Drawing Fundamentals 3: Realistic Shading & Sketching Techniques | Ethan Nguyen | Skillshare

Drawing Fundamentals 3: Realistic Shading & Sketching Techniques

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

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27 Lessons (3h 41m)
    • 1. Introduction

      3:09
    • 2. Understanding Value

      6:13
    • 3. Value Scale Exercise

      7:54
    • 4. Gradation Swatches Exercise

      1:25
    • 5. Understanding Edges

      6:58
    • 6. Analyzing Edges

      6:48
    • 7. Edges Exercise 1

      3:14
    • 8. Edge Exercise 2

      2:34
    • 9. Understanding Light

      9:41
    • 10. Basic Form Drawing: Box

      8:12
    • 11. Basic Form Drawing: Cylinder

      9:41
    • 12. Basic Form Drawing: Sphere

      7:41
    • 13. Still-Life Drawing: Book

      12:17
    • 14. Still-Life Drawing: Cup

      15:22
    • 15. Still-Life Drawing: Apple

      9:38
    • 16. Toned Paper Intro & Materials

      4:52
    • 17. Toned Value Scale Exercise

      5:00
    • 18. Toned Swatches Exercise

      1:15
    • 19. Toned Sphere Drawing

      5:29
    • 20. Design Techniques

      4:41
    • 21. Cross Hatching

      5:20
    • 22. Gray Paper Drawing: Wooden Figure

      17:07
    • 23. Gray Paper Drawing: Tea Pot

      19:49
    • 24. Gray Paper Drawing: Eye

      23:33
    • 25. Black Paper Drawing

      2:17
    • 26. Black Paper Drawing: Candle

      7:11
    • 27. Black Paper Drawing: Glass

      13:14
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About This Class

In this part of the "Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple" series, we're going to demystify the shading process and show you exactly how to create beautiful, realistic drawings step-by-step.

We'll begin by breaking down the different elements of a drawing and how they come together to create the illusion of form. You'll learn about the value scale and how to manipulate it to create different effects in your art.

Then we'll go through exercises to help you develop good pencil control and be able to create the entire value range from light to dark.

Next, you'll learn about the different types of edges and how to use them in a drawing.

We'll analyze master artworks so you can see how to apply these concepts to your art.

After that, you'll learn all about how light works and how to use this knowledge to create dynamic drawings. We'll use diagrams and animations to help illustrate the concepts and you'll come away from this section with a deep understanding of the theories behind realistic shading.

Then, we'll put all the principles and concepts into practice with step-by-step exercises. We'll begin with drawing and shading basic forms like the box, cylinder, and sphere. Once you're comfortable with the basic forms, we'll move on to drawing more complex still-life objects like a book, a cup, and an apple.

I'll carefully walk you through the entire process from constructing the lay-in, all the way to a rendered finish.

In addition to the narrated drawing demonstrations, you'll also get the real-time version of each lessons. This will allow you to see every pencil strokes and get a good sense of how the drawing process unfolds. It'll be like being in the same room with me and looking over my shoulder as I draw.

This course was designed for the complete beginner. We'll start out with very simple concepts and gradually build on them until by the end of the course you'll have the skills to draw and shade any object you see.

Whether you work with traditional media or digital software, the shading skills you're going to learn in this course will be indispensable to anything you do as an artist.

This course is part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple Series.

Be sure to check out the other courses in the series so you don't miss out on any important skills:

Transcripts

1. Introduction: To most people, the ability to put lines and tones on a flat page and create a realistic drawing can seem almost like magic. But in fact, anyone can learn to do this. If you understand the right principles and techniques in this part of the drawing fundamentals made simple series, we're going to demystify the shading process and show you exactly how it's done. Step by step, we'll begin by breaking down the different elements of a drawing and how they come together to create the illusion of form. You'll learn about the value scale and how to manipulate it to create different effects in your art. Then we'll go through exercises to help you develop good pencil control and to be able to create an entire value range from light to dark. Then you'll learn about the different types of edges and how to use them in the drawing. In addition to hands on exercises, we'll also analyze mass the artwork so you can see how to apply these concepts to you art. Next, you'll learn all about how light works and how to use this knowledge to create dynamic drawings. We'll use diagrams and animation to help illustrate the concepts, and you'll come away from this section with a deep understanding of the theories behind realistic shading. You'll learn things like the most common shading mistakes beginners make and how to avoid them. How to use edges to make your drawing more realistic without using any shading. The most important rule to remember whenever you're shading a drawing what to look for when selecting photo reference in order to make your drawing 10 times easier. Then we'll put all the principles and concepts into practice. Would step by step Exercises will begin withdrawing and shading basic forms like the box, the Cylinder and the sphere. Once you're comfortable with the basic forms, we'll move on to more complex still life objects like a book, a cup and an apple. Don't worry if these projects look intimidating, how carefully walk you through the entire process of constructing the lay in all the way through toe a rendered finish. In this section, you learn things like how to simplify the lighting and shadow patterns to give you drawing instant three dimensionality how to construct simple objects using perspective, how to use cash shadows and cross contour lines to describe the volume of an object. How to add loss edges to your drawing to make them look more interesting. This course was designed for the complete beginner. We'll start with very simple concepts and gradually build on them until, by the end of the course, you'll have the skills to draw and shade any object you see whether you work with traditional media or digital Softwares. The shading skills you're going to learn in this course will be indispensable to anything you do as an artist. Well, I hope you found this video helpful, and I'll see you on the inside. 2. Understanding Value: art is illusion. As artists, we assemble lines and tones onto a flat campus to trick the viewer into seeing something that isn't really there to create beauty out of nothingness. In this part of the drawing, fundamentals made simple Siri's. We're going to learn all the principles of shading that will allow you to create dynamic three dimensional artworks. Every realistic piece of art contained four elements. Shapes that's simply the outer contour that tells us what we're looking at shape can be the outline of an object. It can also be the shape of a plane on the form, and it can also be the shape of a shadow area. Next, edges last the way shapes transition between each others. Here, this soft edge serves as a transition between this top shape and this bottom shape, and it tells the viewer that this fear has around it form. Then this value. That's how light or dark, a shape or edges. And it tells the viewer where the highlights and shadows are, and finally, colors, which obviously tells the viewer what color everything is. Every drawing or painting you see being a portrait or landscape will consist of these four elements. Now color is more the domain of painting, and since this is a drawing course, we won't worry about that. For now, the previous parts of the drawing Fundamental Siris are about how to create accurate and three dimensional shapes. So in this part of the series will focus on how to use edges and value to create realism. Let's start with value that's mentioned earlier. Value. Simply refer to how light or dark something is. Value is what we use to make marks and differentiate our subjects from the white of the paper. This value scale shows all the possible value from lightest to darkest. Normally, the white of the paper stands in for the brightest value. In order to make the infinite spectrum of value more manageable, Artist sometimes simplify the value spectrum into this five step value scale, with the number one value being the lightest and five being the darkest. We can also use a seven step or 10 step value scale. The numbers are pretty much arbitrary. Value range refers to the difference between the lightest and darkest value in a drawing. For example, let's take a look at this John Van IPO I study when we compared the lightest value of this drawing, we just just the white of the paper with the darkest value, which is in the people. We see that the difference is not very great. The darkest value only extend halfway down the value scale. We would say that this drawing has a narrow value range. Compare that with this higher contrast drawing here. The light is value is still the white of the paper, but the darkest value extend all the way down the value scale, resulting in a wide value range. Narrow value range trying tend to be more muted and flat. Where's wide valuing Strong's tend to be more dramatic and realistic. One of the most common mistakes beginners make is to not use a wide enough. Now you range in the drawing. This is typically due to not having good value control and being unsure of their decisions . The easiest way to fix this is to dark in the shadows and add more contrast. Are you drawing? Different pencils will have different value ranges. A charcoal pencils max Value is very dark compared to the white of the paper and therefore has a very wide valued range. This is one of the advantage of charcoal. It can create a very dramatic high contrast drawing. On the other hand, the same quality can make it more unforgiving. A beginner who is not used to handling the pencil can make a mess of the drawing really quickly. A graphite pencil was not able to get his darkest charcoal, and therefore has a narrower value range. It still has enough contrast to create a realistic drawing. Well, you have to work harder to get a dark value. For me, this is one of the drawbacks of graphite. But on the flip side, this attribute makes graphite more forgiving than charcoal. The light of Marx allows a beginner to make more mistakes before ruining a drawing. Graphite is also able to make final lines than charcoal, making it more suited for precise rendering. Inc is able to get even darker than charcoal and therefore has an even wider value range. However, it's drawback is that it's harder to create a smooth transition between the different values. I should also point out that value is relative. How light or dark something appears depends on the surrounding. To illustrate this take a look at this grey bar. Compare this end of the bar with this end. Which side of here is darker? If you're like me, you probably thought that this left side is visibly darker than the right. But in actuality, this bar has the same value throughout. It's just that this end is surrounded by light of value and therefore looks darker in comparison. And this end, it's surrounded by darker value and therefore appears lighter. To prove this, let me remove this radiant background and now we can see that it really is the same value throughout. Bring the background back and it looks different again. Pretty cool, huh? So how can we apply this? Affect the drawing? Well, let's say we wanted to make this reflected light area brighter rather than using an eraser . Weaken dark in the cast shadow and the course shadow around it. And now they reflect. The light area seems much brighter in comparison. We'll go over how to do this in detail in future exercises. A drawing is really nothing more than a collection of different values assembled in such a way as to create the illusion of form in order To become a good artist, you must be able to control all value ranges and transitions smoothly between them. So in the next lesson will go through an exercise that will help you to do just that. 3. Value Scale Exercise: in this lesson, and we're going to be creating a five step value scale as well as a smooth gradation bar. This exercise will help you become familiar with all the value range of your pencil, as well as develop the sensitivity in your eyes and hand to recognize subtle shifts and value and create them on paper. I'll be using a black color pencil, but feel free to use whatever pencil a paper you happen to have. You can use graphite, charcoal, ballpoint pen or even digital software. In fact, I would encourage you to try this exercise with different types of pencil to become familiar with a different value range that able to create OK, start by drawing a rectangular box. I'm making this box relatively small at 2.5 by one inch. The bigger the box, the more area you'll have to shade, so keeping it small can help make the shading go a little faster. But you can make the dimension bigger if you like. Next, divide the box horizontally into and divide the top portion into five equal parts. Now for the five step value scale, we know that the first box will be the lightest at a number one value, so we'll just leave that blank and use the white of the paper to depict it. The last box would be the darkest at a number five value, so I feel in this box with a really dark value. I'm applying quite a bit of pressure with the pencil to push it to its maximum value, or at least get us close as I can. As you doing this. Try to keep the shading a smooth as you care. I often find that students are cavalier with the direction of the pencil shows. When shading they change the direction. Have has it Lee, leave a lot of white gaps and apply uneven pressure. This causes the tone to look messy and unattractive. Some artists intentionally create messy and chaotic shading, and that's fine. But as a beginner, your goal was to learn to create smooth shading. First, try to keep your strokes going in the same direction and maintain even pressure throughout . If you do need to change the direction of the strokes, that's OK, but do it with intention. Don't just switch it up randomly, and if you see some uneven patches, go over it and try to match it to the rest of the square. Shading and even tone require a lot of patient and care, so don't rush it and take your time. If you get careless and cut corners, trust me, it will show up in the final result. Now if it using a graphite pencil or some of the tool you might not be if they get is dark of value as this color pencil, that's fine. What we're interested in is fighting the darkest value that that particular pencil can create. Now that we know what the lightest and darkest value of this pencil looks like, we'll go to the number three square and Philip what we think the middle value should look like. If you're not sure how dark to make this square always air on the side of making it lighter . You can always dark in a tone later, but it's very hard to lighten something that's too dark. So when in doubt, just keep it light again. Try to keep the shading as smooth as you can. Next, go to the number four square and fill it in with a tone that is darker than the number three, but lighter than the number five start by matching the number three value and then gradually dark in it until you reach what looks like the midway point between three and five. Lastly, we'll go to the number two square and fill it with a tone that is lighter than the number three, but darker than the number one for this one. You want to keep the pencil pressure very light and be very delicate. We're shading again. If in doubt, it's better to make it to light than too dark. Okay, now that we have all the tones put in, we can evaluate them to see if we need to make any changes. If we were to think about this value scale in terms of percentages, we would say that the White Square is at a 0% darkness, and the last square is that 100%. The squares in between would be 25 50 and 75% dark, so we want the changes from square to square to be as even as possible to reflect this. If you see a big jump between two squares darkened or lightened them as needed to even things out. One trick that can help you to evaluate the scale better. It's a squint, your eyes as you're looking at it. This will blur out the details and allow you to see the drawing as a whole. If done properly, the five step value scale should look almost like a continuous gradation from light to dark . Squinting is a great way to simplify complex subjects into basic light and shadow shapes. Many artists frequently squint of the drawings of painting to check if the values of reading properly it's something that's going to be doing a lot as you progress. The other method is to simply step back me a drawing and look at it from afar again. This has the effect of blurring out the small details and allowing you to look at the big picture. Okay, now that you know how to create a simple value scale, the next step is to create a smooth gradation again. The left end of the bar would just be the white of the paper, so we'll just leave that blank. The right end will be the darkest value we can create, so I'll just matched the value of the number five square above it. Now we want to create a smooth transition between the number five and four square, so I'll match the number four value here. That's the value I want to arrive at. And then I'll fill in the space between to create a seamless transition. Now we just repeat the same process for the next one. Match the number three value here and fill in the gap to create a smooth transition. Then do the same for the number two square. Again, Be very delicate. Were precious sensitivity light tones of the hardest, the shade because it's so easy to overdo them. Just keep it really light for now, and we can adjust it later. As you can see, we're basically just taking the five start value scale and smoothing out transition in order to create a gradation bar. I'll let the tone bleed into the right half of the White square, but I'll keep the pressure extremely light. Okay, The last step is to evaluate the drawing and make any necessary adjustments. Usually, this means increasing the darker values to create a smoother transition. This is a great exercise. The tissue value control and train your eyes to become sensitive to subtle value changes. So try this for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. Gradation Swatches Exercise: Once you're comfortable with making the value scale, here's a quick exercise you can do to further hone your pressure sensitivity. It's very simple. You're just going to create little gradation. Squatch is using your pencil. Start with the darkest tone and gradually lighten the pressure to let the tone smoothly fade into the white in the paper. You don't have to do this all in one pass. You can go back over and refine the shading. The idea is to create the same gradation where we did in the last exercise, but just in a more compressed version. Practice doing this small direction left to right, top to bottom, right to left and bottom to top. Once you're comfortable going from dark to light, tried reversing it and go from light to dark, and you can also play around with the diagonal directions as well. This is a quick exercise, but it's fantastic for training your presses sensitivity. And as you'll see once we get into the dry exercises, you'll be using this exact same technique to create smooth shading. Okay, try this for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. Understanding Edges: Now that you understand the concept of value, let's talk about edges. Edges are how shaped transition between each others. Therefore, types of edges, hard farm saw and lost the hard edge, a hard edges created when there's an abrupt transition between two shapes. This usually happens when two objects overlap here. The color of the box overlaps with the gray background, and the abrupt transition between the two colors create the appearance of hard edge. Here's another example of hard edge where the ribbon overlaps the box. And here's another one where the red box overlaps the green box. Ah, hard edges also created when there's a sharp plane change on an object. Here, the plane of the box takes a sharp right turn at the corner, creating a hard at. If there was across contour line running along the surface of this box, it will go straight along this plane and then take a sharp turn as it moves on to the next point. Hard edges a great for shoring sharp corners or the outer contour of an object. The firm edge. A firm edge is kind of like a hard edge, except more diffused and soft. It's created when there's a sharp but not too sharp plane change going back to our box. Example. If the corner of the box was somewhat rounded, this would cause a more gradual plane change, resulting in a firm edge. If there was a cross control line drawn on this box, it would go straight along this plane, but then carve a little. At the corner is a transition to the next point. A soft edge. If a firm edge were to become even more soft and diffused, it will become a soft edge. A soft edge is created when the form of an object takes a slow, gradual turn. Here, the form of the cylinder is smooth and rounded, and that super smooth and gradual turning of the form creates a soft edge soft edges, a great for showing the roundness of a form. If there was across Contour Line John on this cylinder, it would curve along the rounded form, sometimes an edge, maybe ambiguous, and it's difficult to label it software phone The exactly was not very important. What matter is understanding that edges can exist at a variety degrees of softness? Notice how, even though we haven't filled in the shadows, the edges alone able to convey the form of these objects. This is the power of edges. When used properly, you could make a subject look realistic without any shading. Notice how this drawing looks incredibly realistic, even though it has no actual shading. It's just a bunch of hard firm and soft edges working together to convey the anatomy and form, being able to use edges to communicate. Volume is very useful in quick sketches, where you don't have a lot of time to fill in the shadows. In this example, we see that adding shading does make things quite a bit more realistic. Although the rest of drawing still looks very three dimensional from just the use of edges , a common mistake the students make is to use a hard edge where a soft or firm as should be . To illustrate this, let's try replacing the soft edge of the cylinder with a hard edge. See how we lose a sense of roundness. It still looks around because the shape is telling the viewer that this is a cylinder, but the edge is doing nothing to describe the form. If you get the edges wrong. Any shading you put on top of this will not help you drawing. We'll go through exercises to help you identify edges and use them properly in the later lesson, the loss edge. Lastly, we have the loss edge and loss edge is more of a stylistic tour and is created when an edge disappears. There's two ways to lose an edge. The first is to simply let a line gradually fade out. Here are using eraser to light in the middle portion of this line, so the edge stars out visible, then gradually become lost in the white of the paper and then gradually reappears. This technique is often used to depict intense lighting situations where the bright light blows out the edge and causes it to disappear. In this drawing, Jim Lee wants to depict the heat rays that a shooting out of Super Mans eyes. So he showed that by creating loss edges around the eye as well as at various places in the body, the second way to create a loss edge is to hide in shadow. Here I'll create a dark patch of tone around the middle of the line, and as the value begins to build up the line, become less and less pronounced until finally it disappears into the background all together, so the air starts out visible, then gradually become lost in the shadow and gradually reappears. This technique can help push an area into the background and add a sense of mystery to your drawing. In this Steve Houston drawing, he lets most of the details of the head blend seamlessly into the dark background, turning lines we would normally see there in two loss edges. The same thing is happening down here. In the feet, the edge starts out visible but then gradually become lost in the shadow. The effect this has is that these areas recede into the background, allowing the viewers attention to be drawn to the focal point of drawing. Where the light is also notice how, even though he doesn't actually draw in most of the head, we can still see ahead there. The details in the lit areas give the viewer enough clues about what's going on and allows the imagination to fill in the rest. That's the power of los edges. It can suggest details without actually making them explicit. When you spell everything out for your viewer. Your picture can become too static and boring. But when you leave certain things unsaid, it allows the viewer to become an active participant, and they're mine will fill in the missing details. And, of course, another benefit of Los edges is that by leaving things out, you're actually doing less work, making your drugs look better by doing less. Now that's a good deal. All right, so those are the four types of edges. If you have to review this video as many time as you need to make sure you understand the concepts and then I'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Analyzing Edges: Okay. Now let's take a look at some artworks and see how they utilize the different edges. Here's a drawing by Charles Barb. Before continuing, go ahead and pause the video and try to identify the edges yourself. Then press play and see how I label them. Okay, so we can see a clear, hard edge around the outside contour of this head. Hard edges a great for delineating an object from his background. If we zoom into the face, we can see hard edges where the hair overlaps the forehead. There's a lot of firm edges on the nose since its bony and angular, but it's also rounded. There's a firm edge on this side of the nose bridge, where the form turns away from the light but is more of a soft edge on this right side, where the light is hitting. Here we have a pretty firm as dividing the front and bottom plan of the nose, but the edge gets a bit softer. Is it moved towards the right? This cash shadow on the nose starts out as a heart slash firm edge and transitions into a firm's last soft edge as it moves further out again, edges exists on a continuum, so it's fine to label and edge as a hybrid between two categories. This cash shadow created by the upper lip formed the hard edge, and I would say this border of the Lowell it would be a firm edge. And on the lower lip itself, we see soft edges, which makes sense. Since the lips are very rounded, this other cash shadow under the chin is exposed to more ambient light. So the edge starts out firm and then gradually become softer, the eyes very rounded, so we'll see mostly soft edges there, with some firm edges near the opening of the lids. There's a lot of really soft additional in the rounded form of cheeks and chin, and I would place this shadow along the face somewhere between a soft in the firm egx. Lastly, we have a lot of loss edges in this shadow area. Now we know that there must be a division between the face, hair and neck, but Barb has chosen to group this entire area into one single shape. By doing so, he turned all the details that would otherwise be there in two loss edges. The trick to designing loss edges into your work is to look for areas that a similar in value and group them together as one shape. For example, in this case, the face, hair and neck were probably very similar in value in the reference, so barb group them all together and made them the same value. It's important to note that in order to create loss edges, you usually have to deviate from your reference. If you just copy everything you see in the reference, you probably won't have many loss edges in your work. And there's another pocket of los edges over here again. Barb took all the details in this part of the hair and group them together into one shape. Okay, so that's how I would categorize some of these edges. How did you do if your answer different from my slightly Don't worry, it's not super important that you get the labels exactly right. Whether you call on edge, firm or soft is not that big a deal. It's more about learning to discern the subtle differences between edges so you can depict them properly when drawing. All right, here's a figure drawing by Steve Houston once again positive video and try to analyze the edges yourself. Okay, we have very clear and obvious hard edge around the outer Contour. The figure Houston used these bold outlines to get the figure to pop. Within the figure itself, we see a lot of soft and firm edges here. The air stars out a soft slash firm and then transition into more of a soft edge. The right glute is creating a cow shadow on the laugh, resulting in a hard edge here. And that turns into a soft slash firm edge to show the rounded form of the left blue moving up the figure. We see a lot of delicate soft edges in this area to describe the ribs that are suddenly visible. There's some firm edges up here cause by the bony protrusion of this Kappler they're too soft slash firm core shadows running along the back. And there's a lovely loss edge on the side where Houston less a lying, gradually disappear. That's also a bunch of los edges up here, where the shapes of the hands blend in with the hair. Next, we have this beautiful portion buy stuff in Bowman and is a great showcase of all the different edge types. So unlike the other drawings, bombing isn't using a hard edge on the outside contour of this portrait. He keeps the edges here, either very soft or at most firm. This helps to keep these areas quieter so they don't compete for attention with the face. He does use hard edges within the face to accent the cash shadows and to sharpen up the details in the eyes and features. As usual, we have softened firm edges to show the around it form off the nose and lips and very delicate south edges to show these subtle volume of the cheeks, brow and forehead. Lastly, we have a huge cluster of los edges on this side of the face. While Baumann simplifies a lot of detail into a few big shapes, he still uses some hard edges in this area to suggest the contour of the face. And here. But most of the other details just blend seamlessly into each other without any clear delineations. Notice how this here in the light has more hard and firm edges to define it. Where's this other ear? Has next to no detail and is almost completely lost again. This is a great example how hard edges can be used to draw the view's attention to the focal point of a piece. In this case, that would be the face and eyes, and soft and loss edges can be used to let certain secondary areas recede into the background. Okay, I hope this gave you a better understanding of what edges are and how they could be utilized as an exercise. Try examining some of your favorite artworks and see if you can identify the edges and how they were used. Okay, have fun, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 7. Edges Exercise 1: in this exercise, we're going to practice drawing the different types of edges. Let's start with the hard edge. Nothing special here. We're just going to draw in a hard line. Next for the firm edge, I'll switch over to the overhang grip and use the side of the pencil to create a slightly softer line. If it starts to get too soft, we can firm it up by darkening the center for the south edge are really use the side of the pencil and try to be more delicate with my shading, the softer and edges, the more care is required to make sure that the tones of smooth I'm essentially creating a mini gradation where the center is the darkest and it starts to enlighten towards the sides . Lastly, for the loss edge, I'll start by making this light line okay. The easiest way to lose an edge is to simply lighten it with an eraser. Now we can darken the lines around that gap in order to suggest that missing edge. The key here is to create a smooth transition between the visible line and the loss edge. The other way to lose an edge is to hide it in shadow. So we'll go right next to this line and match its value with a patch of tone and we'll let the tone gradually fade out. Well, basically, just creating a little gradation Swatch. Now we'll go to the other side and do the same thing. So by surrounding this lying with a similar value, we made it disappear into the shadow. Okay, so that's a quick exercise that help you get used to creating these edges. Go ahead and try it for yourself. 8. Edge Exercise 2: Okay, here's a quick exercise I learned from Marco beauty to help me draw edges. This one will make use of the value scale that we created earlier. So if you haven't drawn in value scale yet, make sure to do that. Now, we are going to use the different edges to transition between these squares. First we use the hard edge. This is pretty easy since it's already a hard edge. If it's not, we can darken this side to create a sharper transition between the two squares. Next, we use a firm edge to transition between these two squares. Will just lightly go over the hard edge in order to soften it up. As you're doing this, squinting eyes can help you to better judge how the edges are reading. We still want there to be a bit of a delineation between the two squares. So if things get a little too soft, we can dark in the middle to firm it up. Okay, next is the south edge. Here we have to be a bit more delicate. I'll add some tones to the lightest square in order to create a smooth transition between the two sides. And just keep going back and forth and refine the edge. Again, we still want the center of the heirs to be slightly darker than the sides. And lastly, we'll draw the last edge. Here. We basically want to create a smooth gradation as possible between the two squares. This will require the most pressure sensitivity, so keep your touch very light. Keep building up the tongue gradually until you've gotten rid of any hint of a line. Okay, so that's how you soften edges. Go ahead and try this for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 9. Understanding Light: now that you understand how edges and value access the building block for any drawing, we need to learn how to assemble those building blocks in order to form a cohesive picture . To do that, we need to understand how light works. It's like with the very basic. When light hits the sphere, the areas that are facing towards the light will be lit up. The areas that are facing away from the light will be in shadow. The border between the light side and the shadow side is called the Terminator. The reason is called the Terminator, is because that's where the light terminates or ends on a rounded object. Like the sphere, the Terminator will be soft edge on a more angular object like this cube determinate, it will be hard edge. There will also be a cash out on the ground this cash shadows created because the sphere is blocking light from illuminating certain parts of the ground. These four basic elements the light side, the shadow side, the Terminator in the cash shadow of the most important part of the shading process. Whenever you render an object, you should start with establishing these four elements by clearly separating the light from the shadow. For example, if I want to shave this fear, I would first map in the cash Adam. Then I would find the Terminator that separate the light side from the shadow side. This fear has around it form, so I'll be sure to use a soft edge for the Terminator. And then I'll fill in the shadow with an even tone to distinguish it from the light. And just like that, the drawing immediately looks more three dimensional. Even if the subject was more complicated, the process is still the same map in the cash shadow established the Terminator and fill in the shadow side. The stuff is sometimes called the to value. Block it because you're using just to value a light and the dark value to blocking the shading. We can add in more subtle renderings later, but this to value block in serves as the foundation for all your shading. Beginners often get too caught up in shading the little details too quickly, and they neglect to establish a clear light and shadow pattern. This causes the picture to look glass realistic, so if you remember nothing else from this course. Remember this when shading always start by clearly separating the light from the shadow. And by the way, this is why it's so important to pick references that has clear and obvious shadows. Ideally, you want to have only one light source shining on your subject, creating a clear light and shadow pattern. Here's an example of a really good reference. There's a strong light source coming from the left, creating a clear Terminator along the face and as a lot of strong cast shadows created by the nose, head and clothing cash. Adults are awesome for describing form, and it's one of the big things I looked for were in selecting references. Here's an example of a not so good reference. Even though is a good looking photo, it wouldn't make for a good drawing. There's no clear life sores. Cow shadow core shadow. If you are an experienced artists, you can still make this photo work. But if you're a beginner, stick to good references and make your life a lot easier. Okay, now that you understand the importance of separating the light and shadow weaken, dive into the more subtle details. Let's start with shadow side the inclusion shadow. Notice how the cash shadow is not the same value throughout, even though it's not receiving direct light. Ambient light is still able to get into the cow shadow, causing some areas to be lighter than others. The area that is furthest from the object will be the most exposed to ambient light, making it the lightest. As we get really close to the object, less ami in Light is able to get in, resulting in a darker area called the inclusion Shadow. The word inclusion means to block obstruct, so the occlusion shadow is the result of the object blocking off life. The inclusion shadow will often be the darkest value in a drawing. In addition to the value the edge of the cash shadows also affected by the ambient light, the cash shadow starts out with a hard edge, knew the object and gradually become softer as we move. For that, the core shadow and reflected light ambient light will also bounce off the surrounding surfaces and into the sphere, dividing the shadow side of the form into two distinct areas to reflect that light in the course shadow. How much reflect that light we see depends on the surrounding areas. Lighter surfaces will reflect more light, and darker surfaces will reflect less light. Ah, colored surface can even tent to reflect that light with his color. It's also possible to have no reflected light. For example, in outer space, there's no surrounding surface to bounce light into the shadow side of this moon. Since there's no reflected light, there will also be no core shadow, only an undifferentiated shadow side. Notice how without the reflected light and core shadow, the object doesn't look as three dimensional. The reflect that light and core shadow are great for conveying the form of an object so much so that many artists will exaggerate them in their work or a cheat them in, even if they're not present in the reference. Okay, that takes care of the shadow family. Now let's cross over to the other side of the Terminator and talk about the light family. The light side consists of the centre light, half tone and highlight sent a light and half town. Here we have a top view diagram of a sphere. There's us looking at the sphere and as the light source shining on the object. The first thing we want to notice it's that the light does not illuminate every part of the sphere. Equally, this portion of the sphere is perpendicular to the light rays, and so it will catch the most light. This area is called the center light, which will define as the part of the object that is facing the light most directly. As we move out from the center light, the surface of the sphere begins to turn away from the light and therefore receive less of it. This result, in the darker area called the half tone s a sphere continue to turns. That comes a point where the surface of the sphere is turned away from the light rays altogether and therefore it will not receive any direct light. This is where the Terminator appears, and of course, everything on the other side of the Terminator will be facing away from the light and be in shadow. You can think of the half tone as the transition between the centre light and the shadows side. The highlight when an object is more reflective. Some of the light rays will also bounce off the surface and reflect into our eyes. This will cause us to see a very bright spot on the object. This bright spot is called the highlight. The highlight is essentially a reflection of the light source, and it will often be the lightest value in a drawing. What distinguishes the high life from all the other elements of shading is at the highlight , were actually shift location, depending on the position of the viewer. For example, if we were to move and look at the sphere from this position, we would see the highlight in a slightly different spot. Although the other elements of shading like the center, light, Terminator and Cash shadow will still remain in the same place on the sphere, the strength of the highlight would depend on the reflectivity of the object. This first object has a Matt surface, so it's not reflective enough to create a highlight, Although it will still have a center light. The second object is more reflective, so it does have a highlight. We can use this knowledge to play with the look of an object if you want your object to look more matted, toned down or even get rid of the highlight. If you want it to look more shiny, make the highlight more intense. No. How should we depict all these elements of shading in the drawing? Well, if we were to rank all these elements in terms of value, we would have the highlight as the brightest, followed by the centre light and then the half tone. So that will be the reflected light. Next will be the core shadow slash cow shadow, and lastly, the inclusion shadow will be the darkest. When shading is very important that you maintain this relationship between the different elements, you can choose to use a wide value range where the highlight is all the way on one end of the value scale, the inclusion shadow is on the other, and all the others hones are spread out in between. Or you can use a narrow value range where everything is more compressed towards the center . As long as you maintain that hierarchy between the elements you're drawing will look realistic. Sure, a narrow value range will look more muted, but at least it'll still look right. It's when you violate the hierarchy and get the tones mixed up that you'll break the illusion of form. Okay, that was a lot of information. So go ahead and review this lesson a few times to make sure you understand the concepts, and then I'll see you in the next lesson. 10. Basic Form Drawing: Box: Now let's apply everything. We've learned to draw some basic geometric forms. We'll start with the box. Kiss the materials. Are we using? But please don't get hung up on that. Feel free to use whatever pencil a paper you happen to have. These concepts will apply regardless of the medium you might be using. Okay, I'll start by matching the angles of the edges of one of the planes. I look at the angle between these two corners to help me Triangle e where the last as should go. These are basic observational drawing skills that we learn in part one of the drawing fundamental Siris on how to draw accurately. So if you need a refresher on these techniques, I recommend you check that out. Now we'll repeat the same process for the rest of the Plains, match the angles of the edges and triangle Lee to find the proper proportions. Next, we'll map out the shadows that we see in the reference. At this point, we're only concern with separating the light areas from the shadows. Yeah, the light is clearly coming from the right and is heading these two planes of the box directly. This leaves this plane in the box and shadow, and it creates a cash shadow on the ground. The Terminator, the separates, the light and shadow lies along the corner edges the cash out. It was hard edge near the box, but the ambient light causes the edge to become softer as we move further away. But now I will simplify the cash shadow into a concrete shape, and we'll soften it out later. Once we're done mapping out the shadow, I'll fill it in with an even tone going back to the reference, we can see that there's a dark occlusion shadow near the bottom of the box, so I'll apply more pressure to the pencil and add in those dark accents in the cast shadow . Next, we know that light from the sources bouncing off the ground and into the shadow plane of the box, and the bottom portion of this plane will receive more reflected light because it's closer to the ground, even though this effect is very subtle in the reference, I'm going to exaggerate it in my drawing because I think it would make it look more interesting. So how dark in the top portion of this shadow plain and let it gradually lighten as we get closer to the bottom. Okay, so that's basically all the elements we need to add to the shadow side. Moving on to the light side. We can see that this side plane is the brightest because it's getting the most amount of light. We'll use the white of the paper to depict this value. This top plane is slightly darker because it's getting less light so it will fill the top playing with a light layer of tone. Be sure to keep this area lighter than any value that's in the shadow. Then we'll use a light layer of tone around the cash shadow in order to soften the borders . The edge of the cash shadow should become soft and software the further against from the box. Okay, all the elements of the drawing is in place. Now is the time to stop back from the drawing and look at it to make sure that everything is working. Once you're determined that the drawing reads properly, all that's left to do is to refine and dark in the shadows to increase the contrast. When you're setting, you always want to go from light to dark. Put down your tone lightly to make sure that the drawing reads properly. Then, once you're sure that everything is in the right place, you can crank up the value and give you drawing more contrast. Here I'm using a circle emotion with my pencil and moving it along the board of the cash shadow in north of Soften up the edge. Here I'm using a mechanical graphite pencil to sharpen the edges of the box and to smooth out the shadow area. The particular pencil isn't really important. The idea is just to use a sharp pencil with a fine tip so that you could make cleaner lines and fill in the small bits of texture that exists in the shadow, which have a pencil you choose to use. Make sure to sharpen it frequently without a sharpened pencil. Your lines can get imprecise and you're drawing can become messy. Lastly, will use an eraser. Enlighten the edges on the brightest plane of the box. This will create a bit of a loss edge and add to the idea that the intense light coming from the right is blowing out the edges of the box and we're all done. Okay. To recap, Step One is to establish an accurate laying. Step two is to clearly separate the light from the shadow. Step three is to add the occlusion shadow. Step four is to add in the reflected light. Step five is to add in the half tone. And finally, Step six is to darken and refine the shading to increase contrast. Okay, try this exercise for yourself. Be patient and take your time. Even though this is just a drawing of a simple box, it can take a long time to apply. Even shady Mr. And took me about 30 minutes to complete because I had to slow down to smooth out the tone and make sure that there wasn't too much texture in the shadow. This exercise is as much about learning to apply smooth shading as it is about applying the elements of shading toe a box. Okay, have fun and I'll see you in the next lesson. 11. Basic Form Drawing: Cylinder : okay in this lesson will be shading the second of the three basic forms. The cylinder. The first step is to draw in the absolute line of the cylinder. Remember, the axle line is basically a rod that goes through the center of the cylinder. The axle tells us how the cylinder is oriented. The end of the cylinder will be in the lips, and the major axis of that ellipse will be perpendicular to the axe. Or now use the major access as a guide to draw in your lips. Remember to match the roundness of the lips to the reference as closely as you can. We covered all these concepts in the perspective basics, part of the drawing fundamental Siri's. So if you haven't already, I recommend you check that out. Next would draw in the size of the cylinder, who should be either parallel to the axle or angling in towards it very slightly. The idea is that these lines were intersect at a vanishing point out there in the distance if they were to be extended. That's not much perspective distortion in this photo, so if you were to make them parallel, that will be fine too. What you definitely don't want to do is tow. Have the size angling outward. Okay to close out the cylinder will look at this angle between the corners to triangulate where the other and should go draw in the other major access, which again should be perpendicular to the axle and then draw in the second. He lips this ellipsis further away from the viewer, so it should be slightly smaller and more rounded than the 1st 1 But again, if you made them the same dimension, that will be fine, too. What you don't want to do is make this second, he lips bigger or flatter than the 1st 1 Now let's erase thes construction lines. Next, we'll map in the cash shadow and would draw in the Terminator on the cylinder. I'll use the side of my pencil too great a soft edge in order to show the rounded form of the cylinder. Next, we'll fill in the shadow areas using an even tone, and with that, we have separate the light areas from the shadows. This is a very important step, even though we haven't added much details just by dividing the light from the shadow using proper edges. The drawing is already starting to look three dimensional. Whenever you begin shading a drawing, always start by separating the light from the shadow. Now that we have the overall shadow area blocked in, we can start adding in some of the more subtle elements. Looking at the reference, we can see that there's an inclusion shadow running along the bottom of the cylinder. The reflected ambient light is bouncing into the cash shadow and making it lighter. But it's not able to get into these recess area near the cylinder, thereby creating an inclusion shadow so we can increase the pressure on pencil toe. Add in this occlusion shadow. Next, we can see that the ambient light is also bouncing into the shadow on the cylinder. The bottom portion. The cylinder is getting more reflected light because it's closer to the ground. This creates two distinct areas the dark core shadow and the lighter reflected light. To depict. This will simply use the side of the pencil to darken the core shadow area. Remember, the core shadow is a soft edge, so avoid making any hard lines and keep the transitions between tones relatively smooth. Notice that by darkening the core shadow, the reflected light area automatically seems lighter. That's no need to use an eraser toe. Lighten the reflected light just dark in the core and inclusion shadow. And that will be enough to do the job. In fact, the reflect that light might seem so light in comparison now that we need to darken it a bit. Okay, that took care of the shadow side. Now let's take a look at the light side here. The light is coming from the right and hitting this flat end of the cylinder as well as the side. The flat plane is clearly the brightest area. We'll just leave it as the white of the paper. As for the side, things are bright, is at the very edge where the cylinders facing the light most directly. This is the center like area, and as the form gradually turns away from the light, it starts to get darker. This is the half tone area, and, of course, as the form turns away more and more, it eventually stopped receiving direct light altogether, resulting in the core shadow. In this example, we actually don't see a highlight. That's because the wooden cylinder is not reflective enough to create a highlight. Also, the similar may not be at the right angle to reflect the highlight back to the viewer. Going back to the drawing will simply add in 1/2 tone to create a smooth transition between the core shadow and the centre. Light half tones are usually the hardest to shade because it require really delicate pressure sensitivity. So take your time and use really light pressure to build up the tone. Gradually, you want to create a smoother transition is possible between the core shadow and the centre light. Now you can see why it's so important to practice those gradation exercises. Also make sure that this half tone area is lighter than anything that's in the shadow. Okay, so that's all the elements of shading we need to add. Now we just need to go back over the drawing and essentially repeat the same process we just went through. In order to increase the contrast and smooth out the shading. Esther darkening these values, make sure to maintain their relationships to each other. In other words, make sure that the inclusion shadow is still the darkest tone in the drawing and that the core and cash shadow of the second darkest. The reflected light should be the third darkest, followed by the half tone, and the center light should be the white of the paper. If you violate this hierarchy, say, by making the half tone darker than the reflected light then you're drawing were not look is realistic here. I see that this area of the cash shadow in this area of the reflected light by pretty similar in value, so our use this as an opportunity to create a loss edge. To do this, I'll bring the value of these two areas closer together, thereby causing this portion of the cylinders edge to disappear. That's not strictly something we see in the reference, but I feel that adding this loss edge will make the drawing look better here. I'm going over the edge of the cash out of the softening up. Next, we use an eraser to lighten the edges in the centre light area. This will cost the lighting to look. More dramatic is if the edges are blown out by the intense light. Lastly, I accentuate the core shadows and more. I usually like to make sure that the core shadows nice and dark a lot of times how even exaggerate it and make it darker than what I see in the reference. Now that's a stylistic choice, and you don't have to do the same. But I find that a darker core shadow tend to make the drawing look more dramatic and interesting, and we're all done okay. To recap, Step one is to establish an accurate land. Step two is to clearly separate the light from the shadow. Step three is to add the occlusion shadow that forest to add the core shadows, and in doing so, creating the reflected light area. Step five is to add the half tone to create a smooth transition between the light and the shadow. And finally, Step six is to darken and refine the shading to increase contrast. This is where you soften out the edges and create smooth gradations, and you can also do optional stylistic things like add in los edges. Okay, try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 12. Basic Form Drawing: Sphere: In this lesson, we'll be shedding a sphere. Will start with establishing the lane by drawing a circle. Next will map into cache shadow, which is just going to be an oval shape at the bottom of the circle. Look at where the cast shadow intersects with the sphere to help you place the oval and the right place. Next would dry in the Terminator. The Terminator is actually just in the equator line wrapping around the sphere. So it will form in the elliptical path. Of course, only half the ellipse will be visible. So our only dark in that portion. Again, we cover all these concepts in the prospective Basics Part of the series. So if this sounds confusing to you, go ahead and review that part. Now we'll fill in the shadow side with an even tone. Next we'll add in the occlusion shadow near the bottom of the sphere. Then we'll add in the dark man of the core shadow. This will distinguish the core shadow from the reflected light. After that, we'll add a light layer of value in the halftime area. Here I'm going along the core shadow and creating a subtle gradation that starts out dark at the core shadow and gradually lighten as it moved towards the center light. Again, the half-tones will serve as a smooth gradation between the core shadow and centralized. Now this a subtle highlight on the sphere and we're going to use the white of the paper to depict it. But in order for the white of the paper to stand out will have the dark and everything around it. So I'll put a very light layer of tone over the entire light side of the sphere. And this includes the half tone and centralized area. Then I use an eraser to create the tiny highlight area. You can use an eraser pen like I'm using here. Or you can use a kneaded eraser that's been shaped into a small point. This will make a very subtle highlight and that's fine. If you want your highlight to be more intense, you'll just have to darken the half tone and centralized areas or more so that the highlight can look brighter by comparison. Okay, so those are all the elements of shading for the sphere. Now we just need to go over the drawing and add more contrast and refinement. First of all, this cash shadows way to light. So I have the dark in a quite a bit. Next, I'll create a lost edge in this portion of the sphere by pushing the value on both sides of that line closer together. That last edge is not actually then the reference. So I am sacrificing some accuracy to put it in what I think it would make the drawing more interesting. Now you may not agree with that decision and that's fine. If you want, you can make the edge in that area more define, which would allow you to depict the reflected light more realistically. Our sharpen this outer contour of the sphere. And more so that the reflected light can stand out more in the cash-out or some more. And soften up the edge of the cast shadow. Smooth out the half tone. And lastly, I use an eraser to lighten the edge of the sphere near the centralized area. And that's it. Okay to recap. Step one is to establish an accurately in. Step two is to separate the light and shadow. Step three is to add the occlusion shadow. Step four is to add the core shadows. And in doing so, creating the reflected light area. Step five is to add the half tone to create a smooth transition between the light and the shadow. Step six is to lightly shade the entire half tone and centralized area, and then use an eraser to pick up the highlight. And lastly, step seven is to refine the drawing and add contrast. Ok, try this drive for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. Still-Life Drawing: Book: Okay, now that you understand how to shade, the basic forms will progress to still life objects that are based on those forms. The first will be this book, which is, of course, a more complex, boxy form. We actually learn how to draw a book for imagination in the perspective basics part of the Siri's. But in this lesson, we'll learn how to draw one from observation. OK, start by simplifying the entire book into a box. Now I'll be using a brown color pencil for this drawing. Of course, all the principles of value and shading we've learned previously will still apply. Experimenting with different color pencils is just a fun way to explore the world color and make your drawing a bit more interesting. Next, we'll add in the thickness of the book cover. Make sure that this edge of the lower corner is about parallel with this top edge. Next, we'll add in the stack of pages, go in from the edge of the hardcover and draw the base of the pages, then extend the corner up to create the thickness of the pages. Let me dark in these lines so you can see them better it could be difficult to see all the details in the reference. So we're actually using a lot of our perspective knowledge to fill in the missing pieces. This is why it's important to understand perspective, even if you're only doing observation all drawing next will put in this division between the black and red portion of the cover. There's a downward dip in the hard cover, so we'll draw that in the spine of the book is rounded. So well, curve the two ends in order to reflect that, and I'll stand the division between the black and red, down to the bottom cover as well. Now we have a bookmark ribbon sticking out of the book, and it's curved into a cylindrical form and erase the overlapping lines. Lastly, will draw in the cast shadow. I thought that exaggerated in the cash shadow on this side would give the drawing more dimension. But then I changed my mind and put it back a little. Notice how I'm drawing the cash at a off the book and the ribbon separately to make sure that the lines have continuity with each other's. We wanna make sure that the cash shadows actually lead back to the object that's creating them. And then we'll map out the core shadow that's on the ribbon and south, okay? And the next step is simply to fill in the shadow areas to separate the light in the dark. And I'll add in this cash shadow created by the book on the ribbon, which I forgot about earlier. Now let's take a look at this black portion of the cover. These areas are facing the light most directly, so they'll be the brightest. But because the color of these portion is black, it will cause the light area to appear slightly darker. This can be seen in the fact that the highlights on the book are much darker than the highlight on the ribbon, which has a white color. Light colors will cause things to appear brighter, of course. Another factor at work here is that the ribbon is much more reflective than the book cover . Same thing is happening in this area. The black color causes this portion to have a much darker value than the red portion, even though both are receiving roughly the same amount of life. And lastly, this portion of the covers and shadow because it's sloping downwards slightly and is angled away from the life. Going back to the drawing will fill in this portion that sloping away from the light and is in shadow. And in case you're wondering, I'm using a piece of paper to rest my hand on to prevent it from smudging. The drawing is something you're going to do a lot when working with mediums that smear like charcoal and graphite, and we'll fill in this portion that's receiving some light but appears darker anyway because of the black local color. And we'll just put a light tone over the light area of the cover. We'll save the white of the paper to depict the highlight on the ribbon. Next, we'll add in the inclusion shadows. This cash shadow isn't getting a lot of balance light, so the inclusion shadows and not very obvious. But we do know that the inclusion shadows are supposed to appear near the object where less light is able to reach. So we'll use that knowledge to place the shadows. And I'm also using some artistic liberty here to put occlusion shadows in places that I think will help describe form better like in this portion of the bottom cover. Next, we'll add in the core shadow. There's an obvious course shadow on this ribbon, where the round it form begins to turn away from the light. And that's also a very thin core shadow on these rounded corners of the book cover. And I'll add in this occlusion shadow near the bottom of the ribbon push I forgot to include earlier. Next we add in the half tones, there's 1/2 tone on the ribbon that acts as the transition between the core shadow and the highlight. There's 1/2 tone area on the spine of the book toe help show its rounded form, the half tone sauce out darkest at the bottom of the spine and gradually gets lighter as it approaches the highlight and work, nor the words on the cover. We'll leave the very top edge of the spine very light in order to depict the highlight in the reference the light is coming from the left and we can see that even on a flat surface like the table, this area is much brighter than this area. That's because this area is under the light source and being hit by the light rays at a more direct angle. And this area is further away from the light source and being hit by the rays at a more oblique angle. And also the light gets weaker, the further out we go well, the same effect is happening on the book cover. So even though the black and red color can make it hard to discern subtle value changes, we know that this corner of the book, which is closer to the light source, should be lighter than this corner, which is further away. So our add a light gradation that starts out dark, Er's at the right corner and gradually lightens as it approaches the left corner. And we're also dark in this back portion of the ribbon. Okay, so those are all the elements of shading for this drawing now. The final step is to refine the tones and that contrast. I'll start by darkening the shadow size the more and as you can see by increasing the value of the shadows we're creating, a lot of lost edges were just going to make the drawing look more interesting. Although we do have to be careful because too many loss edges can cause the drawing to lose some definition. So I'll judiciously add some hard edges in the shadow areas to allow the form of the book and ribbon to pop out a little. And now at hard edges on the light side to make the foreign popping there as well softened the edge of the cash shadow a bit. And that's it. We're all done. Okay, go ahead and try this drawing for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 14. Still-Life Drawing: Cup: in this last one will be drawing a cup, which is a cylindrical form, so it will just start by drawing a simple cylinder. We'll begin by establishing the axle line. The cop is not tilted in any way, so the axle lining would just be a simple vertical. You don't have to draw the actual line if you don't want to, but in this case it can help us to keep the cup symmetrical. Next we'll draw a horizontal a lips using the axle as the minor access. Try to match the roundness of the lips to the opening of the cup. As best you can next draw in the size of the cup, I'll have the size angle in slightly towards the axle. This is to capture the convergence effect of perspective and close out the bottom of the cup with a no, they lips. This one should be slightly more rounded in the first. Then we'll add in this bottom portion of the cup, which is really just a smaller lips that's protruding out slightly from the cylinder. Now let's take a look at the opening of this cup. The outer edge of the cup is formed by viste lips, and the inner edge is formed by a smaller lips. But because of the lighting and shadow, this portion of the larger lips is not really visible as well as this portion of the smaller lips. So in the drawing will mimic this by only drawing certain portions of itchy lips you could draw both. The lips is in their entirety if you like. But by leaving out certain portions, weaken better convey the lighting situation and also keep this area from getting too busy with details. Next, we'll put in the handle of the cup. Rather than drawing all the details of the handle right away, we're going to first simplify it into a rectangle of box in order to make sure the handle was oriented correctly. Relative to the body of the cup. Carefully matched the angles of the handles edge. Next will carve out the inside edge of the handle. Don't worry about all the subtle curves just yet. We're just going to keep things as simple, boxy forms for now. Try to keep these construction lines light as they won't be in our final drawing. We're just going to use them as guidelines to draw the final contour of the handle. All these perspective lines can be a bit confusing, so remember to slow down. If you get lost, stop drawing and analyze the lines until you can sort out which is which. Now that we have the perspective worked out, we'll go back over the drawing and round out the corners to make it more accurate to the reference. As I'm doing this, I'm closely observing the reference to make sure I capture the subtle proportions of the handle. Once you're happy with the handle, we can erase the construction lines. Next, we'll draw in the cash shadow, and lastly, we'll map in the shadows on the cup. As you can see, this cup is quite shiny, and as a result, we can see subtle reflections of the handle on the body of the cup. For the sake of simplicity, we're going to ignore these reflections and group them in with shadows. We're also going to ignore this logo on the cup. A lot of beginners think that the key to good drawing is the capture as much information as possible. But actually the opposite is true. Real life is infinitely complex it would be impossible to capture every little details, and even if we could, it wouldn't look very good. So our job is artist is to edit out information and only showed the viewer important things that will support what we want to say. In this case. We want to convey the form of the cup, and the logo is not an important detail again. If you find yourself unsure with a detail is important or not, a good trick is to squint your eyes. This will help me to blow out the unimportant details and just focus on the overall light and shadow pattern. With that, we can now divide the light and shadow along these lines. You may decide to draw the division slightly different from me. That's fine. As long as you make a concrete decision about where the light ends and the shadow begins, your drawing will have a realistic read. I'll use thes side of the pencil to create soft edges whenever appropriate. Now we'll fill in the shadow side with a flat tone. Next, we'll add in the occlusion shadow. There's one here near the bottom of the cup, and there's a shadow cast by the body of the cup onto the handle. That's not getting a lot of ambient light. Next, we'll put in the core shadows. Has some reflected light hitting the bottom of this handle, creating a dark horse shadow of the top. There's a core shadow running along the outer rim of the cup as well as the inner edge. Next, this is soft core shadow running along the main body of the cup, and that's also a subtle core shadow running along this bottom edge of the cup. Okay, so that takes care of the shadow side of this drawing. Now let's take a look at how we want to deal with the light side. Here. We have the center light areas, and here are the numerous highlights throughout the cup, both the very bright but the highlights a clearly brighter than center lights. Now we have two options to depict this one. We can use the white of the paper to depict the highlights, but that would require is the dark in the centre lights so that the highlights could stand out and that, in turn, what requires to dark in the half tones and shadows side. So that the center light could look brighter by comparison. Not only is this a lot of work, but our pencil might not have enough value range to pull this off in this situation. Some artists like to use white paint in order to brighten the highlights and effectively increase the value range they have at their disposal. This would allow them to use the white of the paper for the center light. This is a great option, and we'll explore the strategy once we get into shading with tone paper and white charcoal . But for now, I'll just keep it simple and stick with pencil and paper. Much, unfortunately, does have this limitation. So the second option is to simply ignore the highlights and used the white of the paper to depict the center light. This has the advantage of being simpler, and it would help the drawing toe have a clearer light and shadow pattern. The disadvantages that will lose some information about the Cup, since the highlights are conveying to the viewer that this cup has a reflective surface. By leaving them out, the cut would not look a shiny. I feel like the pros outweigh the con so we'll go with the second option. The idea I want to get across here is that we don't always have to stick rigidly to the reference. In fact, we rarely ever want to do that. Instead, by understanding the principles of shading, we can make intelligent decisions about how we want to depict our subjects. So back to the drawing, we'll put in the half tone and let it gradually fade out as it approaches the center light . And there's another major half tone area here that acts as the transition between this shadow area and this center light. Next, we raised these edges on the handle as they're not visible in the reference. Remember, hard edges indicate that there's a sharp plane change on an object. So by making these edges lighter and softer, well conveying to the viewer that the cups handle is more rounded and I also lightened this line on the lit side of the cup to create a loss edge. Okay, so those are all the elements of shading for this drawing. Now we just need to refine the tones and add contrast. This area above the handle should be darker, since it's further away from the ground and receiving less reflected light. I'll clean up the edges on the handle here are merged this portion of the cups body with the cash shadow to create a loss edge. I'll sharpen up this outer contour, but I'll be sure to let it fade out as it approaches the shadow. And I also merge this portion of the handle with the cash shadow to create another loss. Edge also darkened this bottom portion of the cup and create some laws. Edges there as well. Next, exaggerate the core shadow on the body of the cup, as well as on the opening room, dark in the cash shadow and let it gradually lighten as it gets further away. Add a light layer of tone to this top plane of the handle, and that's it. We're all done. Go ahead and try this running for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 15. Still-Life Drawing: Apple: in this lesson will be drawing an apple. Are we using a red color pencil for this? But feel free to use whatever told you like we'll start by simplifying the apple into a circle shape, then go back over the circle and simplify the complex out of contour of the apple into short line segments. I'm trying to capture the essence of the apple shape rather than make a carbon copy of it. So there's going to be some deviation from the reference you're simplification will probably look different from mine, and that's perfectly fine. Each artists will have their own interpretation of the reference, and that's what make art so interesting. Now I will draw in the elliptical opening at the top of the apple. Of course, his opening has rounded edges, so only the front half of the Ellipse will be hard edge invisible. Now let's take a look at the body of the apple. We can see that the form is rounded in the middle and then gradually rolls into the divot at the top. In fact, if we look closely at the texture of the skin, we can see subtle lines curving into the David These lines are called cross contour lines, and they help to communicate to the viewer the changing form of the apple. This cash shadow created by the stem is a very clear cost contour line because it wraps around this part of the apple and shows as a rounded form. Cash shadows can often act is very effective cross contour lines. So going back to the drawing are lightly draw in these cross contour lines to help describe the through the volume of the apple. Although these lines very subtle, they really help the viewer to visualize the form of the subject and make things look more three dimensional. Next will draw in the stem, which is basically a cylindrical shape and put in the cash shadow. Yes, you can see this Apple is really just like the sphere except with a few more out of detail . Okay, now we can draw in the Terminator two separate the light and shadow. The form of the apple was not a smooth this a sphere. So the Terminator will also have some angle changes and irregularities draw in the cash shadow off the stem. We really want to capture or even exaggerate the curve venous of this cash shadow in order to show the rounded form of the apple. And even though it might be easy to miss, that's also a Terminator on the stem as well, and as a patch of shadow on side where the form of the apple turns into the divinity. Now we can shade in the shadow side with a flat tone for the cash shadow. I'll try something different and allow the pencil strokes to show through a little, although noticed that I'm keeping my pencil strokes are going in the same diagonal direction. This gives the shading a cohesive pattern and injects it with a kind of movement and energy . Next, we'll put in the occlusion shadow at the bottom of the apple in the reference to cash out. It was pretty much evenly dark, so I am taking some artistic liberty by darkening this area more next out dark in the bottom portion of these stems, cash shadow and let it gradually state out. Now we're dark in the core shadow on the apple and remember to dock in the core shadow on the stem as well. Be sure to sharpen your pencil frequently so you can work on these smaller areas. Next will lighten this outer edge of the apple to create a loss edge and add in the half tone. There's the main half tone area on the body, and that's also smaller half tone areas here, where the form of the apple begins to turn into the dividend. Next, we'll put in the centre light and highlight. We're going to use the white of the paper to depict the highlight, so in order to do that will put a light layer of tone over the center, light and half tone area. Then we'll use an eraser to lift out the highlight. The highlight still looks very subtle right now, so in order to make it more intense, well, dark and everything else in the drawing to give it more contrast, the reflected light on this apple was not very strong. But if you wanted to make it stronger, you could simply make the core shadow darker than what I have here. Accentuate the core shadow on the stem and dark in the half tone to create a smoother transition between the light and shadow, dark in the occlusion and cash shadow and I'm going to Marge the cash shadow with this portion of the apple to create a loss edge. And be sure to lighten the pressure on your pencil to let the cash shadow gradually fade out as it moved further away. And that's it. We're all done. Go ahead and try this drawing for yourself. 16. Toned Paper Intro & Materials: If you spent any time looking at artworks, you've probably noticed that there are two types of drawings. The first is where the drawing is done on white paper is single pencil is used to create the shadows and the white paper stands in for the highlights. This is the standard method of shading. And we cover how to do this on the previous part of the drawing fundamental series on basic rendering. The second is where the drawing is done on a tone piece of paper. A dark value pencil is used to create the shadows. A white pencil is then used to create the highlights. And the tone of the paper is used as the transition between the light and shadow. There are many benefits that drawing on tone paper for one and allows you to share the drawing much faster than the White Paper approach. Being able to use a white pencil to create a highlight means that you can create more striking highlights with much less work. Additionally, the high contrast between the dark and white pencil also gives you drawings a more exciting, realistic appearance. It's also a very diverse media. You have many choices of paper colors and drawing tools, which allows you to explore different styles and designs. And lastly, drawing on tone paper will better prepare you for painting. Thus because the two process are very similar and painting you also create your highlights by putting on white paint rather than using the white of the canvas. So the skills you're going to develop by working on tone paper will transfer very well into painting. Needless to say, this is definitely one of my favorite method of drawing. And in this part of the series, you are going to learn how to use tone paper to create awesome looking drawings. Ok, let's start by going over the materials we're going to need. For this course. I'll be using these Strathmore 400 tone paper. It comes in two color options, gray and tan, but we'll just stick with the gray for now. This paper has a relatively smooth surface, which makes it work well with a wide range of medium. And it also comes in a variety of sizes, from 9.5 notebooks to 18 by 24 posters. Later in the course will also be drawing with white pencil on black paper. For that, I'll be using these Strathmore art again, coal black paper. Of course there are many other paper brands out there and I'm constantly trying out different ones to see how they interact with different pencils. As you get more experience with this type of drawing, you'll probably want to do the same if that's the case. Here are some good brands for you to start with. These papers have a more textured surface, which can help me get a darker value. And they also come in a wide range of colors. But again, this isn't necessary. If you're just starting out, just stick with the Strathmore papers. We need a dark pen, so to create the shadows. In this course, I'll be using the polychromy color pencil. I liked this action because it allows me to experiment with different colors, which creates a lot of cool possibilities when combined with the tone paper. However, a graphite or charcoal pencil will also work very well. And for the light pencil, are we using the generals white charcoal? There are many options for white pencils out there, but I've found that this pencil gives me the most brilliant white pigment. Now, if you add digital artists, drawing on tone paper is super easy. Just create a background layer, then choose the bucket tool and select any color you want. Let's go with this one. Fill the lay with that color. And just like that, you have instant tone paper. Now just select your favorite brush. Pick your color. Choice. Create a new layer, and start drawing. When you're ready to put it in the highlight, just which the brush colour to white and go to work. And the great thing about digital is that if you feel like changing the color of the paper, you can do that with just a few clicks. Just select the background color and use the bucket tool to change it to another one. Okay, that's it for the materials. Now let's get started with the drawing exercises. 17. Toned Value Scale Exercise: Okay, now let's create a values care using tone paper to see how it works. Begin by drawing this five square bar and then fill in the number five square with the darkest value you can. For the number one square will switch to the white charcoal and fill it with the lightest value we can. We'll leave the number three square blank and use the gray of the paper as the middle tone. Next, we'll fill in the number Foursquare with a dark value that lies between 35. Again, if in doubt err on the side of making the square lighter, we can always re-evaluate and argument later. Then switch back to the white charcoal and lightly fill the number two square. Now step back and look at your values Gail, and make any necessary adjustments. Next, we'll create a gradation Mar below this value scale. I'll begin by matching the value of square root of 54. Now filling the gap to create a smooth transition between the two squares. Now we're going to leave the middle portion of the bar blank and use the tone of the paper is the transition between the dark and the light values. So I'll just let the dark value gradually fade out until it blends smoothly into the grade of the paper. Now we'll repeat the same process using the white charcoal pencil. Match the value of square root number one and number two. And then create a smooth transition between them. And once again, we'll let the white charcoal gradually fade into the grade of the paper. Next, evaluate and make any necessary adjustments. And we're all done. Comparing this value scale with a white paper version. We can see that by using the white charcoal to create the light value, we're able to get a very high contrast between the light and the dark. This is one of the benefits of tone paper drawing and allows us to work with a much wider range, resulting in a much more dramatic and exciting drying. Ok, try this exercise for yourself so you can get used to this method of rendering. I'll see you in the next lesson. 18. Toned Swatches Exercise: Okay, in this quick exercise will be creating these gradations swatches on tone paper. Start by using the dark pencil to create a gradation that smoothly fade into the grade of the paper. Then use the y pencil and create another gradation coming from the other end. Be sure to leave a gap in the middle so that the dark and white pigments do not mix. When working with tone paper, we want to avoid letting the two pencils mix. That will result in a grayish color that will look very good. And that's it. I'm done properly. This should look like a smooth gradation going from light to dark. Now just repeat this process and create more swatches going in different directions. This exercise will help you get comfortable with combining the two pencils. So have fun and I'll see you in the next lesson. 19. Toned Sphere Drawing: In this lesson, we will be drawing this sphere. This will give us a chance to practice the tone paper drying process on a simple object. And it will also allow us to compare this sphere with the white paper version to see the similarities and differences between the two processes. Once again, we'll begin by drawing the land. Next, we'll separate the light from the shadow. Then it will fill in the shadow side. After that, we'll dark in the occlusion shadow and add in the core shadow. Okay, so far the entire process is the same as if we were drawing on white paper. The real difference happens when we start working on the light side of the sphere. Rather than creating the half tone without pencil, we're just going to use a gray or the paper to depict it. And to create the centralized area. We'll use the white charcoal pencil. I'll move the white pencil any circle motion to create a centralized area and are gradually let it fade out as it approaches the half tone area. Remember, we still want to maintain a smooth transition between the elements of shading. Then I'll increase the pressure on the pencil to create a bright spot for the highlight. Adding the light areas is the really fun part of home paper deriving as when the drawing really comes together and you'll see the form of the subject just leap out at you. However, if you having trouble seeing the effect of the white pencil, it's a good idea to step back from the drawing and look at it from afar. This will help you to evaluate it. The shading is working so far and determine what's due next. Okay, so that's all the elements we need to add. Now as you know, we just need to darken and refine the shading. We can raise this edge along the bright side of the sphere to create a loss edge. We'll dark in the occlusion. Shadow. Beef up the core shadow, smooth out the transition between the light and the shadow. Soften up the edge of the shadow. And just keep refining the tone until you reach a smooth, even shading. Sometimes depending on the type of paper you are using, it can be difficult to fill in the texture of the paper and create a smooth shading. In those cases, I sometimes like to use my finger to blend out the tone. This is a quick and easy way to move the pigments into the empty spaces and smooth everything out. Although you want to be careful with this technique, if your hands are particularly oily, this can cost measures and the shading and also make them more difficult to erase. If you want to be safe is better to use a blending stump, Q-tip, or paper towel to blend your town. I'd just like to use my finger because it's so convenient and it gives me better control over the pressure. How often go through many rounds of adding pigment where my pencil, blending the tongue with my finger or blending tour. And then adding more pigment. And I'll just keep repeating that process until I reached the desired darkness and smoothness. And as it were, are done. Comparing this drawing with the white paper version, we can see a lot of the benefits of tone paper drying. For one, creating the center light and highlight is a lot easier because we can simply draw the min rather than having to dark and everything else. This also allows the highlight to be a lot brighter, which helps us to accentuate the shiny quality of the sphere. And the fact that we can simply use the gray of the paper to stand in for the half term means that we have to do less work and the shading process goes a bit faster. Okay, go ahead and try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 20. Design Techniques: Before we get into the drawing projects, I like to introduce you to a few design techniques that we are going to be using in the upcoming exercises. As we become more advanced as artists, we want to start thinking about not only how to make our works more realistic, but also how to make them more interesting and beautiful. And these design techniques will help us to do just that. Atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric perspective, sometimes also known as aerial perspective, is when an object appears lighter and less vivid the further it gets from the viewer. In this example, the hill that is closest to the camera starts out relatively dark and vivid. As we get further and further away, the hills appear lighter and fuzzier. This is because they are tiny particles in the air, such as Dos, water vapor and pollution that can obstruct our vision. The further away an object is, the more particle exists between the viewer and the object, causing it to appear less vivid. In addition to distance, the quality of the air also plays a role on a clear day like this one, the effect of atmospheric perspective doesn't become obvious until we get to these really distant hills. But in this scene, the fog is thick enough that even over a short distance, the background is considerably hazier than the foreground. As artists, we can use atmospheric perspective to communicate depth or create a mood in our work. Notice how the progressively fading background elements in these paintings helped to convey the vastness of the scene. We can also apply atmospheric perspective to smallest subjects like this figure. Here, the leg that is furthest from the viewer is depicted very lightly and with fewer details. The leg that is closer to the viewer is slightly darker. And the head, which is closest to the viewer, is the darkest and most vivid part of the drawing. Here's a more subtle example of atmospheric perspective. Even though this far side arm is darker than the rest of the drawing because it's an shadow. The artist depicts it with very few details. He merges the finger, hand and arm into one big shape. And this lack of detail pushes the arm into the background. Whenever you're drawing has one object that is closer to the viewer than another. That's a great opportunity to inject some atmospheric perspective into your work. Will go over exactly how to do this in later exercises. Vignette. Even yet is when you let a drawing gradually fade out, rather than having a drawing stopped abruptly, which can be jarring. Vignette easiest the viewers eyes out of a drawing. This makes for a more attractive composition and it allows the viewer to be more focus on the main subject rather than be distracted by the outer edges. There are many ways to design a vignette. Here the artists blurs the edges of the drawing with vertical lines to create a softer border. Here the r is lightly indicates the rest of the figure using lines, but only chooses to render the phase and part of the torso who just the focal point of the piece. And vignetting will also work for architecture and landscape drawings as well. Background design. It's very common for artists to add a background to their work. A well-designed background can help accentuate the main subject, as well as create a nice vignette. Here the artist use an abstract background of frame the phase and also create an interesting V-shaped composition. Here the dark background helps make the portrait really pop forward. Also add a kinetic energy to the drawing. In addition to being abstract, backgrounds can also have a defined shape. Here the artist uses a rectangular background to frame the figure, but he also allows the bottom of the figure to gradually fade and vignette out. One really cool benefit of drawing on tone papers that you can use the white pencil to quickly create very striking background designs. Here the white pencil is used to really draw attention to the focal point and make it stand out from the rest of the drawing. There are many, many ways to design a background. And in this course we'll explore some of those options. 21. Cross Hatching: So far we've been taking a tonal approach to our shading by filling the shadows with a flat tone. But there's also a linear approach to creating value call hatching. With hatching, we simply draw a bunch of parallel lines next to each other is to create a patch of tone. And if we want to make the value darker, we would change the angle and apply another layer of hatched lines on top of the first because the lines are crossing over each other's. This technique is called crosshatching. And we can keep layering hatched lines like this to keep increasing the value. Hatching and cross hatching are basically the same technique. And you might hear me use the two terms interchangeably. Hatch lines can give a drawing a really cool, stylized low and allow the artist to be really creative with their shading. Crosshatching can range from simple patterns to really complex designs were explored the intricacies of hashing techniques in future courses. For now, I want to introduce you to the idea of hatching and how to incorporate it into your tonal shading. So let's go over some basic exercises. Start by making parallel hatching lines with your pencil like so. Try to keep the length, value and distance between the lines consistent. This is a pretty simple exercise, but it does take a fair bit of coordination. The most common mistakes are two very up the length and angle of the lines to make some lines darker or lighter, and to make the spacing of the lines inconsistent. Also try hatching in different directions. You'll probably find that you have a preferred angle. This is perfectly natural for me, is going diagonally like this. Once you're comfortable with that, try adding a little curve to the hatched lines. Also make the line slightly shorter as you progress. This helps to make the hatching more interesting. And I find that I use this pattern a lot in my drawings. You can experiment with making the lines more curved and moving them in interesting patterns. And for this style of hatching, it really helps to draw what your shoulder rather than just your wrist. Once you're comfortable with hatching, we can practice crosshatching. Begin with the hatching lines. Then I'll change the angle slightly and create another layer of hatching lines. Once again, I'm making the lines slightly curved and staggering the length. And we can add as many layers as we want to create a darker value. And you can practice creating different shapes and patterns when you cross hatching. One tip to keep in mind is that when doing crosshatching, I try to avoid having the lines intersect at a perpendicular angle. This tends to give a rigid look to the drawing. There may be times when I would use this pattern, say what I'm trying to create some kind of texture. But in general, I tend to avoid it. Instead, I prefer to draw the second set of lines at a slight angle to the first. I find that this creates a more pleasing appearance. But of course, as you add more and more layers, eventually you can't help but cross the lines at a 90 degree angle. But by then it won't be very noticeable. Okay, go ahead and practice these exercises. And in the later lessons, we'll learn how to apply hatching, as well as the other design techniques to add rhymes. 22. Gray Paper Drawing: Wooden Figure: In this lesson, we'll be drawing this wooden figure. It might seem complicated, but don't worry, because dummy is really just made up of all the basic forms. And by drawing it, we're going to learn how to deal with shading simple forms on torn paper. The first thing I'm going to do is create a very light, rough sketch of the entire figure. I'll simplify the figure into shapes like all wars and cylinder. I'm going to make an effort to capture the proportion and placement of the subject. But because this is only a rough draft, I fully expect to make changes to these estimates later. This rough sketch helps us to establish the size of a subject and ensure that everything will fit comfortably on the page. When it comes to complex subjects, particularly the human figure, there are so many moving parts that I can be difficult to know how big you need to make each parts. Beginners often make the subject too small to big and end up cropping off an arm or leg. Here I'm making an initial guess at how big the head should be and then basing the proportions of the torso and arms off the size of that head. This allows me to see how big the figure where end up being and it will fit comfortably on the page. Sometimes we are doing this, I'll find out that my initial head size would result in a figure that's too big or too small. In that case, I would readjust the head size and repeat the process of roughing out the figure. Again, this is why it's important to keep your marks very light so you can make adjustments easily. Once I'm happy with the basic proportions and placement, I'll go back over the rough sketch with darker marks and flesh out the details. Notice how on the second pass, my lines deviate from the initial sketch quite a bit. I'm using the rough sketch to refine my guesses and bring the drawing closer to true accuracy. At the end of the day, LSR drawing is guessing. Often students gets frozen by a blank page because they feel that they need to get everything right the first time. Well, that's not the case at all. You make rough gasses in the beginning. Then you evaluate those gases and make adjustments to bring you closer to the truth. And you keep repeating this process until you're happy with the result. Also, as you're drawing this figure, be sure to pay attention to the overlapping forms. For example, the shoulder joint is a sphere. Well, we're not able to see the entire sphere. It's partially overlapped and covered up by the cylinder of the upper arm. At the same time, the shorter is overlapping the form of the torso. These overlaps are telling the viewer that the shoulder is in front of the torso and the upper arm is in front of the shoulder. These are the overlaps are all over this wooden figure and the extremly important to show the 3D forms. So be sure to capture them. Now we can go over the drawing to see if there's anything we need to fix. I can see that this head needs to be shifted to the left slightly. So I'll go ahead and make that correction. And we can see a little bit of the bottom plane of the head. So we'll indicate that with a very thin he lives. Next. I'll do one more pass over the drawing to add in the really small details like the veins of the body parts. I'll also make small changes, the lines wherever I see fit. And if I feel confident that an area is accurate, I'll go ahead and dark in those lines. Looking at the reference, we can see that not everything is in clear focus. The arm that is further away from the viewer, as well as back leg is fuzzy and out of focus. This creates an atmospheric effect that causes these background elements to recede and allow the viewer's attention to be drawn to the parts of the in-focus. We're going to incorporate this, in fact into our drawing by keeping the lines and shading on the far side, arm and leg very light and fuzzy. Next, we use the same shading procedure we always use. Begin by separating the light side from the shadow side. The body of this wooden dummy is very rounded, so I'll use the side of my pencil to create soft edges for the terminator. Even though the shadows in this reference is pretty obvious, there are still some creativity involved in designing the shadow shapes. Your shadow mapping may not look exactly the same as mine, but that's okay. As long as you make a firm decision about where the terminator should go, the drawing will look three-dimensional. We'll also map in the shadows on the far side arm. But remember to keep the marks here lighter than the rest of the drawing. Then we can fill in the shadows psi with a flat tone. For the far side arm, I'll use parallel hatching lines to keep the value in this area most subtle. Next we're adding the darker occlusion shadows. These are the crevices of the joints of the figure where less light is able to get in. We'll also be adding in some small cast shadows that are created by the body of the figure. I find that adding these darker shadows really help convey the depth of the crevasses and give the drawing a lot more volume. And even though you may not see it in the video, I'm sharpening my pencil frequently to maintain a sharp tip. A sharp pencil is crucial for creating these small details. Now we can add in the core shadows and reflected lights. We actually don't see much of a core shadow or reflected light in this reference. That's because the dummy is now standing next to any surface that could bounce light into the shadow areas. But because the core shadow and reflect the light is so useful for showing the form of an object. We're going to cheat them in any way. To do that, I'll go along the terminator and create a darker core shadow. And this will in turn create the lighter reflect the light area. Notice how the figure looks so much more three-dimensional after we add in the core shadow. This is why I love exaggerating, foreshadows so much. Now the transition between the light and the shadow is still a little abrupt, especially for rounded form like this figure. So I'll go back over the Terminator and soften up the edge to create a smoother transition. This will help to figure to look more rounded. And we also want to make sure that the leg is gradually fade out rather than n abruptly. Okay, things are looking pretty good. Again, notice that so far the shading process is exactly the same as if we were drawing on white paper. Next we use the white pencil to add in the light areas. But before we do, I'll use an eraser to clean off any spots where I intend to apply the white charcoal. Oftentimes your hands will smudge the dark pigment slightly causing them to go into the light side. So by clearing out the paper fibers will ensure a clean application. Now, we can come in with a white charcoal pencil and establish the light areas. It can be very easy to overdo the white charcoal. So I recommend you start out rightly and pause to evaluate how it looks. We can always add more white pigments later. Be sure to leave some space between the dark tones and the white tone so that the grade of the paper can act as a transition between the two. I'll also apply the white pencil to the far side arm as well. But once again, I'll use parallel hashing lines to keep the value more subtle. Ok, so those are all the elements of shading we need to add. Now we just need to go over the drawing and increase the contrast by darkening the shadows. As I'm doing this, I'm looking for opportunities to add loss edges. So for example, at the shoulder joint, i dark in this outline in order to emphasize the overlap between the shoulder and the torso. But then I let the line gradually fade into the shadow of the torso, creating a subtle loss edge. There are a number of lost edges here and the lower body where lines appear and disappear into the shadow. And of course there's a bunch of loss edges in the far side arm where lines fade into the gray of the paper. Are dark in some the lines on this arm, but then Latin gradually lighten as we move further out. Okay, the figure is complete, but it looks a little boring, just standing there by itself. So we'll add a background to make it more interesting. For this one, let's go with a circle motif and find any object around the house that can be used as a circle template. I'll use this jar lid. If VR Jack is a different size and the mine, don't worry, that's perfectly fine. Test out where you want to place a circle and draw it in with the white charcoal. This background will make the figure really pop out. So I'll put it at the focal point where I want the viewer to look. Make sure you don't draw over the figure itself. Now we can thicken up the line and create an inside border along the contour of the figure. And already the drawing looks a lot more interesting. Next, I'll go ahead and use hashing lines to fill in the circle. Notice that I'm not layering these hash lines on top of each other. Instead, I'm putting each group of lines next to each other to create a random pattern. The key is to mix up the direction of each group so they don't become too repetitive. This is actually harder than it sounds. So take your time with this one. Of course, this is just one way to fill in the circle. You can also fill it in with a flat tone or use parallel lines are going in the same direction. Feel free to explore the different possibilities. Okay, where are done? Go ahead and try this exercise for yourself. How fun? And I'll see you in the next lesson. 23. Gray Paper Drawing: Tea Pot: Okay, in this lesson we'll be drawing this t pi using a combination of observational and constructed drawing. This exercise will help us to learn how to shave shiny surfaces. Will begin by drawing an oval for the body of the tea pot. This oval will be wider than it is tall. Next, we'll draw in an ellipse for the top opening of the tea pot. The centerline will help us to keep things symmetrical. Draw a smaller lives within the first two indicate the thickness of the opening room. And then draw in the sides to indicate the height. Next we'll draw in the round hand of Lynn and draw in the attachment of the handover to the live. This attachment is very subtle in the reference, but I'll exaggerated in the drawing. Now that we've drawn in the opening and I can see that the body of the tea pot is a little too small, so I'll expand it a little. Okay, now we can put it in the handle as a bit of a corner here where the handle changes direction. Here's the outer surface of the handle. And this inside edge will establish the thickness of a handle. And as the attachment of a hand node to the tea pot itself. Let me just darken in, clean up these lines. Next, we'll draw in the base of the tea pot that's barely peeking out. And lastly, we'll put in the spout as the body of the spout. And they asked the opening. And these corner lines, even though they're very suddenly the reference will help establish the structure of the spout. Okay, so now we want to look over this land to make sure that there's no mistakes that we need to fix. And assuming is all accurate, we can move on to the shading phase. I'll start by mapping in the cast shadow and then separate the light side from the shadow side on the body of a tea pot. This area of the opening and lead can get a bit confusing. So let me clarify it a bit. Here's the cash shadow created by the opening rim onto the exaggerating the shadows little compared to what's actually in the reference. And on this side there's the cache shadow created by the lid onto the opening. Next, we'll fill in the shadow with a flat tone. Before we go any further, let's talk about how we want to design some atmospheric perspective into this, right? We can see that there's quite a bit of depth in this picture. The handle is closest to the viewer, followed by the body, and the spout is furthest away. Whenever there is an object that's closer and another one that's further away. We can convey that depth to the viewer by making the Far Side object less vivid. So as we continue with the shading process, I'm going to make the value in the spout very light and fuzzy compared to the rest of the drawing. And I'm going to make the details on the handle very sharp and define. So unlike the wooden dummy exercise where the atmospheric perspective is given to us by the reference. Here we're injecting it into the drawing ourselves. Okay, now that we have the shadow side filled in and we can add in the darker occlusion shadows. I'll start at the base of the tea pot will less light will be able to get in. This reference is not showing much of an inclusion shadow. So I am taking some liberties here. There's an inclusion shadow here, the attachment of a handle. This one is a bit more obvious in the reference. I'll add a thin shadow here to separate the base of the tea pot from the body. And our dark in this side of the handle to emphasize that IS turned away from the light. The head of the list is casting a shadow across the tea pot. And there should be an occlusion shadow near the base of the handle. And our dark in this recess here where the lid and opening rim makes contact, not much light will be able to get in there either. Next, we'll add in the core shadows. Starting with the spherical lead handle. We can definitely see a distinction between the core shadow and the reflected light area underneath. And there's a very strong reflected light along the body of the lid because it's sitting right next to this opening rim, which is bouncing light into it. And as we know, a strong reflected light will create a strong core shadow. Next we can see in the area of reflected light at the bottom of the tea pots body. Which means that this area here will be the core shadow. Large core shadow like this one, we have to make an effort to create a smooth transition between the core shadow and reflected light. Don't just have them jump abruptly from one to another. Going back to the opening room, there's a definite core shadow along this edge where the form of the rim changes direction. Again, this is because of the strong reflected light area created by the balanced lights coming off the body of the lid. And lastly, their core shadow is running along this edge of the handle. Now we're ready to add in the white pencil. And once again, I use my eraser to clean off the surface. For this drawing, I really want to capture the reflective quality of this porcelain tea pot. So I'm going to do something a little different. I'm going to use the white Charcoal just for the highlights. And I'm going to use the gray tone of the paper to depict the centralized areas. This will allow the highlights to stand out among all the other darker pigment and looked at much brighter. And as you know, the brighter the highlights appear, the shiny or the surface will look. And as you can see, just by adding these tiny highlights, the drawing instantly becomes so much more three-dimensional and we can really feel the shiny surface of the teapot. Next, I'll use the color pencil too lightly dark in the half tone to create a smooth transition between the shadows and the center light areas. Okay, and now we just need to go back over the drawing and sharpen up some of the lines and darken the shadows. Darkening the value should make the highlight appear even brighter and give the drawing that much more impact. I'm mostly just darkening the core CAS and inclusion shadows and smoothening out the half-tones. We'd been completely ignoring this bound over here. So let's give it some attention. I'm going to darken the shadows here a bit, but we're going to be careful not to overdo it and we still want it to mostly fade into the background. I will sharpen up this line to emphasize the overlap and show that the body of the tea pot is in front of the spout. But I'll make sure to let it gradually fade into a loss edge. How as some leeway variation throughout the dry and to make it more interesting. Next, let's lighten these two areas on the light side to create some loss edges. And that's it for the t pi. Now we just need to create a background for the drawing. I'll start by using the white pencil to create an outline around the contour of the tea pot. I'll keep the outline on the light side of the drawing as that's where our focal point is. Next, I'll use the same hatching pattern as we did in the wooden dummy drawing to create the background. And if you need to use a scrap piece of paper to rest your hand on so you don't smudge the drawing. As we get further out from the pea pod, I'll gradually decreased the pressure of the hatched lines so that they become lighter and lighter until they just blend into the grade of the paper. This will create a vignette which will ease the viewers eyes out of the drawing without being too abrupt. Of course, this is just one way to design the background. And if you'd like, I'd encourage you to try out your own design. As you become more experienced, you'll be able to get much more creative with the backgrounds. And that's it. We're done. Okay, have fun with this drawing and I'll see you in the next lesson. 24. Gray Paper Drawing: Eye: Alright, in this lesson we'll be drawing this I, which will help teachers how to shade complex organic form using tone paper. I'll start by sketching in the shape of the eyebrow. Notice how I'm simplifying the careers of the eyebrow into straight line segments rather than getting bogged down with all the Sono undulations, the whole shape can be distilled with just a handful of line segments. This not only makes things easier to draw, but it will also give you a drawing more structure and make it look better. How slightly indicate the bridge of the nose. Next we'll sketch in the crease in the eyelid. Again, notice that we're breaking up this curve into three line segments. There's a curve rhythm that connects the N of the crease who with the eyebrow, which helps to tie the elements together. Next, let's draw in the opening of the eye. This part is a little more curvy where you can still see that it has some directional structure to it. The line angles up, then comes across and then angles downward. And the bottom portion angles down and then up and then down again. Capturing these directional changes helps you to avoid the common mistake of drawing almond-shaped eyes where everything is curved the same way. Now we'll draw in the shape of the iris. The shape is a circle, but the top part will be covered up by the upper eyelid. When drawing the iris, I find it very helpful to look at the negative space in the white of the eye to help me judge the placement and the size of the iris. Then we'll draw in the thickness of the eyelids. The eyelids aren't just flat pieces of skin. They have a definite thickness to them. Most of the thickness of the upper eyelid is covered up by the eyelashes. Although you can still see a little bit of it poking through at the corner. And we can clearly see the thickness of the lower eyelid. One of the most common mistakes when drawing iss is forgetting to add in this thickness to the eyelids. Next is a subtle bulge under the i created by the spherical volume of the eyeball. So we'll indicate that with a soft edge like so. Okay, now let's evaluate the drawing to see if there's anything we need to fix. It looks like the eyebrow is a little bit too long, so I'll shorten it and bring it closer to the eye. And finally I draw in the pupil, as well as the shape of the highlight. There's actually another more subtle highlight to the left of the people. But I think that will cause the drawing to look a little too busy. So we'll just leave it out. Alright, now we're ready for the shading will start by mapping in the shadows to separate the light side from the shadow side. The shadow edges on this i is very soft and diffuse, which can make it really difficult to know where to place the terminator. So rather than trying to copy the reference, just make a decision about how you want to shadow shapes to look. Use the photo for inspiration and inject some of your own design. If you're not sure, then copy what I have for now. As you become more experienced, you'll have a better sense for what makes an attractive shadow pattern. This is shadow at this corner of the eye where less light is able to reach. And I'll carve out a spot for this little highlight on the skin. Then we can fill in the shadow side to see how the drawing loans. There's also a light shadow cast onto the I bar y the upper eyelid. It's a very subtle detail, but it can really help to show the thickness of that up I live. And just by separating the light and the shadow will already able to get a pretty realistic read. Now we can do the more detailed rendering. Let's start with the darkest and most obvious areas like the iris does a lot of intricate details in this iris. So we're now going to try to make a carbon copy of it. Instead, we'll simplify it into a sudden re-pattern Mike. So start by darkening the outer edge of the areas. And then draw thin lines that start at the edge and point towards the pupil at the center. The key detail to keep in mind here is to gradually rotate the lines as you go so that they are point towards the center of the pupil. And also be sure to vary up to length, darkness, and concentration of the lines so that the pattern doesn't get too repetitive. Mix some lines shorter or longer, darker or lighter, and put more lines in some areas than others. If it helps, you can think of the people is the sun and these lines are like sun rays emanating from it. And I'll thicken up the outside edge of the arrow is. Going back to the reference. If we look closely at the highlight, we can actually see tiny reflections of the eyelashes. So I'll also indicate them in the drawing. You don't have to copy them exactly. Just a few lines here and there will do the trick. Okay, now we're ready to draw in the upper eyelashes. The eyelashes curl up and out from the edge of the upper lid. And we can see this curling very clearly along this N of the I. Again, try to vary up the length of the individual lashes are so the lashes will criss cross over each other's. So don't just draw them as parallel lines. Along this N of the eye. Lashes would not be as visible. And that's because from this angle, the lashes appointing shape at the viewer and therefore appear for short. And although we can still see some of the lashes curling downward. Next we'll shade in the eyebrow. And the key to drawing unrealistic eyebrow is to pay attention to the direction of the hair growth. The Firstly of hair will be going in a diagonal direction along the route. A shrub that I'm drawing starts at the bottom of the eyebrow and goes towards the top. As I reached the end of the stroke, I'll lighten the pressure on the pencil so that the end of the line will be thinner than the beginning. This will help mimic the structure of hair where the tip is thinner than the base. And as always is very important to slightly vary up to length, angle and darkness have each hair. The second layer of hair will start from the top of the eyebrow and now angle slightly downwards. There's not as much of these hairs, but they help to fill out the eyebrow from the top. And the hairs will get lighter and shorter as they reach the end of the round. Once we have the general pattern of a house guest in, we just need to repeat the same process to make the eyebrow darker and fuller. And let's not forget about the lower eyelashes will grow out from the edge of the lower lid downward, but they will be a lot shorter and fewer than the lashes at the top. Next I will put a light core shadow along the bridge of the nose to help show that is protruding forward. And I'll also add some tone to the edge of the teardown to show that it has some depth as well. Okay, so that's it for the shadow side. Now we're ready to address the light side. As usual, I'll clean off the areas where the white pigment is going to go. I'll start by filling in this highlight in the eye. We want the highlight to be as bright as possible. So be careful not to mix the white charcoal with the dark pigments. And then we'll do the rest of the iris will just filling in the empty space that was uncovered with the red color pencil. Next, we'll move on to the white of the eye. We're not going to apply the Y charcoal to this entire area. Instead, we'll only use it to indicate the areas of the eyeball that is protruding out the most and therefore catching the most light. I want the pigment we brightest near the edge of the iris and gradually lighten as it moves out towards the two shadow areas at the corners. Remember, the eyeball is basically a spherical form. So it would exhibit the same loading pattern as a sphere that we shared it early in this course. And this area that we're drawing would correspond to the Santa light area of the sphere. Next we're adding these highlights in the tear dot areas. This will help to show the form of these pink fleshy areas that are in the teardown. And it will also convey that the eye is wet and shaming. Then we'll add in the white pigment to this top plane of the lower eyelid. This plane of lead is angling outward and therefore receiving more light. And their skin area under the tear doubt gears are so caching quite a bit of light. How also add these very thin highlights along the bottom of the eyeball. Sometimes moisture from the eye can accumulate there and reflect a little bit of light. So adding these highlighters can further convey that the eyeball is wet in Schoning. Now moving on to the upper eyelid, I'll add some weight to this portion of the skin. Again, that's the area that would be protruding out the most and therefore catching the most light. And there's also this patch of skin that's quite shiny as well. This I is part of a phase, but obviously we're not going to draw the whole thing. So as I move further out, I'm beginning to think about how I want to design the vignette so that the drying can fade out gradually in an interactive manner. Here I'm using hashing lines to suddenly indicate the highlight in this area. The hatching lines help to keep this area more subtle and they also add a stylized look to the dry. And we'll also apply some cross hatching to this area of the brow that's brighter because it's sticking out more. I'll have the lines go in this direction. And if you want the value to be more intense, just changed the angle slightly and apply another layer over it. Again, these hashing lines helpless to apply an even tone over this area while keeping it relatively subtle. Next, we add some very light hatching lines over this nose bridge. This helps us show the protruding form of the nose bridge and also help us to create the vignette. Okay, and now we just need to go back over the drawing to increase the contrast. How dark in the eyebrow and some of the core shadow areas. Here I'm darkening the areas along the crease. As the skin folds into the crease, it will get less and less light and therefore he is darker. By darkening in this area, we helped tell the viewer that the form is rounded, enrolling into the crease. I find that this is actually a very important detail in helping to make the I look realistic. The key here is to let the tone be dark as along the center of the crease in gradually lighten as it moves outward. At the side of the eye, I'm using curve hatching lines to darken this area. I'm also allowing the hatching lines to gradually lighten as we move further from the eye. This helps to create the soft vignette that we're looking for. Here I am darkening the corner of the eyeball and trying to create a smooth gradation between the shadow and the light. This will help to further emphasize the rounded form of the eyeball. Darken the Sono shadow area to indicate the BOJ under the eye. And I'll also add some value to this corner of the eye to help separate from the rest of the eyeball. And also to show the rounded volume of the fleshy tissues within the TIAA dot. Here I'm allowing the tone on the bridge of the nose to gradually turn into hatching lines and then have the line slowly become lighter and more spaced out and eventually disappear. I'll do the same for this area under the eye. And that's it and widen. As you can see by using the torn paper in white pencil, we're able to create a very striking effect with this. I will have fun with this exercise and I'll see you in the next lesson. 25. Black Paper Drawing: Now that you understand how to shade on tone paper, I'd like to introduce you to a slightly different method of shading using white pencil on black paper. Here, instead of creating the shadow is using a dark pencil. The paper itself would do that for us. And we would simply draw in the light using the white pencil is pretty much drawing in reverse. Don't worry, it sounds complicated, but it's easier than you think. Here are the materials I'll be using when drawing on black paper. Going back to the value scale example, we would start by filling the number one square with the brightest value we can. We'll lease square five blank and use the black of the paper to stand in for the darkest value. Then we fill in the number three square with a value that lies between number one and the black of the paper. And then as you know, we fill square number two with the value that lies between 13. And lastly, we would fill square four with a light layer of tone to transition between 35. And to create the gradation bar, simply apply the white pigment to the bright end and gradually faded out until we reach square number five. Comparing the three types of value scales, we can see that they all use the same principles of shading. It's just that they use a slightly different method for creating value and therefore yields a slightly different look. Black paper drying can give us a very cool high-contrast look, even moreso than regular tone paper. So it's a great skill to add to your arsenal. Also by practicing this unique method of shading, you gain a deeper understanding of how to manipulate light and shadow to create a realistic illusion. And finally, I should point out that even if you don't have black paper, you can still follow along with the excercises. Regardless of what color the tone paper is. As long as it's not completely white, it can stand in for the shadow. Black paper tends to work the best because of the high contrast. But you can use whatever color paper you happen to have. Okay, with that said, let's get into the drawing projects. 26. Black Paper Drawing: Candle: In this lesson, we'll do a simple drawing of this candle using white charcoal on black paper. Destroying will illustrate how you can use the contrast of black paper to create a cool glowing effect. Begin by simplifying the body of the candle into a cylinder. Then we'll add in the bumps and undulations in the body. The nice thing about drawing subjects like this candle is that we don't have to worry as much about accuracy as if we were drawing a portrait. Instead, we can use the reference as inspiration, but allow ourselves to be a little more free with the details. Be sure to leave a gap in the middle for the candle wick. Next, let's draw in the top portion of the wick and also the flame. Then we'll fill in the flame area. We know we want this area to be the brightest and the drawing. So I'll apply a decent amount of pressure with my pencil. Now there are tiny bright spots within the tip of the week. So we'll put them in with a white pencil. You'll need a fine tip for this, so be sure to sharpen your pencil. I'm trying to use sharp edges to separate the width and the rest of the candle flame and give it more definition. Next, we'll put a light glaze over this top half of the width to show that is engulfed in flame. Then fill in the body of the candle. Be sure to leave a gap with a wick is. Here. I'm shading the body of the candle using vertical strokes to give the drawing some directional energy. Also, this makes it easier to have the shocks gradually fade out towards the bottom of the candle. Next I'll put some highlights along the edge of the body as those are the areas that would be illuminated by the flame. And as you can see, I'm taking some creative liberties. Rather than sticking rigidly to the photo reference. I'll put a light glaze at the bottom of the wick. Next we can see from the reference that there's a glowing effect around the flame. So I'll put a light layer value in that area of the drawing. Then I use my finger to lightly blend it out. This will soften the pigment and make it seem like the candle flame is really glowing. Okay, now we just need to refine the shading. I'll add more white pigment to the flame to really make it stand out from the rest of the drawing. We should have the flame fade out slightly as it nears the body of the candle. Will brighten up the body as well, especially the areas that are closest to the flame. We want to be careful not to make the body of the candle to bright lease it competes with the flame. In order to convey the glowing affect, the flame needs to be the brightest element of the drawing. I will allow the white pigment to vignette out as we get lower on the body of the candle. And let's add more value to the halo around the flame and let it gradually fade into the black of the paper. Blended out a little. Now my finger was a bit sweaty, so I ended up creating some smudges in the halo. That's one of the danger of using your finger to blend. But luckily this one wasn't too bad and I can simply knock it back with an eraser. And that's it. Wanna go ahead and try this drive for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 27. Black Paper Drawing: Glass: In this lesson, we'll be drawing this glass cup. This exercise or teaches how to approach complex shiny objects, will begin by lightly sketching in the cylindrical body of the glass. Put in the base of the glass and draw in the edge of the table the glasses sitting on. The water sloshing around in the glass. So it will form a slightly slanted elliptical shape. Okay, now we can start rendering by putting in the brightest highlights. There's a few highlights scattered throughout the opening rim. The light and the shadow pattern on this glass might seem really complicated. But as you'll see, is really just about matching the shapes of the highlights as you see them in the reference. And eventually the illusion of the glass will begin to take form. These highlights gathered along the rim are really important for sure in the form of the glass. But because they're not a continuous line, they're able to hint at the shape of the opening without being too obvious. The surface of the water will be one of the brightest area in the drawing. Here I'm conforming my pencil shocks to the elliptical shape of the water. Next we'll copy the abstract shapes of the highlights at the bottom half of the glass. Again, don't be overwhelmed by all these complex shapes. You don't have to copy them exactly. As long as you capture the general shape and placement, the drawing will agree. As you're drawing in these highlights, you want to make sure that they conform to the contour of the glass. Because we're not using a hard line to outline the shape of the glass. We're relying on the shape of these highlights that convey the silhouette of the glass to the viewer. There's a lot of abstract looking highlights in the base of this glass, which can be confusing. The key here is to leave small gaps between the highlights so they don't just merge into one big shape. Alright, now that we have the big highlights put in, we can sketch it in the more subtle highlights. How add some vertical shrieks along this part of the glass. The subtle highlights will have give the glass a murkier, more realistic appearance. And there's a few squarely streaks on this side of the glass as well. Here, I'll add some abstract patches the value, and then soften them out with my finger. Let's allow the subtle details in this bottom half of the glass. And I'm not going to try to depict them all. And instead I'm only drawing the things that I feel is important and leaving out the rest. Next we'll draw in the refracted light, hitting the table surface. Make sure to distinguish these lights from the glass itself by leaving a small gap between them. And we want the edges on these bright spots to be very soft. So I'll blend them out with my fingers. And there's a few more subtle bright spots scattered throughout the table. We'll also add some white pigments to the edge of the table. And we'll let the white slowly fade out as it gets further from the glass. Again, I'll use my finger to spread the pigment around and cover the table surface with a subtle layer of value. Okay, now we just need to go back over the drawing and refine the shading. How adds some pigments to the highlights and make it as bright as possible. That will really help us to get that shiny effect. Increasing the intensity of the brightest highlights increases the value range of the drawing and helps to differentiate some of the most subtle highlights. And I'll add a subtle highlight to this area. And this isn't something I see in the reference, but I think it will make the glass look more interesting. Are also add these two brighter highlights. Again, these are embellishments that are not actually in the reference itself. Next, I will strengthen the highlights in this area. I'll use my finger to spread the pigment around and cover the bottom half of the glass in a light white haze. This will now give the glass a murky look. The drawing is still looking a little muted compared to the reference. So I'll do one more pass where I really pump up the highlights. Even as we add more white pigment, we have to be careful not to cover too much of the black paper. We need a good mix of the black paper showing through so that I can contrast with the pencil and a little more to the table area. And we're all done. As you can see, just by assembling a bunch of abstract shapes together, we're able to create the illusion of a realistic glass of water. Well, go ahead and try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson.