Drawing Fundamentals 2: Perspective Basics for 3D Sketching | Ethan Nguyen | Skillshare

Drawing Fundamentals 2: Perspective Basics for 3D Sketching

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

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26 Lessons (2h 9m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:29
    • 2. Basics of Perspective

      5:30
    • 3. One Point Perspective

      7:16
    • 4. The Diagonal Method

      2:33
    • 5. Cutting into Boxes

      6:43
    • 6. Adding to Boxes

      4:54
    • 7. Book Drawing in One Point

      6:10
    • 8. Sofa Drawing in One Point

      4:40
    • 9. Two Point Perspective

      6:36
    • 10. Modifying Boxes In Two Point

      5:11
    • 11. Book Drawing in Two Point

      7:40
    • 12. Sofa Drawing in Two Point

      6:06
    • 13. Major & Minor Axis

      3:52
    • 14. Ellipse Roundness & Tilt

      4:51
    • 15. Cylinder Drawing Exercise

      5:46
    • 16. Mouthwash Bottle Drawing

      3:13
    • 17. Pencil Drawing

      2:33
    • 18. Metal Nut Drawing

      4:13
    • 19. Pencil Sharpener Drawing

      4:59
    • 20. Sphere Basics

      2:36
    • 21. Sphere Modification

      4:31
    • 22. Wine Glass Drawing

      2:56
    • 23. Lemon Drawing

      7:18
    • 24. Trash Bin Drawing

      5:31
    • 25. Loomis Head Drawing

      4:10
    • 26. Tea Pot Drawing

      6:48
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About This Class

In this part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple series, you're going to learn the foundational skills and perspective principles that will allow you to draw from your imagination. 

In the first section of this course, we'll begin by learning the basics of perspective drawing. You'll learn concepts like the horizon line, vanishing points, line convergence and how to use them to create 3D objects and scenes. We'll cover how one and two-point perspective work… and then we'll go through step-by-step exercises where you can practice drawing simple boxes and modify them to create a variety of shapes. 

Once you're comfortable with constructing boxes, we'll apply this knowledge to drawing actual 3D objects from imagination. We'll do this in both one and two-point perspectives.

Now that you have a good understanding of how to draw boxy objects, in the next section, we'll cover curved objects. You'll learn the simple rules that explain how ellipse and circle perspective works and how to use them to draw cylinders at various angles.

Then we'll go through a bunch of different exercises where you'll learn how to combine boxes and cylinders to create all sorts of everyday objects.

Lastly in the final section, we'll dive into drawing spherical forms. Again, you'll learn how to use perspective to create three-dimensional spheres. 

And we'll go through lots of examples of how to use this knowledge to draw even more complex subjects. 

By the end of this course, you'll have a good understanding of how to draw boxes, cylinders, and spheres and how to use them to construct more complex objects from your imagination. 

This course was designed for beginning and intermediate artists who want to build a solid foundation in constructive drawing.

All the concepts are explained in a clear, easy to understand manure and you'll get lots of step-by-step examples to help you deepen your understanding.

This course is part of the Drawing Fundamentals Made Simple Series.

Be sure to check out the other courses in the series so you don't miss out on any important skills:

Transcripts

1. Introduction: being able to draw from your imagination is one of the most important and sought after skill and artists could happen. Although it might seem difficult or even impossible, any beginner can learn to draw for imagination if they understand the right concepts and techniques. In this part of the drawing fundamentals made simple Siri's, you're going to learn the foundational skills and prospective principles that will allow you to do just that in the first section of this course will begin. By learning the basics of perspective drawing, you'll learn concepts like the Horizon Line, vanishing points, lying convergence and how to use them to create three D objects and scenes. We'll cover how one point and two point perspective work, and we'll go through step by step exercises where you can practice dry simple boxes and modify them to create a variety of shapes. Once you're comfortable with constructing boxes will apply this knowledge to drawing actual three D objects from imagination. We'll do this in both one point and two point perspective. Now they have a good understanding of how to draw. Boxy objects in the next section will cover curved objects. You'll learn the simple rules that explain how a lips and circle perspective work and how to use them to draw cylinders of various angles. We'll go through a bunch of different exercises where you'll learn how to combine boxes and cylinders to create all sorts of everyday objects. Lastly, in the final section will dive into drawing spherical forms. Again, you learn how to use perspective to create three dimensional spheres, and we'll go through lots of examples of how to use this knowledge to draw even more complex subjects. By the end of this course, you'll have a good understanding of how to draw boxes, cylinders and spheres and how to use them to construct more complex subjects from your imagination. This course was designed for beginning and intimated artists who wants to build a solid foundation and constructive drawing. All the concepts explain in a clear, easy to understand manner, and you'll get lots of step by step. Examples toe help deepen your understanding. Well, I hope you found this video helpful, and I'll see you on the inside 2. Basics of Perspective: in the previous part of the drawing, Fundamentals made simple Siri's. We've learned all the skills needed for accurate observation of drawing in this part of the Siri's. We're going to learn all the skills for constructive drawing. Unlike observational drawing, which is more or less about copying what you see constructed drawing is about analysing what you see and building it up. Using basic form. This would tissue to think three dimensionally and train you to draw for imagination. Almost everything you draw can be simplified into three basic forms. The box. A cylinder on the sphere, whether the subject is ahead, a figure, a still life or machine that can be broken down into boxes, cylinders or spheres. So learning how to draw these forms is very critical. Let's start with box now. I'm sure you already know what the boxes, but bear with me for a second. The main characteristic of a box is that all the sides that either parallel or perpendicular to each others that will be important later. A box has three dimensions. The height with and death, a box whose height, with and depth are equal, is called a cube. Simple enough in order to draw a box? Well, we need to know some perspective. Perspective is the science of depicting three dimensional space on a two dimensional surface, kind of like how a camera takes a three D scene and turn it into a two D photograph and justice. Every photo is taking from the vantage point of a camera. Every perspective drawing is depicted from the point of view of a viewer. If the viewer is a worm on the ground looking up at the scene, we would see something like this if the view is a bird in the sky looking down on the scene , we would see something like this for simplicity during this course will assume the viewer is a person on the ground looking straight ahead, not up or down, but straight ahead in the drawing. The height of the viewers eyes from the ground is represented by a horizontal line. This line is called the Horizon Line, so if the viewers really tall, the horizon line will be higher in the drawing. And if the viewers really short, the horizon line will be lower in the drawing. The reason the horizon line is important is because it determines how much of the object were able to see. Ah, Higher Horizon Line will allow us to Seymour of the top of the box than a lower horizon line. Now that we establish what a viewer and horizon line is, let's talk about an important rule of perspective called diminution. Diminution is just a fancy way of saying when something goes away from the viewer, it will appear smaller. I know don't right. But this rule of diminution does create some interesting effects. For example, imagine we're looking down at two parallel lines on the ground. Fees could be railroad tracks or lanes on the road. The important point is that they're parallel, which means the distance between the two lines are always constant, and even if the lines extended indefinitely, they will never intersect. If these lines were not parallel, they will be angling in towards each other, and if they were extended, they would eventually intersect. Okay, back to the parallel lines because we're looking at these lines from the top view without any perspective distortion. They will appear as regular parallel lines, but watch what happens when we view them from an angle from this angle. The lines don't look parallel anymore. As the line goes away from the viewer, diminution caused the distance between the lines to appear smaller and smaller. As a result, the line seems to converge together, and by the time they reached the horizon line, they seem to vanish into a single point. This point is called, not surprisingly, the vanishing point. Now you can see this effective play in these real life examples. There's the horizon line and they asked the parallel lines coming together at a vanishing point. This gives us another important rule of perspective. Parallel lines that are going away from the viewer will appear to converge towards a common vanishing point. For example, if we added 1/3 line, as long as this line is parallel to the other two and is going away from the viewer, it will appear to converge the same vanishing point. Let's do another example. Suppose we added another pair lines except these ones of standing vertically and perpendicular to the ground. Perpendicular is basically the opposite of parallel rather than never intersecting. The two lines cross each other at a perfect right angle. The letter T or L are examples of perpendicular lines. Now, since these lines of vertical and perpendicular to the ground, they were simply look like dots from the top view in the perspective, you they were appear as parallel lines without any convergence to a vanishing point. This is because although they are parallel, they are not going away from the viewer and therefore unaffected by perspective makes sense , Right? Okay, that was a lot of information. So go ahead and take some time to let it sink in. Review the last sentence many times you need. And once you feel like you got ahold of these concepts, meet me in the next lesson. 3. One Point Perspective: now that you know the basic elements of perspective must cover how to draw a box in one of the most common prospective scheme one point perspective. Start by establishing the horizon Line the Horizon line. In addition to representing the height of the years, eyes also represent the division between the ground and the sky. So if you choose to put the horizon line low on the paper, we're showing more of the sky in our composition. If you put it high on the paper, we'll show more of the ground. For now. We'll keep it simple and put it right in the middle. Next, let's put in the vanishing. We can put it anywhere on the horizon line. In one point perspective, the vanishing point will indicate the position of the viewer. In other words, if the Horizon line represents the vertical position of the viewer, the vanishing point represents the horizontal position of the viewer. Again, it's important to note that the vanishing point only indicates the position of the viewer in one point perspective. Next, we need to choose where to put our box in relation to the horizon line. If we put it over the horizon line that means is above eye level, and we'll be looking up at it. Putting it below the horizon line means it's below eye level, and we'll be looking down on it. Let's go ahead and put it below eye level and to the left. We can establish the front plane of the box by drawing the simple shape. In one point. The front plane is facing the viewer head on, so it will not be affected by perspective. This means that we can draw the horizontal lines as perfectly horizontal and the vertical lines as perfectly vertical cool. That was easy. Now the depth line of the box is going away from the viewer, so they will be affected by perspective. And if you remember rule that we established earlier, parallel lines that are going away will converge towards a common vanishing point. So to draw those, we would just connect the corners of the front plane to the vanishing point. Lastly, well established the back plane of the box start by placing a line anywhere along the converging depth lines. If you want the box to be shallow, place the line closer to the front side. If you want the box ago For the back in space, place the line closer to the vanishing point. These construction lines can be pretty confusing, and a common mistake is to mix them up and connect them incorrectly. One trick that can help is to imagine that you're taking the edge from the front and sliding it back. Once you've decided the depth of the box, the point where the back edge into sex T DEP lines will be where you put the of edges, erase the construction lines and their cell box now withdrawn. This box is a transparent wire frame where all the planes invisible. This is really useful because it helps us to understand the structure of the box better. But in real life, the planes on the other side's wouldn't be visible. So to help it read better, we can add a dark and lying way to all the lines that should be visible. Notice that by putting the box to the left were able to see the right side and, by putting it below the horizon line, were able to see the top of it. Now to make sure you understand this process, positive video and draw this box using the stop I just laid out. You can do this freehand or use a ruler of it helps. Well done. Great. Let's do another example. Once again, we'll start by establishing the front plane. We'll put this one above eye level and to the right, connect the corners to the vanishing point, then decide how deep you want the box to be and slide. One of the front edge back where into sex with the depth lines is where you put the rest of the edges. Erase the construction lines. Give a thick allying weight to the edges that should be visible. Notice that by putting this box above the horizon line were able to see the bottom of it and by putting it to the right, were able to see the left side of it. Once again. Pause this video and draw this box for yourself. Okay, for the next example will put the box right on the horizon line, connect the corners to the vanishing point and established the back plane of the box. Lastly, erased. The construction lines dark in the line waits, etcetera, this time since the boxes sitting above and below eye level were not able to see the top or bottom. Now that should cover most of the one point perspective situations. What? There are a few scenarios where the perspective can look a little strange. For example, suppose the bottom edge of the box is right on the horizon line. Now, when we connect the corners of the vanishing point, only the top depth lines seem to converge. The bottom depth lines will blend right in with the horizon line. This will give the box a somewhat lopsided appearance. If you draw a box in this position and find that looks weird, don't worry. The perspective is still correct. You're just not used to seeing a box at this angle. The other situation is when the side of the box is vertically allying with the vanishing point. Now, when we draw in the deadlines, only the right side seemed to converge and the left side just looks like a perfectly vertical line and blends in with the front left edge again. This can give the box a lopsided appearance. The last scenario is when you put the box right smack on the vanishing point here, even though we're able to see all the sides and back planes. If the box is a wire frame in real life, the front plane would cover all of it, and the box would just appear as a flat square or rectangle. Go ahead and pause the video and draw all these boxes so you can become familiar with, Um, Now, the thing about one point perspective is that the further you get from the vanishing point , the more the objects would distort. For example, here's a cube draw close to the vanishing point. It looks pretty normal, right? But watch what happens when I move this same cube further out to the left. The further gets from the vanishing point, the more stretch out, it appears, and it almost doesn't look like a cube anymore. The same thing happens when you move it to the right more up and down. So if you're working in one point and you don't want a lot of distortion in your drawing, try to keep your subject close of the vanishing point. Now that you're familiar with the most common one point situations, your assignment is to draw a bunch of one point boxes on your own. Start by establishing the Horizon line and Vanishing Point. Draw the front plane of the box, connect the corners to the vanishing point and draw on the back plane. I like to draw the boxes freehand and then clean that the lines with a ruler. You can also shade in the different planes to help it read. Better place the boxes at various positions and see how it affects their appearance. Try drawing tall and wide boxes, deep and shallow boxes and so on. Okay, have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. The Diagonal Method: in perspective drawing, you often have to find the center of a shape. If this shape is not in perspective, it would be pretty simple. Just take a ruler, divide the heightening with by two and you'll get the center. But what happens when the shape is in perspective? Because of perspective, distortion? We can't simply measure it out anymore and said, Hisako, trick we can use if we want to find the center of any square or rectangle or we would have to do is draw diagonals from corner to corner, and the point with the lines intersect will be the center. This will work even if the shape is in perspective. It doesn't matter how big or small the shape is or what angle you're seeing it from. Drawing the X will give you the center, but that's not all. In addition to finding the center, we can also use diagonals to enlarge or shrink a shape. Suppose you have a rectangle and you want to draw a bigger version of it. Of course, you can take out a ruler, measure out the height to width ratio of this shape and draw a bigger version. But that's cumbersome and you might not have a ruler. So instead, all you have to do is draw a diagonal from corner to corner and let it extend past the corner. Marquardt. How big you want the new shape to be and use vertical and horizontal lines to close out the shape. As long as the edges are perfectly vertical and horizontal and the diagonal runs through the corners of both shapes, these two rectangles will be perfectly proportional to each other. In fact, you can place the shape anywhere along the diagonals. Let's say you want to put the shape here. Extend an edge outward, and once you reach the desired size, make a 90 degree turn towards the diagonal and close out the shape. You can also use this process. Create a smaller version as well. Now let's say you want your shapes to be centered within each other's. In this case, draw two diagonals and extend the lines past the corners. Decide how big you want the new shape to be, then use verticals and horizontal to close it out. By using the diagonals to guide your shape, the new rectangle will not only be proportional to the old one, but the two shapes are perfectly centered within each other. You could also use this to draw a smaller version within the original shape. And of course, these techniques will work in perspective as well. So remember these tricks well, because you'll be using them a lot, drawing your perspective career. 5. Cutting into Boxes: Now that you know how to draw box, we can begin modifying it to create a variety of other shapes, for example, will start by drawing a box using the stops laid out in the previous lessons. Now, suppose you want to cut this box diagonally to create a triangular prism. First, we would draw a diagonal cut line on the front plane of the box, then draw the same cut line on the back plane, and the depth lines will connect the front and back point. We can erase the extra lines so the shape can read better. Now, let's say we wanted to modify this even further by slicing off the top. I'll put a horizontal cut line on the front plane. Now we want to put the same cut line on the back plane. But the problem is because of perspective. We don't know exactly where that cut line should go, so to find out will connect the two front corners to the vanishing point that will give us the depth lines and the point where the depth lines into sec with the back edge is where the rear cut line will be. Now we can shade in the top plane to make it even clearer. Next, let's say we want to slice off the other tip of the prism as well. Again, we'll draw a vertical cut line onto the front plane, connect the two corners that would just created to the vanishing point to create the depth lines and the point where the depth lines into sec with the back edge is where the rear cut line will be. And that's how shape I'll clean it up with this blue pencil, so it's easier to see. Try drawn this yourself to make sure you understand the process. Next, let's draw a pyramid shaped once again will begin by drawing a box. Next, we'll need to find the chip of the pyramid, but should be right at the center. Off this top plane, we can draw an X on the top plane to find the center, then connect that point to the corners of the bottom plane. And that's how pyramid. Now let's say we wanted to slice off the top of this pyramid again. We'll start with a horizontal cut line, then connect the corners to the vanishing point and where the depth lines intersect the back is where the last cut will be. Now we can shade in the top plane to make it even clearer again. Let me clean this up. Here's another example. Let's put this box to the right of the vanishing point. Suppose you want to cut a chunk on the top right corner, and we want this chunk to be exactly 1/4 of the shape so we can use the X method to find the center. Then we'll draw the cut line to remove exactly 1/4 of the front plane. Connect the two corners that would just created to the vanishing point. Now this cut has created a lot of new corners and planes. But because the boxes positioned to the right of the viewer, when we connect the corners back to the vanishing point, only this part will be visible. This gives you a good idea of how overlapping lines can create three dimensionality in a drawing. Next, less slice off a bit from this top left corner, connect the corners back to the vanishing point and put in the rear cut line. And that's how shape this one actually look a bit like a simplified piano, so you can see how we can carve into simple boxes to create all kinds of furnitures and objects. Let's do another example with the box above the horizon line. Once again, we'll cut out a small square chunk from the corner similar to the last example. But this time we'll see how the change in angle causes it to appear differently. Connect the corners to the vanishing point and they asked the newly created surface. We'll also slice off the top left corner. But this time, because of the position of the box, we won't be able to see into the cut. And for the last example, let's put the square cut on the bottom left corner. Connect the corners to the vanishing point. These extra lines can be a bit confusing, so let me erase some of them, okay? And the point where the debt lines into sect with the back pain is where we'll put the rear cut lines, and that s how shape this time. Because the cut is facing, the viewer were able to see into the divot shade in the newly created surfaces. So that's how you can carve into a box to create an almost infinite variety of shapes. If you have announced already, go ahead and rewind and pause the video and draw along with all these shapes, then explore a bunch of different modifications on your own. Do at least five examples. Try placing the box above and below the horizon line to the left and to the right of the vanishing point and see how this affects your perception of it. Okay, have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Adding to Boxes: So far, we've learned to modify a box by cutting into it, but we can also change a box by adding to it. For example, let's say we wanted to add a smaller box to the top of this box, start by drawing the front plane of the new box, connect the corners of the vanishing point and finally extend the vertical lines in the back upward to close out the back plane. This one is pretty simple. We're essentially just drawing one box on top of another. Next. Suppose you want to add a ramp to the side of this box. First, extend the horizontal lines out as far as you want. Threatened to go. Let's say we want to ram to end there. Connect that point to the vanishing point. This will give us the base of the ramp. Then let's say we want the ramp to be up this high. Connect that point to the vanishing point. This will give us the top edge of the ramp. Now, connect the top corners with the bottom corners and there's our rent. Now let's say we wanted to add around to the front of the box. We'll take the DUP lines and extended forward because they're coming closer to the viewer, the distance between them will actually get bigger. And let's say we want the ramp toe end right there. We can indicate that with a horizontal line. Furthermore, let's say we want the ramp to go up this high weaken, mark that with a horizontal line as well, and connect the corners to complete the shape and I'll shade in the rest of the shape. Next, let's say we wanted to add a triangle to the top of this box as if we're drawing a roof on a house. We can find the center using the X method, then draw a vertical line up to determine how tall the peak should be and draw in the front plane. Connect the peak to the vanishing point Now to find out where the roof should end. Will need to take this point where the vertical lines intersect the front plane and connect it to the vanishing point and where this depth line intersects the back plane. Draw a vertical line up, and that's where the roof or end. Finally, let's add a platform to this house. Draw in an acts on the bottom plane, but this time, rather than using it to find, the center, will extend this ex past each of the corners. Connect the two corners at the front with a horizontal line, then connect this corner to the vanishing point and where it intersects the extended corner in the back. Draw a horizontal line across now connect this right corner back to the vanishing point. We really only need to draw a tiny segment of this rain, so it's fine to estimate the angle. This gives us the top plane of our new platform to add some thickness of this platform, extend the vertical lines downward and draw in the front plane. Connect the corner to the vanishing point and we're all done. So that's how you can add to a box to create a variety of shapes, rewind this video and draw these example yourself. Then do a bunch of your own versions. You can even do different combinations of adding to a box and subtracting from it to create all kinds of different shapes. Well, have fun experimenting, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 7. Book Drawing in One Point: Now that you know how to draw boxes and modify them to create different shapes, let's apply this guilt to drawing. An actual object, in this example will be drawing a hardcover book from Imagination. Are we doing this demo in photo shop? But all the principles will still apply for pencil and paper drawing as well. So here's what the finished wrong would look like. This book consists of the stack of pages in the middle, the too hard covers on the top and bottom and the spine of the book on the left. We'll start by drawing the stack of pages, which is really just a rectangular box. So you probably know the drill by now established Horizon Line and Vanishing Point draw in the front plane of the box opposition, this box below the horizon line and roughly in front of the Vanishing point, connect the corners to the vanishing point and draw in the back point. Now how low the opacity of these construction lines and go over the ones that we want to keep. So that's the pages of the book. Now let's draw in the hard cover on the bottom. We want the hard cover to be slightly bigger than the pages, so we'll draw a diagonal on the bottom plain and have it extend past the corners. Now we'll decide how far out the cover should go and draw a horizontal line across and connect each of the corners to the vanishing point. Now let's find the back edge. We'll find the point where they diagonals into sect the depth line and draw a horizontal line across. Now we can add some thickness to the cover. Once again, let me lighten the construction lines and dark in the ones we want to keep. Okay, next was put in the top cover once again to make the cover larger will draw diagonals on the top plane and have them extend past the corners. And to make sure that the top covers the same size as the bottom, I'll draw a vertical line up from the bottom corner and where it into sex the diagonal. That's where we'll put the horizontal line. And if our measurements were accurate, the top and bottom corner should line up over here a swell, and they do great. Connect these corners to the vanishing point, and we can close out the back with another horizontal line. Next, let's add some thickness to the front plane. Connect the corners back to the vanishing point, and to find out where these deadlines should terminate will go to one of the back corners and draw a vertical line upward and a horizontal line across. Once again, let me lighten the construction lines and dark in the ones we want to keep. This time, since the top cover is covering, the pages will have to erase some of the lines of the pages in order to show that overlap. So that's what our book looks like so far. Lastly, let's draw in the spine of the book. Basically, we're going to fill in the left side of the book by connecting the top and bottom corner, extend this debt line forward and draw a vertical line up and let me dark in the lines here , instead of just keeping the spine a straight line, I'll use the pen toward. To make it occurred is more characteristic of an actual book, and it helps to balance out all the straits we have in the drawing. To help. The drawing read properly will have to erase some of these extra lines. And there's Albert. Lastly, let's shade in the different planes that helped differentiate them. I'll use the bucket tool for this. Okay, your assignment is to rewind and positives video and draw this book yourself. Do it several times until you have the process. Memorize. The awesome thing about this constructive drawing approach is that once you know all the steps, you can draw it again without any reference. So once you feel comfortable with this process, put everything away and see if you can draw it from memory. And once you're comfortable with that, you can even try drawing the object from a slightly different angle. So have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 8. Sofa Drawing in One Point: OK in this video will be drawing a sofa from imagination. In one point perspective, we'll begin by simplifying the form of the sofa into a box shape. I'll place this box to the left of the vanishing point so we can see into the opening of the sofa and let's go over the lines that we want to keep. So there's our box. Now we're going to carve into this box to gradually create the form of the sofa. First, we'll cut out a chunk from the top right corner to create the opening for the back and arm rest, Connect all the corners to the vanishing point and close out the backside with a vertical and horizontal line. Okay, let's go over the lines of this new shape and erase the extra portion. Next would decide how thick we want the arm rest to be and mark out that area with this green light, we're just going to use horizontal and vertical lines and work our way down the shape for the back would do the same thing except will make it thinner to account for the fact that this side of the arm rest is further from the viewer and therefore appear smaller. Do your best to make the estimation that feels right. Then we need to cut out a portion for the seating area, so decide how deep you want it to be and connect that mark to the vanishing point. Now go to the corner and draw a horizontal line across and a vertical line to connect it to the back rest. Next, connect this new corner we just created to the vanishing point to create the crease between the cushion and the Bakr s. Let's go over the lines to make it clearer and erase the extra lines. All right, it's starting to really look like a sofa, but the back rest looks a little too up tight and uncomfortable. So let's recline it back a bit by putting in this diagonal cut. Connect the corners to the vanishing point, and now we'll go to all the points where the depth lines intersect the different planes and connect the corners, then dark in the lines and erased the excess. Now let's divide the cushion into two equal pieces to find out where the middle is. More draw diagonals on this side plane. The center will be where the two diagonals intersect. Draw a vertical line up from there and then a horizontal line across, and that would divide our cushion into two pieces. Then we'll need to draw in the bottom edge of the cushions. Markoff. How thick you want them to be and then connect that back to the vanishing point and let's dark in these lines and finally will shade in the different planes using various shades of gray. Once again, your assignment is to rewind and draw this sofa as many times as you need to become comfortable with the process, then see if you can draw it from just memory. This one's a bit more complex, so be patient with yourself. Okay, have fun and I'll see you in the next lesson. 9. Two Point Perspective: Now that you know the basics of one point, we can move on to the much more common two point perspective. Here's the difference between one and two point perspective. The defining characteristic of one point, aside from the fact that there's only one vanishing point, is that one side of the object is facing the viewer head on. The height and width lines are not going away from the viewer and therefore appears as perfectly vertical and horizontal lines. Only the depth lines are going away and therefore converge towards a vanishing point. In two point, the object is slightly turned now. The height lines are still perfect verticals, but the width and depth lines will be going away from the viewer and therefore converged towards their respective vanishing point. As a result, the object will have to vanishing points. Let's do an example of a box in two point, as usual, will begin with the horizon line, then established the nearest vertical edge of the box. We'll put this one below the horizon line, then decide where you want to put the vanishing points. The closer we put the vanishing points, the more distorted the boxwood. Here it's not that the perspective is wrong. It would just look weird. The further apart the points are, the less distorted it will appear. Usually, I like to put the vanishing points as far apart as possible. One tip is to make the box small relative to the paper. By drawing smaller, you have more room to space out the vanishing points next, connecting top and bottom of the edge to each of the vanishing point. Now we'll use vertical lines to close out each side of the box. Here's where you can decide how wide or deep you want the box to be. Then connect the top and bottom corner back to the opposite vanishing point so it is on the left side will go to the right vanishing point, and it is on the right side will go to the left vanishing point and whether to depth lines intersect. Draw a vertical line to connect the top and bottom corner. This back edge won't be visible normally, but will draw it in any way and let me dark in the lines. We want to keep notice that unless a line is vertical, it will either converge towards the left or right Vanishing point lines of the going away from the viewer towards the right converges to the right vanishing point, and lines that are going away towards the laugh converges to the left vanishing point. Let's draw another box slightly to the left of this one again, well established. The near edge, connected back to the vanishing points to keep things simple, will use the same vanishing points as the previous box. Close out the planes connect the top and bottom corner back to the opposite vanishing point and draw in the back edge. This one happens the lineup really closely to the front edge, which can be a bit confusing. So let me dark in the lines again. The reason we want to find the back edge, even though it's not visible, is that sometimes we need to know where that back edges in order to do certain modifications to the box. Now, by using the same vanishing points were saying that these two boxes are rotated from the viewer in the exact same way. In other words, the left edges of the second box is parallel to the left edges of the first box and the right edges of the second box is parallel to the right edges of the first box. Let's draw another box above the horizon line, connected back to the vanishing points. Close out the planes. We'll make this one more rectangular. Connect the top and bottom corner back to the opposite vanishing point and draw in the back edge and let me dark in the lines we want to keep. And we can also position the box so that the bottom plane lines up perfectly. With Horizon Line connected back to the vanishing points, the lines on the bottom won't be visible because it blends in with horizon line. Close out the planes, connect the top corners back to the opposite vanishing point and draw a vertical line for the back edge. By drawing this box right on the horizon line, it makes it appear as if the viewer is very low relative to the box. And this is how we would draw a really tall buildings. And lastly, we'll draw a box that is both above and below the horizon line connected back to the vanishing points close out. The planes connect the top and bottom corner back to the opposite vanishing point and draw in the back edge. The corners of the back edge won't always line that perfectly. But that's okay. Just do the best you can. Now, your assignment is a copy of these boxes. If you haven't done so already, then try drawing a bunch of two point boxes on your own. Try drawing them at a variety of different positions and dimensions. Okay, how fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 10. Modifying Boxes In Two Point: Now let's do some box. Modifications in two point perspective is going to be pretty similar to the one point exercise with just a few deviations. Start by drawing a box in two point. Let's turn this box into a triangular prism. By drawing diagonal cuts from corner to corner, he raised the extra portion. Now let's slice off the top of this prison. I'll put the cut line here and connected back to the right vanishing point, then connect the new corners to the other vanishing point. Lastly, we'll go to the back corner and connect it back to the right vanishing point. Now let me dark in the lines and he raised the extra, and I'll roughly shade in the different planes to differentiate them. Okay, next box for this one. Let's cut out a chunk from the corner. We'll start by putting a vertical cut line on one of the plane. The second part of this cut line needs to converge towards a vanishing point, so let's do that, Then connect the new corners to the other vanishing point at the point where the depth lines intersect, the back plane draw a vertical line down and use the vanishing point to draw in the second segment, dark in the lines and erase the extra for this next box will cut a chunk out of the corner again. Start with a vertical cut line. Use the vanishing point to draw the second part, then connect the new corners to the other vanishing point. Put in the vertical cut line on this side, connected back to the vanishing point and where these two lines intersect. Draw a vertical line down dark in the lines and erase the extra for the next box. Let's add a ramp to it. Our extend the debt lines forward. Decide where you want the ram to end and connect that to the vanishing point. This will give us the base of the ramp, of course, the boxes floating in the air so we'll actually be able to see the bottom of this ramp. Now decide where the top of the ramp should end and connect it back to the vanishing point . Now connect the corners and there's a ramp dark in the lines and erase the extra for this last box. Let's put a roof on it used diagonals to find the center, then draw a vertical line up from there to find the peak of the roof and connect the peak to the corners. To find the depth of the roof, connect a peak to the vanishing point. Now go to the intersection between the vertical line and the top edge and connect it back to the vanishing point. The point where the step line intersects the back edge. Draw a vertical line upward. This is where the roof should terminate. Lastly, let's draw a doorway for this house. Draw in the top edge of the door by connecting it to the vanishing point and where the top edge into sexy diagonal draw vertical lines downward. Now to give this doorway some depth, connect the corners to the right. Vanishing point. Okay, that's a lot of these lines, so let me clean this up. Let me get rid of this horizontal lion so you can see it better, and that's it. Well done. Rewind and pause this video and draw these boxes yourself until you become comfortable with um, then try to draw a bunch of modifications on your own. Okay, have fun, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 11. Book Drawing in Two Point: all right in this lesson, we're going to be drawing the same book we did before, but this time would do it in two point perspective by drawing the same object in two different perspective scheme, you'll gain a better understanding of these similarities and differences between them. We're also going to introduce the idea of working with an off frame vanishing point. Okay, let's get started. Begin by drawing a box shape for the pages of the book established the nearest edge. We'll put the left vanishing point right here and connect the top and bottom corner to it for the second vanishing point. We can't keep it on the page by putting it here, but putting the two vanishing point this close together will cause the drawing to be too distorted. While this is still technically accurate, it might not look very good. The other option is to make your drawing smaller. This will allow you to keep both vanishing points on the page while cutting down on distortion. This approach is fine when practicing, but when doing a finished drawing or painting, you want to bait to draw bigger and let your subject Philip the frame so the last option is to place the second vanishing point off the page. Now imagine that the right vanishing point is out there somewhere until rise in line, and I'll point this line towards it. If I angle this line to be more horizontal, I'm saying that the right vanishing point is way out there. If I angle it more towards the horizon line, I'm saying the vanishing point is closer in Let's put this line right about here. Once we've roughly established the distance of the vanishing point, we need to make sure that the other lines converge towards it. Here's my process for doing that first, imagine what the second line would look like if it was parallel to the first, then just angle. It's slightly towards each other. This will ensure that they intersect at some point in the distance. Now it's very unlikely that the two lines were actually intersect at the exact location of the vanishing point. But that's okay. As long as we're close enough, the viewer won't be able to tell. What you don't want to do is to have the line point away from each other like this. In this case, there's no way the two lines could intersect out in the distance. And even an understanding viewer will be a to tell that something's off what you're drawing now, decide the dimension of your box and connect the corners to the opposite vanishing points for the side. I'll use this original line as a reference. Here's what the new line would look like if it was parallel to the first and angle it inwards slightly for the next one. Since it lies in between these two lines, I'll try to keep the angle somewhere in between, then find the intersection between these depth lines and draw in the back edge. If the intersections aren't lining up properly, you might have to adjust the angles of the depth lines in order to make them work. Now let me dark in the lines. We want to keep next West, draw in the bottom hardcover, draw diagonals and let them extend past the corners. Decide how far out you want the cover to extend and connect it back to the left. Vanishing point. Do the same for the right side. I'll use his closest line for reference, and this new line should be angered like that looks like I need to extend this dagano a bit further, connect the corner back to the left vanishing point and roughly connect this corner to the unseen right Vanishing point. No, we'll add some thickness to this cover and dark in the lines. Next, we'll athey top cover again. Start with the diagonals to make sure the top cover only extends out as far as the first. I'll draw a vertical line up from the corner of the bottom cover and where it intersects the diagonal, connected back to the left vanishing point and connect the corners with each other. This is how big the top cover will be. No, we'll add some thickness to this cover and dark in the lines. Now erased the extra lines to properly show the overlaps. Lastly, will fill in the spine of the book. Connect the top and bottom corners, extend this deadline forward and connect it to the top. Now let me dark in the lines we want to keep are used the pen tool to create a curve for the spine. Now we'll have the race. A lot of these extra lines before this spying will read properly. and finally I'll shade in the different planes. Okay, review this video and draw the book yourself. Once you have, compare this drawing with the one point version and see how the two differs. I find that while one point perspective is simpler, the two point scheme allows you to show the object from a more dynamic angle. Two point tends to be more versatile, which is why it's more commonly used anyway. Have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 12. Sofa Drawing in Two Point: okay in this lesson, and we're going to be drawing a sofa in two point perspective. Start by simplifying the form of a sofa into a box shape, established the front edge and connect it back to the vanishing point. We'll put the right vanishing point off the page. Try to visualize where would be on horizon line and do your best to point the lines towards it. Now draw in the other edges of the box and connect the corners to the vanishing point again . For the lines on this side, do your best to point it towards the unseen right vanishing point. Here. I'm trying to angle these lines so that the intersections of the back corners will line up with each other's. This can be a bit tricky, and you might have to adjust the angles of your lying several times in order to make it work. Once I see that the top and bottom into sections are reasonably closed, I'll draw in the back edge. Now let me dark in the lines we want to keep. Next will cut out the space for the back and arm rest draw in the vertical cut line and the second part will point back to the left vanishing point. Point the corners towards the right vanishing point. I'll draw a vertical line down from this intersection point, connect this corner back to the left vanishing point and connect these two corners together dark in the lines and erase the extras. Next we'll decide how thick we want the arm rest to be and mark out the area with this green line, I make sure that all lines that are going away towards the left converge to the left Vanishing point for the back will do the same thing except will make it thinner to account for the fact that this side of the unrest is further from the viewer. Then we need to cut out a portion of the seating area, so decide how deep you want it to be. Draw a line from there towards the right vanishing point. Connect this corner to the left vanishing point. Extend this line downward to connect to the seat cushion. Now draw in the corner between the cushion and the back. Rest again, make sure that this line point towards the right vanishing point dark in the lines and erase the extras. Next will recline the back rest by putting in this diagonal cut point this corner towards the right vanishing point. And now we'll go to all the points where the depth line into sex the different planes and connect the corners dark in the lines and erase the extras. Now let's divide this cushion into two equal pieces to find where the middle is will draw diagonals. On this front point, the center will be where the two diagonals intersect, draw a vertical line up from there and connect it back to the left vanishing point. Then we need to draw in the bottom edge of the cushions again. I'll use the centers of reference and pointed towards the right vanishing point dark in the lines and finally will shade in the different planes. Once again your assignment, history, wine, and draw this sofa as many time as you need to become comfortable with it. Working with an offering Vanishing Point can make things a bit more challenging. You might find that your corners aren't lining up properly and that you need to erase and re adjust your lines in order to make them work. That's okay. Expect to have to draw this several times and correct a lot of mistakes before you get it right. But the more you practice, the better you become at managing all the angles and intersections. Also, once you're done with the drawing compared with one point version and notice the differences between them, which one do you like more? What are the pros and cons of each approach? Won't have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. Major & Minor Axis: now that you have a better understanding how to draw boxlike objects is time to move on to more rounded forms. The next shape on illnesses. The cylinder the cylinder is very important to know because it's so common. Almost everything you see is made up of cylinders from everyday objects to the human body, so being able to draw cylinders will open up a lot of possibilities in your art. In order to draw cylinders, we need to be able to draw ellipses, and the lips is how a circle appears when it is seen from an angle. Ellipses are ovals that have two axes of symmetry. For example, if we were to draw a horizontal line through the center of this ellipse, this half would be The exact same shape is this half. Since this line divide the ellipse along its long access, it is called the major axis of the ellipse. If we were to draw a vertical line through the center of this ellipse, it would again defy the lips in two, and this half would be the same shape is this half. Since this line divide the lips along is short axis, it is called the minor axis, so basically, the major and minor axis divide the ellipse into four equal parts. These axes of symmetry is distinguished the lips from other ovals or egg shapes. For example, this shape is an oval, but it's not an ellipse. When we draw in the major and minor access, all four parts are not equal to each other's knowing. This will help you to avoid the common mistake of drawing, lopsided or asymmetric or ellipses. Another common mistake is to draw almond shaped ellipses where the two ends. Appointee. The best way to avoid this is to draw your shoulder and be sure to smooth out the turns at both ends. It's important to note that the lips doesn't actually exist in real life. The circle exists, but the lips is just an illusion, created when the circle is seen at an angle. Likewise, the major and minor access don't exist in real life, either. The major and minor access a just imaginary lines that help us to draw ellipse is better. Okay, what that said, Let's see how we can use these axes to draw any lips first, draw in the major access, then drawn the minor access. Using a shorter line, make sure that this half of the mange axis is equal to this half and that this half of the mine axis is equal to this half. Now. Use the four points at the tip of these access as a guide to draw in your lips. You probably won't get a perfect lips, but that's OK. If you want to make the ellipse flatter, make the minor access shorter. To make the ellipse rounder, make the minor access longer. You can also practice drawing ellipses at different angles. You'll find a certain angle is a much easier than others. If you like, you can turn the paper to accommodate your natural arm angle. Once you feel comfortable with this, try drawing ellipsis using just a minor access. It's more useful to be in the draw. Ellipse is using the minor access. The reason for this we clear in the later lessons. If you find yourself really struggling with this exercise, try tracing over the alleged exercise sheets to practice the muscle memory. Then go back to doing these exercises and see if it helps. Okay, go ahead and do this practice until you're comfortable with the ellipses, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 14. Ellipse Roundness & Tilt: Now that you understand how to draw Ellipse is using the major and minor access. Let's dive deeper into the perspective, and a lips has two characteristic. It's roundness and his tilt. The degree twist the lips is round or flat would depend on the angle from what you're seeing. It supposed as a circle, a distant ground far below the horizon or eye level. Since we're above the circle looking down on it, it will appear as around the lips. As the circle moves up towards the horizon line, we will see less of it, and it will appear as the thinner lips. The closer we get to the rise in line, the thinner the list becomes. If the circle is right at eye level, it will appear is just a flat line. As it continues higher, it would now get further and further from the horizon line. We're now able to see up into it, and the lips will start to get more rounded again. Here's a real life example of this effect. We're looking down on this wine glass at an angle, and so the circle of opening appears as any lips. But this top Phillips is thinner than this bottom one, because the bottom of the glass is further from the eye level, were able to see more of it. Therefore, the let's work here more rounded. Even the surface of the water is circular shape and therefore appears as in the lips because it lies between the top and bottom. The wine glass, the roundness of the left will also be somewhere in between. Observing these details is crucial to show in the perspective properly. In this example, the eye level is really close to the opening of the glass, and therefore, it appears, almost is a straight line. But of course the bottom, which is further below eye level, still appears is in the lips. Okay, so that explains the roundness of ellipses. But what about the tilt? Why are some? He lifts is horizontal and vertical, while others I diagonal. To understand that, let's take a look at this tour I've made. Here I have a circle dis with an axle sticking through the middle. You can think of the are So is a rod that goes through the center of the circle at a 90 degree angle. The axe. So acts like an arrow that always points in the direction the circle was facing the axe. It was important because it helps us to draw the lips properly. Whichever way the axe was pointing, the major axis of the lips will be perpendicular to that line, and the minor access will be perfectly allying with the asshole. No matter which way the circle is facing, this rule will hold true fast the axle and there's the major access being perpendicular to it, and the minor access is perfectly allying with the axle. Once you know which way the axle is pointing, you can put in the major access and use it to draw your lips. Or you can simply use the axle is the mine access and draw the lips. Using that, even if the axles for shorten as long as we imagine as a flat line, the major access of the lips will be perpendicular to it. Here the axle is pointing away, and again the rule still holds true. Let's take a look at a few real life examples here. We can see the axles of the wheels very clearly, and indeed the ellipses appears as we would expect. I noticed that the cylinder here is pointing in a different direction from the wheels. And if we were to imagine where it's Axel would be pointing, we see that again. The ellipses perpendicular to that line here because the motorcycle was leaning to the side , the axles of the wheels, a tilted upward. Therefore, the ellipses will be tilted as well. Here, the bar bell access the axle and the ellipsis of the weights are perpendicular to it. Here, even though we can't see the axle because we're able to see the tilt of the lips, we can deduce which way the axle must be pointing. And lastly, here we have a bunch of bottles, each pointing in a different direction. And once again, the ellipsis wore appear according to the angle of the axle. Now that you know how he lifts perspective works, you'll be able to analyze and draw circle objects like a pro. Okay, your assignment is to look for circular and cylindrical objects around your house and observe these effects at work in real life. Notice how circles appear as a lips is when viewed in an angle, and the roundness of the ellipsis depend on the angle from which of viewing the circle. Then pick up the objects and turned them in space and notice how the tilt of the lips will always be perpendicular to the direction the circles facing. Okay, have fun with its exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 15. Cylinder Drawing Exercise: Now let's apply what we learned so far to drawing cylinders. First, let's draw in the horizon line or eye level. Even if you don't draw this line every time is a good idea to visualize where the eye level is in your drawing. Next, we'll draw in the axle to indicate the orientation of the cylinder. Since the cylinder will be standing upright, the axle will be just a vertical line. The major axis of the lips will be perpendicular to this axle. The mine access will be perfectly aligned with the axle, so we don't have to worry about that now. We can draw in the first the lips. It might help to mark things out to make sure that the lips will be centered with the actual and major access. You can make this in lips as round or flat as you want. It just depends on the angle from which you want to depict. The cylinder then would draw in the side of the similar. These lines are going away from the viewer, and, as you know, parallel lines that are going away will converge together. How quickly these lines converse together would depend on the roundness of the ellipse. If the lips is very round, it means we're looking at the circle more head on, and the body of the cylinder will be going away from us more quickly. In this case, the lines will converge more steeply if the lips is more flat. This means we're seeing the circle more from the side, and the body of the cylinder is not going away from us as much. In this case, the lines will only converge slightly in the extreme case, if the lips is just a flatline, this mean we're seeing the cylinder from the side, and the body is not going away at all. In this case, the lines of the body will be perfectly parallel for the bottom lips. The major access will also be perpendicular to the axle, but because it's further from the eye level, it will be slightly more rounded than the first. And also the back half of this bottom ellipse won't be visible, so I'll draw being tidy lips. But I'll make sure to dark in the front half to indicate that that's the visible side. By drawing the cylinder this way, you avoid the most common beginning mistake, which is to make the bottom of the cylinder of flat line. Let's do another example of a cylinder above eye level again will indicate the orientation with the axle. We'll have the bottom end of the cylinder facing towards the viewer. Have the size converged together slightly and make the second he lifts slightly more rounded again. I only dark in the portion of the lips tops visible by the viewer. As you can see, Just by changing a few details, we can draw a cylinder in two different orientations in space. Next, a straw cylinder lying on its side. As you get more comfortable, you can try leaving out the major access and just draw the lips using the axle as your minor access. Of course, if it helps feel free to draw in the major access as a guy again, the sides will converge slightly towards the axle and close out the cylinder. Now let's try a diagonal cylinder, they asked the axle. Now it's very important to make this the lips perpendicular to the axle again. If it helps, you could draw in the measure access to guide you and the rest of the processes is safe, and to make the process even more streamline, you can try doing it without drawing in the axle. Just imagine the axle in your mind and have the side edges converge towards it. Also, some time, the two ellipses will overlap each other's. That's okay. Just use lying weight variation to help show which portion of 20 lips is in front and therefore visible to the viewer. As you can see the essential elements of a similar, it's just too ellipses connected by straight lines. The important thing to capture is just to make sure the lips that is further from the viewer is more rounded and the sides converge towards it. Now we can also try modifying these cylinders. Let's cut this one in half. Draw a cut line on the top plane continued that cut line down the sides and connect the two ends erased the extra portion, and there's our modified cylinders. And of course, we can also try drawing cone like cylinders where one end is a lot smaller than the other. Okay, practice drawing these cylinders on your own, place them in different orientations and even try modifying some of them. If you like. You can use the axle and major access to help guide you. And why don't you get more comfortable? Try drawing them Freehand. Have fun with this exercise and I'll see you in the next lesson. 16. Mouthwash Bottle Drawing: Now let's apply what we know about cylinders to draw some objects. We'll start with the simple mouthwash bottle. Start by establishing the horizon line. We won't be referencing it explicitly, but is a good idea to know roughly where the eye level should be. Next would draw in the cylinder shaped for the bottle cap here. Rather than being a strict cylinder, the bottom of the cat would be slightly bigger than the top. Now we draw a shorter cylinder beneath that, for the knack of the bottle, are trying to keep. The roundness of the Ellipse is similar to the ones on top, although as we get closer to the rise in line, the ellipses should gradually become thinner. Sometimes rather than drawing the four lips, I'll draw only part of it in order to keep things from getting too messy. But I'm so thinking about the lips shape as I'm drawing and the neck with taper and slightly. Now we can transition to the body of the bottle. Here is important to heat things symmetrical, so outdraw horizontal lines across to make sure things lined up properly, even though these straight lines give us the overall shape of the bottle. Things are looking a little flat, so to show the round it formed the body. We'll go back to these horizontal lines and curve them. When were above the horizon line. The lines will curve downward. As we get closer to the horizon line, it will become more and more flat. And once we're below the horizon line, the lines will curve upward. And being this far below the horizon line, the lines will curve up even more. Let me clean up the lines a bit, and lastly, let's draw on the label. Remember, the label sits on the body of the bottle, so it, too will have a curve to it, a round out the corners of the label. But that's just an aesthetic choice and that you have it simply by applying the simple rules of curves in perspective, we're able to draw a three dimensional bottle very easily. Now try this for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 17. Pencil Drawing: So far, we've been working with cylinders that are standing vertically in this lesson, will explore how to draw a pencil that has turned at an angle and for shorten. First we draw in the asshole line. This is how we want our cylinder to be oriented. Next, we'll draw in the ellipse to create the first end of the cylinder. We want this end to be turned towards the viewer, so we'll make this a lets more rounded. Now we're drawn the body of the cylinder. Since the end is turned away from the viewer, the body will be going away so the lines of the body will be converging together, then will close off the cylinder with another lips. Since this one is further away from the viewer, it will appear slightly rounder than the first. Okay, there saw cylinder. Now we'll draw in the tip of the pencil, extend the axle line forward and connected back to the cylinder to form the tip. Then we use another lips to mark off the lead portion and shaded in. Let me erase these extra lines. Lastly, would draw in this ban at the end of the pencil to separate the body from the eraser at the end here I'm using to ellipses to draw in this ban. But I'm only drawing the portion of the lips does visible a round out the eraser to show that has been used and worn down a bit and shaded in. And even though we haven't got into shading just yet, as the finishing touch, I'll use the side of my pencil and add in a soft core shadow along the body. This will help to give it a sense of three dimensionality. Okay, try this exercise for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 18. Metal Nut Drawing: in this lesson will be drawing in metal nut with a cylindrical hole through the center this exercise, or teach you how to combine boxy forms with cylinders to create more complex objects. Start by drawing the box that would enclose the metal nuts. We'll place the eye level below the object so the edges of the box were angled downward and , of course, would draw in the unseen edges of the box as well. Next we use the agonal is to find the center point of the front plane and do the same for the back plane. The center points will become useful later. Now we need to turn the front plane of this box into a hexagon shaped start by dividing the front plane in half, which should give us thes two points. Then we'll put in the vertical center line and use that to divide up the top Ege find the corresponding points on the bottom edge, and now we just need to connect these points to form the hexagon. Next, we just need to draw this same hexagon on the back plane. To do that, simply draw these deadlines and mark where they intersect with the back plane. Remember, we want the anger of these deadlines to be similar to the corner depth lines that we've already drawn. Now I just connect the dots on the back plane. Only connect the portions that are visible so things don't get too messy, so there's are not shape Now we just need to put a hole through it to do this. Imagine that you're drawing a cylinder through the center of there's not first draw in the axle to indicate the direction the front plane is facing. The anger of this axle will be similar to the angles of the depth lines, so you can use them as a guide. Now draw in the major access of the Ellipse. Put should be perpendicular to the axle and then draw on the lips to give this horse under . Mention will have the draw in the other end as well. Draw in the depth lines of the cylinder. This ensures that the two relapses will be similar in size. Now draw in the major accidents of the second lips again, this line should be perpendicular to the axle, and it should go through the center point of the back plane that we found earlier Now draw in the second a lips. You want to make this one slightly more rounded than the first? Only a small portion of the second a lift will be visible. So we'll just dark in that part in Finally will shade in the different planes and clean up lines to make everything read better. Okay, try this exercise for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 19. Pencil Sharpener Drawing: in this video will be drawing a pencil sharpener. Begin by drawing the box that would enclosed the object. We'll place the eye level high above, and we'll be looking down on this box. Draw in the unseen edges of the box would draw this sharpener to be slightly wedge shaped, so it will cut out a triangular wedge from the box. Put in the cut line on the back plane and connect the corners, and he raised the extra portions. Next we'll draw a rectangle in the center of this box. This will be where we put the blade of the sharpener. Now draw in an arc at the top of this rectangle like So next we'll add some thickness of this portion. This bottom corner will be curved as well, but only a portion of the ark would be visible. We will continue this edge across like so next. We'll draw in the blade. I'll shade in the plane so you can see it better. Now let's draw in a screw that will sit in the middle of the blade. We'll start by drawing the axle. Remember the surfaces sloping downwards slightly so the axle will be at a slight angle. Use the actual the draw in the bottom lips. This is where the screw will be sitting, then extended upward to create a cylinder and to really make it look like a screw will draw in the slot for the Flathead screwdriver. Just so we're clear, let me draw a bigger version of this group. I'm starting with justice cylinder. Put in the cut lines on the top plane, extend them down the side and draw the inner corners of the slot. Notice that these two small curves are just part of another lips. Now let's put in these handle grooves on the side, and we'll draw these lines across to make sure the groove is on the same place on the other side. Lastly, will draw in the hole for the pencil fast the axle again when drawing the axle, is helpful to look at thes depth lines at the corners. The major access will be perpendicular to the axle, lastly, will shade in the hole to make it re better, and that you have it. Okay, try this for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 20. Sphere Basics: Now that you know how to work with boxes and cylinders, let's move on to the last of the three basic forms. The sphere a sphere is the three D circle. So here we have a flat circle, and in order to give it some dimension, we'll add in, Ah, horizontally, quite line, which is just a circle that wraps around the sphere. To draw this, we first mark the center of the circle. This would ensure that the equated will wrap around the very center of the sphere. Next we draw a horizontal line from the major access, then draw on the lips. Only the front half of this equated will be visible so well, dark in that part, and once finished, we can erase the major axis. Notice how, by emphasizing the bottom half of the lips, it looks as if the spheres tilted downward. Let's draw this again after Circle and the ellipse. This time we're emphasized the top half of the lips. Notice how this makes it seem like the spheres tilted upward. This is a great way to control the perspective of your spheres. We can also change the rounds the lips toe out of the perspective here by making the Ellipse arounder, it appears as if the spheres tilt it down a lot, and if we were to make the lips much flatter, the sphere seems to be more level. Now let's go back to the first fear and add in a vertical equator line again. We'll go to the center of the circle and draw a vertical major access through it and use that to draw the second he lips. Remember, only half of this eclipse will be visible so dark in one side and lighten the other. And once finished, we can erase the major axis. Now we have even more information about this fear. The horizontal recorder is telling us that the spheres tilted downward and the vertical equator is telling us it is turned towards the left. We can do the same for the second sphere, but if we instead dark in the right half of the lips, the sphere appears to be turned towards the right, and we can also play around with the roundness of the vertical lips toe Oto. The perspective make the vertical well. It's more rounded, and it looks like the sphere has really turned make the vertical religious more narrow, and this fear is only turned slightly. By combining the vertical and horizontal quatorze, we can draw spheres from all kinds of different angles. Go ahead and practice drawing these fears from different angles until you're comfortable with the process, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 21. Sphere Modification: Now let's explore how we can modify a sphere to create a variety of shapes. The 1st 1 is simple. Just draw in equator, line onto a circle, then erase the top portion. And just like that, we have bullshit. Or you can erase the bottom portion instead. And now the bullets upside down. Next, let's say we have the same sphere and add to it a vertical equator line. From here, we have a lot of options. We can create different modifications by emphasizing different lines. If we connect these two points where the ellipses intersects and erase this portion of the circle and then erase these extra lines, we can remove the top left corner. Or we can remove the top right corner. Why you racing in this part of the circle and these lines of the ellipses? Or we can remove the bottom left corner by erasing these lines. We can even remove everything except the bottom right corner by connecting these two points , then erasing most of the circle and finally erasing these extra lines. Here we have a sphere with a vertical equator line and a major access, and simply by shading both sides of the lips. We can make it look like this. A slice taken out of the sphere. Okay, So far, all the cuts we put in have been through the center of the sphere, but it doesn't have to be. We can put this Molly lips near the edge to slice off the top portion of this fear, not just erase the extra portion and ask him tone to show the flat surface of this new area . Here we have the exact same form, but we'll add a vertical lips to cut it right down the middle, connect these two corners and erase the access lines. As you can see, the two cuts interact with each other is to create a unique shape to create even more variety. We can even use over shapes. We can use any lips to slice it horizontally, or we can slice it vertically for this horizontal oval. I'll place the ellipse vertically for this diagonal oval out, tilt the lips to keep it perpendicular to the long axis of the oval. And lastly, for this egg shaped, I'll place a cut at the top and one at the bottom. He raised the extra lines at this point, it looks like we're seeing the top and bottom surface at the same time. So we'll have to decide. Are we looking up at this form or down at it? Let's say we're looking down at it. In this case will erase the back portion of this body, my lips, and that's how shape. Okay, copy of the exercises in this video and then play around with your own modifications. Try different combinations of cutting into the spheres and draw them a different angles. See what cool shapes you can create by playing around with the spheres. In this way, you're develop a sense for how to create three dimensional forms. Okay, how fun, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 22. Wine Glass Drawing: okay, and this lesson will start with a very simple drawing of a wine glass. Begin by drawing an oval for the body of the wine glass. I'll draw in a vertical line down the center to help keep things symmetrical. Then we're using the lips to slice off the top to create the opening. Now we're adding a thin long cylinder at the bottom for the leg and finally would draw in the base, which would just be a really thin cylinder since the basis further below eye level. Are we sure to make it a bit rounder than the lips at the opening? Have some thickness to it and they're so one glass. Now let's add some liquid to this glass again. We're using the lips to indicate the liquid. Remember to make the roundness of this lip somewhere between the top and bottom one roughly map in some highlights in the liquid. We'll keep these areas lighter when we begin shading, and now just shade them in. - Okay , we're all done. Go ahead and try this for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 23. Lemon Drawing: in this lesson, we use our knowledge of spheres to draw lemons at various forms. Let's begin by drawing the half lemon on the right. Start with a circle, mark the center of the circle and draw a major access line through it. The angle of this lying would depend on how you want to cut the sphere. I want to cut to be mostly horizontal with a slight tilt. So that's how I draw the major access. Now use the major access to draw in your lips, erased the excess portion, and we have 1/2 sphere now. We'll just as in details and make those half sphere look like a lemon. Draw a smaller lips at the center of the lemon. Next, draw a bigger lips near the inner edge to represent the skin of the lemon. Divide this ellipse into six or seven segments. This will be the inside pope of the lemon. Now we'll come in and separate the individual segments by rounding out the corners. Try to vary up the size and shape of the segments to give the lemon organic look. He raised the elliptical construction lines between the segments and then we'll go over the lines and add in some bumps and courage again. This gives the lemon a more organic look. - Lastly , we'll use radiating lines too. Lightly shade in the inside segments to differentiate them from the skin. Okay, next, let's draw in the lemon slice. Once again, begin with a circle. Remember to make this circle the same size as the 1st 1 This would ensure that the slice will look like it was cut from the same size lemon. Find the center of the circle and draw in the major access. Then use the major access to draw the lips and erase the excess. So far, we just use the exact same processes last time to create 1/2 sphere. But now we'll put another slice into this form by drawing a major access going this way and use it to draw a second lips. Find the point where the two ellipses into sect and connect them now dark in the relevant portions of the lips is, and we have a slice drawn with proper perspective from imagination. Now would just go through the same process. Add in the details, draw 1/2 a lift on the inside edge to represent the skin, mark the center of the slice and divide up the segments. Now separate the segments by rounding out corners and lightly shaded in the segments. Finally, we'll add in a whole lemon behind these two slices. I'll place the circle between the 1st 2 lemons and make sure that it overlapped them slightly by overlapping shapes. Were able to create a nice sense of depth in the drawing would draw on the lips to represent the base of this protrusion on the end of the lemon and extend it outward. It may help to think of this protruding form as an irregular shaped cylinder and lastly would draw in the leaf sticking out from behind the lemons. And that's it. We're all done. Okay, try this for yourself and I'll see you in the next lesson. 24. Trash Bin Drawing: in this lesson will construct a trash bin using the sphere and cylinder. Start by drawing a circle for the top dome with the been use and ellipse to create an equator line. How emphasized the bottom part of this ellipse to show that we're looking down on the sphere? Next, draw in the cylindrical form of the body. Since the bottom of the cylinder is further below eye level, be sure to make this bottom lips slightly more rounder than the top one. I'll match the curve of this ellipse to create a band around the bit. Now let's draw in the opening. We have to ensure that the lines of this opening wrapped properly around the dome shape. So as I'm drawing these lines, I'm imagining the ellipsis that they're a part of. Then we'll add a thickness to this opening and shaded in. Next. Let's put in a hole on the side for the handle again. We want to think about the elliptical path of these lines as they wrap around the cylinder . These will be the surface outline of the handle now will cut into the body. Thes lines won't actually be visible, but will draw them anyway to help us understand the perspective. Better draw a second curve that matches the first going from corner to corner. Let me dark and Onley the lines that will be visible and shaded it and I would erase the lines that we don't need. Next must put in the foot pedal at the bottom of trash bin. On most bins, the PETA will be positioned right under the opening, so to help place it properly, I'll draw a line running from the center of the opening down to the bottom. The cylinder. The pedal will be placed along this line again. When drawing the lines. Be sure, think about the curve of the cylinder. Notice that the portion to the left of the line is closer to the viewer and therefore appear bigger than the right. Then draw a box shape that extend out for the foot pedal. Now you can leave. The pedal is a box shape if you like, but I'll draw in an art at the end to round it out. Do the same for the bottom portion and let me erase the actual lines. How at this line to show the recess of the pedal area and shade things in to help it read better. Lastly, we'll add a base to the bottom of the bid. To do this, simply go to the ellipse at the bottom and draw a larger lips along the edge. The second a lip should be the same. Roundness is the first accept will be slightly bigger. By doing this, we essentially extending the base of the cylinder outward. Then extend this ellipse down to form a short senator. Now, let me just clean up the lines and we're all done. Okay, go ahead and try this for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 25. Loomis Head Drawing: in this last one will be drawing a simplified head using the Loomis method. The Loomis method is a complex subject, and I covered it more in depth in my portrait drawing fundamentals course. But I want to touch on it here because it's such a great example of how to combine spheres , boxes and cylinders to create complex forms. So to begin, will draw a sphere for the cranial mass. Put in a horizontally quater line and our dark in this bottom portion of the lips to show that we're looking down on the sphere, this car will represent the brow line of the head. Now we'll slice off the side of this fear with a vertical ellipse, and I'll draw in this line to show the flatness of this new area. Next, I'll draw a small, horizontally lips near the top. But rather than slicing off a portion of sphere, this car of will represent the hairline of the head. Now we're going to add a boxy wedge form for the job. This box would join with and cover up the lower portion of the spear. We can draw in a small overall for the year. Next would draw a cylinder shape for the neck. Of course, we'll curve the senator's slightly to match the organic curve of the neck. We'll close out the cylinder using the lips, except will tilt the ellipse to reflect the fact that the neck attaches to the torso at an angle. At this point, it's a good idea to look over your drawing and make any adjustment to the proportions you think is appropriate. We can stop here and have a decent looking head. But what had a few more details to make it a little bit more realistic? Draw in the indentation for the eye area. - Next , put in the keystone shape that separate the two eyes and lastly, draw in the nose, which is just a slightly modified box form. Let me add in some shading to help it read better, and that's it. Well done. Go ahead and try this for yourself. But remember, head drawing is a more advanced subject, so don't worry. If you find it a bit challenging, we'll have plenty of time to cover this more deeply in the future. For now, I just do the best you can and appreciate how the three basic forms come together to form this more complex subject 26. Tea Pot Drawing: in this lesson will be drawing a spherical teapot. I'll start by drawing a circle, except I'll make this circle a little extra wide, mark the center of the circle and draw a vertical line through it. As we add more details to the teapot, this line will help us to keep things symmetrical. Next we using the lips to slice off the bottom portion of this teapot, use the center line to make sure everything is symmetrical and add in a short, cylindrical stand. Then we do the exact same thing to the top. Draw the lips and extend it up to create a short cylinder. Now we'll create an opening in the center by drawing a smaller lips on the top plane. Next would draw in the lid of the teapot. The lead is sitting within this cavity, and only the dome shaped top is poking out. Use the center line to make sure everything is symmetrical, then would hash the hand of the lid, draw a small ellipse to represent the attachment point, draw a circle for the body of the handle and connect the two shapes. Since the body of the teapot is already round, we'll turn this handle into more of an egg shape. In order to balance out the forms, Max would draw in the handle and spout notice that we can't just put the handle. It's about anywhere we want on any given teapot. Thes two parts are always positioned opposite of each other's. So, in order to help us align them properly, will draw on equator line onto the body of the teapot again. This equator is really just in the lips, and we can use this ellipse to determine the perspective of the teapot. If you want the teapot to be seen more from the side, make this ellipse arounder. If you want the teapot to be seen more from the front or back, make this ellipse flatter. In this case, I want to draw the teapot in the 3/4 view, so I'll keep the roundness of the lips somewhere in between. Now we'll make sure to place the hand and spout along this equator line. Draw an angle the lips for the attachment of the spout, then draw in the body of the spout. Use another lips for the tip, then draw in a smaller lips inside. The 1st 1 to form the opening now for the handle well, roughly map in the attachment point. For the top part, the handle will curve down. To meet the bottom attachment point again. Notice that both attachment points lies alone. The Equator line we drew earlier now draw the rest of the handled by connecting the top and bottom corners with each other's. This could get a bit confusing, so reviewed the video closely. - Now add some subtle soft edges to the drawing to give it some dimension. And that's it. Well done. I hope you enjoy this part of the drawing. Fundamentals made simple Siri's. We've learned a lot about the fundamentals of perspective and how to draw the basic forms to create an assortment of objects all from your imagination. Of course, there's a lot more to perspective and drawing from imagination than what we were able to cover here. But by reviewing the lessons and practicing the exercises, you'll gain a great foundation for the constructive Dr Skills. You need to be a successful artist, so have fun practicing and I'll see you next time