Digital Privacy and Security 101: Master Class for Non-Technical People | Bobby Bahov | Skillshare

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Digital Privacy and Security 101: Master Class for Non-Technical People

teacher avatar Bobby Bahov, Entrepreneur and Consultant

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (41m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Why should you care about digital privacy?

    • 3. What are the most common risks?

    • 4. Managing your passwords

    • 5. Email safety

    • 6. Protecting your computer

    • 7. Protecting your data

    • 8. Protecting your connection

    • 9. Embracing the lifestyle

    • 10. Summary

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About This Class

Who is this course for:

Digital privacy and security are unfortunately fields that a lot of people neglect. Some because they don't understand the risks, others because they think it's too difficult or time-consuming to be well protected.

I prepared this Master Class specifically for Non-Technical People who are not aware of the easy steps everyone can take to be better protected online. 

What you will learn?

At the end of the class, you will know what tools to use to better protect your digital life and why this is important.

Some of the topics covered in the Master Class:

  • What are the most common digital privacy risks and how to recognize them?
  • How to be more privacy-conscious in everyday life
  • Password security and how to manage it
  • Email safety
  • How to protect your devices
  • Data protection
  • How to protect your internet connection

Who am I?

My name is Bobby and I am an entrepreneur and consultant. I am originally from Bulgaria but I reside in the Netherlands. Although cybersecurity is not my main expertise, I have quite a bit of experience with it and I have written my Master's thesis on the topic.

Meet Your Teacher

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Bobby Bahov

Entrepreneur and Consultant


Hello, I'm Bobby, an entrepreneur, and consultant with a passion for exponential technologies. My background lies in the intersection between technology and business.

My professional interests include:

Innovation benefiting society Exponential technologies and their effect on everyday life and business The Sustainable Development Goals of the UN Climate change solutions Artificial intelligence Space technology and science See full profile

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1. Introduction: Hi, my name is Bobby Bahov. I'm an entrepreneur and consultant and I'm preparing this course for non-technical people who are interested in learning more about how they can protect themselves, their digital information, online. Why am I preparing this course? What is the reason that you need to be concerned with your own privacy online? Well, did you know that there's a hacker attack every 39 seconds we are talking about a successful hacker attack here. There's thousands of appends probably per second. In the same time, cases of identity fraud are raising all over the world. Since the Covid-19 pandemic started, the FBI in the US have reported 300% increase in cybercrime. Stolen credit card data can be purchased on the dark web for as little as $0.50. Why you should be concerned? Well, not only for your personal privacy, but if you are a small business owner, this is very important because 43% of cyberattacks are targeting small businesses. And 90% of data breaches are due to human error, 90%. This means that if we have the proper awareness of how to avoid some risks online and how to be behaving in a more privacy-oriented way, we can avoid them! This course is for non-technical people. For example, creatives, people working as freelancers or consultants, and everyone using the internet. But especially important for small business owners. And of course, you won't become a cybersecurity expert but after this course, you will be more protected than most internet users are. What can you expect from this course? There'll be a general overview of the most popular risks and how to avoid them. Very specific tips on how to protect your digital information and digital identity. Concrete recommendations and steps on what to do. I'll be recommending some specific tools and software programs that will help you protect yourself better. It's important to note that not any of them are sponsored. They're just my personal preferences and tools that I have tried and used and I think you will be better protected online if you also try them out. So I hope I see you in this course and you enjoy it. Thank you. 2. Why should you care about digital privacy?: So why should we care about digital privacy and security? Well, you can never be fully protected actually, if there is an organized hacker group that wants to breach your system, your computer, your network, there's a very high chance they will succeed. What you can do is at least protect yourself from the automated attacks. Those that don't target directly you, which are 99% of the attacks online. What's more important is protecting yourself once there's a data breach on a big network that you have an account at, for example. In 2017, Yahoo announced there have been 3 billion user accounts leaked. And this is the most significant data breach in history. If you have a yahoo account and you were using a username and password combination that you use on other platforms as well. This puts you at a really big risk. So it's not just your Yahoo account that can be compromised. It's any other account that you might have online with the same username or email, the same password combination. Another example is the Marriott International hotel chain, which in 2018 announced there has been 100 million credit card entries leaked and stolen from their network. As well as more than 300 million user records, which include private information like names, passport numbers, address, etc. This is very significant because even if you have the best security on your own systems, you can never be certain that you having an account somewhere or even visiting a hotel and giving them your private information might not result in your information being leaked. Actually, that's a very high chance. Also in 2018, more than 14 million consumers became victims of identity fraud. So the numbers are really significant and we need to be aware of how to protect ourselves, what measures we can take in order to avoid the risks associated with this. So are you affected? There's a very high chance that you have been. And I will tell you later in the following videos of ways to track that. Next section, we continue with the most common risks. 3. What are the most common risks?: In this section, we're going to explore what are the most common risks and what are the differences between them. We start with phishing as this is probably the most popular one and most commonly associated with human error. Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information or data, such as usernames, passwords, credit card details... by pretending to be a legitimate source when obviously they're designed by an attacker. I'm pretty sure all of you have received emails like that. Most of them nowadays are filtered by spam and they go in your spam folder in your inbox. However, maybe you've opened some and you've seen those that pretend to be your bank, for example. And there has been a lot of victims who fall for that. Big companies and corporates actually train their personnel into not falling for those attacks by sending fake phishing emails. That's why a lot of corporates also very often say that you should never give passwords to anyone who claims that it's their employee that they will never ask for that. So fishing is very, very popular and very commonly spread. So be very careful. Very often, fishing can be a whole website. What this means is that the attackers can build a website that looks exactly like the legitimate one and went once you input your information, they have it now. And some of them are really good. So you should always be very careful. Always check the URL of the website that you are visiting. Next, we have identity theft. I mentioned already that there's been an increase year over year in the past few years of identity theft victims. And that is the practice of pretending to be someone else to obtain passwords, information, credit card, bank data, et cetera. It's very commonly used also for loans. Maybe you can associate identity theft very easily by thinking about phone scammers. Phone scammers pretend to be someone that you will know and they would ask you for money, for example, or try to scam you in one way or another. Online, they try to pretend they're either your bank, like phishing, but not with the website, by pretending, directly acting to be the bank. They can send you an email saying, "hey, I'm a bank representative". Obviously. sometimes they are very good at that, especially when it comes to corporate attacks, where they can pretend to even be your boss. So be careful about that. Next, we have malware. Malware is a collective term, an umbrella term, for software that he has been developed with malicious purposes to change how a system or a network performs and to steal data. Types of malware include viruses, trojans, ransomware, etc. The name Malware comes from "malicious software". And typically consists of a code developed by a cyber attacker that is designed to change how a certain system operates. Viruses are the most common type of malware. It's important to note that most viruses don't spread automatically. They spread through human activity. So if you send an email with a virus, the act of sending It is the cause of it. Then, there's worms, and worms are a type of virus that spreads automatically. This means that one computer can damage a network of a thousand other computers automatically, and each of them can infect another network... it can spread really rapidly. Then we have Trojans. They're a type of malware that pretends to be a legitimate software tool when they are actually malicious. They're employed by cyber-thieves with the goal of stealing information or gaining access to a certain system. Once an attacker has access to your system, they can use key loggers. These are special tools that record every keystroke on your keyboard. This is especially, as you can imagine, risky when you're typing your password on a certain website. So they can actually detect where you're typing or password and they can detect the keystroke so they just can read your password. Another type of very popular problem that has arrived in the past few years is ransomware. Ransomware is normally employed by attackers when they have access to a system and involves encrypting that system, which means that they would prevent your access to your own computer, for example. If they have breached your computer, they can encrypt your hard drive or certain pieces of information like important documents or important folders. And without the special password that only they have, you can't access it. And most of the time they blackmail you. And it's really not a good idea to pay them because this way you support them. But most of the time there's no other way that you can get back your important information. 4. Managing your passwords: In this section we're going to explore passwords. And as you can imagine, your password is your most important layer of protection between your data and information and an attacker. I hope you're not one of those people who use only one or two passwords everywhere, because this is the biggest mistake you can be making when it comes to personal privacy and security. According to a survey, more than 70% of people use the same passwords for their personal accounts and their corporate accounts, which makes them a potential target on their personal accounts if an attacker wants to gain access to their corporate information. So one can be an employee at a big organization and if an attacker wants to gain access to that organization, they might want to first breach and target the personal accounts of some of the employees, hoping that they will be using the same password on their corporate accounts. Some of the most common passwords nowadays, unfortunately, include the sequence of numbers between 1 and 6 or some people think they are more protected by using the sequence of numbers between 1 and 9. There's also the word "password" that's very commonly used, or even combinations of "I love you" or six zeros, six ones. As you can imagine, that's not a strong password. Why? Because of Brute-force attacks, which are special attacks using software tools to try a lot of different passwords in failing, but they try the most common ones. If you are using such a password, the chances that it will be breached are quite high because it takes just a few seconds to guess it. Not for a manual attacker typing it, but for a bot trying to guess your password. Another thing that a lot of people do is to use a pattern. They think that physical attacker, a human being, wouldn't be able to guess the pattern, which could be the case, but for a computer, if they know one or two of your passwords, the chances that they will get your pattern are quite high. So don't reuse passwords and don't use patterns for your passwords. So what can you do about it? Obviously, the best thing you can do is have very complicated passwords that don't mean anything. So think of a very random combination of letters, numbers, symbols, even small and capital letters. A combination of that would be a good password. However, the problem is that for the average human brain, that's very difficult to remember, especially when you have to have a different one for each of your accounts. And that's where password managers come in. A password manager is a software tool that stores all your passwords in one secure place, which is encrypted, and only you have the decryption key. This means that you have one master password, which unlocks your vault of passwords. But make sure you have a very long and easy for you to remember password and by a very long, I mean a really long one so it's difficult to guess. Ideally, you would not even have a password, it makes sense to you. It will still be a combination of random characters, symbols, letters, digits, etc. But you have to remember only one of those. And then it will lock all your passwords. And each of your passwords this way will be different and you don't have to remember them. Most password managers generate those passwords for you whenever you register a new account so you don't have to think about it. There is also the feature that password managers fill in automatically your password in whatever websites you are using. The best thing is that password managers nowadays come with additional functionality, like some of them. For example, LastPass, which is one of the most popular tools out there, includes encrypted storage, where you can store important information like passport images contract documents, etc. There's a lot of various tools on the market. I recommend using LastPass or Dashlane. There is also NordPass. All of them have a kind of similar features. And what has been increasing in popularity in the past couple of years among Password Manager providers is offering dark web monitoring. This means that your password manager will notify you if your passwords or your username or your email addresses have been somewhere detected on the dark web. Another very important tool that you should always use, if possible, is multifactor authentication. A lot of websites, especially some government or online banking accounts, they ask you to provide a mobile phone number so they can send you a security code every time you try to log in. This is actually really good practice because this blocks 99% of automated attacks. So just by attaching your phone number or one of the additional applications for multi-factor authentication that you can use, it allows you to be a lot more protected. Which one you should use? Well, you can find on your favorite app store mobile applications that act as a multifactor authenticator. They generate the code every 30 seconds or so and it's attached to your password. And unless someone has access to your phone to see the temporary password, they can't access your account. For example, you can set his own your social media accounts like Facebook or LinkedIn. Of course, your mobile phone can also be breached and it can be stolen, etc. There are a few risks associated with that, but there's a better solution which might be too advanced for most users. But just keep in mind that it exists. You can buy special authenticators that are not attached to your phone or any of your devices. They are a device by themselves. They look like a USB stick and they generate codes for you. 5. Email safety: In this section, we're gonna talk about email safety. Did you know that 48% of malicious email or malicious email attachments are documents or Office files. It could be also PowerPoint presentations or Excel sheets. And they will bring together with them some malicious scripts and tools that might actually affect your network. This means that a lot of people fall victim to cyber-attacks by just opening fake emails. And we've already discussed phishing and how problematic it is when someone is trying to pretend they're someone legitimate. I have seen phishing emails from the national revenue agency, for example, or from banks that send you annual statements or asks you to download the document so you can sign it. Just opening the e-mail, most of the time is not a problem. Downloading the file is what causes the problem. So my recommendation is don't open files from emails from unknown senders. Even if you know the sender, like as I said, it could be your bank even, verify that it's true. If you just randomly receive from your bank an email with some documents in it, probably it's fake. The bank would probably call you and ask you for the document and explained first-hand what they are going to be sending before they actually send it. So what can you do about that other than just not opening any files on emails? Obviously, always check who is the sender. Spam filters are good, but they're not perfect. They're still from time to time some spam emails that would go through the filter and it will land in your inbox. You might not always recognize them, but if something looks suspicious, don't click on the files, don't open them. If it's from a legitimate source, call the source. Very often people ask me what email client they should be using. My recommendation is to always use one that supports two-factor authentication. We already discussed what two-factor authentication is, and Gmail, for example, supports it. The problem with Gmail is that Google has access to your emails. For those of you who are very privacy-oriented, even more privacy-oriented than the average, there are other solutions like ProtonMail for example, which is completely anonymous. Even they don't have access to your inbox. So consider using that. 6. Protecting your computer: In this section, we're going to discuss how you can protect your devices. So this includes your computer, your mobile phone, your tablet even. The first and most important thing is always update the operating system when there are new updates and always update any software applications that you're using. The reason for this is that most updates improve security. There are very often security fixes, especially on operating systems that may just make your device better protected. It's in your interest that your operating system is as much up to date as possible for security reasons, not only for performance and nice new features. Next, we talk about the various software tools that you can have to protect your device. So a type of such tool is anti-virus. They were very popular a few years ago. More popular than now I think because back in the day, Windows didn't include by itself an antivirus. Nowadays, it has the Windows Defender tool which acts as an antivirus program integrated directly within the operating system. By using that, you are better than not using anything. So make sure it's always up to date and it regularly scans your system. However, there are other tools that you can buy. There are antivirus programs that you can just purchase. They're definitely better than the stock one from Windows. They're especially useful for corporates because as we already said, as a business, your system is very highly likely to be targeted by attackers, automated attackers as well. And as a business, you probably receive a lot of documents and we already discussed that those documents might actually be malicious. So an antivirus program will detect that, most of the time, before it affects your system and it will put it in quarantine. I personally recommend using anti-malware. Remember, malware is an umbrella term that includes viruses, but also trojans, ransomware, etc. And I recommend using Malwarebytes. Their tool is very light and very easy to use with a very good user experience. And it's quite strong. Even recently they introduced a browser plug-in that protects you in real-time while you browse the internet. And if you are about to enter a risky website, it will directly block it for you. Which is, I think it's great. You can protect your devices with hardware tools as well. Probably you've seen that a lot of people use this camera covers for their laptop cameras. Why is this important? Because the chances that you might get hacked and your computer might get breached are high. Even if you use anti-virus and anti-malware. Someone can still gain access to your computer. And if someone has access to your computer, they have access to your laptop camera and they can see what you're doing. And it's scary. Because yes, they can see anytime you're on your laptop, they can see your face and your room and everything you're doing. These laptop covers, their camera covers, they're very cheap. So there's no reason why you shouldn't be using one. And it's not such a big hassle to just flip it open when you want to use your camera and then flip it back close when you stop using it. An even more advanced way to protect your laptop, for example, our microphone covers. So if someone has access to your computer without you knowing, they can eavesdrop on your very easily. You can buy this laptop microphone covers that mute your microphone. And whenever you want to use your microphone, you just unplug it. Use your microphone, then you plug it back in. It's as easy as that. 7. Protecting your data: In this section we're going to discuss how you can protect your data. The best way of doing that is to always have backups of your data. What this means is that even if your data is stolen or your computer is compromised and there's ransomware on your computer, for example, where they encrypt your data and you don't have access to it anymore, if you do have backups, probably you will lose some time restoring it but in the end, you're not going to lose your data. This is very important also for synchronization between devices. So this is not related to security and privacy, but it's just nice to have and it makes life easier if you're using multiple computers or multiple devices and they synchronize the data on them automatically. So not only you have a backup, you have a backup that can easily be accessed through your other devices, but you also have a history of backups. Most cloud storage providers provide at least 30 days history of backups where you can just restore your system to a certain point. I'm pretty sure you've heard of most of them - Dropbox, Google Cloud or their cloud solutions called Google One, One Drive from Microsoft. They're all popular cloud providers. The way they work is that you designate a certain folder on your hard drive and everything you do there is synchronized with the cloud and between your devices. So it automatically backs up all the important information you might have. I recommend using either Dropbox or Google one. They have a very similar offering can functionality, while Google one is a bit cheaper, Dropbox however, has a secure vault which is encrypted. This means that you can put important documents like your passport images or contracts. You can put them in there and they're encrypted and no one, without your password can access them. Then I would also recommend using a service called pCloud, which is a lot cheaper than using Dropbox and Google One because they offer a one-time Life Subscription. Okay, so this was about protecting the information on your devices. What about your online information? And here we are not talking about security, here we are talking about privacy. Because we already mentioned that Google has access to your information that you have on your Google accounts. It could be emails, it could be on your cloud, the files there. But what they even have access to is your search history, for example, or if your mobile phone is set to it, they can track your movement and your history of where you go on a daily basis. So if you search for certain terms, they can build a profile and feed you more of that information and put you into special categories for promoting certain products or services to you, not by Google, but by their partners as well. How can you avoid that if you don't like being tracked? Well, there's the search engine DuckDuckGo, which is built on top of Google and protects your privacy. It doesn't collect any information from you and how you use it. Obviously, this comes in exchange of some nice-to-have functionalities and quality of life improvements that Google offers. Where if you're commonly actually search for certain things, Google can understand your preferences and can improve your user experience. This is very common, for example, in YouTube, where in your feed you have recommendations for videos. So I would like to make a note here that just logging out from Google is not enough because they store cookies in your browser. And if you use it from the same computer, they still track you and they still build a profile of you. So DuckDuckGo is an alternative that allows you to use a search engine that's basically almost the same as Google with some small functionalities not being present, but their search results are exactly the same without collecting your private information. If you'd like to go to the next level, so it's not just about search engines, but even your browser and protecting yourself from cookies tracking your activities on other websites. You can use the Brave browser. And the Brave browser is a web browser and that is designed with privacy in mind and it prevents any collection of data and they don't collect any data. Because Google Chrome, which is the most popular web browser nowadays, is owned by Google. So you need to find the best balance between functionality, privacy, and security that you would like. I would personally recommend using Mozilla Firefox as its more privacy-oriented than Google Chrome. And actually in the past few years, it has become, in terms of performance, also better. However, if you would like to use something different than the Brave browser, which comes including AdBlocker. There are ways, plug-ins for Google Chrome for Firefox, that allow you to block not only advertisement, so like AdBlock which is very popular, but they also allow you to prevent websites of collecting some of your personal data. And it can be prevented a 100%, but it still protects you. It's still an additional layer of protection for your privacy. I personally recommend using AdBlock for sure because ads are very annoying. But you can also use uBlock origin, which is kinda similar to AdBlock and you can even use them together. Whenever there's a request for some of your data or even a redirection to another website, you need to confirm that you agree that you want to do that. Of course, the more protected you are, the less convenient the user experience is. So you need to be aware of the tradeoffs that you make for yourself and decide what's the best personally for you, the best combination between comfort and security and privacy. 8. Protecting your connection: In this section we're going to discuss VPNs or Virtual Private Network. Why should you use a VPN? Well, if you're using a public Wi-Fi network, you should definitely make sure that you are protected because if someone is hijacking that network, they can read the data that you are sending and receiving or can intercept it. Your data is not secure. How do you know if a public Wi-Fi network can be trusted? The short answer - it can't be trusted. And don't trust it. Why? Because not only the owner of the network, but it's not that difficult for hackers to just hijack a network, intercept your data, and see what you are doing. One interesting example of how hijackers can do that, they create their own network. You are asking yourself, why should I connect to some random person network? Well, if you're sitting in a cafe and you want to connect to the Wi-Fi in you see a network with the cafe name, you would assume that network is legitimate, from the cafe. But how do you know that? There could be someone on the next table, next to you, with a hotspot with the name of the cafe and you're connecting accurately to their network. And if you connect to their network, they are the owners of the network. They know what you're doing there. So how do you protect your network? With VPN! A VPN is not only for accessing Netflix from another country so you'll have a wider choice of movies. A VPN also encrypts your connection adding another layer of protection. And encrypting your connection means that all the data that you send or receive is encrypted by default. The owner of the network can't access it. Whenever you are using a public Wi-Fi I highly recommend using a VPN. And nowadays VPNs are very popular, very well functioning, they are stable. Back in the day, a few years ago, they weren't that stable, they were disconnecting a lot of the time. My recommendation is to find a VPN and use it. Should you use a free VPN is also a common question and my recommendation is No. Of course, you shouldn't be paying for a VPN for the sake of just paying but there are tools that come with integrated VPN. For example, if you use a password manager like Dashlane, it comes with an integrated VPN. Another option that you can use is NordVPN, which is probably the most popular VPN on the market right now. It's actually quite good. I recommend using this one. You can get a combination from NordVPN together with their NordPass password manager. So if you're using one of them, you can easily use the other as well. Very often the providers offer packages of services and products. 9. Embracing the lifestyle: In this section, we're going to discuss how you can change your lifestyle. And genuine lifestyle means to be more privacy-aware when you use the internet, when you use social media, to understand the risks associated with that and how to just protect your personal information. This means that outside of software and hardware tools that you're using, most importantly, it's how you use the internet and how you use your computer. Obviously, when it comes to social media, be careful with sharing very personally identifiable information, especially if you do so publicly. Another thing I would like to cover is locking your computer or laptop when you don't use it. Imagine you're working in a cafe. And while you're working, you go to order another cup of coffee or you just go to the bathroom. Do you leave your computer unlocked? Because if you do your run of the many people that expose their computer to risks in such public places. It's not just the fact that when people pass by or just look at your computer, they can see what you're doing and they can read... if it's something important, they can read it. It's also the fact that they can access it without you realizing they can install malicious software on it. Of course, the chances are very slim, but it costs you very little to just lock it. It's done by pressing two buttons on your computer, on both Windows and Mac. And this also applies to office spaces, not just shared office spaces, even if just in your office where you work with other colleagues, if you go to the restroom and you don't lock your computer, anyone can access it. Another topic is downloading. Of course, you shouldn't download illegal movies, games, software as well. You shouldn't do that. A lot of people, however, try to do so. And they don't realize how many risks are involved in that. Because if something is free and very often if it's pirated, it might also be malicious. What I recommend is always try to use free software that is built to be free... or the so-called open-source software tools. There's an alternative for almost all proprietary software. So you can find something that's by default, legitimately free to use. So it's better to do that than to pirate and illegally download proprietary software. And it's not just because it's illegal, you are also exposing yourself to risks. When it comes to mobile apps, a lot of people are not aware that downloading from the App Store and from Google Play Store, it's not just the fact that they are very popular marketplaces, they are actually the most secure marketplaces. Because applications go through careful checks before they're uploaded there. And the chances that you'll get malware on your phone or your tablet are a a lot smaller than if you downloaded from unofficial app stores. More than 90% of mobile viruses and malware come from unofficial app stores. So be very careful when you do download from those. I recommend always just download from the official app stores. Even if an application on the App Store or Google Play store is paid and you'll find it free somewhere, be careful with that. There's a reason why it's free. Another thing when it comes to lifestyle is always read the terms and conditions and the privacy policies when you register. Of course, there are jokes and memes online about how the most secure place to hide something is on the terms and conditions of Facebook, for example, because no one ever reads them. But try to at least have an understanding of what you're agreeing to when you register, especially if it's something important. Very often those important things might include your sharing very personal information like your ID, your passport... Some websites and platform, some services require you to share such kind of identification. So I highly recommend reading carefully the terms and conditions and privacy policies. So at least you're aware of what they do with your data. Another very important thing is a secure connection to websites, or the so-called SSL or HTTPS connection. The S at the end means that it's secured and probably you have seen it. Nowadays, all the popular browsers tried to prevent you from accessing websites that don't have a security protocol on them. Sometimes you can still access it. And without even realizing that you're accessing it without any notifications from your browser. So be careful. Always look for the lock on your browser before sharing any information, including even just login. Always look for the URL as well. We've already discussed phishing and very often phishing websites are built in a way that they mimic legitimate websites almost perfectly. And very often, the difference in the URL could be just one letter. If you have to put your bank account information or register to somewhere important where you have to share a lot of personally identifiable information, being very careful and just take a look at the URL, make sure it's protected, that there's a lock. Something that I think a lot of people might not realize... but when you send emails, sometimes we have to send emails with our passport photos or ID, or even driving license. When you do so, most people forget to delete it from their email. And why is this important? Because we already discussed how Yahoo, for example, had more than 3 billion user accounts completely compromised. So if you have a Yahoo email for example, and you keep a passport photo, not even in any kind of storage, just as an email and the email is stored in your inbox, this imposes additional risks for you. So my recommendation - go to your inbox, delete all the emails that include passports and any such very important documents. Another thing to consider is using separate emails for important things and another email for the less important registrations that you might have, like subscriptions to newsletters, etc. Because if someone gains access to your email for one reason or another, probably not even your fault, just the servers are breached, you don't want them to gain access to all your information, right? Another thing that I really like to stress out is don't send passwords to your friends or family. This is another good feature from password managers. They allow people to share passwords in an encrypted way where you don't have to post a message of the password anywhere in any chat, for example. Just share it with someone and they receive it in their app. It's quite useful. It's easy, you don't need to even think about it, but it's most importantly more secure. 10. Summary: In this final section, we will just summarize the steps that you can take already today. It will take you just maybe a few hours of your time to set up everything and then you'll be incomparably more secure and your information will be kept private. Definitely more than most other internet users. First of all, as we discussed in the last section, embrace the lifestyle of being privacy-aware. So be careful what you share online and be always conscious about how you protect your data. Use the right tools, software and hardware. In terms of hardware, you can buy the camera covers and the microphone covers. In terms of software, I recommend really always using a password manager. It's the most important thing. Using a VPN when using public Wi-Fi networks. You can also get anti-malware software that helps protect your devices as well as cloud storage that will help you automatically backup all your important information. And in case your data is stolen or you lose access to your data, you always have a backup. There are a few tools that I recommended throughout the course that I personally like using. My recommendation is either using Google One as cloud storage or Dropbox. Dropbox is slightly more expensive, but it has this vault that is encrypted and protected, which is an extra nice functionality. In terms of anti-malware software, I recommend purchasing a subscription for Malwarebytes. In terms of a password manager, I would recommend Dashlane or LastPass. There's also NordPass, which is provided by the same company as NordVPN. Talking about VPN, NordVPN is probably the best on the market. I highly recommend using this one. What about if you are low on budget or you don't want to start paying yet and you want to try out something for free? Then I would recommend using Google Drive, which allows up to 15 gigabytes, or even just the free version of Dropbox, which is two gigabytes by default, and it can be increased to three and a half I think gigabytes. At least using it for your most important information like documents, contracts, etc. Password managers are another thing. LastPass has a free version that you can try. Finally, try ProtonVPN. It's regarded us quite good for a free VPN. To sum up, try to consider what's the best package for yourself individually. But most importantly, try to make some of those steps that you still haven't done and I guarantee you'll be better protected. And it even gives you the peace of mind that if something happens, if there's a breach, not even necessary, your own computer or network, you'll be better protected. And I hope this short course on personal privacy was useful and, and you heard some new things. Most importantly, I hope that I inspired you to try and be more secure because the more users online are secure, the better the internet, in general, will be, and the more secure everyone will be in the end. So thank you for watching. I hope you enjoyed it and I'll see you next time.