Drawing Fundamentals 4: Dynamic Shading on Toned Paper | Ethan Nguyen | Skillshare

Drawing Fundamentals 4: Dynamic Shading on Toned Paper

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

Drawing Fundamentals 4: Dynamic Shading on Toned Paper

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

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14 Lessons (2h 22m)
    • 1. Class Trailer

      3:03
    • 2. Toned Paper Materials

      4:52
    • 3. Toned Value Scale Exercise

      5:00
    • 4. Toned Swatches Exercise

      1:15
    • 5. Toned Sphere Drawing

      5:29
    • 6. Design Techniques

      4:41
    • 7. Cross Hatching

      5:20
    • 8. Gray Paper: Wooden Figure

      17:07
    • 9. Gray Paper: Tea Pot

      19:49
    • 10. Gray Paper: Eye

      23:33
    • 11. Intro to Black Paper

      2:17
    • 12. Black Paper: Candle

      7:11
    • 13. Black Paper: Glass

      13:14
    • 14. Black Paper: Bird

      28:40
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About This Class

Most people are familiar with the traditional way of drawing where a dark pencil is used to make marks on a white piece of paper. Here, the pencil is used to create the shadows and the white of the paper is used to depict the highlights.

But there is another method of shading using toned colored paper where a white pencil is used to create the highlights.

Toned paper is my favorite method of drawing because it allows you to shade more quickly and with less work while still achieving the same level of realism as regular white paper.

And it also results in really high contrast dynamic drawings.

In this 4th part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple series, you're going to learn the different ways to use toned paper to make your artworks more exciting.

We'll begin by going over the materials you'll need as well as some basic shading exercise to get you comfortable with this medium.

You'll learn how to create a toned value scale and how to shade a basic 3D form.

Then we'll progress to drawing a variety of still life and organic subjects. We'll start with a simple wooden figure, then a porcelain teapot, and then a human eye.

You'll be able to see the entire process laid out in a step-by-step way, from the initial lay-in to applying all the shadows and highlights.

Once you're comfortable with shading on grey toned paper, I'll introduce you to drawing on black paper.

Here, we'll only use the white pencil to create the highlights and allow the black of the paper to stand in for the shadows. This style of drawing can create very high contrast and dynamic drawings (even more so than regular toned paper).

And by learning to shade on black paper, you'll gain a deeper understanding of the principles of rendering.

Once again, we'll learn through a series of easy-to-follow step by step exercises.

We'll start with a simple drawing of a candle. Then we'll move on to drawing a glass cup. And finally, we'll end with this bird drawing.

By the end of this course, you'll know how to use toned paper to create awesome artworks and be well on your way to become a well-rounded and knowledgeable artist.

This course is part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple Series.

Be sure to check out the other courses in the series so you don't miss out on any important skills:

Meet Your Teacher

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Ethan Nguyen

Art Instructor

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I am a professional artist and teacher and have taught thousands of students how to draw the head and figure through my courses and online videos. 

My strength as a teacher comes from my ability to deconstruct complex subjects into manageable concepts. And my attention to detail helps me to explain these concepts in a way that is very approachable to students.  

In order to make sure my courses contain the best available information, I am constantly researching, studying, and training to improve my artistic skills. 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Class Trailer: Most people are familiar with the traditional way of drawing, where a dark pencil is used to make marks on a white piece of paper. Here, the pencil is used to create the shadows and the paper is used to depict the highlights. But, there's another method of shading using toned color paper, where a white pencil is used to create the highlights. Toned paper is my favorite method of drawing because it allows you to shade more quickly and with less work while still achieving the same level of realism as regular white paper. It also results in really high contrast dynamic drawings. In this part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple series, you're going to learn the different ways to use toned paper to make your artworks more exciting. We'll begin by going over the materials you need, as well as some basic shading exercises to get you comfortable with this medium. You'll learn how to create a tone value scale and how to shade a basic 3D form. Then, we'll progress to drawing a variety of still life and organic subjects. We'll start with a simple wooden figure, then proceed to a porcelain teapot, and then a human eye. You'll be able to see the entire process laid out in a step-by-step way, from the initial lay in to applying all the shadows and highlights. You'll learn things like how to apply atmospheric perspective to add depth to your drawing, how to use cross hatching to make your shading more exciting, how to design backgrounds that will make your subject leap from the page, and how to use strategic highlights to make an object look like it's shining. Once you're comfortable with shading on gray toned paper, I'll introduce you to drawing on black paper. Here, we'll only use the white pencil to create the highlights and allow the black of the paper to stand in for the shadows. This style of drawing can create very high contrast and exciting drawings, even more so than regular toned paper. By learning to shade on black paper, you'll gain a deeper understanding of the principles of rendering. Once again, we'll learn through a series of easy to follow step-by-step exercises. We'll start with a simple drawing of a candle, then move on to a glass cup, and finally, we'll end with this drawing of a bird. You'll learn things like how to create a cool glowing flame effect, how to arrange abstract highlights to create complex lighting patterns, how to create hair light texture and feathers on an animal, and a whole lot more. By the end of this course, you'll know how to use toned paper to create awesome artworks and be well on your way to becoming a well-rounded and knowledgeable artist. Well, I hope you found this video helpful. I'll see you on the inside. 2. Toned Paper Materials: If you spent any time looking at artworks, you've probably noticed that there are two types of drawings. The first is where the drawing is done on white paper. A single pencil is used to create the shadows and the white of the paper stands in for the highlights. This is the standard method of shading, and we cover how to do this on the previous part of the drawing fundamental series on basic rendering. The second is where the drawing is done on a toned piece of paper. A dark value pencil is used to create the shadows. A white pencil is then used to create the highlights. The tone of the paper is used as the transition between the light and shadow. There are many benefits to drawing on toned paper. For one, it allows you to shade the drawing much faster than the white paper approach. Being able to use a white pencil to create the highlights means that you can create more striking highlights with much less work. Additionally, the high contrast between the dark and white pencil also gives your drawings a more exciting, realistic appearance. It's also a very diverse medium. You have many choice of paper colors and drawing tools, which allows you to explore different styles and designs. Lastly, drawing on toned paper will better prepare you for painting. That's because the two process are very similar. In painting you also create your highlights by putting on white paint rather than using the white of the canvas. So the skills you're going to develop by working on toned paper will transfer very well into painting. Needless to say, this is definitely one of my favorite method of drawing. In this part of the series, you are going to learn how to use toned paper to create awesome looking drawings. Let's start by going over the materials we're going to need. For this course, I'll be using this Strathmore 400 toned paper. It comes in two color options, gray and tan. But we'll just stick with the gray for now. This paper has a relatively smooth surface, which makes it work well with a wide range of medium. It also comes in a variety of sizes, from nine and half notebooks to 18 by 24 posters. Later in the course we'll also be drawing with white pencil on black paper. For that, I'll be using the Strathmore Artagain coal black paper. Of course there are many other paper brands out there and I'm constantly trying out different ones to see how they interact with different pencils. As you get more experience with this type of drawing, you'll probably want to do the same. If that's the case, here are some good brands for you to start with. These papers have a more textured surface, which can help me to get a darker value. They also come in a wide range of colors. But again, this isn't necessary. If you're just starting out, just stick with the Strathmore papers. We'll need a dark pencil to create the shadows. In this course, I'll be using the Polychromos color pencil. I like this action because it allows me to experiment with different colors, which creates a lot of cool possibilities when combined with the toned paper. However, a graphite or charcoal pencil will also work very well. For the light pencil, I'll be using the General's white charcoal. There are many options for white pencils out there, but I've found that this pencil gives me the most brilliant white pigment. Now, if you are a digital artist, drawing on toned paper is super easy. Just create a background layer, then choose the bucket tool and select any color you want. Let's go with this one. Fill the layer with that color, and just like that, you have instant toned paper. Now, just select your favorite brush, pick your color of choice, create a new layer, and start drawing. When you're ready to put it in the highlight, just switch the brush color to white and go to work. The great thing about digital is that if you feel like changing the color of the paper, you can do that with just a few clicks. Just select the background color and use the bucket tool to change it to another one. That's it for the materials. Now let's get started with the drawing exercises. 3. Toned Value Scale Exercise: Now let's create a value scale using tone paper to see how it works. Begin by drawing this five-square bar, and then fill in the number 5 square with the darkest value you can. For the number one square, we'll switch to the white charcoal and fill it with the lightest value we can. We'll leave the number 3 square blank and use the gray of the paper as the middle tone. Next, we'll fill in the number 4 square with a dark value that lies between three and five. Again, if in doubt, err on the side of making this square lighter, we can always re-evaluate and darken it later. Then switch back to the white charcoal and lightly fill the number 2 square. Now step back and look at your values scale, and make any necessary adjustments. Next, we'll create a gradation bar below this value scale. I'll begin by matching the value of square number 5 and 4. Now filling the gap to create a smooth transition between the two squares. Now we're going to leave the middle portion of the bar blank and use the tone of the paper as the transition between the dark and the light values. I'll just let the dark value gradually fade out until it blends smoothly into the gray of the paper. Now we'll repeat the same process using the white charcoal pencil. Match the value of square number 1 and number 2. Then create a smooth transition between them. Once again, we'll let the white charcoal gradually fade into the gray of the paper. Next, evaluate and make any necessary adjustments. We're all done. Comparing this value scale with a white paper version, we can see that by using the white charcoal to create the light value, we're able to get a very high contrast between the light and the dark. This is one of the benefits of tone paper drawing. It allows us to work with a much wider value range, resulting in a much more dramatic and exciting drawing. Try this exercise for yourself so you can get used to this method of rendering, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. Toned Swatches Exercise: In this quick exercise, we'll be creating these gradations swatches on tone paper. Start by using the dark pencil to create a gradation that smoothly fade into the gray of the paper. Then use the white pencil and create another gradation coming from the other end. Be sure to leave a gap in the middle so that the dark and white pigments do not mix. When working with tone paper, we want to avoid letting the two pencils mix as that will result in a grayish color that won't look very good. That's it. If done properly, this should look like a smooth gradation going from light to dark. Now just repeat this process and create more swatches going in different directions. This exercise will help you get comfortable with combining the two pencils. So have fun and I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. Toned Sphere Drawing: In this lesson, we will be drawing the sphere. This will give us a chance to practice the tone paper drawing process on a simple object. It will also allow us to compare this sphere with the white paper version to see the similarities and differences between the two processes. Once again, we'll begin by drawing the line. Next, we'll separate the light from the shadow. Then, we'll fill in the shadow side. After that, we'll darken the occlusion shadow and add in the core shadow. So far, the entire process is the same as if we were drawing on white paper. The real difference happens when we start working on the light side of the sphere. Rather than creating the half tone with our pencil, we're just going to use the gray of the paper to depict it. To create the centerline area, we'll use the white charcoal pencil. I'll move the white pencil in a circle motion to create the centerline area, and I'll gradually let it fade out as it approaches the half tone area. Remember, we still want to maintain a smooth transition between the elements of shading. Then, I'll increase the pressure on the pencil to create a bright spot for the highlight. Adding the light areas is the really fun part of tone paper drawing as when the drawing really comes together and you'll see the form of the subject just leap out at you. However, if you're having trouble seeing the effect of the white pencil, it's a good idea to step back from the drawing and look at it from afar. This will help you to evaluate if the shading is working so far and determine what to do next. That's all the elements we need to add. Now, as you know, we just need to darken and refine the shading. We can raise this edge along the bright side of the sphere to create a loss edge. We'll darken the occlusion and cast shadow. Beef up the core shadow, smooth out the transition between the light and the shadow, soften up the edge of the cast shadow, and just keep refining the tone until you reach a smooth, even shading. Sometimes, depending on the type of paper you're using, it can be difficult to fill in the texture of the paper and create a smooth shading. In those cases, I sometimes like to use my finger to blend out the tone. This is a quick and easy way to move the pigments into the empty spaces and smooth everything out. Although, you want to be careful with this technique. If your hands are particularly oily, this can cause smudges in the shading and also make them more difficult to erase. If you want to be safe, it's better to use a blending stump, Q-tip, or paper towel to blend your tone. I just like to use my finger because it's so convenient and it gives me a better control over the pressure. How I often go through many rounds of adding pigment with my pencil, blending the tone with my finger or a blending tool, and then, adding more pigment. I'll just keep repeating that process until I reach the desired darkness and smoothness. That's it. We're all done. Comparing this drawing with the white paper version, we can see a lot of the benefits of tone paper drawing. For one, creating the center light and highlight is a lot easier because we can simply draw them in rather than having to darken everything else. This also allows the highlight to be a lot brighter, which helps us to accentuate the shiny quality of the sphere. The fact that we can simply use the gray of the paper to stand in for the half tone means that we have to do less work and the shading process goes a bit faster. Go ahead and try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Design Techniques: Before we get into the drawing projects, I'd like to introduce you to a few design techniques that we're going to be using in the upcoming exercises. As we become more advanced as artists, we want to start thinking about not only how to make our works more realistic, but also how to make them more interesting and beautiful. These design techniques will help us to do just that. Atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric perspective sometimes also known as aerial perspective is when an object appears lighter and less vivid the further it gets from the viewer. In this example, the hill that is closest to the camera starts out relatively dark and vivid. As we get further and further away, the hills appear lighter and fuzzier. This is because there are tiny particles in the air such as dust, water vapor, and pollution that can obstruct our vision. The further away an object is, the more a particle exists between the viewer and the object, causing it to appear less vivid. In addition to distance, the quality of the air also plays a role. On a clear day like this one, the effect of atmospheric perspective doesn't become obvious until we get to these really distant hills. But in this scene, the fog is thick enough that even over a short distance, the background is considerably hazier than the foreground. As artists, we can use atmospheric perspective to communicate depth or create a mood in our work. Notice how the progressively fading background elements in these paintings help to convey the vastness of the scene. We can also apply atmospheric perspective to smallest subjects like this figure. Here, the leg that is furthest from the viewer is depicted very lightly and with fewer details. The leg that is closer to the viewer is slightly darker, and the head, which is closest to the viewer is the darkest and most vivid part of the drawing. Here's a more subtle example of atmospheric perspective. Even though this far side arm is darker than the rest of the drawing because it's in shadow, the artist depicts it with very few details. He merges the finger, hand, and arm into one big shape, and this lack of detail pushes the arm into the background. Whenever your drawing has one object that is closer to the viewer than another, that's a great opportunity to inject some atmospheric perspective into your work. We'll go over exactly how to do this in later exercises. Vignette. A vignette is when you let a drawing gradually fade out rather than having a drawing stop abruptly, which can be jarring. A vignette eases the viewer's eyes out of a drawing. This makes for a more attractive composition and it allows the viewer to be more focused on the main subject rather than be distracted by the outer edges. There are many ways to design a vignette. Here, the artist blurs the edges of the drawing with vertical lines to create a softer border. Here, the artist lightly indicates the rest of the figure using lines but only chooses to render the phase and part of the torso, which is the focal point of the piece. Vignetting will also work for architecture and landscape drawings as well. Background design. It's very common for artists to add a background to their work. A well-designed background can help accentuate the main subject as well as create a nice vignette. Here, the artists use an abstract background to frame the phase and also create an interesting v-shape composition. Here, the dark background helps make the portrait really pop forward and also add a kinetic energy to the drawing. In addition to being abstract, backgrounds can also have a defined shape. Here the artist uses a rectangular background to frame the figure but he also allows the bottom of the figure to gradually fade and vignette out. One really cool benefit of drawing on tone paper is that you can use the white pencil to quickly create very striking background designs. Here, the white pencil is used to really draw attention to the focal point and make it stand out from the rest of the drawing. There are many, many ways to design a background, and in this course, we'll explore some of those options. 7. Cross Hatching: So far, we've been taking a tonal approach to our shading by filling the shadows with a flat tone. But there's also a linear approach to creating value called hatching. With hatching, we simply draw a bunch of parallel lines next to each others to create a patch of tone. If we want to make the value darker, we would change the angle and apply another layer of hatched lines on top of the first. Because the lines are crossing over each others', this technique is called cross hatching. We can keep layering hatched lines like this to keep increasing the value. Hatching and cross hatching are basically the same technique. You might hear me use the two terms interchangeably. Hatch lines can give a drawing a really cool, stylized look, and allow the artist to be really creative with their shading. Cross hatching can range from simple patterns to really complex designs. We'll explore the intricacies of hatching techniques in future courses. For now, I want to introduce you to the idea of hatching and how to incorporate it into your tonal shading. Let's go over some basic exercises. Start by making parallel hatching lines with your pencil like so. Try to keep the length, value, and distance between the lines consistent. This is a pretty simple exercise but it does take a fair bit of coordination. The most common mistakes are to vary up the length and angle of the lines, to make some lines darker or lighter, and to make the spacing of the lines inconsistent. Also try hatching in different directions. You'll probably find that you have a preferred angle. This is perfectly natural. For me, is going diagonally like this. Once you're comfortable with that, try adding a little curve to the hatch lines. Also make the line slightly shorter as you progress. This helps to make the hatching more interesting, and I find that I use this pattern a lot in my drawings. You can experiment with making the lines more curved and moving them in interesting patterns. For this style of hatching, it really helps to draw with your shoulder rather than just your wrist. Once you're comfortable with hatching, we can practice cross hatching. Begin with the hatching lines. Then I'll change the angle slightly and create another layer of hatch lines. Once again, I'm making the lines slightly curved and staggering the length. We can add as many layers as we want to create a darker value. You can practice creating different shapes and patterns when you're cross hatching. One tip to keep in mind is that when doing cross hatching, I try to avoid having the lines intersect at a perpendicular angle. This tends to give a rigid look to the drawing. There may be times when I would use this pattern, say when I'm trying to create some texture. But in general, I tend to avoid it. Instead, I prefer to draw the second set of lines at a slight angle to the first. I find that this creates a more pleasing appearance. But of course, as you add more and more layers, eventually you can't help but cross the lines at a 90-degree angle. But by then it won't be very noticeable. Okay. Go ahead and practice these exercises, and in the later lessons, we'll learn how to apply hatching as well as the other design techniques to our drawings. 8. Gray Paper: Wooden Figure: In this lesson, we will be drawing this wooden figure. It might seem complicated, but don't worry. This dummy is really just made up of all the basic forms, and by drawing it, we're going to learn how to deal with shading simple forms on toned paper. The first thing I'm going to do is create a very light, rough sketch of the entire figure. I'll simplify the figure into shapes like ovals and cylinders. I'm going to make an effort to capture the proportion and placement of the subject, but because this is only a rough draft, I fully expect to make changes to these estimates later. This rough sketch helps us to establish the size of the subject and ensure that everything will fit comfortably on the page. When it comes to complex subjects, particularly the human figure, there are so many moving parts that it can be difficult to know how big you need to make each parts. Beginners often make the subject too small or too big and end up cropping off an arm or a leg. Here, I'm making an initial guess at how big the head should be, and then, basing the proportions of the torso and arms off the size of that head. This allows me to see how big the figure will end up being and if it will fit comfortably on the page. Sometimes, while doing this, I'll find out that my initial head size would result in a figure that's too big or too small. In that case, I would readjust the head size and repeat the process of roughing out the figure. Again, this is why it's important to keep your marks very light so you can make adjustments easily. Once I'm happy with the basic proportions and placement, I'll go back over the rough sketch with darker marks and flesh out the details. Notice how on the second pass, my lines deviate from the initial sketch quite a bit. I'm using the rough sketch to refine my guesses and bring the drawing closer to true accuracy. At the end of the day, that's all drawing is, guessing. Often, students gets frozen by a blank page because they feel that they need to get everything right the first time. Well, that's not the case at all. You make rough guesses in the beginning. Then, you evaluate those guesses and make adjustments to bring you closer to the truth. You keep repeating this process until you're happy with the result. Also, as you're drawing this figure, be sure to pay attention to the overlapping forms. For example, the shoulder joint is a sphere. Well, we're not able to see the entire sphere. It's partially overlapped and covered up by the cylinder of the upper arm. At the same time, the shoulder's overlapping the form of the torso. These overlaps are telling the viewer that the shoulder is in front of the torso and the upper arm is in front of the shoulder. The subtle overlaps are all over this wooden figure and they're extremely important to show in the 3D forms, so be sure to capture them. Now, we can go over the drawing to see if there's anything we need to fix. I can see that this head needs to be shifted to the left slightly, so I'll go ahead and make that correction. We can see a little bit of the bottom plane of the head. We'll indicate that with a very thin ellipse. Next, I'll do one more pass over the drawing to add in the really small details like the under-planes of the body parts. I'll also make small changes to the lines wherever I see fit. If I feel confident that an area is accurate, I'll go ahead and darken those lines. Looking at the reference, we can see that not everything is in clear focus. The arm that is further away from the viewer, as well as its back leg, is fuzzy and out of focus. This creates an atmospheric effect that causes these background elements to recede and allow the viewer's attention to be drawn to the parts of the in-focus. We're going to incorporate this, in fact, into our drawing by keeping the lines and shading on the far side arm and leg very light and fuzzy. Next, we'll use the same shading procedure we always use. Begin by separating the light side from the shadow side. The body of this wooden dummy is very rounded, so I'll use the side of my pencil to create soft edges for the terminator. Even though the shadows in this reference is pretty obvious, there are still some creativity involved in designing the shadow shapes. Your shadow mapping may not look exactly the same as mine, but that's okay. As long as you make a firm decision about where the terminator should go, the drawing will look three-dimensional. We'll also map in the shadows on the far side arm, but remember to keep the marks here lighter than the rest of the drawing. Then, we can fill in the shadow side with a flat tone. For the far side arm, I'll use parallel hatching lines to keep the value in this area more subtle. Next, we'll add in the darker occlusion shadows. These are the crevices of the joints of the figure where less light is able to get in. We'll also be adding in some small cast shadows that are created by the body of the figure. I find that adding these darker shadows really help convey the depth of the crevices and give the drawing a lot more volume. Even though you may not see it in the video, I'm sharpening my pencil frequently to maintain a sharp tip. A sharp pencil is crucial for creating these small details. Now we can add in the core shadows and reflected lights. We actually don't see much of a core shadow or reflected light in this reference. That's because the dummy is not standing next to any surface that could bounce light into the shadow areas. But because the core shadow and reflected the light is so useful for showing the form of an object, we're going to chip them in any way. To do that, I'll go along the terminator and create a darker core shadow. This will in turn create the lighter reflected light area. Notice how the figure looks so much more three-dimensional after we add in the core shadow. This is why I love exaggerating core shadows so much. Now the transition between the light and the shadow is still a little abrupt, especially for rounded form like this figure. I'll go back over the terminator and soften up the edge to create a smoother transition. This will help the figure to look more rounded. We also want to make sure that the legs gradually fade out rather than end abruptly. Things are looking pretty good. Again, notice that so far the shading process is exactly the same as if we were drawing on white paper. Next we'll use the white pencil to add in the light areas. But before we do, I'll use an eraser to clean off any spots where I intend to apply the white charcoal. Oftentimes, your hands will smudge the dark pigment slightly causing them to go into the light side. By clearing out the paper first, will ensure a clean application. Now we can come in with the white charcoal pencil and establish the light areas. It can be very easy to overdo the white charcoal, so I recommend you start out lightly and pause to evaluate how it looks. We can always add more white pigments later. Be sure to leave some space between the dark tones and the white tone so that the grade of the paper can act as a transition between the two. I'll also apply the white pencil to the far side arm as well. But once again, I'll use parallel hatching lines to keep the value more subtle. Those are all the elements of shading we need to add. Now we just need to go over the drawing and increase the contrast by darkening the shadows. As I'm doing this, I'm looking for opportunities to add lost edges to the drawing. For example, at the shoulder joint, I darken this outline in order to emphasize the overlap between the shoulder and the torso. But then I let the line gradually fade into the shadow of the torso creating a subtle lost edge. There are a number of lost edges here in the lower body where lines appear and disappear into the shadow. Of course there is a bunch of lost edges in the far side arm where lines fade into the gray of the paper. I'll darken some of the lines on this arm, but then let them gradually lighten as we move further out. The figure is complete, but it looks a little boring, just standing there by itself, so we'll add a background to make it more interesting. For this one, let's go with a circle motif. Find any object around the house that can be used as a circle template. I'll use this jar lid. If your object is a different size than mine, don't worry, that's perfectly fine. Test out where you want to place a circle and draw it in with the white charcoal. This background will make the figure really pop out. I'll put it at the focal point where I want the viewer to look. Make sure you don't draw over the figure itself. Now we can thicken up the line and create an inside border along the contour of the figure. Already the drawing looks a lot more interesting. Next I'll go ahead and use hatching lines to fill in the circle. Notice that I'm not layering these hatch lines on top of each other's. Instead, I'm putting each group of lines next to each other to create a random pattern. The key is to mix up the direction of each group so they don't become too repetitive. This is actually harder than it sounds so take your time with this one. Of course, this is just one way to fill in the circle. You can also fill it in with a flat tone or use parallel lines all going in the same direction. Feel free to explore the different possibilities. Well done. Go ahead and try this exercise for yourself. Have fun, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 9. Gray Paper: Tea Pot: In this lesson we'll be drawing this teapot using a combination of observational and constructed drawing. This exercise will help us to learn how to shade shiny surfaces. We'll begin by drawing an oval for the body of the teapot. This oval will be wider than it's tail. Next, we'll draw in an ellipse for the top opening of the teapot. The center line will help us to keep things symmetrical. Draw a smaller ellipse within the first to indicate the thickness of the opening rim. Then draw in the sides to indicate the height. Next we'll draw in the round handle of the lid. Draw in the attachment of the handle to the lid. This attachment is very subtle in the reference, but I'll exaggerate it in the drawing. Now that we've drawn in the opening and the lid, I can see that the body of the teapot is a little too small, so I'll expand it a little. Now we can put in the handle. There's a bit of a corner here where the handle changes direction. Here is the outer surface of the handle. This inside edge will establish the thickness of the handle. There's the attachment of the handle to the teapot itself. Let me just darken and clean up these lines. Next, we'll draw in the base of the teapot that's barely peeking out. Lastly, we'll put in the spout. There's the body of the spout and there's the opening. These corner lines, even though they're very subtle on the reference will help establish the structure of the spout. Now we want to look over this layer and to make sure that there's no mistakes that we need to fix. Assuming it's all accurate, we can move on to the shading phase. I'll start by mapping in the cast shadow. Then separate the light side from the shadow side on the body of the teapot. This area of the opening and lid can get a bit confusing, so let me clarify it a bit. Here's the cast shadow created by the opening rim onto the lid. I'm exaggerating the shadows a little compared to what's actually in the reference. On this side there's the cast shadow created by the lid onto the opening. Next, we'll fill in the shadow with a flat tone. Before we go any further, let's talk about how we want to design some atmospheric perspective into this drawing. We can see that there's quite a bit of depth in this picture. The handle is closest to the viewer, followed by the body, and the spout is furthest away. Whenever there is an object that's closer and another one that's further away, we can convey that depth to the viewer by making the Far Side object less vivid. As we continue with the shading process, I'm going to make the value in the spout very light and fuzzy compared to the rest of the drawing. I'm going to make the details on the handle very sharp and defined. Unlike the wooden dummy exercise where the atmospheric perspective is given to us by the reference. Here we're injecting it into the drawing ourselves. Now that we have the shadow side filled in, we can add in the darker occlusion shadows. I'll start at the base of the teapot where less light will be able to get in. This reference is not showing much of an inclusion shadow, so I'm taking some liberties here. There's an inclusion shadow here at the attachment of the handle. This one is a bit more obvious in the reference. I'll add a thin shadow here to separate the base of the teapot from the body. I'll darken this side of the handle to emphasize that it's turned away from the light. The hand of the lid is casting a shadow across the teapot. There should be an occlusion shadow near the base of the handle. Our dark in this recess here where the lid and opening rim makes contact, not much light will be able to get in there either. Next, we add in the core shadows. Starting with this spherical lid handle, we can definitely see a distinction between the core shadow and the reflected light area underneath. There's a very strong reflected light along the body of the lid because it's sitting right next to this opening rim, which is bouncing light into it. As we know, a strong reflected light will create a strong core shadow. Next we can see in the area of reflected light at the bottom of the teapot's body. Which means that this area here will be the core shadow. For a large core shadow like this one, we have to make an effort to create a smooth transition between the core shadow and reflected light. Don't just have them jump abruptly from one to another. Going back to the opening rim, there's a definite core shadow along this edge where the form of the rim changes direction. Again, this is because of the strong reflected light area created by the bounced lights coming off the body of the lid. Lastly, there are core shadows running along this edge of the handle. Now we're ready to add in the white pencil. Once again, I use my eraser to clean off the surface first. For this drawing, I really want to capture the reflective quality of this porcelain teapot so I'm going to do something a little different. I'm going to use the white charcoal just for the highlights. I'm going to use the gray tone of the paper to depict the center light areas. This will allow the highlights to stand out among all the other darker pigment and look that much brighter. As you know, the brighter the highlights appear, the shinier the surface will look. As you can see, just by adding these tiny highlights, the drawing instantly becomes so much more three-dimensional and we can really feel the shiny surface of the teapot. Next, I'll use the color pencil to lightly darken the half tone to create a smooth transition between the shadows and the center light areas. Now we just need to go back over the drawing and sharpen up some of the lines and darken the shadows. Darkening the value should make the highlight appear even brighter and give the drawing that much more impact. I'm mostly just darkening the core, cast and occlusion shadows and smoothening out the half-tone. We've been completely ignoring this part over here so let's give it some attention. I'm going to darken the shadows here a bit, but we're going to be careful not to overdo it. We still want it to mostly fade into the background. I will sharpen up this line to emphasize the overlap and show that the body of the teapot is in front of the spout. But I'll make sure to let it gradually fade into a loss edge. I'll add some line with variations throughout the drawing to make it more interesting. Next, lets lighten these two areas on the light side to create some loss edges. That's it for the teapot. Now we just need to create a background for the drawing. I'll start by using the white pencil to create an outline around the contour of the teapot. I'll keep the outline on the light side of the drawing as that's where our focal point is. Next, I'll use the same hatching pattern as we did in the wooden dummy drawing to create the background. If you need to, use a scrap piece of paper to rest your hand on so you don't smudge the drawing. As we get further out from the teapot, I'll gradually decrease the pressure of the hatch lines so that they become lighter and lighter until they just blend into the gray of the paper. This will create a vignette which will ease the viewer's eyes out of the drawing without being too abrupt. Of course, this is just one way to design the background. If you like, I'd encourage you to try out your own design. As you become more experienced, you'll be able to get much more creative with the backgrounds. That's it, we're all done. Have fun with this drawing and I'll see you in the next lesson. 10. Gray Paper: Eye: In this lesson, we'll be drawing this eye which will help teach us how to shade complex organic form using tone paper. I'll start by sketching in the shape of the eyebrow. Notice how I'm simplifying the curves of the eyebrow into straight-line segments. Rather than getting bogged down with all the subtle undulations, the whole shape can be distilled with just a handful of line segments. This not only makes things easier to draw, but it will also give your drawing more structure and make it look better. I'll slightly indicate the bridge of the nose. Next we'll sketch in the crease in the eyelid. Again, notice that we're breaking up this curve into three-line segments. There's a curve rhythm that connects the end of the crease with the eyebrow, which helps to tie the elements together. Next, let's draw in the opening of the eye. This part is a little more curvy but you can still see that it has some directional structure to it. The line angles up, and then comes across and then angles downward. The bottom portion angles down and then up and then down again. Capturing these directional changes helps you to avoid the very common mistake of drawing almond-shaped eyes where everything is curved the same way. Now we'll draw in the shape of the iris. The shape is a circle, but the top part will be covered up by the upper eyelid. When drawing the iris, I find it very helpful to look at the negative space in the white of the eye to help me judge the placement and the size of the iris. Then we'll draw in the thickness of the eyelids. The eyelids aren't just flat pieces of skin, they have a definite thickness to them. Most of the thickness of the upper eyelid is covered up by the eyelashes, although you can still see a little bit of it poking through at the corner. We can clearly see the thickness of the lower eyelid. One of the most common mistakes when drawing eyes is forgetting to add in this thickness to the eyelids. Next there is a subtle bulge under the eye created by the spherical volume of the eyeball. So we'll indicate that with a soft edge like so. Now let's evaluate the drawing to see if there's anything we need to fix. It looks like the eyebrow is a little bit too long, so I'll shorten it and bring it closer to the eye. Finally, I'll draw in the pupil, as well as the shape of the highlight. There's actually another more subtle highlight to the left of the pupil but I think that will cause the drawing to look a little too busy, so we'll just leave it out. Now we're ready for the shading will start by mapping in the shadows to separate the light side from the shadow side. The shadow edges on this eye is very soft and diffuse, which can make it really difficult to know where to place the terminator. So rather than trying to copy the reference, just make a decision about how you want the shadow shapes to look. Use the photo for inspiration but inject some of your own design. If you're not sure, then copy what I have for now. As you become more experienced, you'll have a better sense for what makes an attractive shadow pattern. That's the shadow at this corner of the eye where less light is able to reach. I'll carve out a spot for this little highlight on the skin. Then we can fill in the shadow side to see how the drawing looks. There's also a light shadow cast onto the eyeball by the upper eyelid. It's a very subtle detail, but it can really help to show the thickness of that upper eyelid. Just by separating the light and the shadow, we're already able to get a pretty realistic read. Now we can do the more detailed rendering. Let's start with the darkest and most obvious areas like the iris. There's a lot of intricate details in this iris, so we're now going to try to make a carbon copy of it. Instead, we'll simplify it into a sun ray pattern like so. Start by darkening the outer edge of the iris, and then draw thin lines that start at the edge and point towards the pupil at the center. The key detail to keep in mind here is to gradually rotate the lines as you go so that they all point towards the center of the pupil. Also be sure to vary up a length, darkness, and concentration of the lines so that the pattern doesn't get too repetitive, make some lines shorter or longer, darker or lighter, and put more light in some areas than others. If it helps, you can think of the pupil as the sun and these lines are like sun rays emanating from it. I'll thicken up the outside edge of the iris some more. Going back to the reference, if we look closely at the highlight, we can actually see tiny reflections of the eyelashes. So I'll also indicate them in the drawing. You don't have to copy them exactly, just a few lines here and there will do the trick. Now we're ready to draw in the upper eyelashes. The eyelashes curl up and out from the edge of the upper lid, and we can see this curling very clearly along this end of the eye. Again, try to vary up the length of the individual lashes. Also, the lashes will crisscross over each other, so don't just draw them as parallel lines. Along this end of the eye the lashes will not be as visible, that's because from this angle, the lashes are pointing straight at the viewer and therefore appear for shortened, although we can still see some of the lashes curling downward. Next we'll shade in the eyebrow. The key to drawing realistic eyebrow is to pay attention to the direction of the hair growth. The first layer of hair will be going in a diagonal direction along the eyebrow. Each stroke that I'm drawing starts at the bottom of the eyebrow and goes towards the top. As I reach the end of the stroke, I'll lighten the pressure on the pencil so that the end of the line will be thinner than the beginning. This will help mimic the structure of hair where the tip is thinner than the base. As always, is very important to slightly vary up the length, angle and darkness of each hair. The second layer of hair will start from the top of the eyebrow, and they'll angle slightly downwards. There's not as much of these hairs, but they help to fill out the eyebrow from the top. The hairs will get lighter and shorter as they reach the end of the eyebrow. Once we have the general pattern the hair sketched in, we just need to repeat the same process to make the eyebrow darker and fuller. Let's not forget about the lower eye lashes. Again these lashes will grow out from the edge of the lower lid and crawl downward, but they will be a lot shorter and fewer than the lashes at the top. Next, I will put a light core shadow along the bridge of this nose to help show that its protruding forward. I'll also add some tone to the edge of the tear duct to show that it has some depth as well. That's it for the shadow side. Now we're ready to address the light side. As usual, I'll clean off the areas where the white pigment is going to go. I'll start by filling in this highlight in the eye. We want the highlight to be as bright as possible, so be careful not to mix the white charcoal with the dark pigments. Then we'll do the rest of the iris, which just filling in the empty space that was uncovered with the red color pencil. Next we'll move on to the white of the eye. We're not going to apply the white charcoal to this entire area. Instead we'll only use it to indicate the areas of the eyeball that is protruding out the most and therefore catching the most light. I want the pigment to be brightest near the edge of the iris and gradually lighten as it moves out towards the two shadow areas at the corners. Remember, the eyeball is basically a spherical form. So it would exhibit the same lighting pattern as a sphere that we shared early in this course. This area that we're drawing would correspond to the center light area of the sphere. Next we'll add in these highlights in the tear duct areas. This will help to show the form of these pink fleshy areas that are in the tear duct, and it will also convey that the eye is wet and shiny. Then we'll add in the white pigment to this top plane of the lower eyelid. This plane of lid is angling outward and therefore receiving more light. This skin area under the tear duct is also caching quite a bit of light. I'll also add these very thin highlights along the bottom of the eyeball. Sometimes moisture from the eye can accumulate there and reflect a little bit of light. So adding these highlights can further convey that the eyeball is wet and shiny. Now moving on to the upper eyelid, I'll add some white to this portion of the skin. Again, that's the area that would be protruding out the most and therefore catching the most light. There's also this patch of skin that's quite shiny as well. This eye is part of a face, but obviously we're not going to draw the whole thing. So as I move further out, I'm beginning to think about how I want to design the vignette so that the drawing can fade out gradually in an interactive manner. Here I'm using hatching lines to suddenly indicate the highlight in this area. The hatching lines help to keep this area more subtle, and they also add a stylized look to the dry. We'll also apply some cross hatching to this area of the brow that's brighter because it's sticking out more. I'll have the lines go in this direction and if you want the value to be more intense, just change the angle slightly and apply another layer over it. Again, these hatching lines help us to apply an even tone over this area while keeping it relatively subtle. Next, we add some very light hatching lines over this nose bridge. This helps us show the protruding form of the nose bridge and also help us to create the vignette. Now we just need to go back over the drawing to increase the contrast. I'll darken the eyebrow and some of the core shadow areas. Here I'm darkening the area along the crease of the eyelid. As the skin folds into the crease, it will get less and less light and therefore appears darker. By darkening this area, we help tell the viewer that the form is rounded, enrolling into the crease. I find that this is actually a very important detail in helping to make the eye look realistic. The key here is to let the tone be darkest along the center of the crease and gradually lighten as it moves outward. At the side of the eye, I'm using curve hatching lines to darken this area. I'm also allowing the hatching lines to gradually lighten as we move further from the eye. This helps to create the vignette that we're looking for. Here I am darkening the corner of the eyeball and trying to create a smooth gradation between the shadow and the light. This will help to further emphasize the rounded form of the eyeball. Darken the subtle shadow area to indicate the bulge under the eye. I'll also add some value to this corner of the eye to help separate the tear duct from the rest of the eyeball, and also to show the rounded volume of the fleshy tissues within the tear duct. Here I'm allowing the tone on the bridge of the nose to gradually turn into hatching lines and then have the line slowly become lighter and more spaced out and eventually disappear. I'll do the same for this area under the eye. That's it and we're all done. As you can see by using the tone paper and white pencil, we're able to create a very striking effect with this eye. Well, have fun with this exercise and I'll see you in the next lesson. 11. Intro to Black Paper : Now that you understand how to shade on toned paper, I'd like to introduce you to a slightly different method of shading using white pencil on black paper. Here, instead of creating the shadows using a dark pencil, the paper itself would do that for us. We would simply draw in the light using the white pencil. It's pretty much drawing in reverse. Don't worry, it sounds complicated, but it's easier than you think. Here are the materials I'll be using when drawing on black paper. Going back to the value scale example, we would start by filling the number 1 square with the brightest value we can. We'll leave square 5 blank and use the black of the paper to stand in for the darkest value. Then we fill in the number 3 square with a value that lies between number 1 and the black of the paper. Then as you know, we fill square number 2 with a value that lies between 1 and 3. Lastly, we would fill square 4 with a light layer of tone to transition between 3 and 5. To create the gradation bar, simply apply the white pigment to the bright end and gradually fade it out until we reach square number 5. Comparing the three types of value scales, we can see that they all use the same principles of shading. It's just that they use a slightly different method for creating value and therefore yield a slightly different look. Black paper drawing can give us a very cool high-contrast look, even more so than regular toned paper. So it's a great skill to add to your arsenal. Also, by practicing this unique method of shading, you gain a deeper understanding of how to manipulate light in the shadow to create a realistic illusion. Finally, I should point out that even if you don't have black paper, you can still follow along with the exercises. Regardless of what color the toned paper is, as long as it's not completely white, it can stand in for the shadow. Black paper tends to work the best because of the high contrast. But you can use whatever colored paper you happen to have. With that said, let's get into the drawing projects. 12. Black Paper: Candle: In this lesson, we'll do a simple drawing of this candle using white charcoal on black paper. This drawing will illustrate how you can use the contrast of black paper to create a cool glowing effect. Begin by simplifying the body of the candle into a cylinder. Then we'll add in the bumps and undulations in the body. The nice thing about drawing subjects like this candle is that we don't have to worry as much about accuracy, as if we were drawing a portrait. Instead, we can use the reference as inspiration, but allow ourselves to be a little more free with the details. Be sure to leave a gap in the middle for the candle wick. Next, let's draw in the top portion of the wick, and also the flame. Then we'll fill in the flame area. We know we want this area to be the brightest in the drawing. I'll apply a decent amount of pressure with my pencil. Now, there are tiny bright spots within the tip of the wick, so we'll put them in with a white pencil. You'll need a fine tip for this, so be sure to sharpen your pencil. I'm trying to use sharp edges to separate the wick from the rest of the candle flame, and give it more definition. Next, we'll put a light glaze over this top half of the wick to show that is engulfed in flame. Then fill in the body of the candle. Be sure to leave a gap where the wick is. Here I'm shading the body of the candle using vertical strokes to give the drawing some directional energy. Also, this makes it easier to have the shocks gradually fade out towards the bottom of the candle. Next, I'll put some highlights along the edge of the body as those are the areas that would be illuminated by the flame. As you can see, I'm taking some creative liberties, rather than sticking rigidly to the photo reference. I'll put a light glaze at the bottom of the wick. Next we can see from the reference that there's a glowing effect around the flame. So I'll put a light layer value in that area of the drawing. Then I use my finger to lightly blend it out. This will soften the pigment and make it seem like the candle flame is really glowing. Now, we just need to refine the shading. I'll add more white pigment to the flame to really make it stand out from the rest of the drawing. Be sure to have the flame fade out slightly, as it nears the body of the candle. We'll brighten up the body as well, especially the areas that are closest to the flame. We want to be careful not to make the body of the candle too bright, least it competes with the flame. In order to convey the glowing effect, the flame needs to be the brightest element of the drawing. I will allow the white pigment to vignette out as we get lower on the body of the candle. Let's add more value to the halo around the flame, and let it gradually fade into the black of the paper. Blend it out a little. Now, my finger was a bit sweaty, so I ended up creating some smudges in the halo. That's one of the danger of using your finger to blend. But luckily this one wasn't too bad, and I can simply knock it back with an eraser. That's it, well done. Go ahead and try this drawing for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. Black Paper: Glass: In this lesson, we'll be drawing this glass cup. This exercise will teach us how to approach complex shiny objects. We'll begin by lightly sketching in the cylindrical body of the glass. Put in the base of the glass and draw in the edge of the table the glass is sitting on. The water is sloshing around in the glass, so it will form a slightly slanted elliptical shape. Now, we can start rendering by putting in the brightest highlights. There's a few highlights scattered throughout the opening rim. The light and the shadow pattern on this glass might seem really complicated, but as you'll see, it's really just about matching the shapes of the highlights as you see them in the reference, and eventually, the illusion of the glass will begin to take form. These highlights scattered along the rim are really important for sure in the form of the glass. But because they're not a continuous line, they're able to hint at the shape of the opening without being too obvious. The surface of the water will be one of the brightest area in the drawing. Here, I'm conforming my pencil strokes to the elliptical shape of the water. Next, we'll copy the abstract shapes of the highlights at the bottom half of the glass. Again, don't be overwhelmed by all these complex shapes. You don't have to copy them exactly. As long as you capture the general shape and placement, the drawing will look real. As you're drawing in these highlights, you want to make sure that they conform to the contour of the glass. Because we're not using a hard line to outline the shape of the glass, we're relying on the shape of these highlights that convey the silhouette of the glass to the viewer. There's a lot of abstract-looking highlights in the base of this glass which can be confusing. The key here is to leave small gaps between the highlights so they don't just merge into one big shape. All right. Now that we have the big highlights put in, we can sketch in the more subtle highlights. I'll add some vertical streaks along this part of the glass. These subtle highlights will help give the glass a murkier, more realistic appearance. There's a few squarely streaks on this side of the glass as well. Here, I'll add some abstract patches of value and then soften them out with my finger. There's a lot of subtle details in this bottom half of the glass, and I'm not going to try to depict them all. Instead I'm only drawing the things that I feel is important and leaving out the rest. Next, we'll draw in the refracted light that are hitting the table surface. Make sure to distinguish these lights from the glass itself by leaving a small gap between them. We want the edges on these bright spots to be very soft so I'll blend them out with my finger. There's a few more subtle bright spots scattered throughout the table. We'll also add some white pigments to the edge of the table, and we'll let the white slowly fade out as it gets further from the glass. Again, I'll use my finger to spread the pigment around and cover the table surface with a subtle layer of value. Now, we just need to go back over the drawing and refine the shading. I'll add some pigments through the highlights to make it as bright as possible. That will really help us to get that shiny effect. Increasing the intensity of the brightest highlights increases the value range of the drawing and helps to differentiate some of the most subtle highlights. I'll add a subtle highlight to this area. This isn't something I see in the reference, but I think it will make the glass look more interesting. I'll also add these two brighter highlights. Again, these are embellishments that are not actually in the reference itself. Next, I will strengthen the highlights in this area. I'll use my finger to spread the pigment around and cover the bottom half of the glass in a light white haze. This will help give the glass a murky look. The drawing is still looking a little muted compared to the reference, so I'll do one more pass where I really pump up the highlights. Even as we add more white pigment, we have to be careful not to cover too much of the black paper. We need a good mix of the black paper showing through so that it can contrast with the white pencil. A little more to the table area and we're all done. As you can see, just by assembling a bunch of abstract shapes together, we're able to create the illusion of a realistic glass of water. Well, go ahead and try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 14. Black Paper: Bird: In this lesson, we'll apply the black paper method to drawing this bird. This will teach you how to create organic textures, as well as how to deal with more complex lighting patterns. We'll begin by lightly drawing a rough lane. There's a v-shaped fur line that separates the head from the body, and I'll draw a triangular cone shape for the beak. Here's the separation of the wing from the rest of the body. There's the tail sticking out, and I'll roughly sketch in one of the legs standing on the wooden fence. This rough lane should help us capture the overall proportions. Now we can further refine it and add in the details. Starting with the head, I'll draw a simple circle for the eye and add a white spot for the highlight. This little highlight is very important for showing the dimension of the eyeball. Next, we draw in the white patch of hair that surrounds the top half of the eye. Then we'll draw in the bigger patch of hair that sits below the eye. As I go along the border between the white and the black hair, I'll be sure to use varied strokes to simulate the fur-like texture. I'll make the lines on the beak a little stronger and add in a little bit of white hair at the top of the head as well. Next we draw in the big patch of white hair on the body. There is a v-shape patch of black hair that separates the head from the body. Notice that we're leaving a gap where this patch of hair would be. Basically we're going to use the black of the paper to stand in for that dark hair, and we're only go to draw in the white hair without a pencil. Next, we'll draw in the details of the wing. I'll start with a simple outline and roughly sketch in a few of the big feathers. There is a patch of white hair at the top portion of the wing. The middle portion of the wing will consist of these little blue feathers with black tips. We'll draw in the shape of the feathers and we'll lightly fill in the body. Well, we'll leave the tip blank so the black of the paper can stand in for it. That's a lot of these little feathers and it's easy to lose track of all the details, so don't feel like you have to copy them exactly, just do your best to capture the general pattern. Next, we can see that the wing is creating a small cast shadow on the body of the bird. So I'll draw in the shape of the cast shadow, and I'll be sure to leave this area blank when shading. Then we have a very white patch of feather on the wing, so I'll fill in that area. For the bottom portion of the wing, the feathers are in a striped pattern, so I'll draw these slightly curved lines to depict them. There's a small patch of white hair on the end here. Now, as for the main body, we can see that the sunlight is coming from the right, leaving the left side of the bird in shadow. So I'll draw in the separation between the light and shadow on the body. There's also a small patch of slightly curved white hair on the belly area. Once again, be sure to use fur strokes to replicate the texture of the hair. Next, we'll draw in one of the leg. Here in the tail area, there's a cast shadow created by the tail onto the body, so I'll be sure to mark out that shadow. There's the wooden fence that covers up the tail. Now let's finish up the rest of this leg, and there's the portion of the fence the bird is standing on. The top half of this back leg will be in shadow. We'll use the black of the paper to depict it, but we'll still draw in the outer contour, so that the viewer can see that there's a leg there. We'll put in the last part of the fence. I'll extend this tail until it gets cut off by the wooden fence. Finally, we'll put in this separation between the light and shadow in this area below the beak. We're pretty much done with the lane, now we can start the rendering process. We'll begin by filling in the white patches of fur on the head. As I'm filling these areas, I'm making sure that my pencil strokes are following the direction of the hair. There are some white patches on the top of the head, and there's a white spot at the tip of the beak. Now, we're going to skip over the area of black hair around the neck and move on to the body. In this area of the body, the hair are generally pointing downward, but I'll mix up the direction a little bit to mimic the natural texture of the hair. Needless to say, you really want to keep your pencils sharp so you can create the hair-like texture. I'll fill in the white patch of fur on the belly. Since this area is supposed to be in shadow, we're going to keep the stroke relatively light. We'll also fill in this shadow area here. Again, we're going to keep the strokes even lighter and spaced out in order to let more the black paper show through. This will help convey to the viewer that this area is in shadow, and this side of the tail will be hit by the light. Next, let's fill in the legs. We know that the light is coming from the right. So we'll add white pigment to the right side of the leg and leave the left side blank. I'm exaggerating this effect a little compared to what's in the reference. But this will help to convey the 3D form of the legs and feet. We'll leave the top half of the back leg blank. But I'll lightly add this small patch of light at the edge of the hair. Now let's fill in the wooden fence. There's a lot of rough texture in the wood. So I'm going to go over the outline of the fence and add in some cracks and random undulations. Then we'll use the white pigment to fill the areas that are being hit by the light. I'll also add some light vertical strokes to the shadow side of the fence to give it a subtle texture. Be sure to make these strokes a little random and chaotic to match the rough surface of the wood. Now we'll just repeat the same process for the other pieces. Add some bumps and cracks at the edge of the wood. Fill in the light side, and add some light texture to the shadow side. For this last piece of the fence, we'll apply some atmospheric perspective to it by keeping the details very light and vague. This will help convey that this portion of the fence is further away from the viewer and allow the drying to gradually fade out. All the elements of this drawing is essentially in place. Now we just need to refine the values to add more contrast and texture. I'll start by making the white hair on the head brighter. This area of the head is facing the light, so we need to make it brighter in order to differentiate it from the other side which is in shadow. We're just doing the same thing we did when we first filled in this area, except this time we're applying more pressure with the pencil. As I get closer to the shadow side, I'll be sure to lighten my strokes. Of course, we still want a little bit of white pigment to go on this shadow side because the hair there is still supposed to be white. We'll add some more value to the top of the head. I'll add some white to this side of the beak to show that is being hit by the light. Now for the black band of hair around the bird's neck, we're going to leave it blank, as you know. But if you look carefully, we can see some very subtle highlights within the patch of black hair. I'll lightly put in some tiny strokes along the band of hair. This will help to show that the hair has some dimensionality and prevent the head from looking like it's floating in the air. Next, I'll add some value to the light side of the body. Again, be sure to mix up your strokes to create the texture of the hair. I'm paying particular attention to the border between the light and shadow side. That's where the appearance of texture is most important. Here I'm using an eraser to clean out the spot for the cast shadow created by the wing. This cast shadow is really important for giving depth to the drawing and showing that the wing protrudes out from the body. I really want to emphasize the cast shadow that's created by the tail by strengthening the light area. Again, cast shadows are really great for showing the form of the subject. Next is a little bit of reflected light on the underside of this tail. We have to be careful to keep the reflected light very subtle so that it doesn't compete with the value on the light side. Now, as for the top portion of the wing, there's a few streaks of white hair scattered throughout. I'll scribble in a few here and there. This just helps to create a bit of subtle details to make this area more interesting. Then I'll cover the whole area with a light layer of value, and I'll strengthen this triangular patch of hair to distinguish it from the surrounding areas. Moving on to the middle portion of the wing, I'll outline the edges of the feathers while making sure not to shade over the cast shadows or the dark tips of the feathers. This will help the dark tips of the feathers to stand out more. I'll also crank up the value for this white patch of feather here, and lastly for this bottom portion of the wing, I'll add a little bit of white to each of the feather and strengthen the outlines to better separate each individual feathers. To be clear, we're not trying to copy all the detail that's in this wing, that will be too complicated. Instead, I'm just trying to capture enough to convey the essence of the bird. Here I'm adding more white to the side of the tail that's facing the light. Next, let's add more pigment to the shadow side of the body. Even though this area is in the shadow, it still has a white local color and so it should still be lighter than the black hair that's around the neck. Now I'll add even more white pigment to the light side of the body to further contrast it from the shadow side. I'm holding the pencil using the overhand grip and pushing and dragging the pencil back and forth to create the hair texture. This allows me to create sharper lines than if I was just using the tip. It also makes it easier to vary up the direction of the lines for more dynamic strokes. Moving down further on the body, we can see that there are little white marks on the bird's legs that make them look almost like twigs. We'll add that to our drawing. We can use these lines almost as cross-contour lines to help describe the rounded value of the legs. Although be sure to vary them up a little so that they'll look more organic. Also make sure your pencil is sharp enough to create these fine lines. Next, I'll use an eraser to clean out the areas that are supposed to be black, like the tips of the feathers on the wing and the cast shadows. It's basically the opposite of what we would do when drawing on white paper. Instead of using the eraser to pick out the highlights, here we're using it to pick out the shadows. I'll also use the eraser to create additional texture in the hair. This allows me to add some random streaks of black to both the light and shadow side of the body. If we feel like we've taken off too much of the white pigment, we can always apply another layer of pencil strokes and then I'll do another pass over the drawing and really increase the value on some of the bright spots. The body is particularly bright towards the tail end, so I will apply more pressure in this area and add some more white to the wing, add a few bright spots on the tail area. I'll also add some white accents to the fence, and some more light vertical shrubs to the shadow side, and that's it, we're all done. I hope this gave you a good introduction to toned paper shading and some of the ways we can manipulate light and shadow to create a realistic effect. Of course, there's a lot more to these ideas and we'll explore them in future courses. But until then, I hope you'll have fun with these exercises and I'll see you next time.