starting out are beginning to draw on and want to develop your drawing as a skill. Then you should concentrate more on the physical tools rather than the digital ones. The digital ones are good, but then they have certain learning girl, which is not required to be conquered when you're drawing. That's a separate set off challenges spinning but you need to handle. Though it has some conveniences I feel for classical drawing or for good rowing practice, you should use these physical tools and move. Want to digital ones only when you have good control over your hand and have practiced a lot with these physical tools? Then let's look at the razor's, which you can use toe. It is some off your mistakes, though you get different kinds off the razors in the market on a stationary store, I would suggest that you should use and the reserve, which is called needed, the razor or neoliberalism. What it is is like it's something like a party on. You can give it some shape with your fingers. You could make it into different shapes, and the advantage off this razor is there, say, if you have drawn something here, and you want to get rid off this mistake which are committed. So what you can do is but you don't want toe. It is the holding. Only these two lines you want to get is, then you can. You can give it a shape, give a particular shape, toe this razor on, use it. It is only some part off the drawing, and as you can see, I'm not disturbed. The surrounding area that's still there, and he raised only specific 80 average I wanted to. It is so you can use this for precise raising. Then another advantage off this kind of razor is that it doesn't create any dust. It's basically put the like thing, which absorbs the graphite particles, and it doesn't leave the paper. It doesn't peel off layers off the papers, and that's why it doesn't create any dust. The third advantage is that if you say you have done this rough drawing and you want to lighten it before you can go on and make the second pass and finalize the drawing with darker lines on, and for that you want toe light in this drawing, then what you could do is roll. This needed a razor into a cylinder like this and then roll it over the paper so that the underlying drawing becomes light uniformly. As you can see, the doing has become very light. I don't know if the camera can pick this up, but it has become very light, and that is that it is very uniforms. It's not that I've e days wounded this part in this part of stir dark, it's uniformly light. So there are radius advantage off using this over any white or pink areas of hard ones, which we'll get to. It is mistakes. So just to summarize, we have seen that for drawing, you don't need much off materials. You need some kind of paper, some kind of mark making tool and then a razor if you want. Oh, it is your mistakes if you commit any, so even if you have say, ah printer paper and a ballpoint pen, you can still practice drawing. See you in the next lecture 3. Ergonomics Of Drawing: now that we have talked about the paper and the pencils with which we can draw, let's talk about how to hold the pencil on how you should sit when you are drawing for optimal visitor. There are two ways you can hold a pencil. One is a tribe or grip. It's called bribe or great, because you hold the pencil in these three fingers. This is our typical style in which you all the pencil or hold any writing instrument. But this kind off grip is not recommended for drawing because it restricts your movement. Who won't leave a movement off fingers and not your list? It does. Your list doesn't move very freely for drawing. You can hold the pencil like this on wrap your fingers over the pencil like this. It's called an overhand grip, and you should draw like this, in which the pencil is almost paddler. Toe the paper on which you're drawing. So this way you. It's easy to make very light marks on, and it's easy to make very fluid marks or fluid movement off off pencil on the paper. Another important thing about drawing is or holding the pencil is that your arms should move all. You should make the movements in your shoulder rather than in your wrist or elbow. So that way your whole arm moves when you're drawing, and then the lines which you get that we are very food. If you draw with your fingers, the lines become very jacket because the freedom off movement, which this has, is lot less than when you move your shoulder. Now how do you sit when you're drawing on? How should the paper be placed when you're drawing? As you can see, I have the paper on this board. So when I'm standing like this, minds line off site is perpendicular to the paper, and that's why there is no distortion off. Things are proportions when I'm drawing like this. But when you are sitting on a table or sitting on a chair next to our table, you should remember that preferably the chair should not have any armrest. Otherwise, what happens is that your hand becomes an movement becomes restricted because it banks in tow the hand wrist, and then you cannot move your hand freely on. That results in very jagged lines in your drawing. So as far as possible. I would recommend that you have something like this next to it. You can stand andro, but the next best thing is to sit and have the paper perpendicular to your line of sight. One good suggestion I can give you if you don't have an easel. But you want to practice drawing standing up. Then you could paste or you go tape a paper on the back, off a door off your room. And then you can draw on that. I've done that in the past and it works very nicely. You can stand there. It doesn't take any extra space and you get toe practice very beautifully. See you in the next lecture. 4. Two Myths About Drawing: Hi. Welcome to this lecture. I'm going to tell you about two things in this lecture. One is about talent and second thing about the process of drawing. And at the end of the lecture, I'm going to give you one exercise. So the first thing which we talk about is Thailand. I can assure you that nobody is born with the talent for drawing or painting or whatever skill they have. They have looked at it for years and years. Even Michelangelo or Leonardo were not born with the skills off drawing. They had to work for it to acquire that skill for many, many years. So why should we believe that we should be born with the talent to be a good artist? Our aim should be to be able to draw better than what we did yesterday. So this assumes two kings. One is that you should compare your performance off drawing with your own performance, which was there yesterday. The second thing with this statement assumes that you had drawn something yesterday on. You're going to draw something today, which means that you have to draw something every day. Practice is the only thing which will improve your skills, so I urge you to forget about the notion off being born with the talent. Now let's look at the other notion. Off drawings, which are made by master artists, are done in one bus. Somehow people believe that master artist start at the top off the beach with their pencil , and by the time they end up at the bottom of the paper, the drawing is ready. It never works like that. In every drawing these artists are any good artists go through two or three steps off evolution in the first pass. What they do is they roughly map out the drawing with very, very light lines, and that's where your overhand grip will come into picture. So first thing is that they map out the whole drawing and the second pass. They add some more details to it. But even in the second pass, they are drawing very light lines only in the third pass, when they're sure that whatever drawing elements or whatever shapes in the drawings which are required are in the right place. In the third pass, they make that lines darker, which are going to be the final drawing lines so until then, they are all evolving, their correcting their mistakes, and they're looking at the subject and comparing their drawing. And this is a process. So if you follow this process, there will be no need to raise on. Even if you have to raise, it will be very minimal. That way. Your drawings will look more professional and you will improve in a better fashion or in a faster pace. So don't ever try toe finisher drawing with just one pass. There is always first pass. Second pass inferred boss. You may not notice those processes when you want somebody drawing because they do it unconsciously or they do it automatically on. It's not very crystal clear where the first past ends and the second pass end, but there are these process which they take, and that's how they evolve. One drawing, which looks great. Another thing, which I want to point out about drawing as a skill, is that it's more like farming than hunting. If you have, say, a farm off this size, you cannot say that I'll water this portion from day one, then on data well, water only this portion off the farm and Day three and day four and so on. So by the time you are here, maybe you are under day 30 and by that time, if you follow this process by that time, this first abortion will be dry. So you are drawing also should evolve all over. You have to work on the whole drawing at the same time. So that's part of the process. Now I want to give you an exercise off growing very light lines. So what I I think you should do is take some paper which you can easily throw away and hold your pencil in the overhand grip on Go on, drawing very light lines like this. You can't draw any shapes, but you will be surprised that not many people around can draw very light lines whenever they get a pencil in hand. What they want to do is draw very dark lines, and that's where the drawing starts to go downhill. So I want you to draw very light lines like this on 3 to 5 pages. You can even turn over the paper and use the back side because this is anyway going to be practiced in there. You can try drawing circles, fears, straight lines, diagonal lines and whatever, but I want you to fill up at least 3 to 5 pages. That way you will become good at drawing light lines, which are required in the first pass off the growing process. So get your papers and pencils out and start doing those lines soon the next lecture. 5. Elements of An Image: Hi. Welcome to this lecture. In this lecture will be talking about the basic elements which make up an image or a painting or a drawing. And then we will look at different types of lines, which we can use to create different emotions in our drawings. There are three basic elements off any picture are drawing or a painting on day are shape, edge and value. Let's go. One by one line is a special shape, which has no but but it has length. Then shape is some media which is enclosed by any line. So a circle and organic shape of Chris and our plane off a cube or three. He's a shape edge is the transition between that shape and its neighbors are its surroundings, so the edge could be here or it could be here. Also, it is the transition between two areas off different value. So this is a lost edge in which there is very little difference. Between were the apple ends and where the paper starts. This is a hard edge in which you can clearly see the edge between these two shapes. One is the area surrounding the apple and the apple itself again. Here is a lost edge where the shadow becomes lighter and lighter and it's almost becomes as light as the surrounding. This is again, a soft edge in which there is a value difference. But the difference is not as sharp as the hard edge. Then let's look at value Value is relative darkness or lightness off any area. So, for example, in this apple, this area where that is highlight is value. 10 Man is this idea where it's the darkest radio off the apple. It is Zito. So you can say that this whole apple and its shadow has different areas, having different values off darkness and lightness. And you can draw any painting or drawing with not necessary all 10 values. But you can even have a drawing made using only these values or this set off values or the set of values or the set of values. In this case, three becomes the largest value in the drawing, and seven becomes the lightest. So when there is a strong light, you have lightest values, which are close to 10 and darkest value, because off the shadow, which are close to zero when the light is very soft, The darts are not as dark as zero, and the lights are not as light as 10. So in that case you will see this same apple distributed in these values. And as I said, this idea of it is also an edge is very soft edge. Though it's not an outline, it's the transition between a light area and a daughter. Katya Value is actually sub characteristic off. The color color has three characteristics. Value U and chroma Value stands for lightness or darkness. Often area U stands for color, which in layman's language, we say blue, red or yellow or brown are used. And then chroma stands for the saturation off that color. So an orange color could be very saturated are very pill. So depending on that, it's called either high chroma or local. Since we are talking about drawing in this class, we are concerned only about these three characteristics or elements off drawing which are shaped edge and value. These are the only T characteristics which also make a black and white photograph very legible, and you can make out the different objects. You can recognize the people in that, even though there is no color in terms off or the you off the color. So whenever you want to draw something, you look at the object and try to find out what shape it is. For example, if you have one to draw this apple, what shape is this? It's closed when over, or you can say that it has this oval, but it has a deep here, and it's more called here and so on, so you have to recognize the shape. Then you have to see what kind off edge does the apple have and various places you have to identify whether you want to draw on hard edge Ah, lost edge on a soft edge. Depending on that, you will have broader edge. Then you will have to suggest light, and in that you will make use off value. So if you want to suggest are drawing having very bright light, then you will have to use all 0 to 10 values. And if you want oh, suggest a light with this soft, then you will have toe use values somewhere in between. So that way you will have to identify different things in your subject and make it a habit toe. Analyze it before you start drawing. That way you will get better and better it growing? No, let's look at the types off lines that are drawings can have. And what are the emotions associated with those, Though I have shown only four lines four types off lines here, there are many others which can be drawn. But I'm showing you only these four as an example. So this line is something which can be called a bold line. And what are the emotions associated with force shouting, loudness or dominance? For example, you can see this drawing by Pablo Picasso on. You can easily identify the bold line, and the dominance are the force, which, because those paintings or drawings unassociated. Let's talk about the next line, which is called Broken Line, and you can see that it's not a continuous line. It has many segments ensuring the side of the leaf on decided the leaf and even the vein of the leave. So these are these kind of lines are associated with shakiness, tentativeness or losing nature off the object. For example, you can see this drawing by Van Gogh, and you can identify the emotions in it, then that is line which is very clean, which has no variation in thickness or wait. It's called your line on what it suggests is clarity, purity and cleanliness. For example, you can see this growing by ingress, and you can see what I mean by clarity and cleanliness. The fourth line, which we're going to discuss, is lost and farm line. You can see that the line is dark somewhere. It's almost non existent. In some places it becomes tick and becomes 10 and so on. It has many radiations in it. So what does this suggest? It suggests playfulness. It's a nuanced line. It's not one thing which is used all over the growing, so it's very nuanced and shows where I d. And it chose dynamism. For example, see this drawing by Leonardo da Vinci. Even though I have shown you these four times off lines, there are many others which can be used, and it's necessary that for a good artists, you should know how to draw all of these so that you're drawing has variety. It can communicate the right emotions, and it doesn't become monotonous, so you should be able to draw multiple types off lines and use them appropriately in your drawings. See you in the next lecture 6. Drawing Circles, Ovals, Lines, Rectangles & Organic shapes: Welcome to this video about doing exercises in this exercise will be drawing circles, old straight lines and angry lines, rectangles and squares and some organic shapes. Also, the whole idea behind doing this exercise is is that we should free up your hand, onder. Make it behave as we wanted to behave. The more you practice, you develop your muscle memory off your hand muscles on. That helps you in drawing the way you want. So if you want to draw perfect circle, then your hand tends to draw that perfect circle. When you do a lot of practice, if you want to draw a straight line, your hand tends to draw more straight line, though it may not be as straight as, ah, line drawn with a straight edge. But still, it's good straight line. So here I'm using four B pencil. I've sharpened it with ah blade. I'm not using ah pencil sharpener, which we typically use on. The reason for that is that if you look at a pencil which has been sharpened with sharpener , then you get this amount off. Lend this the length that you get off exposed wood and lead. Where is when I've used ah blade to sharpen this pencil. You can see that I'm getting more length here. And why this is important is that when I drove it overhand grip. This angle helps me bring the pencil much more paddler toe the paper on that results in much more fluid lines. So far, drawing any off these spirit is very important. If I want to draw a circle very carefully, you can see that I'm I've used already slow speed and my hand 10 school Give me a rough shape, but it's not as smooth as I wanted to be. So the trucks off or the main point in drawing very fluid lines, is the speed with which you draw. So when you want to draw lines, are any carve lines or any organic form, then you should make practice like this. So if I want to draw circles, I move my hand in the air like this and I can guess what kind of shape I'm going to get and go For the first time, I may not get the circle very nice. You can see that these are very close to a perfect circle. So what? We should do is go on practicing like this. If I again reduced the speed, I don't get circle as nice as this. You can see the dragon Nissen the line where, as you can see the floor in this line So everything what your drawers should have, we should do it with force. And here you can see that I'm not moving my wrist and I'm not moving my fingers. Also on what I'm doing is I'm moving my hand from my shoulder though you can see it in this video, I'm moving my shoulder and that tends to give me much more smoother lines. And even though every circle is not a perfect circle, the lines we germ getting are much more smoother than night. What I would have got other ways. Now let's draw some ellipsis. So let's draw ellipse like this again. I'm making some movement in the air and just to get in the flow and then I'm that's the pencil to the paper. And then I get this. ALS are ellipsis. You can see that not every ellipses perfect, but the line is very confident. So you should practice like this the more you practice the better these shapes come now let's draw some straight lines. These ovals are ellipses you can draw in the other fashion also still turn the other way, so you should fill up many, many pages With these shapes. You can see that there is a difference in the quality off ellipsis which I've drawn like this and like this. That's because when I'm because I'm alright 100 person, it's more easy for me to draw ellipse like this than like this. But you can get good results with practice. Now let's draw some straight lines again. If I draw a straight line very carefully, very slowly, then I get jagged lines. Whereas if I use spewed, I'm just taking some, making some movements in the air. And then I touched the line. Touch the paper and you can see that I'm getting much more straighter lines similarly for vertical lines. Also, you can see that if I try to make straight lines very slowly, I may not get with very slow speed, but when I do it with a lot of speed, you can see the statements and the force in the line. The practice you should do is you should trying to draw these lines as fairly as possible so you won't get them all parallel to each other with practice, you will get far better. Now Let's draw some anger lines and the other way No. Now let's draw some rectangles in drawing rectangles. I wouldn't stop there. The coronaries. The reason is that I want O make or take advantage off the speed. This is the line first line, second line that I'm drawing because this line was kind of crooked. I drew this line. So now again, if you will see, I'm allowing these lines to go past that point. And that's what you should do. If you try to stop just where the corner is, you won't get nice, nice lines. So you should practice like this. So this is all making use off the straight lines, which we have tried earlier. Now you should go on and do some organic shapes. I'm doing all this practice one top off the other, because this is not some kind of work which I want to preserve. This is just for my practice. So no matter how many times I drove over it, as long as I get the in practice, which is which I expect. It's good for me. So now I can draw organic shapes. So let me draw some shapes like this. So the idea is draw a shape and then trace it over and over again just to make your hand comfortable to move in that But it can be any shape pulling this. You can see that I mean a lot of mistakes here for the first time, but all I warned is the practice for my hand. You can see that I am not moving my fingers. That's the whole thing, to get smoother lines, - some more rectangles. When you draw both the sides of the rectangle, same, it becomes a square. So there is no separate practice required for a square. As you can see, this is the This is a square. So go on, making straight lines. It's landing lines. The more you practice these basic shapes, the better your hand will obey your command and the better will be your final drawing. So, as an exercise for you, I want you to go fill up both sides off at least 3 to 5 papers. So first you're drawn decide. Then turn the paper make on these practice drawings on the other side on. Similarly, do it for a test three of 3 to 5 pages. Onda and if you are beginning toe, learn drawing. Then I would even recommend you fill up at least one or two such pages every day before you start making any serious drawing that frees up your hand and you are the drawings which will do next. Come out very nice. So get your papers and pencils out and start practicing seeing the next lecture. 7. Perspective Basics: welcome to the lecture about perspective alone. We have been growing only two dimensional shapes, like squares and circles on rectangles and so on. But we need to draw three dimensional objects in Gore drawing and make them look like they're three dimensional. That is where perspective guns into picture. So perspective is basically what is needed to our sense of depth to R two D drawings. Before we get into a 1.2 point and three point perspectives, let's look at water individual things, which happened when we look at things from our point of view. After all, perspective also means point of view. In other words, so first English happens is diminution. This means that if you place a box here and if you place another box somewhere far away but off the same size, then the box appears smaller. This is called diminution, so you might have seen that if you're walking down the street, then people who are near you seem to be off bigger size, then people who are at our distance from you. That's called diminution. Second thing, which happens is called foreshortening to explain it very easily. I'll use this pencil itself so it In this view, you see that the length of the pencil is so much. Now, if I slowly start turning the pencil and pointed towards you, then you can see that the length of the pencil decreases on at a point. You will see that the pencil becomes only a point or a circle, which is the cross section off this pencil, which means that if you look at an object from different points of view, it looks shorter or longer, depending on your point of view. The third thing which happens, is going convergence. It's a common example, given that if you are standing in the middle of the rule or if you are standing on the tracks, you would see that the tracks seem to merge at the point. This is the point, very murders. So actually, we know that the tracks always run parallel to each other, but they appear to merge at one point. This, in technical terms, is called vanishing point. The vanishing point is on a horizontal line, which is called the Horizon Line, or the eye level, So if you are standing on the rule, your eye level is at a different level. And if you are standing on top of a building, still, your eye level is at your eye level and you would see the world differently. Then what you see when you are standing on the ground, so that's I live in. These two technical terms are necessary to understanding 1.2 point and three point perspective. So in a way, when we want to show distance our depth in our paintings or drawings, what we do is we intentionally draw similar size objects smaller when they're farther away from the picture plane or from us. Similarly, we showed the length off any object. Showalter, when we want to show that we are looking at it from a particular angle, we also show that the tracks are meeting at the point when we want to show the ranks. Don't we know that the tracks never meet, So when you want to draw in correct perspective, you should draw what you see and not what you know. Another thing which we do to show one object behind another or one object in friend off another is called overlap. So if you show one box here and if you want to show that another boxes behind this box. Then you would show it would left by the first box which tends the viewer, that this box is in front off this. If I had drawn this box completely like this, then see what happens. It now appears as if this box is in front off this books. Then there is value and color prospective. All these 1.2 point and three point are talking about the linear perspective. Where is these are corn? Ideal perspective. We will come to that in a moment. Now let's look at what is 1.2 point and three point perspective. See, there is a box here are Let's call it a building for the sake off already. And he say these are some windows on the building and heads on a roared which is like this . So let me draw a few more buildings on this building also has some windows and so on. So they will be another building here maybe, Ah, bigger building which is a longer building and say that are some windows here any And as you can see, that the road also seems to be meeting here say there are some buildings on the side also as long as this plane off the building is paddler my plane off vision. I will see that the horizontal line which shows the word off the building is horizontal, perfectly horizontal. Even this building will have it stop And what? I'm very horizontal As long as they're parallel toe my plane off vision Even the verticals are really vertical, in which they make 90 degrees. This line makes 90 degrees. With this and all the lines top lines seem to meet at one point. So this is scored one point perspective. Now when I slightly walk words decide then what I see is this building looks like this to me and then that is this next building and so on. And then this is the longer building which I was talking about. Okay, so you can see that the verticals have remained vertical the hardest on Don's have done some degree and the line, which is showing depth, is also making some angle. Earlier in one point perspective, this line, which was showing the words of the building, was perfectly horizontal. Now it is making some anger. So this is two point perspective and the pose. I walked upto this point and then I look off the building. Then the building looks something like this to me. And I don't see the bottom off the building because I'm standing on the same level as the base of the building on I will see try to see the top of the building so you can see that the horizontal which waas horrors on property or gentle here, the bit of the building. He's making some angle and these lines then toe meet somewhere, Adam finishing point. The vertical lines are also not vertical anymore on they go on meeting at some point and the lines which are so in depth also meet somewhere. So there are there is one point on this side one point on this side and another vanishing point on this side. So this is called three point perspective. Though all this theory is good to understand. Then you are drawing something in real life. You don't have to buy hard this. You have to just draw what you see, and then you would get your perspective right. But then, knowing this theory helps us look more closely at the lines which are vertical with a horizontal and which show the depth of the objects which were trying to draw so consciously we can make the drawing look more three dimensional by wearing ties by showing overlap by showing vanishing point on the horizon line are making correct angles to the horizontal and vertical. That way, we are able toe show how the object looks exactly in real life. Now let's talk about ideal perspective. I'm showing here a painting done by me. This is a painting in oil colors and I've taken the same image and turned it into a black and white when we want to show perspective off things which don't have straight edges which are not made made by human beings, which means the trees and the rocks and the mountains don't have straight edges, just like buildings on machines and other man made things. So how do we show perspective off those things in our drawings and paintings? So for that, we use value, contrast and edge when we want to show objects as they are close to us. Then we use our darker value, which means you can see that these trees have darker value, then the mountain in the background, which is very, very light. You can see that this these mountains become darker and darker as they come towards us. So this is darker than this. This is darker than this. This is darker than this and so on. Then we use contrast to also show aerial perspective. Which means the contrast in the things are objects which are close to us is very high. Then the contrast between things which are far away from us. For example, you can see the contrast between the these two things the shrubs and the grass is very high . Where is the sky and their distant mountain has very less contrasts in them. Then the third thing which we uses edge the edges off objects which are close to us look very sharp. So you can see that the stones are having very sharp edge. Even the foliage is having very sharp edge because they are closer to us. And the edge between the sky and the mountain is very fuzzy because it's distant from us. So when we want to show things which are distant from us, we use very fuzzy lines or fuzzy edges, then in terms off color if you want. Oh, show ideal perspective in our painting, in which we use colors. Then we go on adding blue toe the object as they go away from us so you can see that the mountains are getting bluer and bluer. They also get less saturated in terms off color. And that's why this mountain is having a paler blue or a fainter blue than this, because off the at most very effect, which is adding good. So that's how you use perspective in drawings and paintings. Andi, I hope it will help you in showing things as they appear in the A life in your drawing. So they your drawings will look more realistic when we make use off all these concepts. Thank you and see you in the next lecture. 8. Drawing Cuboids: you know, we're being drawing all two dimensional shapes like circles and rectangles, squares and so on. But in the a life, what you see is three dimensional. And to show these three dimensional things into our two dimensional drawing, it requires some understanding off how these basic shapes look when they are placed about the eye level or below the eye level, or how they look in two point perspective and people in perspective. So since you're looking at this scene from the lens of my camera, I can see that the center line off your screen is actually the horizon line or the eye level for you. So let's see how toe draw a Cuba ACU board in one point perspective. So let me draw Horizon line here in one point perspective, the lines or edges which show the height often object, are vertical. The agents, which show the build of the object, are all horizontal perfectly, and the lines which showed dept off the object are merging or are converging towards the vanishing point. So look at the scene in which you can see the science off the box slightly on this side. When I bring the box on this side. You can see the science of the box on the site, but nor the sides. Similarly, in this corner you can see these two states and in this corner you can see the sides on this side and say so. Let's see how to draw these. So let's assume the sister vanishing point and let's draw a few lines which passed through these. These lines will help us and policing the cube in the one point respect to and so on. So now I take a smaller ruler and hydro verticals. So this is 90 degree toe, this horizon line. So I'm going one side off the Cuban here. Let's say this is the, uh horizontal and again draw vertical here. So you have to draw a line here. So basically what we're done is drawn converging lines through all these word isis or corners on the square. So now let's see, this is the depth off the box. So it would be something like this. Then we'll draw was until this way And now I will go dark under Siles. So now you can see I've darkened Oh, box our plane. And this is how a que board will look in one point perspective. If I have to draw a box here, then I'll draw the first sign here. Then I'll draw. Um, let's say this is Ah, uber not exactly a cube. So the cross section is a rectangle in slow a square again I draw vertical line and then go I lined through this Cornel so that it meets here and through this vanishing point on this edge But this corner, I'll draw another line. Now let's see this. You can see that in both these boxes. The front face is parallel to my vision plane and the horizontal czar perfectly horizontal and the vertical czar perfectly work because so now let's say this is depth of the box on and let me bring it here. And I draw horizontally through until this point and darken this edge on darken this edge. So this is how a box a few Boyd box would look like in one point perspective. If I want to draw the backside of this box, it would be something like this. So vertical line will pass through this which will define the and in the background, so make it darted, and it will pass through this on this own soil Chu has dotted just to denote that it's behind. Similarly, it will be something like this will be daughter here and they'll be a dotted line here. So similarly, you can draw boxes all over, which are in one point perspective. So let's draw line here and let's call it horizon line or eye level and have two points as though vanishing points. Now, since I want to draw a que boy, let me first draw the edge off the box, which would be now I'll be drawing it like this in stuff like this. So this is the line which I've drawn here. This vertical line. No, let's join these two points with the horizon lines. I'm using a ruler because it's easier toe draw straight lines with that when you practice this and once you get usedto drying things in perspective, you need not use ruler, and you need not even draw these vanishing lines or converting lines. You will be able to draw the shapes without drawing these lines, but for now, let's draw these. Now let's say this is the world of the box. This is the width of the box and let's draw vertical line to suggest the edge off the box on the safe. So this is if the boxes like this. This was the central line, which I drew. This is the line, which is this. So now let's join this point with this vanishing point and let's say this is still other side of the ball. Then let's draw vertical here. And then let's join this point through this finishing point. So now you'll get this is this corner. This point is this point off the box to know I'm highlighting or making the it is off the books so that you can see the box more clearly now if I were to draw a similar box below the horizon line, but instead of drawing it in the center aisle droid somewhere here. So let's say this is the height of the box on. Let me join these two points with this vanishing point and these two points with this vanishing point. No, let's see, this is the bit of the box, so I'll draw vertical here and let me draw vertical here. I'm not taking any measurements toe make these boxes off the same size because I'm just doing and exercise to show you how the boxes would look in two point perspective. And now let me join this point in this vanishing point. So now this is the box work. You can use a ruler smaller, one toe throw these lines, make these lines darker. Also net immediately slightly Get rid off this mystic. Okay, so you can see that here because the boxes about the horizon line you can see the bottom portion off the box here, the boxes below your eye level or a horizon line, you can see the top of the box. This is a two point perspective because all the vertical lines remain vertical and all the sides added an angle to the word come. If this was a three point perspective, these vertical lines would have also convert somewhere. So now let's say we have a vanishing point. Somewhere down here, it won't be visible on, so let's let it be here. So now if I were toe draw a box here, which is in three point perspective, this being the central line, it will be vertical. And I'm going this vertical because I'm assuming the box is see metering on the both sides . If it is like this, then the central line will not be vertical. It will also be converting somewhere on the third vanishing point. So let me join these. So I'm using here who vanishing points from the stool scenes on. And instead of drawing the sides vertical, I'll be drawing them slightly at an angle. So instead of drawing this line vertical, I'll be drawing this line slightly angered and this will be slightly angry this way. If I were toe extend this line below, you can see that these lines will converge somewhere at a point which is beyond this board . But that's the third vanishing point to know. Let me join these. You're like this. Oh, so this is the book to show you how 1.2 point and three point perspective work in their life. I'm using this box off my tripe or and see me walking around it on. I'll explain how things change from one point to point to three point perspective. So this is the box standing on and you can see that the verticals are perfect vertical. The horizontal is perfectly horizontal Ondo. We don't see the ages which suggest the depth off the balls because the box is not transparent. If we were toe extend those lines, they would meet at one single point. And that's the reason why this is scored one point perspective. No, I've started walking around the box so that I can see the side on. You can see that in this position. The horizontal line which was showing the world off the box, is till that one angle or is at an angle now. And the line which shows the depth is also at an angle, and the verticals have remained vertical. So this is stupid perspective. No one walks slightly closer to the bogs. So this is the view which I get when I look at the top of the box. From where I'm standing, you can see that the verticals are also no more vertical there at an angle, and the lines which will end kept off the books are all sorted angle, so the lines which are supposed to show that height off the balls are also merging towards a vanishing point which is beyond the screen. The lines, which are showing the world off. The books are also merging at another vanishing point and the lines with your depth off. The books are also vanishing and the third vanishing point. So now I'm going to go up and show you how this box looks when it is below eye level and how the perspective works in this case. So you can now see that the verticals are no more vertical again. They are merging towards a vanishing point somewhere beyond the frame, and the width and depth lines off the box are also merging at two different vanishing points. So this is three point perspective now. We'll slowly walked back into two point perspective, seen So I'm coming back toe two point perspective, where the vertical, some article and now I'm walking back toe one point perspective. I hope this example has made things but more clearer, and you can see how things look when seen from one point perspective, two point perspective and people in perspective. In the real life. Actually, you won't see a single object like this. You will see either multiple buildings in front of a few are multiple boxes in front of you are multiple objects in front of you, and they all are and their own different perspectives. So some buildings now in front of you might be in one point perspective. Some buildings might be in two point, and some buildings might be in three point perspective. And as long as you are able to capture these multiple perspectives in your drawing, your drawing looks much more realistic because that's how we see things in real life. Thank you and see you in the next lecture. 9. Drawing Cylinders: welcome to this lecture. In this lecture, we're going to see how cylinders actually look in real life so that we can draw them accurately. Andi, give Ah, feel off more dimensionality, toe the cylinders withdraw. So I have these four cardboard tubes here. I'm going to place them randomly in different positions. And if you see the cylinder is right in the center of the screen on you see only a circle insert off it. Being a three dimensional object, it looks like a simple circle. But as I have placed these three cylinders away from the center, you are able to see the side off the cylinder, and it gives much more feeling off it being a three dimensional object. And when I move this cylinder away from the center, though we know the science of the cylinder are parallel to each other, you can see that the lines are not paddler to each other. They don't appear paddler to each other. You can see this line has slight angle. This line also has lied angle and they seem to meet at some point here. So that's the vanishing point for these two lines. So if we draw this way, then the object will look three dimensional. But if you always draw these lines parallel to each other, then the three dimensionality will not be obvious in your drawings. Another thing which happens is that because this point on the cylinder is closer to you than this point, this circle looks smaller than this article because of the principle off diminish in which we saw earlier in perspective basics. So when you want to draw a cylinder that are three access, which you have to remember, 1st 1 is the access through which goes through the whole cylinder. Then there is an access for the upper lips, and there is access for the lower lips. So let's see how to drive. Let's say this is the central access off the cylinder, and this access is always perpendicular to this axis. Then we have to draw the access for the Ellipse at the bottom. Now let's draw the ellipse for the could our section at this I don't so I'm doing this very roughly. Now let's draw the ellipse because this is going to be smaller slightly. Then this a Libs I'm trying to draw and slightly smaller. Let's say this is good enough for us. Then what we have to do is we have to join these two points for the side of the cylinder. Even though I'm not getting these lines very straight with speed and repetition, I'll get it very close. Now that I have happy with the overall structure off the cylinder, I'll finalize the lines, which I think are correct for the bottom A Libs. I'll see only this line. I will not see this line because it's on the other side for the top portion. I wouldn't see the whole ellipse because I'm able to see it from dope. So I'm finalising the line or darkening the line and it'll and then I'll go and finalized the line for the side of the cylinder. Let's draw a cylinder in this position. Let's draw an ellipse yer. And then let's draw any lives here and then joined the top and bottom end and then finalize the lines, which we think are. Could it? Not every cylinder ritual draw will be perfect, but with practice you will improve your drawing, so you should try drawing cylinders in different audience ations. So let's say there's an ellipse here there is an ellipse here and then we join these lines . - Then let's draw cylinder, which appears like this or which is very similar to this. So this is almost a circle, because we are, it's closer to the center. And then there'll be another circle, almost a circle, which is the bottom of the cylinder. And then we have to join these lines. When is here and then there is here and, uh, portion off the circle. And the bottom, which we see is this. Then we see this line and then we see the circle. And if we shared the silent and it will look more like if this is, ah, hollow cylinder than you will be able to see the bottom off the cinder like this. So, as an exercise for this cylinder drawing chapter, I want you to go fill up at least three pages with cylinders in different orientations. The more you draw these ellipses and joined them toe make cylinders that will, in turn, improve your drawings off cylindrical objects. Thank you and see you in the next lecture. 10. Fitting Drawing On The Paper: will come to this lecture in this lecture. We'll see how to get there. Drawing started on any paper so that you don't run the risk off the drawing going out of the paper. So there are a few things which you should do. Say you have, ah, paper of this size. Then what I recommend is that first you live out some Martin on the paper so that you're drawing doesn't touch any of the ages or doesn't go very close to the edge is so I would say I will leave about this much off portion at the bottom of the paper. Then I leave this much on this. I and I leave this much on the side. So these are my outlines are These are my bounding ages within which the drawing is to be made. So now, if we have this subject, it's obvious that it's wider than taller. And that's the reason why I have taken the paper in landscape. More ive the photograph or the object we'll see in this format wherein the drawing is, or the objects which are drawing arm or taller than wider. I would have turned this paper and taken this in portrait more so the next thing which you do is find out what is the maximum height off the drawing or hide off the object. When I say maximum, I'm not talking about the maximum height here or here. But what I want is what is the highest point in this set off object? It's this and what is the lowest point in this set off objects? It's this. So I want to know what is the total height. And I will do that with keeping my pencil like this. And I'll align this with the highest point and bring it through the Louis point. So this is the highest point. I bring it here and then place my finger and the lowest point on the bench. Here. This is the lowest point. This is the highest point. So this is the highest dimension. What this set off objects will have. No, I do not want to transfer this as it is, because even though I can fit this set off things, one ist one here. I don't want to do that because if I'm out in the field and I'm drawing a set off trees or mountain or any other thing, or if I'm drawing an animal, Obviously I cannot draw. One is 21 So the idea off measuring the total height is not to cooperate directly onto the paper. I want to use this height just to measure what is its proportion with the word of the object. So I do that by placing the pencil here, and I know that it's coming here at the edge of the bottle and then I'll again place the pencil here to see that it's almost 80%. So it's 1.8 times, though, hide off the object or set off objects. So what I'll do is just toe. Take some wild guests on, say that the system height of the set off objects which I want to draw. So now what I'll do is I know that the village is 1.8 times the hide. I'll measure this height here, and then I start from here and let's see where it goes. This is one on this is to. So if I take this height the width off, the drawing should be only so much so it would be something like this. Now I see that I can still go wider and taller. So what I'll improve is I'll say this is the height off the object which I want to draw. So now will again measure with the pencil and take this measurement and bloated here again . So this is one and this is almost 80%. So I'm very close. So now what I'll do is I'll mark this line and mark this lane and complete this line, and I'll also complete this line. So I know that I can fit the drawing here very nicely. And I do have some margin, if at all. My drawing goes out a bit, I have some room for investment. So this is the way you should start any drawing so that you don't run the risk off going out of the paper. Neither does your drawing become so small that it looks are on this side of the paper. I'll show you this once again with vertical drawing. So here is the drawing, which I want to go. And as you can see, this set off objects is dollar, then it is wider. So that's the reason I placed this paper in vertical, former or portrait for my And even though I'm showing this on the photograph, you can extend your arm like this in front off any subject with you're seeing in the in front of your eyes. It need not be a photograph. It can be really life. Objects are animals or whatever, and you can do the same thing. I'm just using a photograph for ease off, showing it to you. So the first thing what I do is I'll keep some margin. So let's say I want to keep this margin here. I want to keep this here. Andi, I want to keep this much margin here. Now let's say what is the why this point on this object? Because the paper is vertical or imported more. I want to start with the wit. And when the paper was horizontal or the former off, the drawing was supposed to be horizontal. I started with the height so you can see that that is it's the opposite off the paper. Let's see what is the widest point here? I can see that this is the widest or this is the left most point, and this is the right most point on this subject. So I'll see you take this measurement like this and and see what is the proportion off this very it through the height. So I'm trying to please this year and place this here. I can see that it's almost 1.6 times, though, with So let's say I want to draw the Brundle off this week and I know that the proportion is 1.6 times so in place the pencil here and take this measurement of the build and make the first mark your and then I'll go and make the 0.6 mark here. So this is the height of the panda. If I choose this as the village off the fender and this whole setting, If I had taken this as the village off the Brenda, then I can see that it's almost the same length as the pencil. So I'll place this year and this is one and then place the pencil again, and this is about 50%. This is 60%. So this is the height of the whole set up would be when I have this as the lid off the set up. So once you have this notional box around your object and you've already mapped the height and width off the object on your paper. You are almost 90% sure that you won't go out of these margins, and you're drawing will be very proportionate with the paper size. With that, we are good to start actually drawing. So see you in the next lecture. 11. Angle Measurement and Envelope Technique Part 1: welcome to this lecture in this lecture will be talking about techniques of doing. 1st 1 is angle measurement, and 2nd 1 is called envelope technique. So angle measurement technique is something with which we measure angles, but not in terms of degrees, but in terms off time. We use this because it's easier toe recognize angles on and plot them on the drawing board easily rather than saying this is a 35 degree angle or, say 150 degrees angle. So we are very much family with this kind off Anel oclock. So if we say we have a line in the object like this, then we can plot this on this clock. Or we can imagine this in this in this cloak and find out what kind off angle it makes. So if we say this is the angle which this line mix, then we can transpose it here. And we can say that it's just 15 minutes past one of long Let's take this set up off stay life and let's check few angles. If I tried to join this point with this point, the angle is so much or this is the line which denotes that. So if I dig it here, you can see that it's 11 o'clock angle. All you can say it's five o'clock angle, depending on where you say it's the center of the clock. So typically what I do is wherever I hold the pencil that become the center off the clock and then I again related anywhere I want. So now let's see. What is this angle? Which which This linemates, if I join this point with this point. So let's see. This is, as you can see, it's just before 12 o'clock. It's not exactly what Deacon, it's slightly before Velo Club. So this wave, it's easier toe recognize angles in the Seto or in the subject, and then transfer it on the people where we are doing So now. Let's come toe envelope technique envelope technique is Golden Villa. Pick me because we imagine that the subject is wrapped in some kind off envelope. And let's say if this is the set up, and if we try to wrap this with cling wrap or plastic wrap, which we use for sandwich, it would stretch from this point at this point, then it will go here, then it will come here. It won't go in because it always make straight lines. It comes here. Then it will come here, make an angle here and then go this way and wrap around this. So if I were toe blocked this or make this doing here, the first thing I do is I leave some margin. And as I can see, it's difficult here to see whether this is more horizontal or more vertical. So let's leave this and then let's see what is the widest point. So if I hold the pencil here, then I can say that this is stove it off. Those set up now, If I plot it like this, I can see that it's more vertical. The drawing will be more vertical than horizontal. But since I've tasted the paper here, I won't change the orientation. But I'll make sure that it fits this people. So if I hold it here, I can transfer it here, and then I can see this is the center of this length. So this is 50% and this is 40%. So if I make if this system of it on make it slightly less this system built. Then what I'll do is I'll take this and then plot it. No, it won't. A lot fit the paper because if I make 40% here, it will go somewhere outside the paper. So I do reduce the with. So I want this as the wit. So now I'm taking this measurement. And if I plot this year and then here it will fit still here. So this is the bounding books which I get for this still left center. I don't know if you are able toe see these lines in the camera because I want to draw it very, very lightly because these are nor the final lines the first pass as I have talked about it in the electors, the drying develops in in various passes. So this being the first pass, the lines are going to be very, very light. So now let's come to the envelope technique. Now we can see that this being the right most point, it will be somewhere here. So from here, what is the angle this line is making? It's slightly less than one off look. So I draw that line so you can imagine it here if I dig this line and bring it here. You can see that it's slightly less than one oclock. So I'm transfer this line like this year. So it will be like this somewhere. Then what is the angle off this line? It's slightly beyond nine oclock. So it would be something like this. So I transfer that line from here till here because this will be nine oclock. This is 9 15 so I'm making a very rough line here. Then I will make this line which makes almost vertical. We have seen that it's slightly less than 12 o'clock, so it will be something like from here. The Nightline will come here on this being the right most point. It will be in this corner. So this is the lane which I have. Then I see your line, which is like this which it makes with this brush. It's almost horizontal, but slightly downwards. Then I have this line coming from this brush. Tilda, top off this Barton, which is if I transfer it here, it's maybe 11 30 line. So from here, what is the 11. 30 line like this somewhere. And then, is there any difference in angle of this line. Yes, this is slightly. This is before 11 o'clock. So if I draw a line which is before long clock So I draw a line which is like this, there is very less difference between this angle and this angle, so we can come to that later when we refined the thing. So this is my first set off lines, which may the envelope. So I know that this part is something which is not going to be in my drawing. So now I'll go in a bit and I'll try to cut the things which are not in the drawing. So I'll start with this. According there, remove some portion off this, then what I see is this point on the mug. I'll see if it is at 50%. I think it's probably 50% almost slightly. This distance is slightly less so. If this is 50% of the world off this holding, then the point will be or the mug will be somewhere here. And if I tried to get the middle point, then the mere point will be somewhere here off the height. So this is the midpoint. So this is the brush so the mud will be somewhere here and and handle will be somewhere here. You can see that I'm making ready light lines and they will be since it will be we are drawing this cylinder. I'll make this ellipse here and they'll be very lips here, though we won't see the stop line off the Ellipse. This is what we will see. Then I can see that this line is vertical. So from here I'll draw this line and the bottle will be somewhere here. And it overlaps this Muggle some extent. And then it's You can see that this point has toe come here on this line because that is where we traced these angles. So again, this is an ellipse. This will be an ellipse, and this is where the border will be. This is a very rough shape, which I'm growing and I'll go on the defining it as I made progress. Then this is the negative shape off the handle. Then I know that this is the corner where the brush comes, so they will be, ah, line like this and it will have so much off earth and goes on reducing. Then there is this brush and then these two brushes and so on. So this gives me the basic set up off the whole drawing. And then I can go on the refining things and because I drew the envelope first, I'm sure that the drawing will not cross it by a big margin. These envelope lines are just guidelines for me, and they're not the final line. So if I keep on measuring distances and find that this corner has to be somewhere here I am goingto make that change. If this point is slightly higher, I'm going to shift it up. But at least the anvil appliance give me an idea off where things like Thank you and see you in the next lecture. 12. Angle Measurement and Envelope Technique Part 2: so I'll keep on taking measurements on digesting the shapes. And, uh, I'm not talking between because I'll be constant ing more on drawing it. So watch how I proceed with refining this drawing deal in. So that's it. I hope you have, ah, learned something from this video and you will put into practice this matter when you draw any subject yourself on DSI you in the next lecture. 13. Comparative, Negative Shape and Grid Technique Part 1: Welcome to this lecture in this lecture will be talking about three more drawing techniques . Competitive measurement. Negative shape on grid lines. Three lines can be also called as plumb lines and level lines. Andi Visual judgement, Which is not a technique, actually. But as you improve or as you practice drawing on DMA, make use off all other techniques off going to improve your drawing process and the accuracy. Your visual judgement, which you already have to some extent goes on increasing. And that is when drawing comes naturally to you. You don't have toe. Take measurements consciously. You do take measurements visually, but you don't have to do them like this like this and comparison. And then things start becoming accurate and accurate. So now let's talk about these techniques one by one. In competitive measurement, we use one measurement in the set up or one measurement in the subject to measure other parts off the subject. For example, we can use the height off this bottle as one unit which we can use to measure the rest of the things in the in this drawing by negative shape. I mean the ideas around the subject, which we're doing Incidently. This subject doesn't have any internal negative shapes. For example, if you have a mug coffee mug and there is a handle here, this idea which is caught between the mug and the handle, is called internal negative ship that also can be observed for improving accuracy off our drawings. So in this set up or in this still life set up, the negative shapes are all around the image. For example, if I use a pen like this, I can show you what I mean by negative shapes. So this he's one negative shape, then this is another negative shape. So if we pay close attention to these and actually draw these on the paper, then what remains is the positive off the subject, which we want to draw. So it's like using another way to lead to the same destination. Then grid lines are nothing but horizontal and vertical lines, which we can imagine and use them toe plot different portions on the trying. For example, once we draw, say this in bottle, if we extend this line which cuts the bottle here or is exactly at the end off this camp off the bottle. If I extend this about. You can see that the muzzle, it lies on the same line. If I extend that line further, I can see that even the year funds on the same line. Then if I draw a horizontal, I can see that if I draw a horizontal from here, this leg falls on the same line or this point point on the leg falls on the same line. Then if I draw a line between this point and bring it on the side, I can see that this leg. If I hired this layer off negative shape, I can see that if I draw a line like this, it actually gives us the position or top point off this leg so we can use all this to place . Different elements are organized, different elements or shapes off the drawing on the paper. So now let's go on and use competitive measurement technique to draw this. So let's say this is the bottom of the drawing, which I want to have on. Let's major this. This is one unit. This is due. This is three. See that it comes at the top of the Muslim on. This is 75% off the fourth soil. It's actually reporting 75 times Don't has compared to this border. Now let's compare it with the world. This is one this is too and maybe 5% after that. So if I choose this as their height of the bottle, it could be anything. But I've taken this so that it fits on this paper. Let's say this is the height. I could have taken some height like this or like this, But I'm right now making a conscious decision or taking a guess to make the Barton sort on . So if this is one and I need to plot 3.7 device. So this is one. This is Stone. So this is 123 on, and this is I have to point cure somewhere, which is 3.75. So this gives me the stop off the drawing. Then let's say this system will I want to have or this is the margin on this side. Then I know that this is who points a 0.5 white. So this is one I applauded here. This is one Mrs Stone and maybe some 5% extra. So this gives me the went approximately So again for this drawing in this rectangle. And now let's start growing. I can see that I can divide this hide in tow. Multiple portions. I can do it in tow. One, two and three. So that's a make three parts off this height. So in this height, that is, this is the neck or the sister shoulder of the border. So there is an ellipse here because we're drawing a bottle. It's a cylinder. Then there is another. Hey, Libs here for the bottom off the border. This is where your practice, all drawing sudden objects are primitive. Solid objects comes in handy. So, as you know, this is three point perspective because these verticals are not vertical. They are. They tend to move somewhere down below. So you can see this line also is the north vertical. So this line goes in a bit like this, and this lane comes in of it. So then there is an ellipse here for the dump off the cap, and this will be the bottom portion off the camp. And then here will be the shoulder like this, a very rough representation off the bottle but I'm okay with it right now. Then let's see we extend this. Then I can see that the bottom portion off the leg is here on. Now. I'm bringing attention to this with this negative ship so I can leave some portion of this and then this will be the leg. I can see where this point is, particularly. It should be somewhere here were tickling up. And I want to see where this point is as compared to this one unit. So this is 1.5 times so half of this and I get this point so half off this is somewhere here. So I get at this point. So this is the start of the leg here. Now this line goes up like this at this angle, which is our two o'clock angle. As for the angle measurement thing we had seen. So it's a two o'clock angle on, and I can see that if I draw a line like this, the leg this leg has to be completely about that line. There is a gap between this gift. Now I'm again paying attention, toe this negative shape on roughly drawing in the length I can always corrected later, but this will give me something to start with. Now, if I want to go check this point how very this place. Then I can again take measurement like this on and bring it here and just below two. So this is to so it will be somewhere here. And this line is almost cortical. So I can roughly draw this leg like this and then make this shoe. Then this is where the hand will be and this hand comes in like this. It cuts the leg here on I'm again being attention toe this negative ship. So if I this is the three, is there top of the Muslim so I can draw this model roughly. And from here I can draw this line pretty much like this. It's maybe well O clock and some minutes and then exactly at three, it starts to bend in. So this is three. So it starts going in on I believe this pace for the years like this, and it goes like this, something like this. And now I can bring in this arm. Ondas Um and here is something which the find eyes holding and this line is what separates the leg from the door. So now let me finalize the Moselle like this. And the eyes are here. One eyes here on this line, top of the muzzle and top of this black fortune is at the same level. And on this side it's slightly higher and goes up and comes down like this. And then there is this I then I have no plot these years. This at this point at this point are almost in line so that you're will start somewhere here and it starts on the head. And it goes like this. And this on this line Are this point at this point not in line. So from here, if I draw a line medically, this is where the year starts. This line is almost worked, more giggle. And then it Ben is and comes down like this. Then I can draw in the nos For this I'm using the visual judgement another than any measurement. And now what remains is the box on which the band I sitting so I can go online like this. You can see this angle is say 20 clock angle and then this line is like this on be a lying from here somewhere to this point like this on this line, it's slightly overlapped by this leg. Then I can draw a line like this, which is almost I need to change this line slightly up. And this line also And then they'll be a vertical line like this online which goes like this. Andi, this is on the edge in this line and that is one more line for the bottom portion. - So roughly the box is also droning and I will keep on working on this drawing the lame satisfied with how it looks. They should be slightly smaller. But at least at this stage, I have placed all the portions are placed all the major shapes properly. And I know that because I have checked the negative shapes. Also, I've checked the positive shapes. I object different areas with the grid lines or plumb lines and level lines. And I can go ahead and work on the details off this drawing now. So thank you. On dsi you in the next lecture 14. Comparative, Negative Shape and Grid Technique Part 2: So as I progress, I will not be talking. Now on, I'll be concentrating on drawing portion and you can see how I complete this drawing. - So that's it. You can see that I have ah, shaded in the dark areas. I've made some corrections. Andi, I've reached a fairly satisfactory stage, though I can go on taking even more detailed measurements. Andi correct things which are not so correct. But I would like to stop here. And I hope in this lecture you have learned these three techniques and you will make use of these techniques whenever you draw your drawings. So thank you. On dsi you in the next lecture. 15. Drawing what you know vs See: welcome to this lecture in this lecture, let's look at a common misconception. Are common argument about whether we should be drawing what we know or what we see. So I've listed down to headings. One is left brain, and that is right brain, because we associate artistic ability with the right brain on analytical ability with left print. So whenever we tend to use more off symbols than what is actually in front off us, which is reality, we don't do draw things which are from our memory and our not so detailed once because our memory is very symbolic and it stores things as symbols on it doesn't store any details. So if I tell you to draw an elephant from memory, you would draw a very simplistic elefant rather than if you are sitting next to an elephant and drawing it from reality. And from what you see, though you know an elephant, what you draw from reality would be a lot more detail and not more intricate than what it would draw from memory. That's the reason why symbols are not very good when we actually want to draw something realistic. Left brain more are drawing relies heavily on accuracy rather than character and style off the drawing. So the people who draw with more off left brain activity 10 to draw very accurate things. But the drawing doesn't have a soul or character to it. Actually, photographs are very accurate, but we highly regard drawing, then a photograph. And that's the reason where this artistic side off it comes into picture. So this is more of our craft. It is learning, learning about techniques and how to use them to get our drawing, which is very accurate and very good looking. But when we go beyond techniques and beyond craft, we get what is called is our and that comes when we express our feelings through the drawing. So when we draw something which has a feeling, sometimes when you see are drawing or painting, you feel the emotion expressed by the artist. That may not be true when you actually look at a photograph in art, the artist decides what to emphasize, and what to leave out there is in photograph. The camera captures everything with equal importance. So this is more about learning the technique, and this is more about going beyond technique and creating a work off art. But this is not at all to say that techniques and accuracy is not important. These are the building blocks, but we have to go beyond that and make a beautiful artwork out of that. So though you cannot ignore this if you stop it this, then you don't transition over toe being an artist. So there are times when you need to think about accuracy. Think about craft and think about technique. And there are times when you need to think about character and style and want to actually see. Here is a photograph off to paint brushes, and we know that they have handle and they have prisons. But if the brushes are placed like this, then my knowledge about the handle being long is off. No use. And the bristles being shard is off. No use because here you can see the area which these business occupy is much more larger than the handle itself. So this is where you need to make use off waters being seen in front off you rather than the knowledge off how brushed looks. I'll give you another example in which we know that how a bulb looks like. So this is a an elliptical ball kind of shape. And it has this extension which plugs into the socket. If I tell somebody to draw a bulb, they would probably draw it like this. But if we have to draw above it, which is like this And if this is the ball place in front of you, then you don't have the option off relying on your knowledge of how a bulb looks and then drawing a correct image. Because even though this is the same bulb, you can see that here this part, which is Metallica and which goes into the socket, looks much more larger than this part, which is the actual thing which lights up. So the point is you have to balance things out. You have to know. Then you have tow, draw what you know, and when you have to draw over to actually see in reality. Only when you maintain this balance correctly, you will get a drawing, which is accurate also. And it also has your artistic expression in it. Thank you.