Drawing Animals: From Anatomy to Rendering | Geoffrey Jacobs | Skillshare

Drawing Animals: From Anatomy to Rendering

Geoffrey Jacobs, Drawing Expert

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45 Lessons (8h 13m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. General Drawing Fundamentals

    • 3. Observation Skills - Exercise 1

    • 4. Observation Skills - Exercise 2

    • 5. Observation Skills - Exercise 3

    • 6. Observation Skills - Exercise 4

    • 7. Understanding 3D Objects - Part 1

    • 8. Understanding 3D Objects - Part 2

    • 9. General Animal Anatomy & Proportions

    • 10. Big Cat - Head - Front View

    • 11. Small Cat - Head - Front View

    • 12. Big Cat & Small Cat - Head - Profile View

    • 13. Big Cat - Head - Three Quarter View

    • 14. Small Cat - Head - Three Quarter View

    • 15. Big Cat - Body - Side View

    • 16. Small Cat - Body - Sitting Position

    • 17. Horse - Head - Profile View

    • 18. Horse - Head - Front View

    • 19. Horse - Head - Three Quarter View

    • 20. Horse - Body - Side View

    • 21. Horse - Body - 3D Angle

    • 22. Wolf - Head - Front View

    • 23. Wolf - Head - Side View

    • 24. Wolf - Head - Three Quarter View

    • 25. Wolf - Body - Side View

    • 26. Cow - Head - Profile View

    • 27. Cow - Head - Front View

    • 28. Cow - Body - Side View

    • 29. Bird Wing Anatomy

    • 30. Eagle - Head - Profile View

    • 31. Eagle - Head - Front View

    • 32. Eagle - Head - Three Quarter View

    • 33. Eagle - Body - Flying

    • 34. Eagle - Body - Perched

    • 35. Duck - Head - Profile

    • 36. Duck - Head - Front

    • 37. Rendering - Lighting - Part 1

    • 38. Rendering - Lighting - Part 2

    • 39. Rendering - Lighting - Part 3

    • 40. Rendering - Eyes

    • 41. Rendering - Fur - Part 1

    • 42. Rendering - Fur - Part 2

    • 43. FREE BONUS CONTENT - Rendering - Small cat's facial patterns

    • 44. FREE BONUS CONTENT - Rendering - Tiger's facial patterns

    • 45. Conclusion

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About This Class


This course teaches you the essentials of drawing animals. There are over 7 hours of high definition, high quality content covering drawing skills, animal anatomy, and rendering.

In Part 1 you'll learn valuable exercises to:

- Develop your observation skills and

- Improve your ability to draw 3D objects.

These skills will set you in good stead for mastering the rest of the course.

In Part 2 we go through general animal anatomy. You will learn about the anatomical features common to most animals, making it easier for you to learn how to draw any animal. I discuss the different parts of an animal's body, it's skeleton and muscles, and how size affects animal anatomy.

Then there is the main body of the course. Here you will learn how draw individual species. In easy, step-by-step tutorials you will be guided through steps to drawing animals' heads and bodies from a variety of views. These tutorials are where you will apply the knowledge you have learned in parts 1 & 2.

Species you will learn to draw include:
- horses
- eagles
- big cats (like lions, tigers and leopards)
- small cats (like your friendly house cat)
- wolves
- and more...

Finally you will finish the course learning how to render your animal drawings. Here you will learn the basics of drawing light and shadow. You will also learn how to render animals' eyes, fur and feathers.


1. Introduction: Hi. My name is Jeffrey Jacobs, and I'm going to teach you how to draw animals. Now, if you want proof that I'm the right person to be teaching you how to do that, he is an example of my work. Okay, here's what we're going to learn in the course. Thirsty. We're going to cover general drawing techniques and skills. Then we're gonna look at animal anatomy by general, that applies to all animals and specific that applies to each particular species were going toe. Look out. And then, finally, we're going to cover rendering techniques. And the rendering techniques will teach you about liking and how to add for feathers, Teoh animals to make them look as realistic as possible. So without further ado, let's get started. 2. General Drawing Fundamentals: The first thing you need to know before drawing any animals is that drawing really comes down to two major skills. The first skill is the ability to rotate three day object in your imagination. And the second ability is observation skills. Never honored some degree of observation skills. You want to develop these quite well so that you're gonna become better at drawing. I'm just going to quickly explain to you what these two things are. Um, they will definitely be useful as we go through different lessons because the skills that I'm gonna talk about now gonna be covered to some degree in every drawing that we do now. Observation skills, uh, critical. When you're copying from life for a photograph or something like that, rotating three D objects in your head are absolutely critical. The drawing animals out of your imagination. And when you have the two skills together really, really powerful. So we're just gonna look a rotating three day object in your head. Now it's giving an example when you're drawing, but sigh the big cat's head if I can simplify that down, too. Some of the most basic shapes that it's made from or simple flying into geometric shapes. I can start to get on the ability to actually rotate yet the animal's head in my imagination. So I'm just approximating a couple of geometric shapes, which really doesn't look like a big cat's head at this point and tell him, um, but I'm just kind of sketching them in so I can get an idea from how the animals head's gonna look from a certain angle. And so here, for example, of drone cylinder coming out the front off a sphere, and within that I can construct a big cat's head. Looks a little bit like a pig, my man, I know not. I can construct the head of the Tirol line from something like that. I can also constructed from other geometric shapes. But, um, because of that, I can then also draw. I mean, that's a pretty easy shape to write eight in your head so you could just is easily drew in your spear like this and have that cylinder pointing out at a different angle. And using the same construction techniques, you'll be able to draw the animal's head from a different point of view. So just give me an example here. We think that cylinder I'm gonna draw the snap and you can say this now is not a cylindrical shape, but the cylinder still gives me a pretty days, an idea for where I want to draw us now and what angle I want to draw. And the sphere I can see the centerline. There's pretty close to the edge. It gives me an idea of where the center line for the to be cat's head will be now keeping in mind here that I'm drawing these completely from my own imagination is now photos and I'm using here. I'm just using the knowledge that I have about eight animals and you build it to rotate three d object in my head. You say that sear. I drove us a little bit too big. That's something you just learned from practice and play all site where I put the easy and where the shape in which I put them. What I'm doing there is thinking off this two day drawing as a three D object thinking Well , he's gonna be coming out the other side of the head there. Where is it actually gonna come out of the hit. You know, maybe it's actually gonna come out a little bit further forward than I've drawn it here. We know if it nick well actually attached at the back. If the head there, I can accept Jewell on there except the lip. I've never actually drooling Big Cat's head from my imagination from quite this angles that you can say that, Um, the technique is quite powerful, allows you to do something quite realistic. And then once you practice this a few times, you'll be able to do it a lot a lot better than you could the first time. You know, I got a general idea with check find guys, and we'll learn more about on the anatomy of B. Katz later on sale yelled, feeling similar day tiles to that myself. And so that cylinder and in sphere Chidori. He'll add me to draw the cat's head from that angle, and similarly, I can use the cylinder in the sphere that drawn from this angle to draw Big Cat's head from that angle. And the way that the spirit of cylinder have been drawn in on this picture means that we'll look in it to be kept here from thought and the knife. And again. I haven't actually drone Big Cat's head from exactly this angle before, but I'm not using any photo reference or anything. And it's purely combination of the knowledge that I already have and using the construction techniques to do with rotating three D objects in my head and what we have here. Some of the world's greatest drawing of the A big cat. But it looks the pot now. As I said before, you know, you practice that, doing it from that angle many times, and you get a whole lot better at it. Okay, so that's that's what we're talking about when we talk about right heading three d object in your head. And so that's a really important skill to have the other important skill to have our observation skills on my site. It's called observation skills plural, but you can look at it is a singular skill on what I've got here. He is a fighter realistic drawing of a cat small cats head because I did not fight, have a viable, but it's quite useful also for illustrating the point off observation skills. If you were to draw a cat's head from your imagination and you just did something like this . It doesn't actually look like a rail cat might be cute as a cartoon or something like that , but it's not. Convincing is a real animal, Andi. That's because it's not based on rial observation. If you're actually going to observe Cat's face in real life for fight or something, you want to use the observation skills to really get things more accurate. So, for example, if you look at the shape of the eyes here, that arm and kind of shape, it's not what, what what's been drawing here. This around circle here, Um, even the cats and nose is not is a triangle shape, but it's not a perfect triangle like that. The years are not perfect triangles, I thought the face is not a perfect circle. And the shape here, Well, I just got that similar double. I'm curve. The actual line of the curve is different. So when using your observation skills, you really you want to look accurately. It's something so far I'm actually gonna try and copy this cat's face more realistically. I might start by, try to get some of those curves. The sign Notice how? Look at this law and he and I actually really trying Kobe that exact shape here and again with the next one. And when you're practicing this kind of drooling with observation skills, you should actually be looking at the source about 2/3 of determine when you're drawing only about 1/5 of the time. And you you may. You may notice little mistakes as you go, such as the tip of the nice here to the live I've actually done to. I've drawn them larger here than they are over here. So you know, it's constant feedback loop where you tryingto fix it up. This you got, you know, trying really copy those lines as accurately as possible. So I can say, after the top of the nose here the line Wade's up from the noise and makes up with the top of the whisker pad about there, and before that up there's a curved line. She comes around similar 12 movie on this side of the face, trying to copy it allows law into that accurately as possible, so I might look at the inside. I hear somewhat lines up with about that part of the whisker pads. There's That's where I draw the inside of the eye. What's that kind of one with following on from this line? Here, in the outside of your eye comes just that. So I'd be on the whisker pads, then noticed. I'm not doing a round shape. You the I'm really trying to copy out as accurately as possible. Same angles, curving all the same spots, my quality. And there's the black skin around the are, which is not even included. It'll in this drawing and then you can draw on the on the other side. Just a bit of a line around the edge of face here for his own. From the whisk, a pad markings on the insulated. They are there. No, inside. You know, I should being in line with here some drawn the ire to to fire up just little tricks like that. Trying aligned stuff up in the right place. Give everything the right relationship to everything else. Yeah, this drawing I'm doing at the moment a little bit rushed. I don't should get the idea that what I'm talking about. What I'm talking about. Observation skills what the difference between destroying isn't that drawing. And we're coming more on how to draw cats later on. The point that I'm trying to illustrate he really is, Ah, the importance of observation skills and rotating three D object in your head and if you really focus on these core skills and you'll get a lot better at drawing and drawing animals. 3. Observation Skills - Exercise 1: Now we're gonna practice a few exercises which you can use to improve your observation skills. And I'm going to start off with one called negative spice Drawing. And the basic idea of a negative space drawing is simply too drool. The sewall wit of what? What it is that you're trying to droll and you'll find that you start to notice stuff which you might never have seen before. So I'm gonna give you an example on the left. Here we have a picture of a bird called IBIs and I'm just going Teoh basically stopped. Boy drawing a quick, negative law. Android. I'm looking a Do it slowly and try and get it to accurate. I just want to demonstrate the concept, Teoh. So you can see that I'm just fooling the lines outside Here, Up in, around. I'm really trying, Teoh, get that out on. Quite similar because I am rushing it a bit. You may find the proportions I do. Don't look quite right. But when you do this exercise, I want you actually do it quite slowly and concentrate on trying to get it as accurate as possible, because that's really going to help develop you'll observation skills. - Well , im doing this. It's worth your while to actually take a look every here and take a look back At what? On drawing? Because you nine itis some areas where I haven't quite done the right thing. But you will also notice how I'm picking up little details which you might not have noticed . Otherwise, I'm not trying to draw. What I think of is a title not even thinking about this being and tell him just trying get that shape as accurate as possible. The leg here definitely thought too short, but that's okay, - actually , uh, coming off the top of the camera. Yes. I'm just gonna needs to picture down a little bit. The reason this is called a negative spice drawing is because I mean, I've told you I'm drawing the Sylhet, but it's almost like you're trying to draw the space around the bird rather than the bird itself. You can say that what I've drawing here is it's not the world's most accurate drawing. But like I said, it's about the concept I'm trying to demonstrate, and and I want you to spend longer doing this, really trying to get it right, and you can do this with doesn't have to be his picture of the obvious complete picture of anything. Really. Thing is, the flicked is about had a troll animals with your wall practicing on the silhouettes of animals, and I'm just shading. We're drawing in some lines. Toe emphasised the negative space. The negative space is all that area around the bird. That's what's called a negative space drawing. Don't worry if you don't get this right the first time you do it. I just need to keep practicing and you'll get that but very powerful exercise. If you do it over and over again, you will definitely improve your observation skills. 4. Observation Skills - Exercise 2: another great way to train your observation skills is to do a grid drawing and what you've got here. We've got that same photo of an IBIs on the left here, but this time there's a grid that's been drawn over the top, and I've got another greed on the right hand side here. The basic idea here is that I can use the grid for reference points for copying this image on the left. So I had to give you an example. I may start off by simply drawing what I say within this block here and right near the corner. There you can see, but the bed's play Midge, and then, ah, the water and the structure behind it. Someone like that and you can actually go through each grid and draught. And without really looking at the overall picture, you just draw what's in that particular block. That's one way of doing it. Another way of doing it is you could actually trying to draw the overall animal, but using the lines reference points. So, for example, the top of the wing here, almost guys, exactly through this point where these two black lines converging, So you could actually use that as a reference point and then put some construction lines and rough in. Where else do you think that the bird's body is gonna guys? That's another way of doing it. I'm a the way. Whichever way you choose to do it, it's gonna improve your observation skills. But certainly the easier way to start is just to drill one block at a time. So I can say here a lot of these points. This here is almost half while on that line that point dance a little bit to the left. So a little bit to the left, a halfway in this block is over there. You can say that the blocks that I'm drawing in here and not the same size as the blocks on the left, Then I need. Today I've done them all the same shape. And there are all the boxes air in the same proportion relative to one another. You doing a that? But I could make these squares, you know, half that size if I wanted to and still use this technique to get a relatively accurate drawing. So we'll just finish drawing this block first before I move on to another one. So that point there is about here, orbit of feathers near the top of a bit of shadow, being cast right near the line. Something like that. Because I printed out this picture quite lot. It's difficult to say the white feathers against the white background. So I dont know exactly where the line in this square is here. I'm gonna guess sites about there and just before the back. Rachel, this line here you can say the neck curves backwards. So drawing out like Sai the top of the head is not far below the top line. There. You got a nice kind of its shape going on there. Notice he how you can actually see past the front of the bird's neck over there also. So I want to sketch that into you can see the either. Okay, we've got the flowerbed behind it. Done angle something like that. Most of the neck and head of quite dark. So just gonna sketch in some shading. I'm onion. Doing this roughly really want to demonstrate the concept, Teoh, is that you can use this to improve your observation skills more than concentrating on making this a piece of that in. Really? When you're doing these exercises, you should You should also be trying to have a bit of fun with them in that kind of thing. You shouldn't be too concerned with whether or not comes out looking like a paste it out because these are these air exercises. They aren't actually proper artworks in them in off themselves. Now you can see in this block here in the upper right hand corner, you can say that front of the head putting out and this isn't really to do with the technique and the blocks we using here. But I can't see the point where the big start is just below where the eye's so gonna do that same thing here. And you say the big curves away down to near the center a little bit to the side moved out 32 3rd of the way across. Well, 2/3 away across this lines, where I'm drawing the bottom of the baked too top of the big not far off. And I think, uh, that's actually a great illustration of how this exercise work to Maine. If you were going to draw that big without the use of those blocks. I don't know about you, but I probably would not have done the big quite that long. But when you thought the blocks there to really you've got this grid here to really used to compare and judge. Way to put your lawns. You can do some of it a lot more accurately. Really. Kind of forces you to look at What? You what you drawing with a bit more clarity. Okay, so I'm gonna do the block here, get shutting quickly, not going to spend too much time rendering the rest Like I did with the head here. I'm just gonna finish off the drawing so you can see just how this technique can be used. Drawing until I animal. Now you're saying this bottom left hand corner, great block. It really isn't a whole lot of the bed in there. Just a little bit. The straight line here goes through both blocks. Pretty much Donald up. Welcome. What? Actually, just put in the The shadow also shadows a little bit further. That forward in that tail feather will be done in a bit too far forward. But you get the idea this bloke. He has quite a bit more data Minute. You've got the fate there. Notice how both fake fit well and truly within the confines of is the gridlocks. Their side that's going to stop you from making those toes too large can be quite easy to look at those tires and see how long in team they are have a tendency to exaggerate them if anything. Okay, Now I've got the feathers, the top of the leg coming down. Like so. But drawing them in, um, and using the lawns reference points once the feathers. And then I can use them as reference points for where to draw the rest of the leg. I wasn't quite sure where toe drill, that joint that the grid lines of Help me figure that out. You will get some parts of the grid way. You might not actually get any of your animals showing up like these two grids on the bottom. Right? Grid doesn't have any of the live person at all. Okay, I want to follow this line through here. You can say I made some mistakes because this lawn, the water is definitely not that close to this time. look at the difference there. I've drawn the fate too big. I think that's what the problem is. There you can say that I've used agreed with non blocks. You can use one with more blocks that can actually help if the more blocks you have, the more reference points he helps you can when I same or we're talking about lots of smaller blocks so you could divide each one of these blocks up into no on small ones or four smaller ones or however many you want. Really, Uh, there's no hard and fast rules about that. As long as you have some grid structure in there, you know it'll serve to, uh, help you and really is a great exercise for improving your observation skills. It doesn't matter what level you're up. As with any exercise that it's something you have to do over and over again. Doing it once isn't going Teoh. I have a massive impact by itself. You could say I've done this lawn completely wrong. It's much lower down and almost parallel with this black line here, which is a big mistake I made. I've done it much more of an angle so if I actually fix that out, you should say where this lawn makes. The bake is now much more accurate than it was before. I'm just gonna run about the old one. And I'm not gonna bother drawing in those plants in the background now because I think you get the idea with the concept of how to use Ah, grid Teoh toe, carry out this exercise called great drawing. So give that a guy, um, do a whole bunch of them because really gonna help you in that area. 5. Observation Skills - Exercise 3: got another exercise now to improve your observation skills, and this one is simply a matter of tuning the image upside down. Now you might be thinking, Why? Why would that help it'll? And as you watch me do this, you're probably not going. Teoh be able to see any difference, but when you try it yourself, you will find a significant difference between copying, drawing that's the right way up in copying and drawing or copying a photo, in this case, copying a photo that is upside down. The rays of what's different is because when you're looking at a picture the right way up, your brain automatically defines a lot of what you're you're saying. So you might look at the birds eye and say, Well, I'm looking at an eye, and then your brain makes another association says, and eyes this shape and so on and so forth. And bakers this shape in because this size and what you Brian ends up doing is it actually interferes with your ability to just look at the shape and deceive it accurately, because you're bringing all your preconceived notions to the table, and when you turn the image upside down and try and copy it that way. What happened is your brain doesn't recognize those images, is readily and suddenly you stop Teoh when you start trying to draw the image, um, your brain really just has the the picture itself in front of it, too. Toe work with doesn't actually has a lot more difficulty relying on its little library of preconceived notions to fall back home. So you have to give this, uh, this exercise ago if you've never done before, I think you'll be quite amazed with what you can come up with. Um, there will be some parts which inaccurate. You know, if you're drawing a person's face, for example, you may accidentally draw the eyes of a different heart, which is something you would in a mistake. You would not typically make it. You're drawing the face the right way out. But the benefits you get from doing this exercise will outweigh any minor mistakes. You may make like that. So I'm actually going to just sketch the rest of this bird and we'll see how it turns out when I turn it the right way back up and originally wasn't going toe do a video. This one, I thought, Well, I could just tell you about the exercise, and you can try it out yourself. But I thought if you actually try drawing it, you, firstly, the drawing upside down, then we turn it the right way up. We might actually get a bit of a surprise and see what happens then. So just going to give that a go and stay out. Turns out now, just notice. I was talking about how you, uh how you really drawing the shapes by drawing the picture upside down, you know, will I win your preconceived notions of how any body parts of this bird should look and you actually take a look it the lines on drawing. What I'm trying to do is I'm tryingto, for example, see this line here trying to see how long that line is, what angle that line is to draw that line up. I want to see what angle I need to draw that line. And I want to say its relation in relation. I want to say its relation to the other ones that I've drawn. Sigh You can imagine if I don't get the length of the line, right? I still want to know that that line is gonna be shorter than this line here that I'm drawing at the moment. That kind of stuff. I may also want to know that. And this point here, for example, I might wanna observe that that is further to the left, then this point here and that kind of scene. So I'm just gonna draw the inside of the leg here like today, and I'm I'm kind of in a writing wall doing this better when you're doing. If you don't actually think to yourself, I'm drawing the inside of the leg. You don't want to be thinking of it as the leg. You just want a baby looking at the shape and thinking Well, I'm drawing a long that has a curve here and there. Curved point there, a little bit more than 90 degrees, and that I got beat up. Bumpy showed coming out of it like that in another shape popping out here, which again has angles slightly loud, larger than 90 degrees and rounded, rounded off edges, rounded off corners, if you will, and just come around, Dad. And just remember when you are copying something this can apply from life or from a fighter or whatever. You actually want to spend more time looking at the source, then looking what you drawing? You spend about 2/3 of your time looking at the source here, which in this case, is a fighter, and you'll be amazed what a big difference I can actually make. If you spend too much time looking at the piper way you drawing, you can lose sight a little bit of the bigger picture, if you will. So I can see here when I'm drawing here and doesn't seem too vain. Quite right. There's actually another every day like that. But this point here, Right? So I should have actually drawn up over here where this point is here, Roughly in line with that point, you probably haven't got the proportions completely rod or anything like that. But feeling pretty good about how this drawings gun, Sipho, you can try this exercise once, and you may get a shock from how well it works. But if you tried repeatedly, that's when you're really gonna get stopped to get great results from it. Drawings all about practice. It's like learning to ride a bike will play tennis or something. You can probably take courses on them which will drastically improve your skills. But unless you actually practiced the skills you learn, it's not gonna help it. Also, it's very important that you practice all of the the skills that we're talking about here. All right, so I haven't completely finished that off, but I think we've done enough. I'm actually gonna turn it upside down now and see how it turned out. The guy, I think that turned out really well, actually. So give that a go. Like I say, that is a really powerful exercise for improving your observation skills. 6. Observation Skills - Exercise 4: we've got one last exercise here, which you can use to improve your observation skills. And this one's called single line drawing. And the idea behind this is that you have to draw the entire drawing without taking you pencil off the page. And you may be thinking, Well, why is this or how does this improve your observation skills? And to be partly honest with you, I'm not 100 sensual how it works, But I can guarantee you it does. I know from personal experience. When I first landed out this top of drawing, I thought to myself, Well, the Finnish result is really ugly For one, um, and it just seemed like a stupid waste of time to make. But now that I've done it, I can't deny that if you do this over and Ivy, you'll really find some great results from it. Unfortunately, I don't seem to have enough room on the paper here. I'm just gonna move it there so you can actually see save it more because I have drawn this of it big to fit on the piper. This is a common problem you'll get with single on drawings is that you start off in a position that's not to step sustainable, and you end up regretting it lighter. But you go to carry through with it and just finish off the drawing so you can see I can't draw the tip of the baker because you guys all the way off the pipe. And if I want to go back and and radio part of face, which I haven't actually gotten to yet, have to retrace my lines like so sometimes you need to take creative path. We might even have toe make a line where there isn't one to join stuff together. So this exercise can be quite fun. Actually, it's It's not like a typical don't feel like a typical drawing exercise feels maybe we'll like doing a crossword or something. You got to use your Brian to figure out how to connect all the dots, but certainly can be challenging. You might find that, uh, you're been embarrassed with what you're producing, so I suppose that can force people toe baby it more careful with how they draw, which may be one of the reasons what helps you prove your observation skills using your observation skills and a lot of It's about concentration. You can say that this requires a lot of concentration. You can actually, uh, one of the great things about the feathers. Also, they all seem to connect up. So you can really, to all kinds of stuff, taking advantage of the feathers in this single on drawing. Just notice how different the style that you end up with doing this is from the the other. The other exercises that I did? No, he has a distinctive look to it, and a lot of it is kind of ugly. And do you kind of like the effect I got with the feathers? They're kind of forced me to decide where toe really how to render. I guess that that's part of the bird's body, where it's darker underneath. It forced me to kind of take a position on that drawer a line there. It's quite happy with the way that that ended up going. The more data Alinea Tron put in in a single on drawing, probably the more you get out of it, actually, and because the more data as you try and put in, the more you're gonna challenge yourself certain details, getting them in there with some without tightening pencil off the page. Really? The challenge. You noticed that I did all these exercises with the same drawer with same source image, which is the fight of the harvest. And I did that because I want to get a bail to say that the differences and bailed kind of compare these different exercise with each other. You might be able to say that Pence was getting a bit blunt deaths. I'm actually swiveling in a bit. Go to a shop a point, and there's no there's not going back in a rising when you're doing this exercise. I just gotta make a decision and stick with it. And you can do is exercise with lots of stuff. You could even try and draw someone's portrait with it, but that can really be challenging. But, you know, if you can draw a portrait of someone Michael look like I'm doing a single line drawing, then you're really getting good, Okay? And I'm gonna lift my pencil off the paper now, but I'm any gonna Before I do that, I'm gonna double check everything on the drawing. Just make sure I'm really happy with it. there isn't anything else I want to add, because once it's off this exercise, you don't want Teoh. You don't want to go back on a make any changes you want toe debate, trace the exercise. And unfortunately, I didn't get the tip of the bake there. But that's it. Single on drawing say that is the final, and the final exercise for the observation skills exercises would be really good. If you give all on the go, you'll get a lot out of doing them. Even if you do produce stuff that looks a little bit not not so pretty like this one. So you give that a go. The more times you can do it, the more you'll get out of it. 7. Understanding 3D Objects - Part 1: in this video, we're going to cover a couple of basic exercises that you can practice to improve your ability to rotate three D objects within your head. We've already covered off the importance of learning this skill, and but practicing these exercises, you're going to get better at that skill. So the first thing you should try doing if you if you haven't done a lot of this in the past, is simply drawing very simple three day geometric shapes kinds. You can draw spears also. I mean, they're not that different from growing a circle. If you want to draw a sphere and it's worth your while putting in Central on, say that you get a bit of an impression for its three days shape that looks more like a beach ball. Maybe he's got a three D look to it rather than just a simple flat circle on cubes. Tom, I keep a little bit flat there, and not just a matter of drawing the basic shapes but also drawing them from different angles so I may draw a cube from this angle here. Okay, there's a bunch of different angles. You can draw these shapes from But if you haven't done a lot of that in the past, worth practicing that once you get good at them and confident within, you can graduate onto doing more complex shapes, which combinations of geometric shapes. And these can be in the shapes of animals. Because if you can rotate something like this in your head, you'll stop Valda, right Titan shaped like a rail animal's body within your head also. So I you know you can start off with a rectangular prison, put in a couple of leg like structures, dumps a guy and put it in the neck like structure. And this is not any particular animals just is only proportionately, but it's just practicing, rotating or drawing a three d object out of my head. And then, I mean, I could even try drawing that from other angles, which might get a bit complicated, but I could try drawing that from the back. - Draw a little tile in there if you want, okay, and the importance is that you just practices exercise. These drawings are not precious. You can try them and throw them out. You can do them again. The more you do them, the better you'll get right. Heading three d objects in your head 8. Understanding 3D Objects - Part 2: another great exercise for learning to rotate three d object in your head is to take a There are a whole animal part of an animal like what I've drawn here, which is the lines forearm and front poll. You take what you're drawn there and try and draw cross sections off that, uh, by drawing loops around it's a to believe you to show you that actually explain right means I'm going to start by demonstrating. So a draw loops like this and the loops gonna kind of like a topographical map of the lines for arm and pull. And it can actually help. Also, if you do, if you don't know the full way around and show the invisible part which is hidden from view the other side of the poor. - All right, now I'm gonna stop during the the forearm from here, which is it's going to be a lot easier than and the poor. The poor is definitely the hardest part. Is that just notice how drawing loops here as we get further up the arm is going to change a bit. We best got one bone coming up here, another bone coming up here and this is largely muscle. This is committed, quite challenging exercise. And if you do a lot of practice of days, it will definitely help you understanding three D objects being elder, say that volume on a two day pace of paper. So I give that a guy, and the more you do it, the better impact that's gonna have some, or it's going to help improve your skills. So don't just do it once. Do it as many times as you need to more time to do it the better. 9. General Animal Anatomy & Proportions: before we get started drawing different types of animals and learning specifically what you need to draw the whole Lester a dog or a cat or not, We're actually gonna look at the similarities between older for animals and what I'm gonna take you here. You're gonna be able to plot and most if not all, of the animals that you droll. So it's really important that you pay attention to this because we'll take you a lot of that drawing animals which can apply to just about any animal you control. So the first aspect that it's common toe, not all animals, but all the animals that were gonna be drawing is this bilateral symmetry, which means that if you draw a line down the middle of the animal, it looks the same on by Saad. This doesn't apply to certain primitive animals like starfish see chins. I have different tops of symmetry, but the types of animals that most people think off when you hear the word animal. They all have this kind of bilateral symmetry where that law and really splits the animal in half. And it's useful for drawing an animal in three D perspective like this is you can kind of figure out Well, if I've drawn E here on one side of the head, then that you should be there on the other side of the head and the same with the nostrils in the eyes and what not in the legs and and all that, So that's quite useful. To put in when you're drawing is actually draw that line down the middle of the animal you have to do it is dark. Is this that's more to illustrate the point, but you can put it in a za construction line really helps you draw the animal. Another aspect which a lot of animals have in common with each other. Well, certainly the ones most the ones we're gonna be drawing land animals. You can quite easily section off the body into three sections, which is the four section. Yeah, 4/4. Then you have to mid section, which is the belly and most of the back there. And then you have the hind quarters here, which you have the back legs and what not? And it can be a really useful way to think of an animal when you actually gonna draw its body. So give me another example. He is this elephant upside in? You could think of it as being four sections of the body if you include the head. But just looking at the body we've got here about 4/4 where you caught this area over their upper chest, on the arms and shoulders and what not? And you've got the midsection wave, got most of the back and you've got Billy and then you've got the horn section here, which has the rum pen in the hard legs and the tile. If the animal has a tile, I'll give you one more example here with Linus could say I've actually growing the force at 4/4 here in the mid section and the horn section there with tile in the legs and whatnot. And you can actually say, I'll use construction line here down the middle of the face to try and get it even on both sides. Get that bilateral symmetry in there and even here on the back, you can say that center line coming down here just almost parallel with the upper edge here of the back. Now, you can also see here. I've actually sketched in a bit of a round circular shape here, which kind of tells me where the rib cages, just like animals. We expect to see certain similarities between most of them. Like to our eyes. One knows one mouth two years just like that. There are a lot of other similarities to the physiology, which you see in their skeletons, And that stuff's really useful to know when you're drawing the animal, you want to know what's going on beneath the skin. You don't need to know the name of every single bone. It's more just important to know that the way in which those bones movie gonna affect the appearance of the animal on the outside. So, like I said, you'd expect to see most animals having two eyes and two years and a nice and what not some of the other things you'll say between all these animals were gonna be drawing, uh, the spawn. And that's actually made up of multiple binds and the rib cage to this over here, which is also made up of multiple bones and because it's made up of lots of little Bynes, which I haven't actually drawn in the individually, but because it is made up of lots of little bones, it gives the animal debility to on really like flicks and changed. You know, I kind of changed the shape that's going on there. So I when an animal hops here is jumping, for example, you see the shape of its back can actually change, because the Shapley, the way these bones are connected to each other, gives it some row flexibility. And some animals have much more flexible spines than others. You can't have the much more flexible spine than a horse. Now moving on you have. Obviously, the leg binds here and in the fate. You can't really say very well in this drawing, but you tend to have two bones next to each other in the forearm and only one buying up here in the upper arm. And the same goes for the hind legs. One bone up here and then two bones next to each other down there and the leg bones in the front connect to the scapula or shoulder blades, maybe familiar calling it, and the shoulder blade tends to be angled alongside the rib cage. So in most animals, you're gonna find that that that shoulder blade or scapula is actually a vertical angle straight up alongside of the animal. And that's a mistake. That a lot of people Mike Wyndham It was a mistake that a lot of people Macklin, that they're drawing a human when the drawing an animal in a familiar with human anatomy, is because human in humans the scapula is a different shape. It's flat along out back, and so the shoulders in a human placed somewhere like that, and you'll see people sometimes drawing animals that way. It is not the case with most animals, most animals, the shoulders actually down here, moving further back. Yeah, he this is the hip fine, and the spawn continues through the middle of the hit pine and um can continue into a towel and varies in length, depending on how long the animals Tyler's obviously. But the hip bone there is what connects to the upper leg bone and around the Bynes. You also have muscles in like those flexible areas with lots of things like the spy in the rib cage. Muscles can change shape as the animal moves, so when the muscles are contracted, they tend to be shorter and wide. And when a stretch tubby longer. And you know this is actually just an animal kind of getting ready to jump on that actually jumping. You can say all the muscles change shape in that situation. Another principle, which is really useful to be aware of when you're gonna draw animals, is that the relative size of the head is not consistent across different size animals, obviously, for the same size animal, some animals have big heads, and some animals have little head. But even if you look here at one type of animal, which is a dog, it's a small brain. Like a two hour. The head is much bigger compared to the body than in a large breed. Like a great time. The Great Danes hit is relatively much smaller compared to rest of its body. And this is a principle that holds true not just with different variations on the same type of animal but also with uh with cubs and babies. Babies tend to have a relatively much larger head than an adult animal and similarly toe the variation in in head sauce. It was to get you also find this with eyes. So on the left hand side here, I've drawn a picture of a pygmy mouse and on the right hand side here we have Spacey's off joint Rat from Papa New Guinea, and you'll say that compared to the size of the head, the small mouse as much bigger. I compared the rest of the head. Where is this joint rap that eyes only half or 1/3 or even 1/4 of the size compared to the rest of its head? So again it applies to baby, and the baby animals will appear to have much larger eyes than large animals. Not one of the things that makes baby animals that cute that large. I really makes us say something is being cute. So these are the basic rules and principles that are good to understand when you're going to draw animals. But there are always exceptions to the rules on shrews, for example, of small animals with very small eyes compared to the rest of the head, um, birds. You can't really divide them into those. I mean, you can divide them into those three body shapes if those three body sections, if you want after this. It is not going to make that helpful when drawing a bird, because the way that their wings, when they're not flying the wings actually cover a lot of that part of the body. So dividing the body in three and might not be used for for drawing birds. But certainly when you drawing land, animals and the majority of animals, all these principles are gonna hold Tracy good to cope in wind when you're gonna be drawing all sorts of different spaces. 10. Big Cat - Head - Front View: drawing big cats vice from front own. That's what we're gonna be doing. This lesson on the way in which we did up. Start off with two circles, this large circles gonna bay the main area to face and and I'm gonna put no circle down here, which is gonna obey the snap. It's pretty similar for drawing small caps, which we'll go through also. But large caps tend to have amore projected snow. The noise comes further wife in the rest of the face. And so I generally start here, are putting in the lip, and it's kind of like an upside down. These shaped like incredibly wide value. You never actually do a very that world unless you're doing something to bet on. But it's that general shape. And underneath that, just Ruffin, where the chin would guy and big cats of a much more pronounced chin than small cuts, which will also saying some of the other videos usually a reasonable distance between the lips and denies. But it really depends what angle you viewing it from on. And the noise itself is an upside down triangle. Triangular shaped, very broad triangle. He's gonna rough you not to wear the nice will go then the whisker pads. Pretty much for the outline of this, um, this the curves of this circle, Some big cats, like lions. It's a bit flatter along. Besides, they're not quite as curved, but something like a jag you are, or targets quite curved. And if you for these lines straight kind of manner And also straight wind from the nose here where these made should have the eyes. So what? I'm gonna do it Well, actually, drawing a couple of, um circles here on the outside of size large, we just drive the circle's gonna bay with eyes are I'm actually kind of drawing the entire eyeball here, and some of that's gonna be covered with flesh. So start by covering up up there, never there kind of connected up with that nice lines there and draw a bit of a black outline around what we can save the I here because cats tend to have large cats tend of this doc skin around, they're ours and their lips on makes it look like a bit like the way my couple something gives him this really exotic look, it's gonna draw down the other eye here and already should be able to say some semblance of feel on night. You're coming through here in the drawing. It's got that kind of distinctive expression toe electric stare. Okay. Now, from the cheek pads here, uh, we're gonna go onto do the outline of the rest of the face. Now, again, this is gonna vary from spaces to space cities and Jaggers, for example, a very round face here. Where's lines? Much, You know, um, And what in years here? The years, um, in large cats, not actually quite. Is triangular even I have been led to believe if you actually look, I had a picture of the law on or ejaculate or something to say that these are actually quite rounded. They definitely broader at the the bikes and I are a tip, and I got a bit about extra bit around this. It does give him baby trying to look to him. There's quite a bit of fairground inside the ear also which we might cover a bit more by your own. Let me talk about rendering. And now you have a check bones, which not always that obvious. But there, there and they framed the Allies. And they also come laid up above ours like that. Um, now we're gonna go to the knives and rough in a bit more detail here. Now, we've got all the basic featured in place and the noise. The life looks like an upside down trial, general. I mean, if you actually look at the exact shape of it, it's not really a triangle to be more of a complex shape that's got this curve flying across the top here. The interesting thing about captain nostrils is that if you actually look at it and you may never have noticed this, but nostrils are not completely encompassed by this fleshy, nice pad. Nostrils actually go beyond that to part of the face which covered by first, the nose, the nostril start over here. Then it kind of comes up the side here like that and stops about here. Kind of like that. Um, there's often a kind of shape. You d just come on. My count when you look at fight of ah, big cat, um, where the first seems to change direction or something in yet this kind of look going on. It was just kind of subtle lines which would disappear with, Well, let's become very, very hard to say. With further rendering, I saw some sort of presence on the above. The nostrils here can often put like a little dot, which actually day Sam cancel impossible touch. Um, kind of unnecessary look, go back to the lips here. The lips, like the skin around the eyes, tend to be dark and to kill you with the spot in. Spacey's tend to get quite a bit spotting around here. Even either general color of this pronounced chin is what. Actually, it's actually been like a bead. They have grown from there, changing the males and the females because on it actually exaggerates. How how much the chin is emphasized, the bone doesn't actually come out as far as that. And then from there you can pretty much got the basics for how to draw Big cat's face from the front. You will maybe see variations in the top of the skull up here. The largest species tend to get this show can change because what you find is there's this bony crest that grows up in the middle. Teoh actually provide further attachment for the jaw muscles, which stretched all the way around here and in larger specimens like large lines and large targets on that Chris could make quite big. But you don't actually see the crest on the outside because the muscles around here also quite be. We're smaller specimens, like a small fame. A leopard, for example, probably wouldn't have that Krista's much. And now, as I said, these are the basics on there are a couple more features we're gonna add in, particularly around the whiskers. So you saying big cats? I have these kind of little marks above the eyes, like that on the inside, kind of in line with almost in line with the nose and in line with the inside of the eye days aware the the eyebrow whiskers come from where I plug into the skin. And then you've also got that for also lines of we scared. Plug into the whisk a pet whisker risk a pad, and the line second from the bottom tends to be the longest, and you just, like, grow a bunch of spots on to them like that. Then you can draw the whiskers in attaching to these areas of advice. The whiskers were generally baby absolute last part that I would touch because they involved drawing lines over the top of other lines. Do you wanna make sure you have the other lines underneath in the right place before you go put the whiskers in the whiskers orbit random. Um, you know, it's not too hard to get the whiskers, right. First time without trying, you don't really need to worry about them too much. Um, now, in terms of where the pigmentation goes on animal like a jag you were or Taga when I got some dark color on the top areas of watch around here, Um, I'm just gonna show you quickly. Even night is more about getting the shapes and the rendering of the Patton. Um, this kind of shape here from the top of that age of the nostril, their around in a shack like that. And he that's 10 10 3 weather. The doc coloring comes down to something like that and then comes up across the cheekbone like this and tens fever dark pigmentation down the middle. Also, it's quite typical. These whisker pads tend to be a doctor. Some spaces will have a bit of darkness, like black towards the back of the whisker pads on. But I'm just gonna color in the come on the top here, actually the Yeah, but under the year, he is actually gonna be more of a striped lawn. Okay, Isn't this kind of pigmentation will be different. Line what? More of an even brown across the whole thing. But even a lawn, we tend to find a sections. He may be bit lighter, certainly the channel list. And then you would fill in the spots on the stripes, which you really want photo photographic reference for that because it does vary from spaces, two spaces, small cats, like also what's and a lot of them, um, you would draw slightly different to this, but the pattern in them tends to be that a lthough spotting on the face tends to bay between an invisible between a line up here on the lineup. This or spawning tends to be in here, and often this here in front of the year doesn't actually have any spots. And then again would stop. There'd be a line behind all right here like that. And then you have more lines or spot around there, and there wouldn't be any sporting around on top of here. But in the large cats like leopards and jaguars that that plant intends to be a bit different. Um, Tigers, leopards, jaguars. None of them have any mark Any marking on this area here, Um, all of the markings tend to bay above here in front of the ease and on the checks there, we can come in that light. And when we talk about rendering and more data just before we finish up with this, we're gonna look at the eyes. So I'm just gonna put in the pupils here in the odds news of the day, like pupils were small and, um, I just and I'm drawing round people's, um I think I've drawn them in the wrong place. I need to go a bit higher up, but you'll notice that I'm drawing round pupils. Big cats. The pupils tend to pay around or roughly around anyway. No, exactly. Around tigers, this slightly elliptical. There's not like your domestic at home, which has, um, elliptical people's a guy from the top to the bottom of the the iris. And that's because big cats night vision. Rather, that is why big cats Night vision is not as good as your domestic cats Night vision. And then one more little bit of rendering, which convey a nice little touch on big cats, is ours. Tend to cast a shadow over here, and you might get like a Sean of lot reflecting on the eyes and he shite in in the area, kind of like this show. The pupils kind of blend into the shadow, but it looks quite really capes that feel on steer to it that gives you a basic idea of how to draw Big Cat's face. It's pretty similar for most spaces. Puma tends to have a short and short of snap, be close to the rest of the face and saying with the cheetah. But for the most part, you were ableto draw them with a combination of this technique, and it's good to have photographic reference taken putting the spots in the stripes, and that's Big Cat's face from front here 11. Small Cat - Head - Front View: All right. So we're gonna look at the small cat's face from front view and when it's a small cat, really took me up. Domestic cat on. There are a lot of related species, but they're not very well known. So we're gonna start off with. I'm gonna start off with circle, which is roughly where the heads going today. And then we put a center line through there. And of course, it's why also, and at the top of close to on this horizontal center line, we're going to put a small circle and the angle we're gonna be growing the small cat's face from is going to be slightly different from the angle that we driving big cats, Vice roommate united by from front on on a small cat. Spices nothing. Be looking down as much so But it does also have a much shorter snap, which is why would also one of the reasons why withdrawing the small circle within the big circle here. So we're gonna start off. Um, if you can imagine what very center of the circle he just above the we're going to put little triangle, which is where the Captain I was gonna go. That's where it's gonna start out and we're going to draw a line down from the nose to the lip. The line from the nose to lip is quite short in small cats. Compared Teoh big cats on again. You get that? The shape there. But she is not as pronounced his big cats. It's gonna be quite rounded that I'm gonna do the whisker pads, which gonna curve up and around more so than the actual circle that they're in. Curve up till about there on the nose, like the big cap. You follow a line from the nice itself and you end up with we're gonna locate the inside corners of the eyes and for the eyes. If you can imagine almond shaped like this you're trying tilt that an angle of about 30 degrees. So it's gonna draw that in like, say, so you want that outside point here to be higher in this point here, The inside in the bottom of the I should be about halfway up to the head. I specifically say the bottom of the are because the itself is quite large and takes up a large portion of the head So if you're gonna be measuring from a different pilot, are you end up with incorrect proportions to do the same with the right eye, Okay? And we'll put in just marks for where the The whiskers would dry from above the eyes and indirectly about the eyes where the inside of the years, they're gonna bay negativity, pointing out an angle. I know you've got 45 degrees main law, Similar heart to where we have a I ittle bit about top of the I um, you can draw the Yeah, and you will actually pointing it slightly outward direction and will be quite pointed at the tip here. And like I said, the bottom of the eyes about halfway up the head, we're just gonna measure that. Make sure the top of the circles in the right place, which it isn't it a bit too high up. So actually going allow the top of the head there, which means I'm gonna tow lower the year a bit. There also like that. Okay, it's gonna rub out that line was in the incorrect spot. Double check. We go done in the right place. Okay, That looks about right now. the outline of the head. It's gonna bay. It's gonna be a bit from from the circle here. Gonna go off a bit there and we actually want to. I mean, the whisker pad we have here at the top of that you can imagine a straight law and coming up here like, say, and then from around about that point, you also have the cheekbone coming up to face which curls around under the I like Sai like that and from this check mine here round about that hot in the face Put another log on negative given angle sort of shape to it and getting a bit more of the kind of look that we're going for now The line between the head and the E It's actually not gonna fly that curve of the circle. It's gonna bay slightly curved but fairly sort of straight ish. One, like Sai have another thing on this side ahead. Another way to look at the outside line of the years if you would follow up the curve on the side of the face as it starts to curve in. That's where you put the outside line from the year in the points again, slightly away from the middle. It's suffice. It's no straight up. But it does start further in than the widest point of the head like that. And again, the inside of the is gonna obey. That I think I said, was about 45 degree whatever angle it is I'm drawing in. We draw it up till makes with the outside line there you're fairly sort of pointed shape. And we put that straight ish or slightly could blanc over here at the bottom of the year. And cats tend to have a bit of hair in the years did that in, which is really just in their rough. I mean, if you're gonna render it, probably end up in a draw. You gonna put more effort into drawing that here there And they do have, like, a little David in there. You like That kind of like this is that you are, well, something like that, but tends to a bit of an iva lap of flesh over here. And we're just drawing some lines on the whisker pads to where the whiskers are gonna grow from. Typically put about full on along those lines and put little spots which, uh, where the whiskers actually gonna grow from. All right. Now, like the big cat, there is a bit of a, um, curved area here on the nose where the third tends to change direction, particularly around. He got, like, the point in that line pointing that way and then make that center line along there. I thought, Really, you don't talk to you how much you actually want to put that in because it's not particularly obvious part of the face. We want to make sure you put the nostrils in the triangle of the NYSE is not going to stay perfect. Triangle. Well, there's nostrils in life in the big cat. The nostrils actually should come past the the actual fleshy part of the NYSE, and we'll fill in the odds with the with people's and in small cats, the pupils tend to be elliptical, which in broad daylight there will be a very thin lawns. But as it gets dark of their pupils widen same way I was widened and doc a lot, but cattle widen into this lips show first, and then when their their widest, they will take up most of the on, they'll actually be quite secular looking. So if you ever seen a cat that night, time might actually look a bit cuter with big black pupils taking out nice to the are. But I'm going to do it in pretty medium. So a lot He had put a couple of showings in the are there and put a bit of Shaddai Mr. Any show most small caps basics have some sort of patterning on their face, which is similar to the kind of pattern you get on a domestic cat spy Small tackled a bit more of a look at that when we talked about the rendering and then I just finished the ours off. Within this, um, and shape, which we've drawn as they are here, you're actually going toe draw the ages of circular parts. They are because they didn't hear the point of bits are actually flesh that surrounds the are that should help finish it often make it look quite a bit like a rail cat. Gonna make sure it's center lines in the centre also no, a little bit to the side. That's how you structure first of a domestic cat, drawing it front on 12. Big Cat & Small Cat - Head - Profile View: gonna look at the profile now off cats, and I'm actually gonna draw the profile of a big cat next to a small catches to kind of emphasize the differences. Not only the differences between Big Anil small cattle also died between big and a small animal. There's still a lie apps, and you'll say some of the the common traits that you find here. So start these with circle libel. I kind of show Probably circular, but not completely. And you're gonna have, like, a books shape coming out front, which is gonna be where the snout goes. Obviously, Captain. Very short snaps. It doesn't come out very far. Maybe about twice as high as it is. What? And then you to stop by putting in actual Nice. You can say there's a few bumps here around Randy outside. The big cat has a really prominent chin around like that, and most of that's actually for feel good skull of a big count that don't have that, um, big prominent chin. Now, if you were gonna smoke out like our domestic out, you don't have that big, prominent chin. And actually, because back quite quickly after the front of the snow and on. It's also not as long or his tool is the snap on the big cat. So looking at something like this curving up into the face there, Okay, biceps, and obviously have, uh, the typical feline knows which looks like an upside down triangle and certainly from side, yet still looks quite triangular. But big cats have much broader nose and small counts, which includes a domestic cat on a number of other spaces. So I'm just going on, put in that you may find from some angles that doesn't even love triangle from side view. Um, it is the hair doesn't come down that far on the top of the night, something like up and then drawing the nostril, which, and based the big cat in the small cat comes back beyond that fleshy area. Which will you think I was being The cats? NYSE nostril comes back a little bit further, and Isis, now drawing the lip in the big cat instead of drawing in the live on a small cat here comes out looks a little bit like smiling or something on the big cat. Similar shape. Um, thought a lot of the big cat. Spacey's lines Tigers, Jaguars. What not, um, have caught off this looking black skin. Say the lips Quite black. And I've actually got this big black dot around here. What a distinctive looking shape. No domestic cats don't typically have that. And then you have these lines on the whisker pads. I just drove like a bunch of little holes around down at the whisk of plant into a small cat Has that as well arranged slightly different. And the length, for example, in this one in the big cat to second from the bottom that comes out first. Where is the small caps? Melt choirs. Obviously which one comes out furthest? One of these two guy now straight up from the night of the full lineup here, over there. Pretty much strike on 12 year old guy. You the back of the head and get this quite square looking structure here front is ahead. Where is their domestic cuts? But it have a smooth kind of wine years of Okay, then I'm along just long. We're gonna put in the odd which does laid up directly from there about that here, as is typical of a predator well, mammal predator. Anyway, there's forward facing eyes. We draw a profile like a triangle, but with a curve over there, there's gonna put a bit of Sean on there, make it quite black around the outside. Could it does look like the way make up a bit. I think about my scar on or something. This is a little section above the eye where on the eyebrow, whiskers will plug into, and that's a bit of flesh. Black flesh again, it's quite obvious over here. I call it a straighten, along with this here, then that connects about have a He may be now a small cut. This is really a difference you're about to see here, which is not just in different size cats, but in a different sized dogs or lizards or whatever. Um, the small animals tend to have relatively large eyes, take up much larger part of the head, so drill like that again. It's got that triangular shape. It's a lot different, but triangle with curve over here. Um, domestic cats don't always have that black skins. This isn't necessarily gonna make that darkness section over here, can they? Do you have the whisker the whiskers connecting above the I. Okay, that's that is actually how cats I can look from. So I ve on that. It looks like maybe it's looking back until something it isn't. It's just how it looks when you view the animal from side view and you have a pretty clear idea of the difference if they're trying to be counts more. Certainly similar lie out plan, but some obvious differences most obvious, which is the I size, but also the shapers and knives and certain differences that specific two spaces, like the skin color and what not so that covers the cats profile. Got a basic idea of how to do cats profile from that and to do more data. One you'd want to look at photographic come examples of this particular spaces you're trying to draw, as well as using some of the information, which we're gonna go through later on when we talk about rendering 13. Big Cat - Head - Three Quarter View: All right, So we're gonna draw in. They have a big cap in three day or are from a 3/4 view, Which is one way where you really need to start thinking about the animal's head in a more kind of three day structure. And you can start by thinking of it by simplifying into more J metric three days shapes, which none of that we're gonna be that accurate. Uh, but it's just a way of approximately or at least like making easy for you. Toe, hold the idea of this shape in your head. One way in which you could do that is with this con of Anvil looking shut, which will destroy a moment. So this here is like a triangle A prison. I'll draw the invisible edge over here. Uh, and then a call to this length here, we'll put a block over here, which would be narrower than the triangle. Something like that. But same heart straight down here, projected out in this direction and something like that, I've probably done a bit too tall here. If I chop off the bottom new, I just follow the line around when I make the existing lines go off in the perpendicular angle UK just gonna arise the irrelevant line so as not to confuse you. And there's no shame in using a razor when you're drawing, you're not always going to get the lines correct. First time you draw them, so it's a good idea to always have your arise A handy as you can say, I use it a bit. Okay, so you've got this kind of and looking shape. Um, this oh bone rather rectangular prison we have stretching out. He would bay the snap because, as we've discussed already big cats out quite a long guided snout into a very kind of square shape to it. It's not like a dog where it type is to a thin point. Loin or a taga, particularly a lawn, was quite a long snap. It does vary from one big cat species to the next leopard to have a short of snout, so you would make this less than half length. In the case of leopard, you get an idea that's come on oblong shape there in the main body of the head, um, fit into this and looking shape here, which she gonna draw the eye in, like that check find, which comes up pretty straight over there but almost touches three young The tip of the eye here, which is up, I'm in shape. And then after that, it goes back quite a sharp angle. And if you divide face into, like, that bit of a bump there like that he tried put the in the same place on the other side. Kind of where this oblong makes the anvil shut and you put the years in, we'll say that's one way of thinking of three D structure Big Cat's head. I haven't drawn that line, so well, what we're gonna do, we're actually gonna look at it with circles to try and keep it consistent with the other drawings that you've been doing side fast. I were gonna come along here start again, but this time we're gonna have circle Is the moon part of it is actually not really So you want to be thinking of it more like a sphere. When we drew the big cat head from front angle, we we kind of looked at the snap is having I am circle over. He thought from Saidi it was more of a box. You're looking at it kind of circle. What? When you connected there with striped lines? Something like that. Because we are trying to think about Maura's a sphere than I after much change. Angle that a bit, because we are trying to think of it as a sphere rather than a flat circle going to draw a center line of it. And a central line is gonna come Maybe here around like that on. We'll have another central on this biggest fear here. Okay, so now we've got this centerline along here. It's looking a bit messy now. And now we've got Central on long be everything were put on the one side. I'm gonna try and put on the other side because obviously, cats have symmetrical looking faces. So you see a riser again. Tron, clean that up a bit. So it's not too messy around here. And remember, these are just construction line. So we're drawing them lightly. Were not, um We want them there to guide us. We don't want them to be too obvious in the final drawing. Say forgetting to dyke or turning away. You can arrive. Some try and draw them lightly in the first place, so you don't too much problem with it, Okay? Now it's gonna drawn the front of the snap here, which again, you're gonna have that vase shape with the lips in this kind of area here to give a boxy shape, trying to get symmetrical. So you cut the law in the middle there? I'm just drawing in now, upside down triangle for the nose past this point. I mean, that's roughly the same point he as that point this I what you're gonna draw past this point every he don't need to draw on this side here because it's blocked from angle of view , and I'm just gonna trouble licking their growing along s here side the lips hang quite loose on. Well, I guess I just come down like that. You have pronounced chin again. It's typical of big cats and every here, the NYSE, you got that roughly triangular shape again. Put the line down the middle of its you can try and keep it symmetrical. And what you're looking at here is when you put in the lines for the exact shape of the nose, which not in exact triangle you stop, say, Cem, things pop upset here. The highest point these curves you consumed because this side is with unit from a slightly different angle to curb curves broader where he it's sharp and I put in the nostrils underneath like so you could barely say the nostril. Um, they saw them drawing here. There's on the sides a lot more on this, and then the nostril comes up past The fleshy pad along the bridge in the night knows a little bit, huh? Much put a little spot there and it's following on from the whisk a pad here. We for the bridge of the NYSE, up like this and again, as we've looked at with the anvil shot going to it's gonna curve around here not long after this line makes the curve of this circle. It's not to cook, curve. You'll line up like this, and you're gonna have a bit of a right angle here and bid triangle shape. You got that one for the I. So we've got the center line up here. We want to try and put the eye about the same distance here to here to get the other I in the right place in the same heart. Also, top of the eyes have it. Babe out there likes die. Just noticed the shape of drawing the eye from in 3/4 angle. You want to try get this shape in there. Also, let's try and draw it like that, and there is that kind of invisible lawn from NYSE to the I like that you should begin in the same angle there on both sides and indeed with the center line up here just gonna drawing some of that black flesh around the eye. It's just so typical feline face we've also got. Now you've got a bit of an overhanging, so I suppose you could think of. There's a brow. It's not quite, but you go to bed and I hang here about yours. So we put in that little eyebrow patch the by side, where the whiskers would plug into, um, now for the cheekbone, which comes up here, the curve of the circle. Once you reach the hot of the eye with this lawn. As we looked out with the amble, shut the head, then comes back in a statement angle. After that and the year we're gonna place the front of that. He just a little bit behind that. Oh, kind of like this. And given the angle of that, it's not gonna come up much past the top of the head. Okay? Don't forget about that center line he used by the center line. He is gonna obey the highest point back of the head. It's gonna come back down a little bit, and I'm gonna draw that year on the other side, which in a try and get same level. So make the head over here that you is gonna come touching that area that all right, have this economy the position he falling backwards, bison and down that co anything notable Wildcat spaces have back of the years. Black with a what? With a white spot on it. Targets have that, for example, but lines Nightline's I just got a black spot on the back of the year. It's a little bit of trivia for you. Useful tonight if you're gonna rendering a very date old image of a lawn with colors and everything. Okay, now we drove the check. Fine. Ivy here. That's our which really defined the outline of lines head we are gonna We're not from this angle. You're not really going to see a whole lot of the lines shakedown unless you really start putting in the shadows and stuff. But we kind of want to know where it is. We just try and draw that equivalent shape on this side of the head, and then it kind of you can see how those kind of match up and the bottom is a check mine. Just hidden from view on this side touches muscles and start new Joel muscle around here. What? Not And so what I'm doing here? This area here is really logic a Christ this area here and the muscles should actually the jewel muscle would actually pay Ford Not kind of shape the face with, um, likes, uh, you would have coming off this side. The edge of the face actually wouldn't base. All this is that it's not just we're about some of those construction lines and mussels and stuff that you wouldn't really be able to say that. And I've actually done that years of it too small here. It's gonna make my being out, uh, should actually be. We'll be starting around about the oil level here. Okay. Like that, Not coming to, uh, beyond the edge of the face Here. Look, I think that is probably I kind of And it's quite a bit of hair in the law NZ's and then put into lines for the whisker pads. You can say the snap looks quite long in drawing. I'm done here. I wanted to have long snouts, but you could conceivably get away with making a bit sure that night. We certainly wouldn't want to make it any longer and putting more of the black ground lips . Make sure the line between the lips and the nice is off. This enough. And to a billet typical rendering that we do with feeling cause shut over there, people and maybe also just into bumpier typical area with actually changes direction, a bit stuff. All right, there's our line 3/4 view 14. Small Cat - Head - Three Quarter View: the drawing of small caps face from a 3/4 view. I'm going to start with that circle in the middle again. But of course. And everyone wanted to get you. Just think about it in terms of three D structures that it's actually gonna bay more of a sphere than a circle just to show that it's three day would draw a couple of Central on through it. And if you're a member of video from growing a cat spice front on the bun, was he always gonna be about halfway out face here? So we do want to get that middle on a roundabout in the middle. So we get correct. How far up the face? Well, half of the hit and we'll draw. And I'm gonna draw another small circle on another small spear on the year. I don't because of the location of the spear, C is gonna come to the halfway point up to face because the location of spirits actually gonna they overlapping with the biggest VSE. You kind of want Teoh droll this lawn she's not exactly two spheres would overlap, but it is kind of how the cat's face it's gonna be shaped. So as with before this more circle the NYSE, you want to draw you just rough in a triangle here, Just just about 1/2 way Point, that small sphere. And from there you have a small distance down to the mouth, which is a very shy of course. We draw it from an angle, so the one side of a ship is gonna be different from the other side. Now, kind of like that on a curve around into the whisker pad. He's gonna come up and you can find this line around here, too. It would make the I we could follow it around day with checkpoints. Gonna guy, we're just gonna draw the rest of the whisker pad before you do anything like that. The same will be on this side rattle. They roughly in law in the stadium to check mine growing chin. There. Bottom of the face is not gonna find this circle here. It's gonna bay angular with a noisy, defined Joe on. And this is not actually gonna come that far that in saying realistic, but we'll figure out where to put the backup from the other stuff. I'm gonna draw in here. So we're gonna go into the eyes and as you would know it from the other cat ones, you first falling back the lines from the NYSE and you will end up with that inside corner where you want to put the I the bottom of the Oscar band along with this also drawn the check by there just kind of estimating how why these all I should go. That could be a matter off trial and error. A few Remember the shape of eyes. Eyes, is that Come on in. I'm I'm in. Check elliptical shape where the outside corner is higher up on the inside corner kind of Ron the same with this. I hear the eyes are slightly wider than the notes. The distance here between the eyes is slightly wider. Actual Was she part of the NYSE because of the angle that were viewing the hi from here, drawing much more The one that's closer to us in this one. You were only viewing just one from angles to climate compressed from our point of view. Anyway, okay, fellow center line up there and kind of parallel with this centerline. Here we follow up the insides the eyes here. But those y brow was good things about the art by the line. And we're going to reach a point where the years will connect America about, uh, my back on the head here, just kind of estimating. Trying to the shapers years I could almost think of that year from this point of viewers was like a pyramid growing out of the cat's head except on one side of the pyramid is missing to decide Here, just wear old sound travels in. It doesn't really appear me, because on the other side that year is not gonna be a sharp edge. It's gonna curve around and in line with this year. Throw this one in something like that for the curve of the I saw the face of the years of saying hot. Remember the outside of the year? Look, going up completely vertically does actually point away from the he cuts head a bit. You got that little do that here in that year, which is maybe something like any alot same hardened by sides. We're just trying make up the jaw and said it all fits together nicely. It's gonna hit over here where you could attach the next you wanted today and we'll put in the people's and the, um, dots on the whisker pads. The reason why I draw the lines first before doing the dots in the whisker pads. Just easier. Line up adults this way and get in line those lines there for construction purposes. Okay, I'm gonna draw in the the triangle of the nights now, or rather over the top of that triangle. So the fleshy parts, the knives are obviously going Teoh not be completely trying. Yo, you gotta drawn the nostrils and you have the subtle curves that you get there. Putting that curve, the NYSE necessarily bit tell pay there might depend on the braid. We're going a bit like a band mates cat. I'm just gonna put in the final bits on the ARS. People's have a bit of Sean, You do get this really nice effect to going on this, I hear. But when you get this show, this almond shaped here are correct and he draw the people of guys straight. Vertical down juxtaposition of the angle of his pupil with that curve of the I gives it that really distinctive cap. Look, you might not see the whole people here distance from the top to the bottom of people should not be more than the to talk to the bottom of the I. So if you follow up to the top of people, they would be about there, that distance there. Certainly last in this distance here and much Put a bit of shadow on the Are there today. There you have it. I'll tell you, do cat head from 3/4 view. I'm just gonna rise his construction lines that you can get a better look at it and that you have a small cut. 3/4 view, uh, For what? To put in a bit this year, I thought something was missing. - Now you have capped head from 3/4 view. 15. Big Cat - Body - Side View: Now we're gonna draw the feline body from side view. You draw in a walking top position. I'm going to stop by putting in the rib cage or no, actually drawing in every single buying. But it's kind of roughing in where I expect the chest tube A and how large you want. You want that rib cage debate because kind of allows you to figure out the other aspect of the animal from the, uh, the cat's body is actually, it's It's quite low to the ground compared to some other animals. So given that this is quite an overall sort of shape, you're gonna have a little length to it, you know, longest sort of body and pretty about an equivalent height between the bottom of the rib cage in in the ground Here. In some cases, you might have been more kind of depends on the space is a bit. Generally speaking, I the elbow, it's gonna be about the same height as and is the chest here in the barn of the chest and I'm just gonna draw up that kind of 4/4 section would be discussed before with they stole the land, animals being easily divisible into three three sections, one of them being the 4/4 kinds. It's bringing approximate Come on there. My ice cap space is the forearm is considerably longer than the upper arm, longer legs spaces, which have designed for more more running like the Cheetah. The ah problems about the same length of the forearm. But that's at the extreme end of the sky. I'll just notice how I'm drawing the foot here if you're trying to make it quite narrow that what you're looking at here for, The structure of the foot is it looks a little bit like a human hand in that sort of position, but and it's similar to that. But it's a bit different. What you're really looking at is that the wrist is up here, the hand, what we would consider, like, you know that the time the palm and what not would be around this area. And then you've got that first section of finger does ivy here. But from there, rather than curling around, um, what you actually have and this sorry this If you mentioned this first bone coming up like that, the next bone goes down and that What is it like this? Buying he and then the final by and actually guys back up and that's where the clothes attached to and essentially it's finger. It's called like that, but this final joint actually bends the opposite direction from a human joint. It's the same in dogs, but in cats they're able to actually move that final joint backwards and forwards, which is what gives them. There's retractable claws. Dogs can move backwards and forwards as well, but doesn't actually pull the the chloride into a shape. So I'm actually just gonna arise those binds. There was just to kind of illustrate the structure of the foot and eyes fingers very kind of squarish short step look to them. OK, moving on from the pool. Actually, we will put in the other, do it on the other, so it and you'd say the thumb, which is quite high up there, something like that. This year's where the scepter won't go the shoulder bone, which is along the side of the body because of the shape of the rib cage and out front, they have Nick, which and cats. I tend to hold their head about level to that back. So you're looking at like going to continuous level across there. Most dogs might hold their head a bit higher. Generally speaking, when you give the cat quite quite a sick neck, um, in a circle, trying get that in Iraq, this sketch in a bit of a face. This part I would recommend that you use the the method that we discussed when drawing the cat's face from side on. You can see the do a beat cat or small cap, remembering that smaller animals tend to have relatively large ahead relative to the rest of the body. I'm drawing a large cat here. It's gonna have her big can't rob. It's gonna have relatively small ahead. Cats in general compared to a lot of other animals, actually caught small heads looking to spend too long in the face for the simple reason that we've already done Cat's head from side view. We want to concentrate more on the body here, and we're gonna put a nice curve that neck there because really, if you want to capture the essence of this animal, while most distinctive elements about cats body is really that the curves around the neck in the back. I'm actually exaggerating the curve of the back here Often. If you look at a fight of a leopard or Jaguar or something, you say that a lot of the time the back can look quite straight. But we're exaggerating with the sake of a drawing simple raisin bang that you wanted to look really distinctly catalogue and tai chi and drawing to exaggerate the features to make it more distinctive and more recognizable. That can be limits, but now we're moving on to the hind quarters. You say that the midsection here I did after the rib casualty actually draw it up a bit, and it came up so that the got here distance. There is no disgrace. The distance here probably drawn the leg a bit too far back. I think the exaggeration goes a bit, Father. Generally speaking, small caps have a relatively longest spine in the large cats. The large cats carry quite a bit more white on them, so for them to their advantage, actually have a bit of a short of back. It's also because they're tackling a large prey, which they need a bit more more power. Bit of a sturdy back. There was a lot of small cats kill some prey that's quite a bit smaller than themselves. Like your house cat will kill a rat. There is a general jugular or lifted my killing animal. It's actually bigger than itself. 16. Small Cat - Body - Sitting Position: gonna draw a cat now in its stated position. And this is a really great place to learn because it shows off. One of the most distinctive elements are cat body, which is that curved back. If you get the curve right, people will say straightaway that it's the place to be a cat to notice. Actually, start with back there. So really, the curve is quite far forward in the back. It's quite near the beginning of the back, doesn't it? Doesn't curve like that or it doesn't curve like this because look, that and then, just above that, you have this area Here is where the scaffold would bay under the flesh. And you know what? Did you get the curve of that back right and silhouette of the head, right. You don't even need to draw much else. You can actually Leyva quite minimalistic if you want. Then you get third curve up here, which is where the head's gonna go. Remember not to put the head too far back because, like your typical four legged animal, the spine connect to the back of the skull, not at the bottom of the skull. So there is gonna be neck be the next. They have a hard in the head. Yeah, I can. Just growing a bit of a face. Like what we learned from Been doing a cat's face from pry far. Okay, just know just how I haven't drawn in any details there, and you can see pretty much straight away that what we're looking at is a cat coming stuffed up. You know, read a that. Okay. And, uh, yeah. I mean, you could even finish the drawing pretty close to this if you really wanted to. But you've also got putting the tile, and quite typical, the cat style is quite straight for the most of the distance of it. And then at the end of curls and I can create, in effect with fare on the ends, parts and you can put in Yeah, I want a few foot. Uh, no, I'm actually drawing some other day tells here and actually go and finish it up. Like I said, you don't have to. Just in the last Alexis eyes just wanted dio still wet, Okay? And when I draw the back leg here at say, did you say it comes quite high up just different from a dog dog minutes stated label Bay Dan. Like that or something. The cat comes up quite high on the side of the body. There succeeded and put in a foot which, when it stated foot doesn't come much farther. It doesn't come thought Pastor, where the night and stuff are. You do want to try and get the tail the same levels the rest of the body here. So I'm just gonna try and fix that up a bit. Crawl, Linus that they're all the same level, you know, just one of drawing the front legs here, but the two feet pointing assigned direction Cats, you do tend to find it the front faith point outwards event that point away from each other a little bit, which is the opposite of what you're finding. Some animals like a bear, where bears tend to look a little bit. Pigeon tiger thighs front his front faith. Now, if anything, you haven't actually drawn the animal's body upright enough. You almost expect to look even a little bit more upright than this. But obviously, animals change position, so it could conceivably I sit in this position. Looks like it's about to stand up with something like Now, use some of the knowledge in stuff we discussed, man. Drawing the cat's face from profile. Just kind of finish up the drawing. - All right, there you have it. Cat sitting down. 17. Horse - Head - Profile View: OK, in this video, we're going to be doing a horse's head from side view or profile, and we're going to stop by drawing. What would be when you could think of it is an oblong shape, but it's thicker. One indemnity is at the other end. So it's gonna rough that in there is gonna be construction lines that were drawing here, um, before actually finished drawing that I'll belong. I am going Teoh, divide this top line here into three equal sections or roughly equal section. Because I'm not actually using a ruler to draw this uniters. I'm doing it just roughly for a head. So if a Tron measure side up to third trying Teoh know, said and three equal sections every guy. All right, You don't have to think he has done much. Do you think there on just something like that and you can probably guess from the shape of this box how it is we're gonna be using it. All right? I'm just gonna move that down a tad, Okay? Now it's in the center of the screen site. Uh, we're gonna start off by drawing the top of the horse's head and gonna Bay along this line here. Now, this top third here, this little market, that's where we're gonna be putting the I. So I'm gonna put a bit of ah, mark here, which shows you the bone shape around the eye. Then we're gonna actually draw the eye and not not far beneath that. And just remember not to make the too big. I almost made it to being there. I mean, horses, a big animals. So we expect them to have relatively small Oz. And you can also a drawer some lines around the eye. Teoh represent the he, uh, islands to make it look a little bit more realistic. OK? And just notice that you've only got to throw into the head behind the either. There's not a whole lot ahead behind the horses. I now this line here gonna divide that into equal halves and the part of the horse's face which comes the furthest forward is going to be touching this line here, and it's gonna be below that mark. So I something like over here, you can draw like a big upper lip for the horse because they don't quite a prominent couple it then, from there Head kind of comes back of given angle, curves up and connects with that Topol on that we just drew in behind this area here. We're gonna draw in the nostrils, and horses have these somewhat peculiar shape nostrils. They look quite different depending on on the lighting. It's no. I recommend you tackle Goodson, fight Eisen just side. What shape it is that you actually want to draw in horse's nostrils. Because, I mean, what I've drawn here looks fine here. But if you're gonna be drawing a horse's face from another angle something slightly different, a lot conditions of different than the nostril can end up with him quite different. So, uh, quite a nostril in there, then the next part we're gonna put in is the mouth and chin and the chin, um, toe lift on the bottom in the bottom half smaller and the chin comes down. This kind of curved shape looks kind of like it always hanging off the head. What could be bigger than that guy and mouth comes back around about here. Now let the chin looks like it's hanging off the bottom of the head. It actually isn't he on the bottom jaw starts around he and then the others old wife to the back of the heads. You don't make it. Look, you want to look like the chin's hanging off. They had been not actually hanging. Well, if you know what I mean. So you got the first curve here on the bottom ahead. Then you have another curve, which is all my strike coming along the bottom here. Then you have 1/3 curve in the third curve is gonna be a ah dissection on the horse's head , which is where the jaw muscle goes. So if you were to draw a circle every here like this and it's another construction on, imagine a circle goes through the horses. I like that. And I don't give you some idea of where to put this jewel muscle. I guess what's important here. Just put it a little bit further back. Actually. Sorry about that. It was in the right position before the reason. The way in which I can tell that it was in the right position before is because if you're looking at the top of the horses had relative to the bottom of the head and you have lines going up and down parallel to this line and this line here, you should find that the line the guys parallel up here, where these two curves made the line that goes through them should be in front of the eye. Whereas if I put the jaw muscle further back, it would have been in line with the front of the eye. And that's to thought that so this curve starts over here, comes down like that, and before we get to the back, it starts to go back out. All right, now, as I said, there's not a whole lot of hit behind the ally. But there is some. You can put a line here if you want, but you'll see in a lot of horses. It's kind of where the head changes angle noon. On top of that, you have the years you can. You can even drawing a circular section here, the base of the year, just to give you an idea where when the muscle is that, would that controls that ive swimming around on above that you have the ear itself which looks always like peaceful? Never. It's just being followed, Ivan If you make that you too long, it'll end up looking like a donkey rather than a horse. I think the feelings we got there's about Ross and then behind that you have the neck. And just like the chain appease toe hanging off the head, the head appears to almost kind of hanging off the neck. What I mean by that is that you see what I'm drawing bottom of the neck where that line touches the head. It's not like a lot of other animals where the neck kind of connect with the head further forward and horses. The neck connects the head quite fired back. That's what gives it that look. Then, of course, you have the hair on the head, so you can. You can draw that. How have you choose to draw it? You can watch The video is about rendering might give you a bit of a hand on how to draw the hair on the horse's neck a bit better, but consider it just mostly sketch something in there. It seems to work, and that's how to draw a horse's head from side view. Before we finish up there, it's gonna quickly render the I horses have quite dark, awesome. Often you could just color and it'll shine of light on it. There on you could put some and while I should have the top if you wanted to, or you could even have, like a little bit of the coloration showing through and having the odd, mostly covered in shadow something like this and looks quite realistic. But really, all I've done is done and almost kind of random line here, which has a curve there for the the pupil and then just college girl in black and lift one spoke in what? That and that's pretty much how to draw horses hit from side view. 18. Horse - Head - Front View: to draw horses face from front view gonna stop by drawing square and is actually only two square is gonna be one on top of another. And really, it's a wife for us to drool And I belong evenly divided into So we know that the distance halfway up this are born behalf weapons rectangle is the same as a wit other always shapes by freehand You can to you having difficulty doing them for a hand You can use rule but you're really just working with approximations here and then the distance here look equal to the distance again about down there. So now I've got a section divided into equal thirds And this part here, right on the edges of this line here, we're gonna draw the eyes just like that. So it's kind of like an ellipse tilted at a 45 degree angle. You're kind of seeing the horse's eyes from side angle here because the eyes, like a typical planted, are placed on the side of its head. Um, from there and they are placed right on the side of its head of year. So there's no flesh on the outside here from here. Draw the curve of sides face there just more or less along that lawn. Well, we drain the square and down here, I'm just gonna draw and Octagon, that's gonna be a construction shot later in place. You can say approximately how big venues doesn't touch the school. It's smaller than that. And from the octagon from halfway along this line on that one going to draw another line up to that, I am towards that direction like that. All right, now I'm gonna draw the snout in, or rather, the the very end of the snap way of the nostrils And what not? And that's probably the most challenging part drawing a horse from front view, um, horses. To have these weird looking nostrils and getting them to look rot is not that, ese. I'm just gonna draw inside that octagon. It looks almost like a hex to go in here, and I'm gonna have the bottom left there. Probably done a little bit too over its considering that it's using animal from front here now to draw the nostrils. What I'm gonna dio use actually going toe it's draw this irregular shaped not real name for it on and It's kind of like that. But because there's a hole in the nostril tends to cast a shadow over there and you can just look like a a bit of a black hole on Come on curls around in Yeah, like that. You can say it's quite difficult to make it look like it's not a pig's snout or something like, This is the top of the knives We're looking at here just to emphasize that we're gonna draw a bit of a I have a lap over there, rub out this part he accepts, just suppose just construction lines and then above the odds here. So I'm just gonna right above the eyes, he the head comes in in a bit of an angle like that, and then just before it reaches the top, is kind of where that years will connect. We have like a circular agent there. It's like the basis that year because that year kind of turned around like that. So I it's a good idea. Put days of the bicep in here when you remember to do that, an animal here anyway don't need on human here. And then he called about this length here. That's about how tall he's gonna come. Say, looking equal size. It was length here and here, and horses do have pointed ears. So to this shape here, where it would be an eye vel. But then as a point on the top of the bottom record Ellipse, it's not a perfect lips. Night does curve a bit around the top. Then we're just This is around about where the top of the head would baby. Obviously, horses have hair on top of their heads. I you just grow a bit up here on top there, and we can put in a few of the lines here and there just to try on get a bit more realism out of our horse just in terms, rendering the I was forced to tender very dark cause he can put a couple of people what Dotson there for shines and in color in the rest. Black horses also tend to have very nice long eyelashes droll him in there if you want, and I was gonna rise few Miller's construction laws, which would typically do anyway. But you don't have to. You might like living in it, and that's what a horse looks like from from treatments. How to draw a horse grown the front 19. Horse - Head - Three Quarter View: drawing a horse's head from 3/4 view is actually relatively easy now that we've done the side view in the front few and we're gonna be using knowledge from those views, particularly from the side view. Teoh kind of get the horses head right for the 3/4 view. So we're gonna start off with that familiar looking box shape which we use been drawing the heads, the horse's head from side view, and we're going to draw it from bit of an angle like this. I'm just gonna project it out to the side. So basically turning into a box much like that end of it Bitola and it is just approximations. But what we do know is that the halfway point hears about their, so we know the lip is gonna bay below that point. Then you'll have to bottom whip here. Underneath that and from this point of view, the chin is no committee. Particularly obvious past that, that big Glyptis, you're going to see the chin more around the side here like, say, hanging off the bottom of the or appearing toe, Hang off the bottom of the head on, then you have big leap up top, and from there the nice kind of goes backward slant. You do want to make sure. Still, the Topple it looks like it's coming further out in the bottom lip. The was it went looking out, okay. And the other thing that we also know from this box shape is that if you divide this into equal thirds, or about that the I was going to be around about he it's gonna draw that in, give you given all I lied on the bottom also, contours all right. And the I, um you're also going to find on this side also said, by my baby bump here on the head, which is where the i we just above where the lawsuits on the other side of the head from there back the head gets narrower and from there Ford, in fact, the NYSE just I mean, it's gonna be like a straight line here, But this region here is considerably thinner than where the ours are. Okay, Then you'll recall that next to the chin or behind the chin Rafa on, there's a bit of a downward curve to the vice. Not sure that's correct. Actually, maybe Cohen upwards curve, but to curve that comes out like this and then behind that you have to said, cover the face which is where the jaw muscles like I did, comes out further forward than the eye and it comes back in a circular motion and you can actually give you course quite a strong jawline here. If you want. You can even connect outlined up here. It's a year which you kind of got a bit of that if you drew an imaginary line straight back here from the I, um, From this point on, the head tends to get a bit narrow and then comes up right here to the center point along you and ahead gonna bejo ost. Then it comes back down and makes up with this law in here that we've already drawn and and you may recall that year is not coming out is not sprouting from the very top point and thought it does sprout from that this point here above the I and we just draw that in the distance from the eye level two years, about the same as the heart of the year itself. I just throw that in with it is. Ah, subtle point on the inside of the year There control that year on the other side here, and we want to put the nostrils in also. So this section here, where the nose kind of changes angle that's a roundabout with no not strong is located on this side of the head. And so, from the air recon sigh Well, become straight over to this side of the head through the other nostril is going to be, like, hated. You don't want to make them too wide. You don't get too close together. A probably gonna make him too. Why did he so putting bit classy together? Just going to using the are to judge it here. You can take a bit of practice to get that right. Okay, because then the noise I've made it narrow here Pretty made the nostril little bit to being again because I made it narrower there. I kind of look at the math and go well, the mouth looks a bit too wide now swimming making the mouth tad narrow and now also tremendous Chin, want a baby to start there now we can call it get to match up with the existing lines that we had further back. You can put a little bit of a so I don't deal. And docking that ink assholes is very dark cause. 20. Horse - Body - Side View: So we're gonna draw the horse's body from side view here and the horse. The horse's body is one of the more challenging animal bodies he could draw, so it could take you quite a bit of practice to get it right. We're going to start off here with the raging just behind the neck. Ah, it's where the scapula would go off the shoulder. Blood and the shoulders. Of course, I will say on the chest muscles. Okay, so we're gonna start off with this kind of shape here, and it looks to be at all No, you'll see what that is saying. Enough. I'm actually gonna draw the nick out from that and just going to stop. We just don't like lines the moment cause we may need to adjust some of this because of the particular proportions of the horses body. And we draw the neck out like this, the lines heading towards each other on on the head. We'll be hanging off the front than this is gonna be the highest point on the back this point year One point pointing out with my pencil and we can I want the horses chin to be slightly above rather about the same heart, pretty not slightly above it. It certainly want the head to be a bit hard on that. Obviously, the horse's body can change position as a move. So, really, the horse's head can certainly go lower than that. But just for the sake of this image, I'm trying to put the chin more or less in line with that hard point there. We're just gonna put a block in place for the head. In the meantime, as you may remember, from the the lesson on how to draw the horse's head from the side, we can construct the head using that block. We're just gonna move on to another part of the body now, which is the front leg. And the front leg is actually about the same length from toe from here to the bottom of the leg is about same heart as from this part of the horses. Back to this part involves the leg. So if I just take that sign length again, put it down like that and put the point in there, and then if you roughly divide this into two, that's about where the need is going to go name. I'm actually a bit below that. And for the nay draw this. No, I'm in sort of shape MOC construction lines with some of it will turn into the outline and from there going to draw a line slightly forward. The foreleg actually comes forward. The curved with the curved line there makes up with this year, which is actually the shoulder horses, shoulders actually right next to it. Um, chest, this here is not the shoulder that's scapula. The shoulder blade comes up from the shoulder, one side of the horse's body. You know, I'm gonna draw the back of that front leg here on made up about here. Forces have quite indistinct looking Elba. You tend to only notice the elbow much when the leg has rised. The horse is actually, uh, bending it, Elba. But when the legs strike, you don't really notice it So much to the lower leg, which don't about here got a straight line. But this here it's actually the horses. Wrist. Looks like a name was actually a wrist. And from he would pay the I guess you could think of that Has been the palm of the hand over there and down he is where the fingers would stop. But the whole Zainy actually really has one one finger, which it walks on. And it comes out from this knock away here. That's a big knuckle. Um, this tire comes out here a bit of an angle and then under that of the truth, which is basically like a finger now, very big finger. Not so. As you can say. It's very different shape from human on or human leg for that medal. Actually gonna make the neighbor it's smaller. That's a little bit to exaggerate it. Let's run out additional on that. Still quite exaggerated. But, um, I'm happy without the 1,000,000 time the leg, actually, with this section of the leg, them drawing between these time knuckles does appear to get a bit larger towards the bottom . Get a bit of a horse like Look, they're going now. Um, now the chest over here, the length of the chest and belly. And what not from here to the horn leg, it's gonna be roughly equal to this distance here. Same as the length of the leg. So just estimate That's about here. That way, the back leg is gonna cross over with the belly. And you remember we discussed that land animals you can divide born into three sections off pretty much done that here. With the 4/4 being that raging here, No working on the second area, which is the Billy in the back in the back curves down after that little bump here behind the neck. And the lowest point of the back is pretty much immediately after that little bump, and then it starts to curve off again until it's almost the same heart as this hard point here and then about the front as a hard leg, he it starts to curve down again once more. Okay, Now we're gonna draw into the back leg and just gonna do that by growing in this somewhat irregular shape. Um, is like the with the lie of the animal and the nays about here and then the shin that I'm drawing the calf, which will later on to the ankle. We'll draw that in a second. Um, I haven't actually done them quite right. There should be more like that. Explain why that is in a second. So what, you're looking at here really is the back fine would come along. Here you have the hipbone starts something like over there, and you have not. So I bind coming out here towards the name. And then from here, guys, back. What's going on inside there? So all this area here and here. That's a whole bunch of muscle which helps the horse run at high speeds. Calling like Think of it like I am. It looks like he's wearing a Latin pants or something really quite bulky around that area. Okay, so you also want the hard leg should be coming down. And you want this part here, which is kind of the equivalent of base about foot. You want to be coming it down? Not always in a straight angle, because it depends. What position? The horses standing out, obviously. But it needs to be realistically supporting what's up here. So we're not drawing the leg like this on the horse in the standing position. That's not realistic. None of this bulk up here they supported by what you got here. You really want to look like this area here supporting that big, muscular region at the back of the horse? Okay. And as with the front, um, toe back to is also going toe come out forward. A bit of an angle there. It is quite similar shape from the toe on the front leg, and the ankle here should be about the same heart. Is the risk not exactly the same hot? What? You don't want to be careful, is it? The inside of the ankle here should always be lower than the outside ankle ankle Here. It's just the way the legs shaped. I'm raising that because it's looking like it too much of a regular shape to me. Um, the curves on animals tend not to be completely regular. You don't have really cleaned circles in this continent, usually some sort of irregularity, which now looks a bit more realistic. Okay, And at the back of the rump here, that's where the tiled come on. And the tile you can draw down toe. Have you been tossed? The ankle like up should be about the right links for a horse. You can use a lot of this stuff for, um, drawing donkeys and zebras or servant proportions A bit different, Like this Rampy obey relatively higher up in the zebra and the Thailand Zebra would not be completely covered with fair would be like just sounds like a tough to fair at the end, I believe. And the hair on the next stand stride up on a zebra. Now I'm going Teoh Thurman chest and I mean the rib cage of the horse would say something like this about back there. But it's not like a dog where after the rib cage, the stomach comes up with a curve like that. Really? The horse has one long, smooth line and does come up a little bit back there. But in an old runs, I do actually have quite a full chest and a bit of a full, either here from the leg, connecting to the the stomach. And that's gonna draw in the leg on the other side, which draught in a slightly different position from the other leg. The reason Bang that animals don't stand like they've been stuffed in a museum like a rail living animal will have its limits in slightly different positions, say, by drawing like this, it looks like animals actually alive. I would naturally behind, and I'm actually to draw the front leg lifted off the ground. Just you can see what that's like from this elbow point. He I'm gonna draw in the same position, but on the other side of the horse convey about sign links. No, I want to be a cool links from my side by swords. And then, um, just take a look at how I draw the joints, you and the legs bent because it's quite easy to draw. But if you find this correctly, it's really quite effective. Also making it look quite real. Okay, it's a little bit sketchy, but take a look at that. How I haven't just ruling this line. Connecting with this line there is like a diagram, which consummates, um, off by between. And that is the new job. Sorry, the risk joint looks like a neighbor is not in a tourist. Finally, we'll put the head in using the same principles as what we've already learned. So put the chin in life hanging off the head. They hit itself. Looks like it's hanging off Nick. Three curves at the bottom. There, big lip on the top, Jewell lower than both in the halfway point, and Chuck in North Stroller put the onion about sit, sit away from the top of the head and then put the years in pretty much to the back of the head. And you can put some hair in there if you want. Never say, if you actually gonna to a finish pace, you'd spend some more time doing the head, and that's what could be better. You might want to put in certainly send little touches like that one in the nectar. Give it a bit of definition. I've actually done the head a little bit small here. The hedge, but they left for the head should be about the same length of the next there. It's probably done. It had a little bit small, many to correct that, see if we can get that right. So try and get that line. Same is the length of the head she's in. The same technique is before to redo it. This kind of thing can happen when you're drawing an animal's body because there are just so many shapes and it's quite complex. Uh, especially the horse. It's actually good to be a perfectionist with you drawing because that's one of the areas where you really will make the greatest improvement if you just never completely satisfied with it. Keep trying to improve it and you will in price. This bottom line here comes further forward than the eye I actually put in into the second year, so it looks a bit more normal, and I think that's looking a lot better now. Okay, that should give you a basic idea for Sector. The horse we just tried firm in. Some of those lines really capture the more important parts of the horse's body. Sometimes they might be a bit of exaggeration that you need to do exaggerate important joints, for example, which I've actually done a little bit in some parts here really kind of emphasises the essence of horses shape. Getting that backing it in a nice kind of shapes quite important to and the top of the neck here often actually has been a very changing direction. Does it make to the head I have done here is a bit I'll do a bit further forward, - and right now, every guy that is the horse's body from side view 21. Horse - Body - 3D Angle: gonna draw the horse in from a three day perspective now, and when you're drawing an animal from a three day perspective, you can help to just start off with the geometric shape in that perspective that you try to do it from. So in the case of the holes, we're going to make a a rectangle, a prison, and we're gonna do that from the perspective that we're trying to draw the horse from. So start off with the rectangle, and then I draw old all the points back to common Vanishing Point site over there. Maybe, actually, I'm gonna vanishing point above the horse so that we can actually stayed back. Three d Perspective. Okay, Just estimating where lying to convince and would say something like that, right about the is incorrect wads. Now, as you remember, drawing a horse from Saudi the body which is gonna fit into this box here is the same heart as the legs are from the the distance from the top of the body to the bottom of the body of the same distance that the bottom of the body is to the ground. So if we actually draw the same size rectangle prison directly underneath this one, and we'll have that banishing back towards the same point something like, uh, just approximations. Because obviously the horse's body is not a geometric shape, so it's not gonna fit neatly into these lines anyway. But it's a good starting point. So startled, fired, drawing this main section of the horse here front and has discussed try and divide the animal's body into 4/4. Midsection and hind quarters Say you gotta be even I d he weather 4/4 again a guy. And I'm just gonna put in a geometric shape here, which will give you an idea of where the next guns ago. Um, I just draw centerline. He is weakened. Get equal amount of books on by side of the central on something like that with Nicole, Guy is gonna rub out fuel those construction ones we don't need there. Okay, so underneath the the chest weaken, putting hint of the front legs, sketching where they get a guy. And then I'll put Indication of Billy here. Really, From this perspective, it's you're not going to say a lot university. Say that and contour along which the back guys and you'll remember that the highest point in the back is just here behind with Nick joins the body and then not far behind. That is the lowest point of back 10 comes up again. The almost level with the highest point. You want that live today in the middle, And then from day on a the side, it's actually going toe. I got down a little bit. What you couldn't say from so abuse This check I'm gonna draw with the hind leg, which is something like that. You remember that May is about level with bottom of the body when you have the second section of the leg because the second section of legs actually an angle away from us, is the viewer. We're gonna draw it shorter than we normally would draw from another perspective. Then we'll finish off the leg with coming to the ground here out there, and I want to put in the hoof and a bit connected to the hope something like that. Don't we'll fix that off a bit lighter. That just kind of roughing it in for the Maine time, Try and get it same on the other side of the body like that trying to make sure his haunches or at least his wife, is Thea. Other listers watches the belly bit water. Probably. Okay, now put in the put in a line. He also going back in there, trying it down back in the same perspective that we can have the other back for on the same level. Okay, then we're gonna draw on the front legs, which Rick, closer together than one of drawn sketched in here's controlling the closer together, Um, the front of the horse. You can see the pectoral muscles here, which definitely not the same shape than human, that much narrower. And then next to the eyes, you have but one of the horses shoulders and below that, you've got the it actually four out of the horse you consume. Just drawing. And in a way that they're actually pointing towards each other slightly. This this angle on the inside, Actually, guys stripe down pretty much, if anything, this this bit here is a big, big up. But on the outside it, uh, that point towards each other and gives the horse this kind of knock kneed. Ah, that makes it look like it's no Kaneda But still, even though it looks that way, you still drawing quite straight down on the inside. And that's quite coming for who? Down most of that. No grenades look, and we try and draw this section with legs pretty much straight down. Don't forget to put in a nice car. Large joints. They're quite distinctive in a horse. And we grow on the who's which. Is that look like a section that's being taken out of our range or something? Some sort of section. It's been cut out of a spear. Okay, I'm just gonna fix up the back leg here. That looks a bit NATO, Robert. All the unnecessary grise there becomes beautiful to say what I've drawn you get. I just rolled out of the title coming down there, if you want, would be not necessary. And you get a pretty clear idea here of where the 4/4 within mid section is and where the on court it on. Just keeping that in mind makes it a lot easier to draw. And then quite like damn, maybe not quite that low down about here. Drill the beginning of the neck. Nick also goes quite found back on death there, actually drawing a bit of a shape. They're like what we do for the horse's head from 3/4 view. Next, Quite a narrow sort of shape in this you as the head, which is like the 3/4 view that we did have some head earlier on. You can pretty much apply that knowledge, which you've already gang trying it. That hitting You got that big, awful live, just blocking our vision of Nice to that channel. Three curves on the bottom of the head. Big, distinctive nostrils faces widest. Where the eyes about the white down the head. You guys back in and put the years on top there, put a bit of hair on there. If you want, you can put a few of our lawns longneck, which marked give you bit more, uh, impression that it's a three day object. It's just, uh, flat bunch aligns. Well, it is just a bunch of flatlines, but you don't people to think about. I want to look realistic, believable. You want notice with the belly here? That why we think of horses being quite a narrow animal? Quite large. And I don't this full bodied kind of belly. Uh, and from this perspective, you're not really going to say the tile, especially between clipped short. But the principles that I've used here, with the existing knowledge that we have and the on the use of the boxes in perspective can be used to get an idea of to really draw the horse from any angle. You just got to use that combination of what you know with Uh huh, The perspective. Israeli perspective. Using the box helps. A bit of photographic reference can also help if you drawing it from a particular unusual view, and you just don't know how to draw an aspect of the body. Photographic reference always helps, or even looking at a live animal if you have access to one. And that's pretty much a horse from three day angle. Tell you how to draw the horse's whole body from a three day perspective. 22. Wolf - Head - Front View: first thing to do when drawing a wolf's face. Using this technique is to draw a circle around. He in this circle is gonna be used for construction purposes. That's not actually gonna bay exactly the shape of the wolf's fights or anything like that . And meet halfway up a circle going to draw a line there, which is where you're gonna put the eyes. They're gonna be along that line. You want to try and get it Same heart along. Should I think I've managed there can help to use a rule of sometimes if you're having problems like that and it's gonna be another line straight through the middle or so, like, say, and along this central on here, right at the bottom where it makes the circle, we're going to draw large, somewhat circular shape. I'm just going to be a way we're gonna put the knives. Wolves have quite a large Nice. Then along with line here, we're gonna put the eyes. If you divide that into and divide, decide into as well it's gonna be with outside of our guys. It's drawing start with a circular shape, but wolves are also gonna make surrounded bossom doc flesh a bit like what we saw in the I feel like what we saw in the big cats we're drawing in their face or even a little bit. Like what? Getting a small camp. There is this kind of flesh around the garbage gives it a bit of a majestic look. So that light itself is gonna be quite round. You have flesh here. It pointed here. And he and and that in a points gonna point towards the NYSE more or less So do the same thing on this side. Just make sure you get that was large enough quite important at this stage to get to trying at the eyes and nice to look right before you draw on the other day tells if you don't get them right at this stage. So what harder to change it later on? Once you droning all these are the days house, especially based on whether the odds and the nice like hide it on the face. So we're just gonna just polite about on the nice here. Gonna drawn top lift. It's gonna go down. Was it guys out for turning back up again and going up in an almost vertical angle, more or less in line with better eyes. That and the top of the lip here is gonna be a bit lower than the top of the NYSE. This I've got about in the right position. The line coming up here is gonna be almost vertical. Not quite. It's gonna be pointing out of it. I do Like was on the other side. Looks about right. I'm just growing in the league. He now, um which again, to me, Doc Flesh. Like what? What's around? The ours called that in all this that you and at this stage, his lips will look a bit. We'd not a place you were gonna What's going on here? But you should also beginning a bit of a wolf like look going on between these three points , it's not looking both like yet you might need to fix something up and the chin from this angle that she's not gonna be much for further belies the lip there. And while the knives and the rest of the muzzle here are actually closer to us and the rest of the face, it's not pointing straight at us the way wolf tends to hold its head or a dog for that matter. The muzzle tends to bay angled down slightly. You can point the muzzle directly at you if it wants to, but it's not the comfortable position that they would hold their head in most of the time. And on the nose year, I'm gonna draw in the nostrils, which, uh, in front of you like a roundish sort of shape when they curl around to the side here, you tell me more what they looked like from the side of the draw, the side angle of Wolf's head. But you can't say the full nostril from the front year, really? And most of the nostrils not gonna be that obvious anyway, because it's on black Flash sign. If you imagine that there's an edge along here where the front years my see flatten and this is co curved, Nice along the edge Here, have a bit of a Sean. It's gonna look a bit lot of because of lots reflecting off there. The rest the night is gonna bay black on the lips, negativity black and skin around the eyes. It's gonna big black and then directly above the inside lawn on the eyes Here. You follow that out to the edge of the circle Age of the circle. He will be a roundabout where the top of the hideous All right, drawn some third there. But it doesn't look right, because I'm rushing it a bit fair along top of it. What I really want to see here these points here is where the ease connect with the head and I connect a little bit lower down on the edge of the head, like so and then from the side of the head here but above the eyes you have the outside of the year inside and outside of you both angled towards each other like so they made each other caught sharp pointed angle. We'll stand up quite point years. No, he is. Don't flop down like some dog braids day trying at the years about same hot and you can put a bit of fair inside the years. I mean, what Penn where you move his living? Most wolves living Coldwell turned up quite six thought if you're drawing something like an Indian wolf which lives in quite a hot climate and it's actually going to completely change where you're gonna put the outline of the face. Most walls that line in the face is distinguished by the long feel they have. So we're gonna draw this wolf is if it is a cold weather animal, simply because that's in my schools. Do you live in cold weather? Cold climate? Rather. And I'm gonna put a bit of a diamond shop there from the sides of the head. Um, almost like its widest. Where, um what were the odds are that's one of the distinctions between dogs and wolves. Actually, walls tend to have a broader looking face partially because of that six there, kind i e. You can go Teoh different length and getting the the federal of right. But it's time consuming toe to really drawing old for their get it to look a right. You can say that I don't quickly and not concentrate too much on the shape of these little wages I'm drawing. It tends to look in on this realistic, less convincing. It's almost not worth your while. You're gonna rush it. Remember that circle was they're partly just for constructions of this circle. Its edge along the bottom here is not gonna be where the bottom of the wolves faces were not really going to use that section of the circle at all to be difficult for me to draw the fear on this side of the thanks. Well, because the cameras come out of in the way I could turn the piece of paper if I wanted to. But I don't want it to, uh, angle off the camera's view of the drawing. Say, I'm not going to spend too much time getting it exactly right. The most important thing is you understand how to construct a bowl of spice. So I'm going to put in the pupils now. And you could put a bit of a show on there if you want. Put a bit of the shadow color in the flesh around the always. I think we already did not. That doesn't dark enough tonight. Okay, I and from he you might just want Teoh put in some darkened markings on the top part of the wolves head and vice, because that's one of the distinctive elements that gives the wolves there wolf like appearance. So I'll just draw a roughly where I would expect dark markings to start Okay, around the eyes it's going to be a bit lighter also. And with wolves, the markings Very a lot from individual to individual that this is just an approximation and probably our individual wolves which look a bit like when I'm drawing here. So just color it in can look good if you shied stuff in at the same angle that the surgery grows. But and because of the difficult angle that I'm drawing from here, I'm not going toe demonstrate that I'm just gonna try Philippians. You got an idea what it looks like and see how making these this part of the face grey makes the drawing that much more wolf like I'm gonna come in not a bit darker. Also to see you can actually see it, how much or how much this is actually showing up on the video because shaded in quite lightly there. So I'm gonna show it in some of it a bit. DACA walls for can actually be quite difficult surrender because there is a lot of variation in darkness and it's seemingly random doc courageous don't have hard edges like the markings on the zebra or a Thai girl. Something like that. Just gonna rise part of the circle here, which interfering without perception of the wolves Vice. Really? The edge of the wolves Muzzle Martin. They barely visible here. Now you have it. That's how to draw Wolf's face. 23. Wolf - Head - Side View: we're going to draw a wolf's face from side view and do this, we're actually going to apply some of the knowledge that we discussed in the lesson about drawing a bull spice from front view. So again, I'm going to start with a circle. And again, this is just a construction one. It's not gonna be the actual civil weight of the face or anything like that. And it's also like drawing the face from the front view. It's important you don't put too close to the bottom of the page because the bottom of civil space is actually gonna be lower than the bottom of this circle here. So I'm just gonna put along here the halfway out point, and it's like sai, we're gonna have the other than knows, angled. Ah, downward angle. And as you remember from front on and the front on drawing, the noise was in line with the bottom of that circle. So we're going to the same thing again here, and I'm just gonna I haven't done that line completely straight there. It's trying to line it up with the with the top of the bottom of the page allies really more important that, but it's in line with this one you wanted to do about same angle anyway, right in front here, where this line makes the edge of the circle. We're actually gonna draw the eye in there, and that's not gonna be the front of the face in front of the face is gonna be further forward than the are. I don't know of any animals where the eye sits right in front of the face like that from side view is usually in the bridge of the nose, which comes forward, then the IRS. Sorry, I'm just going to sketch in rough out one of now. They are looking inside and you can see, uh, just over here. We want the lot. The line from the I it actually made up the top of way. We're gonna draw the NYSE, so I'm gonna draw the nose in here and a bit of estimation going on. Just estimating the exact size of the nose as we discussed in the one about drawing a false face from front on the nostril curves around the side. Here is the NYSE, like, say, like that. And from this angle, you can pretty much say the whole nostril. Then from the top of the North knows there I'm gonna draw line straight back towards the I , and I'm gonna divide from the tip of the nose here to the edge of circling. I'm gonna try and divide that line in three. It's doing a rough estimate here. No, I guess that all day and and from this third here actually gonna start drawing the line up like, say, and it's going to kind of make with circle and continue enough with angle likes about half my back. The's circle is where the year's gonna attached to the head like So if you recall from the front on tutorial the years heart will be a bit less than this. Yes, I'm happy without the heart of that Here, there going to come back here and behind that we will see the back of the head, which on of, uh, continue a bit of an upward angle, but then angled down pretty soon after that. Like so as a with the front on particular because of the angle that was saying the snap from here. The top lips gonna bay Not far below the the bottom of the noise. And then after that, the chin is gonna be not much available. I the lips I and I want these owner drawn at angle here along here kind of curves around like so. So that's where the top lips gonna bay. It's gonna curl up where the chin is gonna come over and then once touches this line here, it's gonna curve up also right? And I don't want mouth to you know what? The edge of this mouth to come any hard in the top of the nose there. So if you trying imagine a horizontal line here about as high up as I want the mouth to come the chin or out of the bottom jaw continues to angle up more or less straight lawn before turning around going back down. Now, looking at this snout looks a little bit no, quite right to me. And so I'm actually gonna make that leap a little bit lower because I think I made that bottom jaw to all of this. Okay, already, that's looking a lot better, all right. And if the lines you the construction lines have drawn in don't exactly fit on you feel like changing something slightly is gonna improve it. Get ahead and do that because these are guidelines more than hard rules you. The most important thing is toe try and make your drawing look like the animal that you are . In fact, drawing. You can say I'm making minor adjustments here, like so we're actually gonna put in, uh, hint of the year on the other side of the head also like that. And the bottom is the year O Connor made up with It's rough affair comes around the back, back of the jewel, like so All right. I just put in some, uh, some indication of fluffy, fluffy nous around here because certainly with the my Sewall's, they got quite thick, fair around the neck, and it helps distinguish the back of the year. Also, I haven't done a great job. Was the fear that you just want to make it look a bit shaggy who cover fair of it more in a light up lightest lecture. But for now, I'm happy with that. The mine thing. He is really getting the structure of the head rot, and it is looking like a wolf. So we're just going to color in the black skin around. Hi there. You put in the people a bit of a Sean shed, I so and you'll remember that the top half of the wolf's face is darker. I was gonna show you it was a lighter around the eyes. Just wanted drawing this line here. So I'll show you one example of how you and I want to Drawing the coloration flesh on the noise is gonna be a black site. You're not really going to see that nostril so clearly, But it is important for your own knowledge just to know what what shape the nostril is. Okay, now, just color in the top half of the top section of the head, which would have dark of the The reason on showing this two years because that coloration around the eyes and the top half of the head bang doctor really adds to that impression that what you're looking at is a wolf and huskies. That was similar distribution of coloration on their on their heads as well. Aled Domestic dogs actually trace their ancestry to wolves. It's just a matter of how much they have been modified through selective breeding site. If you understand how to draw Wolf, it's really going toe help you drawing domestic dogs as well. Bulldog, for example, has come from wolf ancestors and Bain bread with a modified nisei, you'd start off thinking. Well, what checkers are wolves head and then kind of modified from there, making the necessary adjustments. You have to go back a long way. That toe get to the wolf ancestors of domestic dogs, probably about 9000 years that was being domesticated for a long time. I'm calling the toe pops in and you might want Teoh put in a bit of fluff in the in the years on the hair and use the we could go into a lot more detail with getting the the fair right around the the fights. But as I said, we're gonna talk about, uh, I'm gonna talk more about not getting a fair rot in later lectures. Let me talk more about fair and the whiskers on dogs and others important on caps. But they do have whiskers and and I've drawn this shape here, which kind of gives you an idea where the whisky lines come back, Teoh. So if you wanted to. You could draw some whiskers coming out of there. But don't make it look too obvious like I've done there, because it'll paper will start to think, well, looks a bit more obvious than it does on a rail wolf. So rub it out. We'll leave it like that. If you repeat this video a few times, you're you should get the hang of drawing a wolf's face from Siberia. 24. Wolf - Head - Three Quarter View: okay, I'm gonna draw a wolf's face from 3/4 view now. So applying what we've learned in the front view inside view to toils, I'm going to start off by drawing sphere. And like with circle that we drew when drawing the wolf's face from side view and from front view, we're going to have a line dissect the sphere. Or in the case of the previous two drawings, was circle. We're gonna have a line dissected into that line, is going to come horizontally across like this, and it's gonna be another one vertically, which is gonna be where the middle of the face lines up with. Ah, like like so okay and that line down the center of the face there. I'm trying to get that right for 3/4. It may change if we feel like it's not quite in the right place just to tell us where the center of the wolf's faces. Now you'll remember from the previous ones. Also, that in line with the bottom of that circle is where the bottom of the nose is going to go and you want to leave some space on the paper below this fear because and the face will come down a lot of than that. So start here by actually gonna line up the nose with the edge of the face. Here, try and get the right angle with 3/4 angle we're talking about. So I'm gonna stop by drawing the bottom of the NYSE, touching this line here more or less in line with the side of the spear also, And the nose. I'm actually going to drawing too much data, I'll just yet. But you imagine from the top of the nose here a law and going straight back to that lawn through the it goes through the center of the sphere because that's the heart that the eyes gonna bay. And you remember that that line we draw on the side you want also, um, now just the north of one of the knife. You're going tohave not far below. It is going to play with the top live. Here's not the far below. That's gonna be where the chin is. So we've already got a few locations pointed out and what we're gonna do, using them from the bottom of the chin to the top of the NYSE. We're actually gonna draw a circular shape. This is circle from an angle, because what we're actually drawing here is we're simplifying the muzzle into geometric shape, which is, in this case, a kind like shape which are attached to the front of the spear. Like so, uh, and it's like a kind that's had this pots lost often angle, Um, where the co inmates the spear. You also have around this sort of shape. You know, you'll say it's not completely around because it's matching up with a curved surface rather than a flat surface. Okay, and it's not perfect. Doesn't need to be perfect, but And I do want the bottom of the kind to be in line with this centre line here. So something like that looking a bit more realistic. Okay, now we're going to go back to those points we put in for where the nose was gonna go, and the front of the nose is gonna be on this face of the cone like show still in the like shape, if you will. And then I was actually gonna stretch back along the curved side here. So imagine somewhat like this. And the new nostril is going to largely on the front surface there. But then it does curl around to the side here like so and then the lip, which is gonna be a not far below the bottom of the night. You draw that? Just a curve like this. Notice how the line here too much broader, angled and on the other side here, that's because of the angle that were looking at it from okay. And once we reach that edge of the kind there, the lip starts going up again. And remember that we don't want the mouth coming any higher than the top of the nose here. In fact, this angle it's probably gonna be a bit Fitbit laws. Not that looks about right. I'm gonna put the chin in and we don't want to debate too much job. Lay that top lip because the lip does hangover the bottom jaw to a large degree draught like so we're not gonna fill in the rest of this area here just yet because because of the way that it's covered in fair, not tends not to be so defined. The line along there, we're gonna move on to another part of the face, which is top of the muzzle. And if you remember from a side view, we divided this line. I just which we've drawn, you know, along the centerline, human and divided into three parts. Try it on the three core parts in this top third here, that's where the the angle changes, starts curving up. And where this curve makes the eye level line there going to put the on like so and the shape of the eye that we've got there in part on it's quite narrow, partly because the angle with viewing it from and partly because the bridge of the noise years actually covering the inside of the loss of blocking part of our view of the we'll be right that surrounded by that doc black flesh under the eye you'd expect to see we have a cheekbone formation. You may also see changing coloration around the eyes locked around the arms, just going to draw it shape around. Now which starts is like a check by, unlike shaping and Tansen to simply a change in pigmentation, and the face will actually widened this primarily because of fair. You're gonna draw on Indian awful. Some other wolf that lives in warm weather. You know, actually have the check buying khirbet the edge of the face. And from here from the inside, I we're full up a line, which is not gonna be the same caves this fear. Remember, that's just a construction align. They hit itself, actually has bit of a different shape, like so. And we have another center line here in the spear breaking, but said third dimension, we're that would made up. If this lawn from the eyes coming away, we're gonna put the inside of the top of the year. Then we're gonna follow this part of the NYSE like Sai put the I in on the other side here skin putting it all on oil on black flesh around it. You notice I put the eyes sitting on top of this thing center line here. That's because I drew the center line a little bit too low. In my estimation, you do want to try and get the this central on really halfway between. Well, it's not actually gonna be halfway because you're drawing a three day matter. But you wanted to appear that it's halfway down this fear. Sorry, If you do get that right, then you'll draw that center line through the center of the eye. But really, it doesn't matter too much as long. As long as the it looks like it's in the right place, it looks like it's not in the right place. It could be a that you've drawn this I a little line to Heil to. I was something like that. And I'm just gonna rough in a little bit of that area around. The only way you might have been a lot of pigment, um, have a bit of a diamond shaped there on the side of face with the uh huh. And for like this towards either the you remember is it's not gonna be as long as that it's going a bit shorter than that. I estimate about over there. If you follow this Central on here ran to where the other side of the head would bay. It's gonna be a way you would made up with the head side in the room. We've got pointed years from the wolf like Sai. Okay, we're gonna do the same with a line from the eye on this side and draw the either from the heart. So I get the years the same hot again with the long for we're going to try and get a big the diamond shape here. It's a bit wider than the sphere up grow on the back of the head and you do tend to get some a lot of pigmentation around the neck. He front of the neck, which kind of makes up with and the lower half of the face. You do also tend to have, like, a darker pigmentation in in a kind of teal on or so his line comes back from behind the eye , which will signify a distinction between the lighter bottom half of the face in the darker upper half of the first. And I'm actually gonna rise some of the spee here that we used for construction because we don't want to confuse us. That's not where the bottom of the head is. And I'm gonna write some of the construction for the cylinder as well. Some of the central on there. All right. If I was gonna make some adjustments this drawing up, maybe make that snapped a little bit longer. So it's more wolf lack At the moment it still looks like a wolf. But it could also pass for a husky, because this now is perhaps a little bit too small. But I'm still pretty happy with that. So we're just gonna finish it often? All put a bit of fair in the years there. Now, actually, you do want Teoh, maybe have a bit of darkness in middle of the year there around it. And you cannot do that more Daytona being lazy there. Okay, I'm just rounding off the corners on the top of the year. So pointed, but I know a little bit too pointy on doll coloring some of the the top of the face Now, just to give it that really wolf like appearance. So I'm just putting that dr sort of tear on there on that song and we'll have it up the bridge in the NYS. You can draw on a few whiskers here if you really want not too many and don't make them too long. Two cats like on if you want to make it look more wolf like from what we've got here, you can dio it rough looking for not such a claim edge to to it. Doing that will come make what time consuming. And we just feel in the eyes there with people's the shadow neo I also with her in the reflection and color in the NYSE, which tends to have black flesh a little bit of, ah, shining reflection on top there. And you can actually did a nostril bit dark there. If you want toe show, people can still say it. Let's make that put on Jor Bit. You know, I could cry. So with the the lip that's gonna make it look a bit more convincing and more wolf like - maybe exaggerated the diamond on this side of the face, but too much? No, you have it Wolf's face from three court of you. 25. Wolf - Body - Side View: Okay, We're gonna draw a wolf's body from side view. So we're going to stop this by doing two squares, one on top of the other. Andi, as usual on not measuring the squares, I'm just approximating them. The important thing is that the sides Airil about equal. You don't have to worry about getting the 100% strike. Okay, Beside the longtime drawing here on the left, the bottom half of this bottom square is gonna be roughly lined up with the back of the front leg for the wolf. So the front leg is structured that the full leg is like this. And then, as with cats, wolves, digital Greg, which means that they walk on their tippy ties. And so what we think of is the foot or the hand is largely raised off the ground. Having said that, there's a lot more, uh, foot that seems to touch the ground in dogs than in cats. The reason being that dogs have these long, thin fate. Where is captain of short, stout feet? And so you've got this kind of shot going on. We're gonna put the flesh around up in a second, but we're gonna just sketch in some or God lines. First the elbow, it's gonna be roughly in line. Miss this this line here where the two squares made, and from there the leg kind of goes forward. You have this chest which was actually chest his shoulder. But the shoulders and the chest kind of jut forward quite a bit. And around that, you'll get around that shoulder, you will get the chest here. Now the back is gonna be roughly the same height as the top of the two squares here, but it's not 100% horizontal. What you're gonna find is above the shoulder blades. Here it's at its highest point, and it's gonna come down to its lowest point. And then it's going to stop realising again, slyly side at the back. It's almost as high as appear, but not quite. And we're gonna do that, um, to any divided. It's an indefinite point. We're gonna just ruffian way we're gonna put the back leg now and we want the May what the new you also around just area here about the same heart is the elbow on and again, I'm not actually gonna draw in the flesh just yet. I'm just gonna drawing some guidelines. You definitely want the ankle here to be hard. And where the wrist of start where the I guess that would be the back of the palm. You want the ankle to definitely hard often that I and you also want to make sure that when it's in a standing position, this ankle should really be fairly straight under the rub. So it's holding up that white at the back and again you're gonna get. It's standing on tippy ties, but you're gonna get more tippy toe here than, uh, then you wouldn't a cat, for example. Then the chest of the animal is going to start just below where these two squares made. And then you've got the shape of the rib cage, which is somewhat like this. And after the rib cage, the dogs stomach comes up quite sharply like that when I said dog document wolf. But a lot of these principles that apply to drawing a wolf we're gonna apply drawing dogs as well, because all domestic dogs bred from walls if you go back far enough now, in terms of the head, wolves tend to hold their head above the level of the spine. Not always that, you know, obviously they're an animal that can change position. But generally speaking, when they're walking around in that kind of thing, they'll hold their head up above the level of the back. You, which is different from some animals, like cats with where the back will actually be in line with the level of the head. So we're just gonna draw up like that. And even though it is coming up, you still need to remember that the spine is connecting at the back of the skull is not connecting at the bottom of the skull. It's the neck. Connect to the back of the head and we draw in just roughly the shape of the head here. Um, if you want to remember how to draw the head properly, you can take a look at the lesson about that one separately. I'm not I'm not going to do that. Too much data here. But one thing that we didn't cover in that other one, which you need to know for drawing the Walsall bodies that head the next gonna be a bit longer than the head there. So I'm happy enough without the length of the body behind. Say how we've got ah, behind the shoulder blades here comes down right. We want the length of the head to come out of b equal Teoh half this length from there to rob. So takes up length of the head and go one to and that's about that's about rot. What? Just curve down the ramp a little bit sooner That and because of anything, I've got the back a little bit too long there, Carrie, using the head there have been able to figure out what a correct proportions for the length of the body. Okay, so we can go in and flesh in the rest of the animal now, so I'm going to stop by just doing the rest of the front leg here. As I said, the back of the front leg is gonna be roughly in line with the side of the square. There. We're gonna have it coming up like this. We sent elbow about the same level where the two squares met. Then we have that shoulder in the chest which jut out quite far forward. Thanks. I we've got the foot country putting on just kind of putting in the flesh around around the laundry already drawn. We've already got the chest and stomach in there, and from them, we put into the hind leg and you can say I've drawn up a line here. We should be roughly where the bone in the upper lakes gonna go. But you're not going to say that because covered in muscle. So the lineup here, the upper legs, actually, on a day like that, and then behind that area again, you're gonna have a bunch of muscle around it. So it's gonna come on something like that. But once year into the lower parts of the leg starts getting quite a bit similar there. I just notice how curved around like that. And by the time we get to the ankle there, the the the legs reasonably thin at this point. All right? We also want the tile coming off the back here on the tiles, going toe. Hang down, Teoh. Yeah, just below that ankle there. And I'm just changing the shape of the roughly. I said it looks natural with the tile behind it, and I'm pretty happy with that Now. I will do the trick. All right. I'm just gonna rough in the face. They're using the same kind of principles that we discussed in the the lecture. What tutorial? About how to draw a wolf spice from side view. And you'll remember that the eyes a reasonable distance behind this point here. I didn't make that clear talking at this point here. You know, put the ear in. You might be able to say the year on the other side as well. Like that. Okay, so you've got the basics for our wolf from side view, But before we decide side that's finished, you might want to put in the legs on the other side also, so that doesn't look like the animal just has two legs. You can put those other two eggs in slightly different positions if you want, you know? So drawing a the tires on the fate while you're at it on remembering that wolves another canines don't have retractable clothes like cats today. Sorry. You probably won't be able to say much of them. The clothes, because often they're covered by a bit of third, But if there so you can draw them in. If you want complete in a bit of data all around the ankle there. So it does actually look like this in bone underneath it. Just make sure by the Naser sign hot. And you can say I haven't done something. Not quite right. With the second leg there, the position for the second leg is not different enough from the first from this leg here. Thought they are, but it is for the Ford. It's actually looking like the leg on the other side is attached. Further forward, then the leg on this side, which is not what we want. So I'm actually going Teoh Ready? Just that. It's not a look a bit more natural now, okay? And before we call it quits, you might just want to also put in a bit of fair around around the body Sigh wolves have Ah , quite a bit. The fair around the neck tends to be quite a bit longer, so you might just want toe drool that in both on the top of the neck and underneath it. And to make it obvious, you might actually need to rub out the the line that you've drawn under Nyssa. Okay, you can put a little bit of first awaiting the face there, bit of emphasis around my scapula. And, of course, the tile is, uh, there's a lot of fair in its I looking at too much detail there that you get the idea, and that pretty much sums up how to draw Wolf's body from side view. 26. Cow - Head - Profile View: Now we're gonna draw the cow's face from side view. Perhaps cattle would be more appropriate and going to stop by drawing a triangle. And I want the length of these two sides that I've just drawn to the equal because the angle that we're gonna be drawing of the front of the face of the cow here is gonna be 45 to graze on. I'm just guessing here, getting that approximately 45 degrees triangles, Just construction lines. No, actually, the now one of the cow's head. Um, but it is in line with a lot of pots, the at one. And like we did with the front view of the cow's head, we're actually gonna divide this into three equal sections. And again, I'm doing this. What kind of guessing set? Gonna try and get it right. Okay. But to Ballarat. And if we project that top line, he home to the front edge of the face. You'll remember that where the top of the whole kind of where that square is shape of the snout begins. But from this year, it's actually more of a circular shape. So we're gonna turn that into circle, which almost reaches the bottom line here? No, quite. And you remember, just below that line, we had the nostrils from this few nostril. Looks more like this kind of shape again you go that fleshy nose which doesn't have any growing over it, that will come down to the front lip, which would be more or less where age of the circle is there. And most of that top lip is gonna be overlapping the bottom job. But you will say a little bit of the July there have a chin below, depending on of youth. Sometimes you want Teoh Chin, it'll actually we're gonna draw in here. Just you know where it is. Okay, you do like that. I have done the mouth coming too far back. There's gonna rise up, and then once the chin comes back up, then you have another curve. Comes back down like this and we'll come back to that in a second. But we're gonna draw the front edge of the the cow's head, which come up away here. And if you remember from the front view growing Alcide, the I is about 2/3 of the way out. I'm gonna draw a little bit in front of this line here and around the I'm gonna emphasize that kind of puffiness and a little bit keep drawing up to hear that same angle actually passed the triangle here because we're gonna It's gonna be a lump on the head where the horns grow out of like, so And And I remember that the bottom line is that years in wine with er so pop that in back here also, and the bottom of the year is actually going to meet up with the jaw line so you can actually draw that in it. Also, if you want, Joel comes back a little bit like so then Julen actually comes on you like that and you can see I've got this other line kind of middle of the head with some flesh hangs down lower than the Jolan itself that would connect onto the neck. Look. So yeah, counts of big ears. So drawing up to about here not too far below him, the horns are and the distance from the I to the top of the fleshy part of nice Here, it's about that distance there. We're gonna be a similar length to the year, which it is, so you can keep on sketching that for uncomfortable. We've got about the right size and shape, okay? And the back of the head he's going to and come down here and connect to the neck hooch. We can explore more when we look at the full body of the cabin from he him in the you would expect the neck Delmas comes straight back, and then the cow has very horizontal back in line with Nick, but we're concentrating on the head. He is. The last part I'm gonna do is to show you just gonna show you how to draw the horning from this angle if you imagine cylinder coming towards you, but not directly. It's coming in a bit of an angle. He draws her to be even angle, and it really helps Shy. What what shape do you imagine I was gonna draw? Cylinder like that would come to that point and then changes position and actually turns upwards. Which case you just draw triangle triangular kind of shape that with curved edges there. So it looks natural on horn shaped and you've got this line I've lapping that section of the hole in there, so that really shows the angle that you're saying the horn from? I just wrote out the construction line they have to see on. Did you see? You can say that I'm talking about like Sai. If you want, you can imagine if you're not viewing the face from exactly saw it on, you might be able to stay a little bit of a hold on the other side, and the rest of the head can still appear to bait more or less exactly saw it on without it being exactly you can. You can put in a little bit of the horn or even a little bit of the other year if you wanted, like so and you can certainly pretty more detail around the eye if you wanted. And, as ever said, you don't know. I saw flashes, but you can always use fighter reference. Any more data? All there, that's a draw. A cow's face from the thought 27. Cow - Head - Front View: in order to draw a cow's face from front view, we're going to start off by drawing three squares, one on top of the other. I'm just gonna draw them in Freehand. I don't need to be perfect, but they need to be around about Yeah, right. And I'm not gonna drawn into dark of the just construction lines. They're gonna help me place the different parts of the cow's face in the right place. So the bottom square here, it's gonna help us place the end of the muzzle, which itself actually has quite a square, is shaped to a but doesn't fit completely nightly in this square. Um, what is going toe fit along the edge here of the the square, the nostrils and just observe the shape of the nostril too. I'm drawing and you'll say that cows nostril comes up alongside here in line Mr Side of the Square. Then we're gonna put the lipin and you want a raise. More distance between the nostrils. All SAGES, they were that on the lips be like an upside down the shape. It obviously very, very broad. So it doesn't actually look like a very and then you'll say Chin, which similar width to the square and the bottom is a general ban line with the bottom of that square Muzzle here from the top lip will actually brought is on the square itself. So we just draw it out like that. The lines ago all my stride up, pointing a little bit in words and like dogs or cats, cows have fleshy parts of the nose which is not covered by fear. So we'll draw the outline of that, which comes from top of the nostrils here like that. And then from the bottom of the nostrils actually makes up with the lip like, say, then moving up to the next line. He if we split that in half, we want that distance again on the outside, here and on this side as well. That's gonna help us place. Theo, I told you, gonna tell us where the edge of the face comes around to. So I starting sitting around about here. Age of the face is gonna have a very slight curve up to this point here again on this side and along this law in here, right on the sides of the head. We're gonna have. The bottom is the the I and being hurtful, the eyes are placed on the side of the head in the flesh and muscles And what not around the on a cat can sometimes be quite puffy, like this region around here. You must want toe joked that in a bit. Probably done that are a little bit too small there. And of the are head comes back in like I probably don't yet They had a little bit too broad . If anything, I'm just gonna make a bit narrower because I'm doing this by I'm not actually measuring it with a ruler. And you can make slut it mistakes like that Okay, fixes it up a bit. As I was saying, above the I head sloped back in which it is not as narrows the square and then above the square. This is kind of mound on the top of the head where the horns they're attached to is actually like the home was attached to the skull side. They've got, like that foundations in this area here and the horns are not restricted to mile cattle. Female cows can also have horns. Just depends more on the braid, whether it's a mile or a female, No one's gonna also vary in shape, depending on the braid. I thought, What up, guys? Into the years shake that are like wit comes straight out and then it curves back in and cares back the other way Just gonna rub out someone necessary lines on the So I hear so I can famine. There's always a bit more now cattle have from the last long eyelashes. You can draw that. And if you want and again on this side, just notice how the top of the there, uh, somewhat like in a library on is placed further out on the bottom there. As I said, you you tend to get like, bit of a puffy puffy might not be the right way because it looks quite hard, but a bit of a rise. The area around the the eyes. I'm just drawing into contest. Give a bit of that impression. I'm also gonna put in some contours on the bridge of the nose here and this one element still missing. I've done the eyes a little bit too big, but that's a rock. Still one major element missing that and That's the years, and you may not have noticed this before, but cows actually have really large is so the length of the And if I take it about that distance there on top of the fleshy part of the nose to the I heart, I don't give us a reasonable idea for how long that you should be from the face at an angle from the bottom of the I, because the bottom of the E protections to the head more or less in line with the bottom of the a lot. And we'll do that distance again on the other side of the head. On the top of that, you might line up round about here, depending on the position that Tim So we just draw that in. And after the attachment, the head it comes down a little bit. You guys back up, give it a nice curve. I hope that you will come back down to somewhat where top the eyes. There. You also have the outside, you hear kind of fold in on itself over there, and we do the same on the other side. Try and get symmetrical. - I'm just gonna make the it's not a little bit. Water there say looks a bit more realistic. Yeah, we have ah Cal from or a bull if you want from from here. 28. Cow - Body - Side View: there are going to draw a cow's body from side view. Now, we're actually gonna start off with a square and you can draw the square light. Let's just just there for construction. And I'm not measuring it. So I might beginning completely right. But you want to try and get it? Say that besides, are all equal is a square should bay, and otherwise it kind of defeats the purpose of using it there for construction. So first thing I'm gonna do is every here, along with this started the square of me here. I'm going to draw the back of the full legs so I'm not gonna put any day tells yet. Way should really be professionally. Drawings is by just trying to rough in the proportions first, uh, we want the leg, the full leg at the back here. We want the the hind leg more or less in lawn with this law in here. And obviously you want to bottom of the truth to be level if the if the cavity is actually standing on level ground. I just noticed the shape of the hooves there, Uh, can't have split hooves. It's not like a ah horses Haith were. It's just one big nail on cows and not closely related to horses site. You get a split while Houthi looks quite different. And I could It is made from the same stuff is our nails. So gives you an idea of what it's made from. And there's also another little piece. Uh, that pops out the back here that doesn't actually touch the ground. And as I was saying, You want to try and get before you get too much data that you really want to get the proportions and stuff in place. So about halfway up this square, that's gonna be where I'm going to use that as a reference point because half right now between the bottom in this halfway point, just 1/4 of the White Square is actually where I want to be drawing the wrist. This is a cow. It looks like a nay, but it is the fall eggs. That is, in fact, the wrist. Okay, then the leg does actually get a little bit further apart past the halfway point on the square, and and just below that you'll have the chest Ragen of the cow, which hangs down a bit lower than that point and does come up almost touching this lawn, and then it changes direction going back down again. And you got that big, bulky kind of stomach. Cows are really designed for carrying a heavy lied the hard leg. He is gonna come up in at some point, gonna cross over this line here. So we may. I need to raise pilot line. If we've gone too far, we're gonna be able to figure it out from from how we draw the horned leg beside the front of the hind leg on in some positions, it always looks like a straight line. It's not like some other animals where the changes in the bone and the curve and what not quite off this on the cow could be more subtle like this. And you can draw that leg up. I mean, what you tend to find is that the flesh here does connect to the stomach thought because of the muscles within the leg, you can't actually say a bit of differentiation between the leg and the rest of the body. Quite fire up. It's up to you. How far you drop along, toe. Actually, show you that and the back of the leg. And in the main time you can see where the joint is. And this pointy part here that ankle is definitely higher up in the wrist. Just remember that when you drawing the ankle, make it higher up on the wrist and then the leg he is is almost parallel with that. No, quite. And then doesn't come very far for good. Back out and start turning into the upper leg slash bottle. And you want to keep in mind that this raging here is held up by that legs. A lot of the white should be over this part here. You don't a droll this pot further back than that part, okay? And the back side of the cow is really square. What will square than in pretty much any other animal that I've saying that I can think of . So I'm not exaggerating the angles here. It's almost like a right angle at the back here. Then out of the top, tile grows and just kind of hangs down the Honda legs and has a bit of a tuft of hair on the end, like a lion's tie or something like that. Thought Tuft is probably similar. Hot Teoh way. Put the ankle in the in the back. You can say I drew on a really quite a horizontal line for the back. It's not completely horizontal, but it is very, very kind of straight spine for holding up that heavy load. Very strong coming back by. And your backbone is going to bay pretty much in line with that top of the square that we drew earlier on. And you're gonna have a bit of a curve, he at the top of the scapula because remember, you gonna have a I am buying, not raging there. And then after that, you get the neck coming out and again. The neck is quite horizontal. It does does have a bit of an upward angle to it, but not a lot go pretty straight kind of law and gunnel while long and the neck comes up. And remember that when you're drawing the neck, the neck needs to be long enough so that when the countenance to feed on the ground or something, it's neck and head are actually gonna be able to read to the ground. Sorry to doing that that we've got half with square here. You divided in quarters here. That's where the bottom of the heads going today. So if you've got a bottom of the neck here about 45 degree angle or something like that up until were made to the bottom of the head, you're gonna have enough, Nick. And the head's gonna be large enough that you're actually going to the But this cow would actually be ableto lane down and stretch its neck and its head and reach the grass from the ground. That's how we figure that out. I don't have done the neck up here about a 45 degree angle. And when I reach this this point here, which is about 1/4 of the way from the top, drawn in just some construction lines around where the side of where the cow's head. It's going today and you remember from the via when we went over, had a draw inside of a cow's head. Do you remember how to do that from there? So I'm not going toe drawing all the construction lines again. I'm just gonna do it quickly now . If anything, I've probably done the head a little bit to lodge. And so that means that the angle of the neck maybe being a little bit too upward. But I don't think it's significantly too large. And I could just shave off a little bit on the bottom here, and I will probably start to look a bit more in proportion. All right, now, remember, we drew this 45 degree line up here for the neck. It's not actually going to be a 45 degrees and in real life to get a bit of a curve to it. And what? Not more like this. And the legs can drawing the legs on the other side of the body. So it looks a bit more natural, keeping in mind here that there is a lot of white for the cow tow hold up. Say its legs of not gonna bay held together most of the time. Most the time they're gonna bay spread apart. To some degree, you're not gonna be able to see a whole lot of the who's being split from this angle. But you might say just the edge there. And if to fail, which a cow refers to the female but you can use these principles for drawing mild cattle as well. But if you are drawing family and you obviously put the other in, has four nipples hanging down from it black site and you might just want to put in a few other lines here and there. Toe. Emphasize the volume Sigh. You can put in a bit of the hip by name. You can often say the hip bine quite prominently on Careful and might draw a couple of lines here, and they had to show the volume is this bulging stomach that it has some of the folds in the skin. You don't always have to do these kind of lines. That implied volume on some animals that I find when you're drawing account really, really does help to, uh, make it look more convincing and more realistic. You can say already, I'm just putting those lines and already the cows looking a lot a lot better in a little convincing. All right, so it's gonna fail in a couple of lines here, back around where the tile waas and that pretty much concludes, had a drool, a cow from side view. I'm just noticing now that the chest here should probably be a little bit further down. You do want the chest. There's bottom 0.2 based in LA level to the stomach. Here's and that this time that really does conclude how to draw a cow's body from side view . So it gives out a guy, um, and say, I got 29. Bird Wing Anatomy: before drawing any birds were going to actually talk about the anatomy off the bird's wing . It's really worth knowing this before you actually before he actually drew a bid. But it's not possible for me to give you specific proportions of the wing that I'm drawing , because the proportions of the wing gonna vary a lot from Spacey's two spaces. Some birds have a wing that's quite thick from front to back, others out wing that's quite thin from front to back. Some have very long wing. Some have a shorter wing, and the relationship between this length of this part of the wing and that part of the wind could be different in different species. So what would just gonna fix on the feathers and die tend to be different, different proportions and what? Not in different spaces. But the same feathers tend to bay there regardless of what space it is, even if the size and shape and placement of feathers is a little bit different. So the first thing to know with the bird's wing and we're looking at the top of the wing here, not the bottom. The bird, um, is located every here with the bones and everything inside of it. And then this area here is like the risk. And you have a section of the arm here which really basically like the birds hand, and they have separate some that comes off there, which you may never have noticed before. But next time you're eating chicken wings, take a look at that and you'll notice that I do actually have a thumb that separated from the rest of the hand. Kind of like waiting, but they don't have separate fingers. Most spaces done it anyway. And so over the top of this you'll have wings and mean so you'll have feathers in the fiddles will cover the until I wing. But you have different types of feathers on different parts of the wing. So this section here these feathers to connect to the on they're gonna bay what we call secondary feathers. And if it does it, connect ah to the hand like structure feathers around this area here, they're gonna be the primary feathers, and then you get fails to come along in different rice. So I'm just gonna draw that in to illustrate what I mean so you can draw bird wing with different levels of data. And we're just gonna cover the basics here. If you really want to, you can draw on every single feather, but that would be quite time consuming is gonna take you a while to do that. So what we're doing here is like short hand just outlining the most important feathers. So the feathers I'm just drawing over here around this area, you will notice that I'm drawing them over the top of the sun. The thumb does actually have a time. Feathers called. It's called the Aloul on. I don't know if I'm pronouncing correctly Aluar feathers and this just tend to be about three large fills around there covering the sun. They they're a bit separate from the other offenders. Where is the rest of the feathers you're gonna have? He born into groups. As I mentioned already, we've got the primary feathers around this part. We got the secondary feathers around here. They're also grouped according Teoh, Different rise. So when I'm drawing here, this group of fit feathers, primary fenders and it also called covert that call the primary chi vis. And the idea behind Cove, it is that they overlap other feathers, the's feathers air quite important for smoothing the airflow over the wing. And then you have similar feathers along here, in which he called the secondary chi vets. And you notice that Thea the covitz that I've drawn here, actually covered by another set of feathers here. I'm just approximating the shape of these on these feathers. Obviously, feathers don't actually have straight edges or very rarely have straight edges. And then underneath the car, over to you have the flight wings. I mean, sorry, the flight, my feathers. And he actually take a look here. The feathers that come out particularly around the end of the wing here, shaped almost like fingers. I don't have the building to grip on to things like our fingers, but I believe like the birds can actually write type. The fed is slightly individually, they tones and they're quite important to flight. They're also quite distinctive looking. You gonna drill beds wing outstretched. You do want to make these. It is quite distinctive. You tend to get, um, you know, five or six of these large feathers here can kind of separate. And then after that, you saw what's about a long flight feathers, but they tend to be more tightly grift unless distinct. And as I mentioned before, this is the top of the wing We're looking at the bottom of the wing is similarly structured in that you have a bunch of short on squat downy feathers at the top of the wing like this . And then you have longer feathers, covert covering feathers beneath them. And then, of course, the flight fins. So it looks pretty similar from underneath as well that one thing that is different from underneath is you do have a bunch you have, like, structured around here bunch of feathers around the armpit. And I believe they referred Teoh tertiary feathers. The ones around the outfit on turtles could be incorrect that they are also called axillary fills. I know that. Certainly if you call the maxillary fellas, you using the right turn and these downy feathers here, Um, really, you can You don't need to draw them all in. One thing that you can do is just draw in a few of them, but do a good job off them like this, and you drawing quite tightly packed in whatever and then you can just put little a little film knocks in other areas and it implausible additional data where you haven't actually drawn it. Okay, so we have the basic structure of the wing there, as I said that all very a lot from species to species. But just having an understanding of that will really be a great place to start when you're drawing birds. Because you're gonna nine now, Uh, what? How to draw the wing. And even in different positions, You could get a pretty good idea how to draw the wing, because this is almost like a Japanese fan or Chinese van, where the feathers overlap each other as the wing closes and folds up. So it's a great place to start. Maybe practice drawing that yourself before you actually draw full bird's body. And and? And yes. So you got one. Definitely try applying that when you're drawing beds 30. Eagle - Head - Profile View: all right, we're gonna draw on a gal's face and the exact proportions going very from spaces to spaces . Good idea. Have cider handy of the spaces that you want to draw when you're doing it. If you're not drawing a specific species may be making up your own top of a go or something . Then you can use these basic steps on the back. Exceptional, Applied all spaces. Anyway, So I start off by doing a, um, a rough oval. This is gonna be the Eagles head and from the front of the head, which is gonna be on the left side here that works the other way around, too. We're going to have to bake popping out. It's gonna draw that in United's it enables Bake again. This depends beyond Spacey's. It comes quite far facial mist in the top of the head there. And even though the bake is curved the top of the big and the bottom of the bay Keith and most of the link they're actually quite straight. And what you should actually do here is the curve should not come back like that. Shouldn't go more than strike down, Really, And maybe a little bit further. Not you wanted to look realistic. So coming back here, the bottom of yours quite thin. So obviously it I collapsed. The in the top drawer overlaps the bottom. Jewell and you say what? Eagle spaces have like a little kind of extra point over there? Another David and the mouth will come back further than the bake. But when I can actually draw the whole mouth yet because to figure out exactly where the mouth comes, we need to growing the eyeballs. Before we do that, we're gonna draw the federal line where the feathers actually make the bake. And that's roughly along. This this line here with circle ends? Not exactly, but roundabout. We're gonna make that striped lawn till about here, up to 2/3 of the way down, and then we'll bring it back then and what you're gonna have is you're gonna have a lip around the mouth, which is not covered by feathers, but this long he you fully aware that lawn with two people and get your flying the point here at the bottom of the bait? That's kind of where the feathers would make up with the bottom. Jill you can, actually, Just putting the mark their show. We're gonna have some old feathers in their later on. Then we're gonna do the rest of the federal line here along that circle one. That's where you gonna have the lip. So the next day just actually go to the top of the bird's head. And this is where you bought the brow for the bird, Which eagles have quite prominent brow and how far up the head comes above the the top of the bake. Really? Polly depends on defenders. If the feathers air standing up erect as they sometimes do, you will come up further. But they can also be lying quite fat along the top of the head. So I'm gonna do them kind of somewhere in between and just roughing him in Not doing too much data all day just yet. Okay, then probably about halfway down the head gonna have the odd and the eyes also about halfway between the front here in the back here. All right. We said it's about half my point there. Decide to draw the and like this, you know the size of the I will obviously vary from spaces to spaces with smaller species of a goal, having relatively larger I on the bald eagles quite a large Spacey's. You would draw that I quite small for a bold eagle. The guy is quite circular, but there is some black. You draw like a little point here, the front in the back more so up front, and it gives the I'm much more realistic failed toe. Then I'm gonna put the ours in there like that. The name, time and one of the distinctive thing about in Eagles faces up Brow Ridge, which really gives a bit of an angry look to their face. It's just why the faces shaped, uh, and it's really just a long that shape that you can say that I'm drawing there. But there's not a whole lot to it, and it gives it that quite distinctive eagle like look, and I was gonna put in the nostril here, which is roughly in line with the I. It's angled here and it goes, tend to have a bit of ah, like a line here, which kind of delineates the back section of the bake from the front section, have a bit of a bump up there thinking what? Okay, I'm gonna rub out as long as they were not supposed to be there anymore. Okay? Just fix this up a little bit, get a bit better looking, all right? It may not look like I did much there, but you're himself happy with you drawing. So now the odd lines up with the back of the mouth mouth will not come back any further than with eyes. And you'll find the case with most animals. And then once you have decided where the mouth is gonna come back to, you can grow the lip around it And for the rest of the eagles head, it's really a matter of obviously, this is where the skull ends. But you're gonna have some feathers on the back here. And the the back of the skull will link Teoh the spinal cord. So, like humans, where the spinal cord links at the bottom of the skull. Sorry. The next gonna come for the back And you say, adding that bit to the back of the head actually helped quite a lot to give me a more realistic appearance. We've got feathers coming down here from the bottom of the hit, um, they will need to made up with the feathers of the neck at some point in the neck is about the same distance from front to back as the head is sorry, Good. Pretty much gives you an idea of the basics for the how to draw on Eagle's Head. We're gonna cover the, um, the basics of rendering and how to make a bit more realistic in a future lecture that this is This is really the basics of what you need to draw on Eagle's head from profile. 31. Eagle - Head - Front View: I'm gonna draw the Eagles head from front view, and really, there's not a lot to it. And I'm gonna stop by throwing this kind of shape here. This is kind of the neck and the head together. If you really want to get well specific about it, you can. But in the whole circle for the head but in front of you, you're really not gonna say much. Very Jewell on any kind of when you look a day, go from front to, you know, see any lawns around here. Really? You can maybe just be helpful for you for placing yours, which you're about halfway down the head and but the line down the center very close. Also quite helpful. Helps you place bake. And and we're just gonna stop. We know the eyes at this heart, and we know that the big comes slightly hardened. So we stopped by on the top of the bake in the middle. Here we bring that down, I'm actually gonna rise. That bottom circle line is getting a bit distracting. All right. And the eyes, um uh, it's somewhat forward fasting in an eagle. They are very close to the edge. of the hit him so hard. I'm just gonna rough them in. Let's not forget that angry looking eyebrow. Very distinctive part of Eagles appearance. Just noticed this. The shape on doing with the eyes, he It's not a simple matter of just doing a round circle. You might want to look at some photos for reference to get an idea, I really try and get the on the shape of the exactly how you want it. And then, as you remember from the side view, the edge of the mouth is more or less in line with middle of the eye, and it appears today that life from front on also which makes it easy. You can transfer that knowledge to different point of view, and the mouth had come straight across here. But obviously you go that long Code big, which comes down here and really enables. Bake from front on looks surprisingly narrow, so production market, even Nairo Still in what I've done there probably, uh, that's more like it, I think quite narrow there. And it does start to Kurt outwards as you go further up, turning into the lip. Come on, girl, off a bit Yeah. And, uh um this here, which is gonna bathe fiddle on, gonna bring that up a bit here and then for the contour of the big around the outside, there and now what? I've drawn on the left hand saw Faison was gonna try and mirror that on the right hand side of the face. So we're gonna draw that I again he trying on the same heart. Get that Oh, eyebrow structure in that with the art itself. Remember that I was quite close to the edge of the head there in green, from front for you cold with the eagles. Like the bold eagle which have sica play image, they'll appeared baby more on the the Oslo Peter Bay further away from the edge of the head there. But you'll still have this big gap in between the oars from front view. It's quite different. Looking from a typical mammal ahead. At least, uh, on may, dating a mammal where the odds would typically bay a bit closer together. The eyes in a mammal predator Kleist together because it helps them judge distances and birds miraculously seem to be graded judging distances without having the same level of binocular vision of mammals. Just one of the reasons. What the eagle can we get away with having such widely, said Oz and still be successful predator? You know, I'm just extending the edge of the lip there because I do want to line up with the middle of the I trying to get each side of the face to mirror the other. That's roughly symmetrical and big should actually come in a bit like that. Um, and as we discussed in the other, dropped while drawing the eagle from side view, the shape and size the big does very from once eagle spaces to the next. But what I'm teaching, you hear general guidelines, which you can combined with a bit of fight a graphic reference. If you're gonna dio specific spaces and you really want to be accurate about it, I'm drawing this second curved line huge. You'll remember. There was this delineation in the bake along which you have the nostrils, which more or less in line with the OSCE, something going a heart. And I'm just gonna for him in the outline of that head a bit too much forward. They're probably no probably coming to the other extreme, and you're in its basic shot. And we just do a time better rendering on the odds there and because something that's important to know here is that because of the angle of the eyes way they aren't completely facing to the side, not completely facing forward data. When you view the angle from front own, these pupils are not gonna appear to be in the middle of the eye. They're going appear toe towards middle classes of the bake, and you might have some, uh, flesh around the eyes again, pending the exact position of the federal line. On depending on the Spacey's that you get the idea that's essentially the young the Eagles fights from front on. You can exaggerate. These are brow things. If you really want. Do you want to make it really clear that that eagle making, obviously it's not some other type of it in terms of rendering that you can help to make a bit more obvious. If you want to make the curve of the bake more or beef some front on, you can do that with lighting the when you shade it, so the top area is a big cubicle artist and then you'll have, like, come on the next lightest the area will be. This region here in the dark areas will be down by the sides. Here like this, it's gonna shine down in no makeup dockets. Still, no, obviously had documented pinched on the color of the because the eagles are not going toe have I am Oh, Pagels. Color of the big varies from species to spaces like a bold angle for exams. Gonna have quite a lot colored bacon's yellowish color and which Tyler Eagle tends me like a lot of gray color. You are going to a bald eagle. As I mentioned before, they will appear to bay a bit more bill, water out lawn around the whole thing because in the thick of feathers tend to live in cold environments. So, actually, just going to show you what that's a lie is my real quick way of doing feathers. I'm just telling them rough way here. Look me particularly accurate. You can say like down blood, this level that longer and hanging down where it's one set up in the head. I don't have shorter and spark. Yeah, we're just gonna actually just half the head there you be able to say what it would look like. No, arise the original line. We have them because you wouldn't be saying. I don't know on the bold eagle and that they gives you no idea what the ball day you will look like from the front front on wears warm weather Eagle. Like what we're getting in Australia. The wedge. Tyler Eagle. Look a bit more like that. And you can put but a shadow in the Oz the But that's essentially what theater was gonna look like from front zone. 32. Eagle - Head - Three Quarter View: we're gonna draw niggles head for almost 3/4 view now and we're actually gonna draw it, pointing at a slightly downward angle. And the reason we're gonna have chosen to do it that way is because allows us to emphasize that really distinctive brow ridge that you get on a gal's angry looking face. So you're going to start off with what looks like what's gonna look like a sphere that's been slightly flattened on top and the bottom. So I'm going Teoh draw kind of center lines around up one, the horizontal one. And, as you may remember, from the side view of an eagle, that's about the level that we're gonna put the eye this line here. And then there's gonna bay. Another central on this is one is gonna go directly through the middle of the fais sigh. It's very cool cental on if you will get very go on and you're the horizontal. And we're talking about the plane to you because obviously this long I'm drawing is curved . It's not stripe line like that. So the first thing I'm gonna doing now that I'm happy with the shape of that flattened sphere type show looks a little bit like a watermelon, I suppose what I'm gonna doing. Yeah, I was actually just kind of rough in where I expect to put the bake and you'll remember from the side view and also the front view that the big meets the face quite high up on the bird's head. Sorry. The top is gonna bay something around here, and then it's gonna come down around the sod and you'll remember from the side view of the lip stretches back to the point where it's the same distance backers, the I and the I was about halfway back in the head. So and remember when I say halfway back on the head, I don't mean half my back on this spherical shape here, halfway back on the head was including the bake sigh. We might just that live if we say fit. Um, but in the meantime, we're gonna draw the rest of the bake, try and get that in rot. So So just drawing in the bake, their riches strike for a lot of it distance and then it curves down toward that shaft point number. See, You want the point today below. Below, where the bottom Juries because it is curved big. And you want that shop point in there like, say, and you remember, there's another little David not far after that first point. Okay, I'm just kind of approximated it in the moment. I want the bottom. Georgia, come right up to this point here on the big. Make sure I get on base. I find a food. You have the bottom of that big to be quite straight like, say, and the lip is more or less parallel with the bottom. It's a bake than, say, I've got him quite similar. All right, so I'm gonna look at that and decide if I'm happy with that. And I think that's gonna work with the bakes out length. You may need to play around with a bit. You might want to make the bacon bits small a bit larger if you don't get it right the first time. That's fine. And remember that I was gonna be about half my back on the head and because of because of the angle we're looking at it from measuring it like this is not gonna be completely accurate. It's not gonna be accurate. It'll actually, but it might give me some idea. Alright, what doesn't give me any idea? Really? You can imagine that if I was going to draw a line out from the back of the head here, a line from the front of the bake here, try to draw this line back so that it's parallel with the the Axis. The head here, which I don't years often fix that up a bit. Like, say, writing about halfway point on this line is maybe so over there. And that helps me approximately halfway point. That's without mates. The head. All right. This is about where the it's gonna go be here, and the lip is gonna line up with that, Remember? Okay, I know we're gonna come back to the highlighter on, but we're gonna draw the rest of the head first. I just wanted to get the I in place on you have far back to draw the lip. So you remember. There's that delineation on the bake, and we'll put the nostril just behind that every here. The distinctive looking brow ridge, which I mentioned with one of the raisins, were drawing the eagle from this angle. Um, we're gonna drop you notice. I'm drawing this line here for the marriage behind where that sphere is That flattened spheres shape is purely from four construction. It's not actually the shape of the head. I'm actually gonna draw the brown till it just about reaches that that line of drawing on the speed and then I'm actually gonna drop back and it's got from here. It's gonna come back all the way to the back of the head, and I'm not actually gonna draw in the back. He just yet because what you draw out the back here behind the head is going to depend on the position. You want the Eagles head to ban eagles, hold the head. Ah, Flat. I mean, I like I hold the head directly in front of the neck when they flying, but when they perched the neck might be a bit of a downward angle, so we'll come back to that in a second. Um, we're just gonna put in the federal on on the bake. You remember from the side view tutorial. We figured out where to put the the fizzle on. Okay. And I'm pretty happy now that that, uh, but the biggest. Pretty much finished, so we can move on to the I now. And we've got the brow ridge on this side of the face. We've got a center line here, so we can I want toe mimic this and get it. Ah, the same on the other side of the face. So you consume Just trying to think of the birds heading three day. If this line is at this angle here, what's it gonna look like on this side of the head? And I end up drawing a long look somewhat like this. Now, from this angle, I would expect that that Broward just actually be overlapping the I a little bit. I'm going a tad bigger. So does actually go underneath that Brow Ridge overlap is important for giving it done. What? I've been calling that angry will kind of space, which is not actually an angry look, just the shape of the eagles face. But to us, humans looks kind of angry. It's probably just there to protect the eye from glad, so destroying those pointy parts on the front, in the back of the eye. And from this, you, the people will almost be touching that we're not touching. But there were quite close to that. A brow ridge. And I'm gonna rise part of that construction line I used for the Brow ridge there and over here as well. That looks more like the rail. Dale. I've got a little bit potential. A little bit too much of a curve going on there with the brow ridge and my big it better. Okay. Appointed the back of your eye should also be higher up and what I've drawn there. Do you want something like that? And we just famine that people put in a little bit of, ah, shine on there and does color in those dark spots on the are. Okay, Sorry. We've pretty much done most of the eagles head there. But I did mention that we need to decide what we're gonna do with the back of the head here . So there's a couple of different things you can do. The eagles find connects to the back of the skull. And if you imagine the back of scholars here, that means that the nick, even when the eagle is, is, uh, like standing in a more upright position the next you're going to come out the back here and then guy down like, uh and that will give you pretty typical. I remember here, um, the bird's neck, and you may not know this already, but Bird's neck is about. It's quite thick to that same sicknesses. The bird's head. So you want to keep that in, Lord, when you drawing the neck on, it's not like some little, uh, it's not like something little stick that you're gonna draw underneath the head. You can say I might really sick. I made a a little bit too thin at the back there for some raising that line and fixing that up. Now, given that the bottom of the Haiti is here and you bake, then excuse my you can drew in. A little bit of you can draw on a little bit of a lawn here underneath the head if you want , but you don't want to do it too much. Just gonna raise some of the construction line because I might be getting in your way a bit there. You don't want the line under that. The head toe look a little bit odd, and but you can do if you draw too far back, and if anything, I've drawn a little bit too far back here, so it's looking a bit better there. So that's one way in which you can draw the head in the neck. But another one, which you can draw it is You might want to follow this line around here and and actually have the head there made up with the neck at the back is if the bed with flying or something like that. Okay, I'll just to rise the other lines. You can see what that looks like. Okay, that's another one. Which you can draw ahead is you can have the neck coming up back, and it will bring this position when the eagle is when the Eagles flying. And that's how to draw on a gal's head from 3/4 view. So give that a guy on. If you want, you can add more data. All the feathers tend to bay bits, you know in, uh, I'll draw the area for you. The feathers are often a bit sina in this region, around the eye and along the Federline, here at the base of the bake. But what we've done here today should give you a pretty good guide on how did draw niggles head from 3/4 view site. Give that a go and say I go with it. 33. Eagle - Body - Flying: we're gonna draw an eagle in flight now, in an easy way to do that is to draw it from side view. And I'm gonna make sure now when I do this that I actually believe myself enough room to fit the eagle's wings about the body here because obviously, when an eagles flying the wings flap up and down change positions, I'm gonna be drawing this evil with the wings above the body on a I'm gonna stop by just drawing the basic construction here for the head, as you may recall, from the video did about drawing a gal's face from so idea and behind the head, when the eagle is in flood, the hidden tends to be held horizontal with the body, the same hot. You got the neck directly behind the head. He has stretched out strike and the from the back of the head. Here it's gonna for about the length equal to the head. That's gonna be about with the wing mates, the body so right. That's where the wing meets the body. The body itself comes further forward than that about here. And eagles like old birds that can fly. I have a very large chest. I've actually got bone that sticks out from the front of the rib cage, which provides more area for the chest muscles to attach to it. So you you don't want Teoh? I mean, it's not gonna be that all this, but you do want Teoh. Make sure you get that that shape in there. You want there to be enough room to fit very last chest muscles. And the length of the body itself is gonna bay. That's three head links. So one to right, that's where the back of the body is going to come to. But the actual the actual end of the bird is going to come further back than that because you're gonna have feathers coming off the tail and what not? You're also gonna have the legs poking out back here because eagles tend to hold. Their birds in general tend to hold their legs out behind them when they're flying to make more aerodynamic. So you're not going to see a whole lot of the leg. It's gonna be tucked away, but you may be able to say part of it on by fold up the feet and everything to look to be more aerodynamic, also somewhat like that, and you may be able to see some of the scales and what not coming off the fit on the feet so you could draw some Skiles on the legs and the fate if you want, But it's probably better that you actually do the rest of the outline before you start getting into details like that and above the fate there, you're gonna have taking a little bit difficult to say. This faked it up, drawing them to famine, the law in their bits, you can say how drawn it. And above the fate here, you're gonna have the fittest that you're gonna come out for the fate. They're gonna kind of cover the fate, and they're gonna point out from this angle, anyone's gonna look like the pointing strike, and they're really add to that look of aerodynamic and fluid motion. Now, the back of the wing is actually gonna come almost as far as the end of the body here. So you're gonna have some. It is around here and and a goes wings A quite large compared to its body. It's not like a visitor, a dock where I have relatively small wings. The length of the body he is going to be about the same Is the length of the wing too? The wrist, at least from this angle we're looking at here and doing itself, Mac, you be a little bit longer than that. But because the wings leaning slightly towards us, we draw it. So I only showed up. And then again, imagine that length again, Every here, the next half. The wings actually be longer than that, because you've got these primary flight feathers coming off the tip of the wing here. So I'm just gonna estimate how long to do it. And you might remember actually, before I talk about that and the feather specifically one way in which you can actually rough this in quite easily before you before trying to put the feathers in here like I have it actually a good idea to imagine the wingers of Flat Shoot like this and you drily outlawing like Senate. And that gives you a pretty decent idea. It's gonna show you a little bit Where the fiddlers again? It goes well, but it gives you a days an idea of on just the overall shape of the wing, and then you can use a similar technic for putting in the other wing. I'm so do it like this. I do like to actually drawing a couple of those primaries that it helps me get the shape of the wing. Better that you just need to do whatever works for you are suppose because you managed to get the shape of the wing. Correct? That's the main thing. Really? Okay. It's gonna run about a few of those construction lines. We don't need that anymore. So now they've got the wings in place. You can say we've actually the entire eagling place. Now, there's no details in there yet, so we're gonna go through and start putting into detail. So we're gonna start with the wings. Because I was talking about that before, and I was mentioning how in the video we talked about how to draw the feathers on birds wing. I mentioned that you get this kind of area around, he wake up these eggs, Ilary feathers on a basically fit visited, covering the armpit, and you do get more feathers in setting rise along here. I'm not gonna draw in every single feather. I'm just gonna drawing enough to imply the data. How so? If I drawing a little bit of data, people will look at it and I'll say that it's a nagel. Now also know that eagles have feathers so they'll know the days of feathers and all night that I'm drawing a nagel it and it's not a naked eagle has feathers, but I need to draw every single feather from to be able to say that. So just gonna draw in the cove it some of these kind of feathers, the ones that helps train line the the airflow over the wing. And you notice that ever hear around about that wrist area here you can draw on a couple of dollars some feathers, but you only see them on the outside of me. But I think you actually say anything on the inside. Really, Cain, under these covert, you may get another right. As I said, you don't need to draw in a great amount of data. And of course, you want the main flight feathers themselves. Also, I'm going to draw in a few of them and these ones these want to hear the secondary ones or gonna laid back in a direction towards this line here, remembering that these figures ultimately grow a part of the arm and you get a bit of on the small curves noticeable around the back of the wing. And some places where the feathers link up may look fairly straight haven in the back there and then these other feathers here. Well, I doubt I seem to point towards the body. So you get, like, a bit of a gap ivy here and then the primary flight finishes again. As we discussed in the other video on how to draw a bird's wings, you're going to get, you're gonna draw them kind of radiating from this point here almost and you're gonna have a few probably indicating an ego is gonna be five. I believe five of these fingerlike fit is the really long ones, which quite separate. Getting these primary feathers right these once a little bit like fingers help make your drawing look more realistic. And I helped make the eagle it quite majestic. All sign anyone is observant will say those feathers and go. Yes, I've seen that kind of thing before. Bed Flyers. Okay, I'll put them in from this angle. Also, Wing, That was saying from the top. Okay. And again, on this on top of the wing gonna be able to say the different rise of feathers. And I'm not throwing them into much day tall but trying to get enough that it looks. Jason, it's really up to you. How detailed do you want to do those feathers, What style you're going for or how lazy you are on legacy being a little bit lazy here. And, you know, I felt works, and you stick with it. It's, uh you can use almost, uh, one of some random lawns like that if you want. Anyway, you get the idea. The feathers on the body tend to be less distinct. You can use the same sort of relatively random lines may be here on the body. I can almost render it like it's fair or something. You might want to give a little bit of extra attention to the legs when they folded back then. Not that all this, but it's up to you have obvious you want to make him look on your drawing, and obviously we gotta construction line here, the front of the body and what? Just arise that so we can, you know, eagles do tend to have and the differentiation between the neck and the body Does tempt 10 today quite know, sore because of the arrangement of the filters so you can actually draw than into drawing if you want the way that I have there And I think I've gone and done too much with age Random Auntie, it's starting to look more like kiwi feathers and eagle feathers. I'm gonna just rubbing out for the name time. Not gonna bother feeling in too much detail there and the bottom of the wing here because it doesn't actually connect right top of body connects to the side of the body. You might just want to make it clear where it where the wings connecting. We decide to sell out of the body. It's not necessarily directly on the side. Probably use further back further towards the back, but it's not coming right off the bed Anyway, we're gonna put in the head now and you already noisy, had a drawing. Eagles held a huge draw. If you which that video. So I'm looking a bother doing, explaining all the details too much again. Just gonna quickly sketch it in. Just noticed when the eagles headed at this angle, You don't have feathers popping off the bottom there. They're all strain line back. - I'm not going to spend too long on the face getting it. Just write us because we have already covered that. I just wanna make sure it does actually look like an eagle. Okay, I don't have to do for now. Now you have it. Tell you draw nagel in flood. 34. Eagle - Body - Perched: gonna draw Nagel in a perch position now and just going to stop by drawing the drawing the head in and using what we, uh, we learned in the previous lesson about how to draw the Eagles head from profile. Stroll that in quickly. It's remembering some of the stuff I talked about the previous lecture, where biggest straight for most of the length, but then it has that really obvious curve. The end, which comes caught straight down tip and the top always lines up with doesn't quite reach his highest top of the head. That almost does similar kind of angle the bottom deal, but enjoy. There's quite a sin in place of big compared to the top, just drawn into fiddle on their put the I in. And you remember that the lips in Long Miss Steele either Nostrils just behind that deviation in the bake and neck comes out back of the skull so we don't draw the the next straight under the head. There we draw going about back like this. Okay, now, when it comes to drawing the Eagles body, as with other birds, your division into three body sections like we did with the land animals. It's not really gonna bay that helpful t here because the way in which the wings fold up against the body in a nagel are, um and not what they gonna cover up all of those different three sections from the 4/4 to the hind quarters. So you don't really need to keep that in Monte much instead what we're gonna do, you know, like a largely kind of evil sort of shape here, remembering that birds have really caught from front to back, the chest is quite prominent. Um, the raisin bang for that is that you you've got to buying here, which sticks out the front of the ribs on attach is to really large muscles which are required for the bird to be able to fly se looking a really thick chest there, and you can't drawing it in almost a water drop shape with around and stick, ending up here and then slowly tapering off toward the Thailand. And I haven't measured this with with all spaces of a gal's, but a ones that I did measure it with. I found that the body was about three times the length of the head hears about that length that so we just measure that out? I stopped measuring from here one to three. That's about where the body is gonna come to. Well, has made put things in proportion. And I'm just gonna after that a few lines where the tiles gonna bay. Now, I've actually drawn a little bit low on the paper here. Tail would, um we're only just fitting the tail in there. It's gonna move it off a bit. You can say that. And the tail, Because of the shape of an eagle's body, a lot of the times went perch, especially at this kind of angle. The tile work, she come down while in the face. So I'm gonna do it standing on a flat surface. Thought you could quite just as well, you know, draw branch there and have its fake gripping onto that. And and you think of its body in terms of three day, that water drop shot. Um, just like I'm just gonna draw center line down there. So again, my dear, And this is a lateral line from side to side. It's giving you an idea of the shop that we've got going there and then the wings obviously start with a shoulder. And you know what? You can actually get away with not getting the wings, Teoh. Accurate in proportion. But you do. You do want get them as accurate as possible. And because you're aiming to get good at drawing these animals and from the shoulder, it comes down, you got an elbow, and then it goes back up towards a wrist here and the wrist cares back down. And when we look at drawing a nagel with an open I've been wing, we'll explore more data, all the anatomy of what's going on there. But the moment all you really need to know, it's very much like an arm folded up against the body with in this part here, where it fold down. That's actually birds wrist. Sorry. It's kind of like the hand coming down here, really a long guided hand, but you're just really drawing the the shape of the wing quite consistent with the teardrop shape of the body. You got a bunch of different feathers on the wing. Most will be most of the wing area. He will be covered by small, small feathers, but you will have a couple of Roy's of longer feathers. I'm just gonna sketch in a couple of lines of where those would would guy kind of starting over here. The feathers will start well, after feathers further down and these feathers, we'll update on further down, so on so forth. So you have the small feathers here, overlapping the longer feathers. He and these longer feathers. I've left along the feathers here. And when you draw in the feathers, you want to make it clear that there's an overlapping going on. He will give it that really kind of natural appearance. Now, underneath the wing here you have the beginnings of the leg, which, if you've ever seen Jurassic Park, for example, and saying the velociraptors legs a bit like an eagle's legs except eagles have much shorter legs. And you can see here that we agree to base the body down to here. The fate of not gonna be much lower than that and the feet look a lot like humans hands, actually. But with these huge curves talents on them. So just sketch that in there, just notice. I'm just sketching in the rough shape at the moment is trying get the fate in a position that I like. I know. I draw, you know, draw like a flat surface here like a a logo, something that would be standing on. And you got that? The loss of rap to talk leg coming up here from the inside underneath the wing. Now, birds do have very thin come on of legs. Um, because birds designed for flying any part of their body that can a lot white tends to be a lot. Wait, but we actually put a bit too much neck at the back of the head here. I think so. I'm just gonna fix that up and the legs and angles compared to a lot of other beds, I might Eagles legs might seem a bit FICA because they do have an incredibly powerful gripping. That fate on without the constant alive brilliance designed for him hunting and killing price, you might notice that their legs are actually can actually be reasonably thick for a bird. It's making small adjustments to the face there so that it looks get more convincing. But I was talking about leg so returns the legs and now birds and you you used to saying this kind of wrinkle looking skin on there on their fate, which are not covered in feathers. It's actually not very different from the kind of scaling that you would say on a reptile skin. So if you think of that as being part of Skylink with some of the scholars, think of drawing the largest. Kyle's here in front of the leg there that most of the foot is coming tienen old scales, which you don't necessarily need to draw on all the data. It really depends on how much data you want to put in there. Just gonna draw that talent really quite curved. I just it's going to illustrate to you on the side here the shape of the Eagles ties. You can imagine a Kingo. I feel like human finger. But, oh, he Harry, he really has, like people padding to it and then where the Nile would come out on Topi on the human finger on the claw has a bit more rooting if it does come from the same kind of the area and comes out curve like that so that what I'm drawing in here on drawing some of the times at slightly different angles. That's why this close looks different here. Don't make sure you draws close really nice and big because and they go is really deadly predator off. You want toe, You want to capture the aspect of the animal, and that's all in the bacon, the clothes getting pot Toronto And don't fiddle on their It's obviously above where the toes join onto the foot. But on the fiddle on does stop for the next joint and just gonna, um, starts kitchen a few of the feathers here. I mean, I know I know that the eagle would bay standing on a block of wood here or something. I'm actually gonna sketch What's behind that? Just so you can say. And this will very between space. Easy now. How long the Tylers thought you tend to have Long Geathers. I was gonna say I think that the knife thinner than the other feathers on the body. Really? Um, do you do a bunch of long, thin kind of feathers here coming up the back where the tile is and they can they can open and close, kind of like a Japanese fan, and I have a lap each other when they're closer together and similar kind of effect you get with the wing with there is overlapping each other and being able to spread out. And they actually have microscopic little hooks on the feathers which Kiptum attached to each other gives them a more even surface along the wing, which makes steady. If lot just noticed this second round of long, thin feathers here on the wing, I'm just kind of making up. It's probably not 100% accurate that what I'm doing it, But you can see just notice how I've drawn this this line here across kind of over this line here so you can see that the field is not perfectly lined up and it gives you that impression that this right or overlapping this right drawing like this right here is overlapping this road feathers here. I'm doing that by not perfectly lining up my lines for the feathers there and then above this, you will get these kind of short up feathers, which I'm not gonna gruel of men. I thought you're gonna you gonna have lately short, around kind of shapes going on them, and they're short around the shape, so going to not come up. It's far before their overlapped by feathers higher up. And you don't even need to draw in a lot of the feathers, necessarily. If you strategically to slide way, you're gonna grow in a few in more daito. And look, I haven't done it that accurately. They can spend a little time getting more realistic if you want, if you wanna use photographic reference. But if you want to give the impression if there being lots of feathers without without actually having to draw them in, what you can do is do something similar to what I'm doing here, where you just draw little patches of data all and especially if you're gonna be coloring this in in the consistent column on people's brains were just kind of fill in the rest of the day. Tell you can fill in all the feathers if you want, and this is just one technique. Teoh. Do it differently, if that's how you want to do it and similar to these feathers, he you get feathers of similar appearance on the chest. Here on the neck, you tend to foreign like more long, long thin kind of feathers. Almost like a mane. I got a call into her up around the head. The Okay, this is the upstage. It'll leg there into the body. The chest. This is the edge of the other wing. With birds. You can Actually you might be able to do this for other animals as well. But you can get away using some really straight lines if you want. You can actually end up looking really good if you don't know on but the style he chose to doing Maybe something that you develop from experimenting. I personally think beds that quite good with straight lines. That's how to draw up edged eagle. 35. Duck - Head - Profile: all right, We're gonna draw ducks face from price, fall quite easy to do this. And you're gonna start off with, Ah, an oval sort of shut. That's gonna be the main section of the duck's head. This little construction over and we want Teoh. You want to just divide that in third's from top to bottom, sir? Something like that. And we're going to draw in the bottom. Tate. EDS. Another I will type shot. Okay, now, that's actually gonna be with our guys. And this is about halfway back in the oval that we've drawn. Just keep in mind that that's actually not gonna be half right back in the head. There is gonna be a bit of extra head that comes out back here, so I'm just gonna drawing the eye. So it is quite high up. Conductor is placed on the side of the head, and you know, we're not not gonna put too much data on that are just yet. We're gonna draw in the rest of the face. And now this distance here, we want about equal distance again. Like, say, that's gonna bay How long the Bakers and Big the Bake is actually the tip of the big here should be about in line with the bottom is ahead there. So I'm just gonna drill like that Fairly straight line curved slightly upwards, which is very distinctive feature of docks With that kind of depressed curve, it is different from my spurred mice birds. The big tends to be a straight or curves outwards to integrate. And if you just kind of draw the big down like this near the bottom of the head there, that's where bottom of the big is gonna connect up and similar curve on the bottom. But you can actually say a little bit of that bottom bill, mostly covered, mostly overlapped by the top you'll be you can see a little bit there and on the top Bill here there is actually like a pointed shape and feathers. I've left the top of the bill like so, but a nostril on there and partners ahead here extends a reasonable distance. Actually passed maybe too. About the back of the are a little bit further back. That's where they had connect to the neck front of the neck. Anyway, As for the back of the neck, I connect someone like this and just say Audrey, like, fairly straight line down there for curving the the nick back So you can say the back here back of the neck. It comes out a bit further beyond that initial oval that we drink. You just draw it down like that and ducks tend a very dark ally. So you can actually just roll like a a lot reflection against it. There you can even color in the like so and there you have it to duck from Siberia. You may want to emphasize the chick structure here, which does actually come out from the side of the face a little bit. Well, say that a bit more when we draw the duck from front view. 36. Duck - Head - Front: all right, We're gonna draw ducks face from front view now, and like the side view, it's relatively 80 animal to droll on. So we're gonna start with an oval sort of shape and we're actually be applying with the knowledge that we applied in the side view drawing for ducks Face also. So start with an oval That's roughly gonna be the way that hideous. And I'm just gonna draw a line down the middle heats that I can divided into thirds and get an idea for where the different features should be. A on the docks head. Okay, so the eyes is you you may remember about stay out of the way out and they're on the side of the head site. The view that we're gonna be drawing them from, they're really gonna bay this. Uh, how would you describe it? I suppose seen oval like that Because we're seeing the eye from almost saw it on what we even think of a saw it on for dockets. Its front on because their eyes are on the side of the hit and put put the other one it called distance from the center on the other side like, say, and you can say, a little bit of the head behind the eyes. Like, say, the head behind the eyes is wider than the hit in front of the artists that you will say it it up. Then you get quite a diamond shot. Get quite a dame shape on top of the head like so moment looks a bit odd because we haven't drawn in the baker anything. But if you can imagine kind of two lines coming down like this, it's kind of gonna bay tip feathers here, going a bit higher up where I trade that converging point that he is a good point like, say, okay, and the next third of the white down. That's where the nostrils are going to go, so the nostrils are quite a bit smaller than the others. Don't make the mistake that I just made there may try and make them huge. It's better, small like that, and it also makes me think that the eyes of drawing too small I'm gonna make the eyes quite a bit bigger than it's a lot better Now. You'll remember that when we drew the duck from side view, there was Ah, like a chick section that we drew under the eye. Well, you're going to see that from front view. Also, because the head certainly wider underneath the authorities above the ours I'm gonna give it quite nice shakes that come out quite far away from the life like so come down, curve back in. And if you're gonna draw the neck on the dock in the Knicks, similar width to the head there could be coming off, like around about there. But we're gonna drawing the bake. And you remember the bait came down lower than the rest of the head. So we draw that in. It's quite a wide bake. The ducks have what we call the bill, I suppose, Um and just think of how Daffy duck, What Double doc is drawn. They've got that wide. Come on. A bake. Very distinctive looking big compared to all the beds except for gay. Since ones which opens. They have a similar big toe, a duck as they are related to ducks. And really what you want. Here's down to about the nostrils. You want these kind of straight ish sort of wines coming out angling outwards from the center of the head, and then at a certain point they just kind of come straight down. I believe that that's what they appear to do from front on now, actually getting strike down, really, and then they curve around towards the middle. Like so. I was about some of those construction lines. Just notice you can't see any of the bottom bill from this fear. Any really the top bill, you can say because the top feels quite a bit bigger, and I've elapse the born the bottom of the bake. Then there does tend to be this this ridge around the edge of the big. But you're saying you should say in most, if not all, spaces of duck and sometimes it's quite subtle there. But again, think of Donald Doc in, um, and Daffy ducked. I have that kind of bill around the edge of the big That really helps Kind of finish it off and again, uh, the are quite dark. So if you want color, I mean, you could put a little reflection on there, and that's ducks face from front view. 37. Rendering - Lighting - Part 1: We'll talk a little bit about lighting lighting when you understand that can really help your building to render. So I've got this picture of a speedy here or a bowl, and it basically illustrates all the different lighting conditions, which you could draw into whatever you're gonna be drawing. So imagine that you got a light source up here that shining onto the bowl. The part of the board's gonna be the lightest Is this part here, which is closest to the light source. And as the surface of the ball curves away from the light source, it gets darker and darker until you get around about here, which is the doctor's point now. The reason why the part underneath that gets lighter again is because of what we call reflected light. So if you got a light source up here, what's happening is it's coming down, bouncing off the light surface underneath the ball and reflecting back up. And so the doctors part you have on the on the surface of the ball is the part where the least light is actually reaching it. And that's gonna bay this raging here where you have let's reflected lot and a lot less direct swat underneath that you've got even less direct like, but it looks like it because you've got the extra reflected light. And then beneath the ball itself, you have this shadow here which you could think of was being cast shadow as opposed to the shadow on the ball itself, which is the shadow simply from the absence of light. This cast shadow is actually because there's an object in the way blocking the lot, which is the bowl. So the bull is blocking a lot, and this shadow here, it's simply because of the distance from the actual light source. So I you basically four groups there, The light part, the Shadow, which is from proximity, the reflected lot and the cast shadow. If you remember those four things, they're gonna come in handy when you're gonna be rendering. And we'll talk about that little bit more in the next video 38. Rendering - Lighting - Part 2: In the last video, we took a look at the principles of lighting by looking at a ball, and now we're gonna take those principles and apply them to an animal's body so you can get an idea for how to rend alighting on an animal. So I'm gonna start off here by saying we've got a light source coming from that side over here, and the light source isn't going to the locality. It's gonna be much further rely, like the sun or something like that. But the direction is important because it tells us where we're gonna put the shadows. So I I've chosen to do on the hip because a lot of round shapes and it didn't easier, bit easier to grasp how the lot in the shadows gonna play. But these principles can be used on pretty much any animal. So if you imagine the hit by my from different shapes, which are mostly gonna bay roundish sort of shapes at the lots horses coming from here, you're gonna have shadow in specific areas like around this rounded car. It tipped to the snap. It's gonna bay a lot of shadow around there, and I'm not gonna spend too much time rendering it perfectly. Ah, it's more important that you understand the principles. Otherwise, you you could end up sitting there for a good hour or so watching this video. Okay, so I'm just trying to first draw in the shadows here, which from approximately little light source or you know why they are actually being blocked by another shape in the if you've got around. If there's around area here, the the light sources being blocked from from this part of the surface by this power of the surface in front of it. This part of the animal snap is between this part and the light source. So that's why we've got shadow there. But you will also get you know, I shadow on the undersides, for example, as it curves away from the light source, you'll get shadow around this part of the animal. You also get hand in hand with these kind of proximity. Shana's. You'll get obviously the cast shadows, so the hippos body is going to be casting a shadow over the legs from the my spot. So the legs are gonna be covered in shadows well, and that part on the snap between looked at before. Because of that bulb's shape, it's gonna be casting a bit of a shadow across the face as well, so I'll show you what I mean by that. So this area here, if you imagine it's like half a watermelon or something like that, it's gonna come out of cost to shadow across the rest of the device face. And this shadow will kind of blend with the proximity shadows that you're gonna find it the lower part of the head. So I just noticed that shadows don't. It's not like watercolor paints where you put the one color over the top of the dried color , and they kind of add to each other once the shutters, a certain certain death or certain darkness. The extra shadows aren't gonna necessarily add anything to it. So it's not gonna be darker here because you've got a cast, an eye and a proximity shadow overlapping each other. This here is approximately shadow, this year's away cast shadow, so I just noticed. Also the bottom George does get wider in this area, so it is a bit exposed to a lot over this part here, so always that hot unshaded. And if you imagine these folds of fat h is being their own kind of all my spherical shapes , you're gonna end up with similar kind of shapes. Here cast Chanos and proximity shadows something like this. So all this area under the hit by now I'm gonna be shading. And just remember, I'm just talking about the lot here. So hippos Billy does tend to be like a pinkish color. Where is that? The top is a doctor, right? Come on. Which can offset the effects of the shadows. But we don't. Looking at the collars here, we just look in the shadows. We know can actually be coloring the underbelly Lauter or something like that because of the pink flesh. If you're going to drawing more accurate, lifelike picture of a hit by, you might do that. OK, I'm still in the chest here. Now. I'm not gonna drawing yet thought the water that the hip I was standing in water is a very reflective sub surface, so you're definitely going to get some reflected lot coming back from the surface of the water and hitting the chest of the hip. I having said that There will also be a cast shadow from the hippo over the water. And it's not gonna bay particularly obvious with drawing in perspective. So it's gonna bay pretty sin. It's gonna look like a total line. Really. And because of the light source is coming from over here, the shadow is gonna be cast down in that similar Carter direction. It's trying to do this as quickly as possible. So you can say that the shadows are not even coloration. And you know that's actually okay for the beginning. Because if you really gonna go through deciding and do a good job of it, you're going to go over that lots of times anyway, Did these are kind of like overlapping marks and stuff will gradually disappear as you work , work with it more and more and try and get more accurate. So I haven't called that too dark, part of the reason being because of the reflective a lot that's gonna be hitting the belly of the hit by which gives me room to make a dark just above where the reflected light is heating. Sorry. And you know I can I can put a little bit more shadow in certain parts. If I want to emphasize it, Certain parts of the hip vice for lighting is really good for that on emphasizing form and some of the smaller parts of the anatomy, like under next year and stuff still gonna have the Rhine cast shadows. So that's gonna bay this kind of direction inside that year itself is gonna be a shadow as well. Don't forget the I have already talked about rendering on is quite a bit say, not really gonna discuss that in this video. One of a bit of shadow over here. So you can already see the shadow that we've put in really bringing the hip Ardito life. Of course you can't forget that is gonna be costs chatter within the mouth as well. This huge probably snap is gonna be costing a shadow ago over there. And, of course, inside the mouth, it's gonna be quite dark, too. The taste they're gonna have their own little shadow on. And there's bottom ones here. You're gonna cost a shadow onto that lip underneath it. I was saying before how you can use lighting and shadows to emphasize form. Just take a look at the angle that these shadows under the taste come down. That really gives you an idea for what angle The big army is underneath those teeth. Okay, so I want to go and put in that reflected. Excuse me. I want to go in and put that reflected lighting underneath on the hip eye sight because I've already gone and colored in this shattering underneath it to a certain a great the way in which I'm going to show that it's lighter under the Billy. I'm looking to arise. Anything. I'm just gonna color DACA above that above that raging, which is exposed to the and the reflected lot just noticed. I'm trying Teoh on observed the form of the hippo. So you got that shape of the the forearm here, which is a lot like a horse's for every here. So I've got a general idea where to draw the shadow there, really knowing the shape of the animal's anatomy, Really, it helps a lot with with nine way to put the the shadows You noticed when I first put in the shadows was blocking them in a lot. But the more I put them in a less blocky they're gonna look, the more we're gonna have smooth radiated surfaces, which is just one way of doing it. You can also do lighting in quite blocky elements on. We'll talk about that in the light of video. In the meantime, I'm just trying to get that kind of part of the hip by body, which is gonna be darkest under these lining conditions. Confinement on being a little bit cautious about where I am. How Doc. I'm citing it, that wife, I make any mistakes. It's not really going to show up too much deceptive. Keep going over it again and again until I end up getting a till end up getting a result. And I'm happy with I just how I haven't used my razor yet. It'll that's mainly not that there's anything wrong with using a razor. It's just that haven't needed to use it yet. And with this kind of drawing, you can probably white noted as much. I think if you do know to using a rise of while you're shaving, it can interfere with what you've already done quite a bit and re creating that committed a little bit difficult because you've got so many layers on top of each other here. So I'm just trying to smooth out the Grady into now so that it's not look inside blocking anymore. And it will probably still look a bit blocking because of these lines of drawing around the outside. You know, that is one area where I could use theorize or if I really wanted to get rid of the blocks of it, that kind of thing, and then because I've only had one liar there, I can go over the top of it again. It's not like after recreate a whole bunch of work for myself. The wrinkles in the skin can create interesting effects. When it comes to lighting, you often find their dark shadows inside the wrinkles, which makes which is what makes the wrinkles stand out. You may also find that even if you're trying to do a drawing in a smooth grey aliens, some parts of the shadows will still out. Hard edges, especially the cast shadows just smoothing out that shadow where the reflected light is. But I don't want to make it too dark, a though doc in the hairier above it still more. I'm trying to do this as quickly as possible, so I'm not going toe. Get a chance to really refine this drawing too much. I'll probably just spend a little bit longer on it so that we have all the concepts in place and you'll be able to try and higher on one of your own drawings. If you're not confident about being able to do it and you don't ruin and drawing, you could always fight a couple of drawing and do the shining on a fighter company. You may find it on the bottom, the baby's head here because it's further away from the water that you're not getting a whole lot of reflected like this. You might actually find a darker shadows rot at the bottom of as they head there, - the inside of the mouth definitely don't doc and also documenting if you really want to make the young the Grady int smooth and that kind of thing and maybe you're too lazy toe drawing Orlando. Maybe just too difficult. Maybe just want an easy way to do it. One thing you can do is you can actually use your finger or tissue or something to smudge to smudge it. You can do this kind of thing. You can helps made it out. There's not gonna completely mike up for, uh, for blemishes. You may notice also my hand because I haven't been separating my hand from the drawing. I've been moving it over here. I end up with little bits of graphite in my hand, and it leaves smudges on parts that I don't want to leave smudges on. So you may want to get a tissue, put it in between your hand and and the drawing. And you might think, Well, isn't the tissue then gonna smudge the drawing? Well, it probably won't because you're gonna be holding the tissue. Still most the time until when you're moving your hand like this. One of that friction is what ends up putting the graphite on your hand but the tissues undergoing moving occasionally when you're moving your hand to a different part of the drawing. So it's probably not gonna causes much much of a problem that your hand is the German demonstrate on this one part of the body about getting the Grady int rot a little bit more accurately here, um, just to show you what I'm talking mountain, and I think we'll leave it at that. I went looking to go through the entire body quite like that. You can say I'm just trying smooth out shadow there. So then it it connects with the lot area noisy like we had on that bull in the last video. And I'm just trying to make it darker as you get further and further away from that light source just little by little, trying to go over that line that I originally drew there. So it's not too obvious again. You could use something to smudge that make it even less obvious. Just keep going over it. Keep working. It rendering Comtech a lot of time. So I it helps to be patient. - You can say I'm just applying those principles I was talking about. Well, im doing more data. I'll now still just the same rule principles. Okay, I could go through the entire body and render the rest with with more data, Alan and bit more and tender loving care like I have with the the top of the snout here, I could even keep down the snap more and I could start putting on warts and that kind of thing. But the main thing is, I want you to understand the principles of the lighting side. I give this a go on on an animal that you're drawing or going to draw something like that. Just give it a guy. Try a hand at it. Say what happens. Just remember also before doing that, not everything is gonna have the same amount of shadow on It. Depends a lot on this shite. So knows how I haven't put the same amount of shadow consistently across the whole thing. Um, and I have called it dark in here, so if you want to see and that's it's kind of what we're up to, So, yeah, it gets out ago, apply those principles to drawing and see what happens. 39. Rendering - Lighting - Part 3: So in the last video, we render the hippopotamus, and we did it using radiance, somewhat realistic looking lighting and shadows. But I did also mention that you can block in shadows in a more kind of stylized way. And I've got a couple of examples here drawing to die in the past to show you what I'm talking about. You can see that I haven't done like a Dr Lot shading on these drawings at this one on the left is a puma. But I actually looked at the black jag you was for to get an idea for how that for reflects the light, interact with the shadows and obviously because it was a fighter and obviously in real life , you don't get such clear blocks of light and shadow, and I have to make the decision. Will, how much of it is gonna be a lot and how much is gonna be dark? And, you know, I had to actually decide where I was gonna draw these lines based on where I could say the shadows. And what you can see here is that the light source is probably coming from around about here somewhere, and except further off in the distance on and you get all the different kinds of lighting and shading that we were talking about before. Except it's all along the shadows of the same darkness. So I these parts of the fair here, obviously the lot areas which are reflecting the most lot. Then you have the other areas which are darker, which Iran that some of them are, does die shadows which it from further proximity from the lot and others affirm actually being cast. So, for example, the eye here that Shaddai there is a cast chatter from the from the flesh above and around the are where is the shadow of the side of the head. He is mostly from proximity from the light source, but also partly from being blocked by other parts of the face. And on the other side Here we haven't eagle only shaded in the bake, but you can see you. You can see how the locking and the reflections and shadows and everything kind of tell you a little bit about the material that it's made from that. It's kind of a smooth, shiny material, and if you actually look at this, you might be able to see. I think what I was going for there was actually a dark big with quite a bit of what lot reflecting off that bacon. That's why you kind of get shapes that you get there and you can see the I there was going to something a little bit cartoony. It's not 100 sent realistic the way I've got the light reflecting off the either. But this kind of blocking of dark and light, light and shadow is quite good for more kind of cartoony drawing or comics or something like that. So give that a guy. If you're interested in that kind of stalling, you do some experimentation, see what works, say what doesn't work for you, and you probably get a lot of fun out of doing that kind of exercise. 40. Rendering - Eyes: We're gonna talk briefly about rendering oddballs, and we've covered this quite quickly. Pass by in a lot of the previous videos. So I'm not going to spend too long on this, but I'm going to go into a little bit more detail. So what we've got here is in eagles I've drawn a couple of times here, and the basic idea on you can even ignore this all eyebrow section. They're the reason I'm drawn that in is because that's what casting a shadow on the rest of the I and putting the shadow onto the I when when rendering it really helps give it some realism. So the first thing really ist actually put Well, it's actually not the first thing you probably want to put in the dark marks that part of the ice structure before you put in the dark parts that are the shadows. So I'm getting ahead of myself here. I'll just backtrack a bit. What, on coloring in here before finish up in my shadows? Uh, the doc sections around the on and the pupil. Okay, that's pretty straightforward. Pretty easy to figure out. I'm sure we all know wouldn't eyeball Looks like it's, uh we'll go ahead and do it on the other eyes. Well, but, um, the reason I've done two eyes is because I'm gonna do one with dark pigmentation, and the other was a lot of pigmentation and principles of the science devices and thought much has been helpful for you to say, Uh, what it looks like went dark as opposed to what an eye looks like when it's light. Okay, So, as I was saying before, we've got this shadow here from the eyebrow Ridge which is cast over the I. And I'm actually gonna draw a little circle there, which is reflected light and the two most important elements in rendering. And I that looks quite realistic, really. A getting those reflective areas bits with a lot reflect and where the shadows are. You can also mean if you're really going to go into a lot of data, you can draw those lines that you get along the iris kind of like spokes of a whale. But I generally don't bother without a funds unnecessary. Nice to the time. So we've already covered this really when drawing other, when we're covering the animals individually. But what I wanted to talk about, he was, Why is it that you get that little bit of lot reflecting over the top of a shadow? We'll get to that in second thought. Unlike other parts of an animal's body, the eyeball is highly reflective, so any lot that gets shown on it tends to have some sort of reflection like that a little. What don't that are drawn in there? And because I'm drawing what pipe on rendering that What dot can often main coloring in everything else that helps that little white dots stick out. So we can say that it's a reflection now that this iris, he that not, are there's a lot call a bit if you're gonna do with an animal, it has a dark color like this. The people in the IRS could end up looking almost indistinguishable from each other. But you still want to put that a little. Uh, I spoke there, reflected a lot, and you want to make the spot big enough that it's actually noticeable that allies a bit rough, but you can see that I'm coloring in a moment which is Dhaka pigment, the structure and the way you draw. It's pretty much the same, is how you draw the lighter I It just involves more coloring in and you can see he that reflection there really stands out on the doctor on. So why do we get the reflection? He that little reflected bit of a lot over the top of the shadow. You would think that if shadows being cast over the I that you wouldn't have any reflected light them, not the lightest part of the arbol there that we've grown in. So why is that? And that has to do with the structure of the horrible. So I've got he 3/4 view. It's actually human eyeball that I've drawn here. But the principles of the sign, whether you drawing a nagel or a cat or a bear or whatever the structure, If the Aibel is the raisin, waking at the reflection in the shadow in the same place and what you've got here, I'm actually cut out 1/4 of the eyeballs. You can see a bit of a cross section, this liar here on the outside of the eyeball known as the cornea. He is transparent, but it's also highly reflective. So when you get light reflecting off the Aibel, it's it's the cornea that it's actually reflecting off. So I'm not droll. Little a round circle there, Watch sport. Way lot has actually hit the eyeball band stove. That's what we're saying. There is that block of light reflecting off the oddball. The next liar on June 8th have you here. That is the IRS, and that tends to be the college part of the arm. And when when a shadow was cast over the all the shadow. That way, see, is the shadow that's cast over the IRS. And so you considered the shadows actually on being cast on this flat liar here, which is underneath the reflective like a here, the cornea. So I let's just give the example here where Shadow is actually being cast onto the once the cornea like Sai and you can see you can say you the shadow. And although it's not directly under loaders, shadow here is not in exactly the same space places where I've drawn this reflected light. If I was to view this angle if I was to do this are from a different angle, like if I was standing here looking at the eyeball that reflected Part of lot is gonna look like it's right on top of this shadow that's cast over the IRS, and that's why you end up when you're drawing or rendering. And I That's why you end up with this effect. He when you have this, what sport of lot reflecting off the I in the same spot where you have shadow cast over the are. And it's a pretty sure fire way Teoh to render eyeballs and make it look realistic. And or even if you don't want them to look completely realistic, it does make the eyes more powerful and engaging. So that pretty much covers how to render rivals. Obviously, with individual spaces, you're gonna get different shed pupils as we've covered with cats. For example, when I have the elliptical people or this huge an eagle's eye, it's kind of an oval shape with humans. It's around circle, so give that a go while you're when you're drawing eyeballs on animals and you should find it, uh, it really brings them to life 41. Rendering - Fur - Part 1: All right, we're gonna talk about rendering and to do this, I've I've prepared a sketch of a brown bear just as an example. Brown bears are a good example for a rendering for because they have quite long for if you're gonna be rendering an animal that has short for, like, really short for you may not even need to draw the fear on their door. Because if people know what animal they're looking at, they'll be able to see and well, don't know that it's covered in food without you having to actually render it. So Ah, an animal like a bear that you do want to render some of the first. So that actually looks realistic because when they do have longer, for it becomes a more prominent part of the animals silhouette and just general appearance . Now, I'm going to assume that you're not actually gonna be drawing every single foot onto the animal's body. What we're gonna be doing is drawing enough that it looks like the animal is covered in fur , but no more than that. Because by drawing a small amount of data, all it kind of implies that the whole body is covered with that detail on, but it really depends on doing it the right way. So a couple of things to know about for a way, where on the body should you render it so that it's gonna look like the entire animals covered in in for will. There's a few things I get. Principles without fear is obviously the part where the fear is longer. You're gonna It's more important to render it. So when I'm talking about rendering, I'm really just talking about here. I'm not talking about drawing in the reflections of the colors or anything like that. Yet I'm just talking about drawing the authors of the outline of the fair in this continent you can see on drawing. I guess we could consider small, little spiky shapes, which had clumps of fair. You may even do the occasional line by itself and and the rays and I'm drawing it here on this part of the body is because the firm it tends to be quite long around here, but, you know, down the neck and everything, I don't need to draw a zoo. Many of those spikes and for this kind of gives you a pretty good idea from what I've drawn up here, and I can draw a little bit along the back. Also, it's a bit long just over there, but, um, but after that, I don't really need toe. Draw the fares along the the rest of the back that I think we get. The idea I'm also obviously for, tends to hang down because of gravity's, especially if it's long for some types of hang down more than other types. Really dense boom might actually not hang down that much, but certainly in the case of brown bears, it does tend to hang down and say, You can you can sketch that in here. Notice not every single spike necessarily stands out by itself. It might be clumped in with one next to it, but it still gives you the impression that does. It's for another situation where you may draw for which we don't really have a great example. He maybe around the back side with would normally be clumped together, but but is separated by the body stretching in some way. It may become more obvious that you've got individual strands there separated from the rest blocks I and can. You may just put other other bits in there occasionally and randomly, um, the forearms and Barrett and of quite long, Fair. So you might actually bring to the fair on the forearms quite vigorously like that. Noticed that depending on the length of the fair and where it's like I did on the body and stuff, it's not always gonna point down. You can see here. I've done it, pointing out to the side of it. There's no we'll do is fair on the muzzle. But, I mean, that's where the shortest fair is he You don't need toe draw anything around there, but just like occasional random looking lines around here, like I've done the face. Then I may imply that the first getting longer on the main part of the face here, um, you can you can do this kind of thing where you got just a serious of lawns, little sparks and you you do a couple of different kind of layers of them. So it actually looks like you've got almost like concentric circles. I suppose, like that there's a bit of a three day, three day look. That's one way of rendering food and, you know, I can put fair on the year there, which combines a few of those different techniques or the year on the other side of minimal . How much is labour that that, if I want, really depends how finished I wanted to look and how realistic I want it to look. You can also combine this, uh, this fair rendering with shading. So the belly of the bear here he imagined this shadow cost. Then you actually color role that in, and then the point at which the shadow ends and disappears. You made it gradually disappearing into the for you might like this kind of thing. It's another way of rendering for really you can require a lot of experimentation. Um, because there are so many different ways you can draw. I've covered a few here where you can do it on Bob depicting fair on the edge of the shadow you can do it ran the out one here, particularly in parts where the first longer or it's hanging down and or you can have it pointing in different directions, depending on where on the body ideas and how short a long it is. As there's a whole bunch of different things you can do so it really good idea for an exercise just to try experimenting, doing a whole bunch of different types of fair and drawing them in different ways and using techniques of showing you here and just get a feel for with practice, you'll get a lot better at it. 42. Rendering - Fur - Part 2: got a couple more examples here have had a render ther in the last example where we talk where I showed you how to render fair on the bear, which is something you can apply a lot of different animals doesn't mean those techniques can be used on more than just bears. Obviously, when we were doing the bare there, we I talked about the young one time when you may need to render the for is when a part of the body is stretched and pops A for that usually clump together and my even look quite smooth suddenly become separated and and the fur and the individual has become more obvious . So I've actually drawn a more specific example of that here with this this tiger with the next stretching out, you can say different. Uh, I guess you could call them liars of further up Drawn here h with the time kind of jagged edge. But I've used slightly curved lines in doing that so that it doesn't look like there hard spikes or something. It really gives you the impression that it's for in another example here would be the tip of the cat's tail, where again when as it stretches, curls these hairs around, he had become separated, and you get a more distinct impression that the tiles actually covered in fur now on the left here have drawn an Afghan hand, which we're going to talk a little bit more about rendering long for because differ in this kind of animal is quite different from what you'd find on a bed long, and it's silky and smooth. And so one. I mean, one way in which you can render this on the Afghan hand is you can you can actually really draw long, smooth lines and try and get him a little bit random. Don't get into parallel in that kind of things that does does look more kind of natural. And the long, smooth lines really give the impression of loan smooth. For in this rendering can almost double for shadow. Also a little bit like what we did on the bare stomach. It's obviously not saying how hard shadows here, but you're not saying for what you can do. I mean, because you're not saying hard shadows, but and it's not directly exposed to the light either and say the area that is directly exposed to a lot. You can actually leave without any lines on it at all. And so you using these lines, you drawing for the for to, I guess, emphasize a highlight on the fair or out of the absence of the lines depicts the highlight on the It's a The more I found this in your start saying Well, what I'm talking about on the top of the head there, up here, we know that the top of the head he has covered with for just to the side of the head here is the same, for that comes down from the top here all the way down the side. But because I haven't drawn the lines up top here, it looks like that's where the light is coming from and reflecting because there is a reflective surface, it's not as reflective isn't liable. For example, I thought certainly claim for, particularly if it's some if it's not mattered or anything like that, it is not curly. You can tend to see quite a bit of a reflection in Afghan hands, in particular have fear. Looks like they've just come out of a shampoo commercial or something. like that. So I'm just gonna firm in some of those lines a little bit more still. So I don't know how easy despues se on the video. It should really be able to say now that that highlight over here, you could even do the occasional line all the way up thread that if you want it through the highlights, like so like that to really bring home the fact that the third does ah, go all the way through those highlights and should give you another technique there for rendering for. So it gives out a guy, you can try it on Afghan towns Or if you can find another animal that has similar kind of hair that hangs down quite Loman, steam locked up. Then give it a guy. 43. FREE BONUS CONTENT - Rendering - Small cat's facial patterns: Okay, I'm gonna rent a the markings on a small cap, spice or domestic cap. Kind of like the markings you expect to say on tabby Cat. But there's also gonna be the same as you get in a lot of the small cap while small caps bases around the world, which they're very from spaces to spaces. But I've got the same kinds of themes going on all the faces you stop, we're gonna stop by just coloring in the dark of skin around eyes. My little bit of a mistake there probably exaggerated a little bit. But I'm not gonna bay too much of a perfectionist with this because we just want you understand it and try and Max video quick as possible. Now, as we've already discussed, you have the little spots above the eyes, like eyebrow areas where whiskers about the ask grow from you also tend to get bit more doc fresher and knows here and the nostrils themselves. Just keep in mind that the front view of the vice that I'm actually drawing on top of here , strolling using the same method between lantern out earlier video on how to draw a domestic cats face from the front view so you can stop with that. And then on top of that, you render the markings like what I'm doing here. Now, Um, So we've drawn in these darker parts here where the whiskers are gonna grow from and domestic cats tend tohave. I mean, the number of lawns that you get going down the Florida here, the areas from space used to space season Ah, often in domestic cats shut maybe in driven em shape or something like that. But the basic look that you have there, some laws which starts just above the eyes here and guy back in. It's kind of mental, trying to get it roughly symmetrical on both sides. But it's not gonna be exactly symmetrical because no animal is 100% symmetrical. And then on the edge of the all, I hear you tend to get this line that goes down. Then it does have, like a small off shape. We hear it comes around around about where the checkpoint is. You might actually come closer to the yard in that, but you do tend all to get a what marking around the eye here and what my I think. Yeah, And you don't want any of the docking locks covering these white knocking because they don't have actually happens in rail off except for right in the corner here where this dark marking kind of made up that doc fish that guy's around, the are. And then there's another law on further down. It's gonna shape, and rainforest species tend to have thicker, darker lines and those ones, but something like a Scottish Wildcat or something will bay like a doctor around over a lot brown, you often find the lower sections of the face tend to be white, even if I have been a marking over them. So you want, we'll show you in a second? Well, I want sections tend to pay, all right. From what but day bottom of the whisker pads the chin and could be bits he around the bottom of the jails so you might end up coloring and nice to this. Yes, it's a lot shaving. You may showed the edge of the nice a bit Darko, because does usually look a bit doctor around. Just make sure we get the what marking on the outside of the I am this side as well, which I almost forgot about. And if you want that want marking to be really distinctive this grind them covering now you can actually shaded a bit Doctor around there makes the what? Knocking a bit more off this, but you don't make it. Is Dhaka's lawns this darker shading around the water touches here. - You can say that I'm just, uh, coloring in here at the angle. It's Asia is forming, but you can help if you coloring at the same angle of the ferries pointing. Uh, I don't necessary just a tip lines a little bit, Doc, huh? And want to put in. I've already put in some fear inside the years, but if you want to really render it, probably spend a bit more time on it. All you really need tonight is that you've got with growing from the inside there. There's the whole hearted all over there, and if you have some photos for some reference material, it's just a matter of spending to tell him actually feeling it in properly. Of course, we don't forget about the eyes, so we'll put in people a bit of a white shine over the top of that, but a shadowy coming in from the flesh above the I looks there trying. I could symmetrical with that dark fair on the each side of the bridge, in the noise in the Mount, put some whiskers in, also which you want to put them in the lost optic putting Everything else is he drawing over the top of other parts, but basically a bunch of really long strands of hair. Macy parking out. So I'd wise, but to varying degrees closer you get to the middle there, the more horizontal I tend today about that tend to point up a bit below. That tend to point down a bit, and they obviously quite long pieces of here, which is rooted much deeper than the other here. His they do tend to have some whiskers around here and above the allies and stuff. But it's up to you whether you want to really put them in. It's also I committed it a bit of a risk, putting in these lines over the top of what you've already painstakingly drawn. You don't wanna ruin it. I'm quite happy with that, and it gives you a basic idea of how to render the markings on the face of domestic cattle or some other small cut 44. FREE BONUS CONTENT - Rendering - Tiger's facial patterns: Okay, We're gonna look a drawing the patents on the targets face now. And the patterns on the Tigers face is somewhat different from other cats. One of the main areas being that most capped species don't have any markings around this area here between on you, but I just do have quite a few markings there. In fact, tog is markings are almost like concentric shaped in concentric circles that come out from the middle of the face. And the stripes cover most of the area of the face. Except for Theis area, the bridge of the nose and sections next to it here, on the top of the whisker pads and the chin or so doesn't have any markings on it other than around the lip in a few spots around there. Not I've prepared destroying earlier, using the same techniques that we learned about how to draw big cats vice from the front. And you can use that technique to set up the drawing like this and then go the next step and actually do the patterning and the rendering like we're about to doing now. So what I'm going to start with before actually doing those stripes is actually just color in the areas of face would be darker because underneath the stripes on the caps on a tiger's face, you tend to get two colors, which are orange and white. So I'm gonna color in the parts which dark on the face, which would bay the orange parts and the parts. That would be what I'm gonna leave. What, so you can see here already have drawn this line to you near the top of the whisker Pat. And I'm gonna draw the extra lines here next to the nostril and not stroll lines there like that and roundabout the level of the cheekbone. You'd have some No, the edge of the orangey color. And they come around here and we'll get lighter as he gets towards this ruff of fur around the edge of the face. That's kind of the outline of where the the dark orange is gonna go. I'm just gonna do the same on the other side here, and there will be some other sections on the face around the eyes in particular which these areas around the eyes we'll actually have some other white markings around. It was much harder edges. So you were actually gonna start off on with the black markings around the eyes? Because all the all the architecture that we need to build those black markings is already there to the eyes themselves. Way already did this and drawing a big cats vice from the front. But I'm gonna do it again, just more rendering thing than actually construction of the face. Um, big cats like till I could have dark skin around the eyes which looks more or less black in coloration and comes out here like this towards the nose fades into the orange sort of color. Which way will color? And Mark was gray in a second. Just do the same on the other side of the face. Okay? And I'll ask themselves Obviously we want to render them. And also ondas with other big cat tigers. Pupils are not as ellipticals dies about domestic cats, but tigers do have more elliptical pupils. My c I'll be cats like lions, for example, lines of very round people tie goes. If you look closely, there is actually a slot point on the top in the bottom of the people. But it is I subtle that you won't really notice it. Okay? We'll put some shadowing their top of the eyeball with all sides, the surface reflecting some lot, like, say, now we know from Mo when we drawing the cats faces before that cats have This area we hear about the Oz, which were the eyebrow, is because Dr from put that in. But intellect is it's gonna be covered up by black market and you've got quite a few of these black markings above the tigers are so along with that girl, a few other markings in and no two tigers gonna have exactly the same markings. So, you know, you might be using fighter reference, but you don't have to get exactly like the the animal with you passing it on and around the eye. But you seem to get with all caps around. That black skin is a section of what? Using this really striking appearance. And when our color in do you Dr for around that, you'll see what I'm talking about about this. What section? Here and here. Control that it on the other side in tigers upper it. You have a point here on the outside of the ally does tend to connect to a schtrops. The black straw collection. Lee. I'm drawn more of that light of it. It doesn't go up that what lawn goes around the are there. Until I was also, they have a bit of a black black line on the border of the white, further around the eye, very soon sort of line, which can actually be breaking into spots or something like that. Um, but it does just like my from local, that extra bit more striking, Okay? And like we had the like, a lie brown parts on the other side of the face one and drawing on this side of the face also. And I mean, there's just little date Alison I'm doing. Generally, I wouldn't, um all the coloring does launching yet even usual. Just draw the outline for them. Make sure got all those lines in the right place relative to each other. Because if you make him a steak look harder to rub it out Arising, Andre, do it. If you've already called it in and it was more chance of the labor market when you're doing now, the area in the for around here it doesn't have a hostage like the water around the eyes. You But this area, he also tends to be a lighter than the the rest of the device. Lot orange, culo, white, each within lives. It's there. But now that I've to find those areas, Aiken basically color in where the orange is gonna go. I call it a bit either here, these once, that I put in a liam on the whisker pads where the whiskers they're going to go. I don't want to completely lose those lines Going to stay where I'm gonna put the whisk up . The waste goes later on and we will come back to them. I'm strike. Color it in quickly so that we don't You don't spend too much time Watching me do it is because it's more important that you actually just learned what I'm doing and say every single part of me coloring this in would usually turn the paper. Also, just to try and get a nice Grady in from here to there from greater white. But I don't want to move the paper too much. In case the, uh, the focus of the camera lasers. It doesn't just properly or if you lose view if I take it out of the viewfinders area, so just gonna leave that area? They had it rough. Back of the years or so you're gonna be, uh I'm gonna color in grifone now. With the back of the years, we're actually gonna make my see Doc. They will have a watch spot on the back where you don't want that. A big dry just noticed. I'm not coloring in that area. They're supposed to be lighter now. They will actually part of the face. Which a darker orange and other parts of the face. Yeah, we went to been to all in that. But it's gonna do if you actually take a look at a fight of the taga. Spicy. Just trying. Know just which parts of the face of dark, dark and deeper orange and others may be interested to find out what you actually see. When you do that, it's rough of fair. Around the edge of the face is larger in some tigers and others tends to be larger and male targets and female targets. Um, and in some regions, it tends to be a lot longer than the other and until August from other agents. So again it's gonna label what spot on the back of the color in the rest. And we're gonna go down to the whisker pads now and color that in because, like I said, I do have some black markings there where the whiskers grow. I, from the whiskers, obey one of the last things we drill in because you drawing over the top of all the stuff. So didn't I just like about this black dots here along the lip liner and was the color in the nostril wall around it? You know, Stroll will repeat of a black and saw it just as much from lack of lot as it is from Dr Pigmentation. And because there is dark skin around the nostril, it's hard to say where the whole finishes and where the skin start. You don't necessarily even need to define that. You could just do is a blackish blob the way that I've done it, it's putting a black don't behind the nostrils there, but you tend to find on targets. I'm not being too pedantic about a little circles here from whisker pads, you can say just kind of approximating quite easy. You just move your pencil around in small circular mation. Anyone can do that just about. And again. We've got that punch there along the edge of the, you know, live on the bottom lip here on big cats. This this chin area here tends to be what long for And it even exaggerates the Solossa, the chin in the shape of the chin. But the skin around the lip does tend to be a black, and you get varying degrees of how much pigmentation you get on there, some completely white. Others. Such is the case of this tiger I'm drawing. You get a little bit of spotting going on there near the lip, but not a whole lot leaves a chin mostly white on a and you don't bit of the lips huge hanging down the side. Here you do get some black pigmentation around there. I told someone area of the face, which is usually cast in shadows, will be dark around here. Um, now, as I was saying before, yet like almost concentric circular shapes around the tigers face which with a stripe site get like, large struck around here, Another large sort of strong within that one. Then they kind of come in towards that. Would like along the check by an area. You get bill wiring that. Just notice how I'm trying outlined news before actually Carling coloring them in just so I can get them relative to each other correctly, because if they aren't correct relative to each other, you may find you can't fit certain lines in on the face. But you do want to fit them in. So trying to get them all in the right position before actually firming them in too much. No markings along the bridge of the nose here, as I said before, the first markings on the from the middle of near the middle of the FISA days. Once he lines that come up from near the Oz, it's a good idea to have some photo reference handy. Just Teoh say exactly where those lines go might even be good to have more than one photo because, as I said, it tends to be different in different individuals. So you may want to say what are the common elements and which ones of the individual elements just notice also, how is like an invisible center line here, which I'm trying to mirror on one side from the other, tends not to be completely identical, but it tends to bay roughly identical. And these black marks that we drew above the eyes and the eyebrows positions we can now continue extending them that I've been into the arrangement of all the other lines on the face and one of the universal elements that you do tend to have in tiger stripes of these does going horizontally across the forehead like so you'll be able to save better in a second what I call them in the other universal elements of the stripes here that go around . It's a lot of the face like this. That's circular motion. And as I mentioned before, a lot of cats do. You tend to be missing backings in between the and and the, but you can say that there is this kind of beer patch. Maybe here's and I stripes on it and select that this drops of a the grown across that part of foreign from the middle here, growing out from the center in front of the either, or those markings have drawn from the side of the face across in front of the You try and fill up that space there, and the back of the E does tend to be black with a white spots on it. Now I'm just gonna try and Mira have already drawn and do the same sort of patterning on the other side of the face. Sometimes growing something completely identical is not that easy. There's a good challenge for your observation skills there. We'll help you improve and also and, as I said it, roughly identical. It's not perfectly identical, for you can take a bit of creative license with it, do something a little bit different on the other side of the face. As you can see, I am kind of using my instincts. Yet Atran decide which lines to draw next because trying to. So I between want to draw next, based on how it's gonna help me draw the following lines. I don't want to draw a line in not having a good idea where the other lines are gonna go around that, because then you can come out of paint yourself into a corner. Quite literally. Sorry. I think the white spots on the back of the year. My actually help their cubs for them through the forest. I don't think anyone really knows why the back of the years and marked the way they are. As for the rest of the stripes, we know that those that their camouflage so in the tiger's hunting, prying these lines of spice to help break up. It's out one so the pry animals can't spotted before it's too late. And we don't that big, distinctive lying around the outside again. We're pretty much roughed in ALS the the schtrops now, So I'm gonna stop blaming stuff. Being coloring it in probably noticed that rendering the stripes on on the Tigers face actually seems to take longer than constructing and drawing the face from scratch, which is what I usually fallen once you get into the details. Kentucky. Quite a bit of time I'm actually coloring in these lawns, trying to cover in these launch around the edge of the face, and the same angle is the fare would come out here getting the grain of the fair in there. I'm just coloring this in, roughly, trying to quickly the most sitting in a bit of an odd angle. The camera kind of blocking me from getting a good I mean, good go that especially the lines going that angle. So I'm not just concentrated it less on the grain of, um, it's trying. It filled in. One thing you can do is you can actually color it in like I'm doing here. And if you're not happy, that's dark enough. I can always go back again and Mike stuff, Doc, if you make it to a lot. So if you make it too dark at first, it's much harder to go back and make it lighter than it was before. Just remember how we drew that from the corner of. So I hear that black want connected with the We ended up connecting up with the line over here so you can see that the black skin around the old seems to be continuous with this lawn here compared to the black lawns and I'm filling in the, uh, the gray stuff that I call it in, which is supposed to be where the Orange Fair waas, you can say, is almost two light. Now you can't really notice it that much anymore because it's quite close in contrast to the background. What? So I my guys throw it dark in some of those areas, Particularly in the way that I said that some of the orange parts the tigers fare much documents on the other orange parts. This area around here, for example, is actually one of the docket areas. It comes the orange. So I can actually feeling a bit of gray that also along the it just here that bridge in the knives, stripes of actually quality, not completely black. I could certainly maximum What doctor from wanted. Teoh. But I don't want Teoh make this video unnecessarily long. So I'm just gonna try quickly fill in the rest without being too much of a perfectionist. That's unfortunate, because being a perfectionist when it comes to drawing is actually quite helpful. Leonardo da Vinci was actually perfectionist. Apparently took a very long time to finish some of his drawings. All right, we're almost done. I just got a couple more wants toe feeling with black, okay? And we have the rendering. Well, I suppose you could call it rendering, but the for that are done for the rough around the face. You could leave it like that. Or you could draw mawr hairs in on. It's really up to you about how much data you want to put in there. Uh, I'm not gonna put in any other day tells to die. But maybe you would just around this area here just break up that out on around there because that black law and once it makes the face in this area, it's not so distinctive over here anymore. So maybe a bit more like that. And we're just famine like that. Top head to the notes, a bit more distinct on other areas. We may want to look at a bit more rendering you there. I can certainly do that. The fair here and some more data because inside a year does tend to be dark of it's also covered to a great degree. With her, you can do something like what I've just done there. Show you again on this soil. Just imagine if you've got a bunch of here causes a black hole behind that, you can say something that black hole in between the gaps between and finally, we have the whiskers and the main part in which the whiskers come from it. The whisker pads here, near the nose near the mouth and some. Do you have any whiskers you want to put in? But you want to make sure you finished off everything else before you put them in, because you can see the lime drawing over top of everything else. And the whiskers actually tend to be what All right, It is a bit difficult to render with doc pencil you could using arise about. Be very difficult to do it that way. An alternative is if you're doing it in color or something, you use a white pencil. Um, you could even leave gaps there when you busy coloring the rest of the face but located dating dark like this. Also, I'm by sea, just growing them more or less randomly on the basic ideas, pointing out in certain directions from here points out more or less straight to the side. And then it kind of radiates kind of like the sun US buys. If you get draw the different spikes coming out of the sun as you go around the circle. I come out of different angles, but most of the whiskers will come out to the side like so that's how you render a tall your spice 45. Conclusion: Well, that's it. That is the entire course. If you watched all the videos up until this point, well done. I just want to take this opportunity to say thank you. Thank you very much for taking this course. And if you want to keep getting better in the future of the main thing to remember is practice, practice, practice. If you keep practicing, I promise you will get better. And if it helps you in the future to get, don't forget to come back and watch these videos again and again. And you should find it helps you get better over time. You'll start seeing new things that you haven't seen before and you'll start to learn mawr and those learnings will build upon each other. Before you know it, you will be an amazing artist. So well done. Thank you. I look forward to speaking with you again in the future.