Digital Photography for Dummies | Fadzai Saungweme | Skillshare
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9 Lessons (38m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:35
    • 2. How Digital Cameras Work

      2:08
    • 3. What is ISO?

      3:35
    • 4. What is Shutter Speed?

      7:18
    • 5. What is Aperture?

      6:59
    • 6. The Exposure Triangle

      5:12
    • 7. A Stop of Light Explained

      3:57
    • 8. Understanding White Balance

      3:37
    • 9. Being Creative with ISO, Shutter Speed, & Aperture

      4:04
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About This Class

This is the first class of a digital photography course designed to help a person that has no idea how a camera works, to becoming a master of photography. While other classes on this platform are mainly focussed on what certain aspects of photography are and do, very few have a real emphasis on the cause and effect as to why certain phenomena occur which is vital to gaining a stellar understanding.

In this first class, we will focus on the basic fundamentals of photography. 

Please note: The wording "Dummies" is purely comical and is not meant in any offensive or literal sense.

We are going to cover the following:

  • How Digital Cameras Work
  • What ISO is
  • What Shutter Speed is
  • What Aperture is
  • The Exposure Triangle
  • What White Balance is 

See you in the next class where we look at more advanced concepts in digital photography ideal for amateur and upcoming photographers.

Bring a notepad and happy learning!

Transcripts

1. Introduction: hi and welcome to Digital Photography for Dummies, the first class of a digital photography learning course that's designed to teach the average individual that has no knowledge about photography. Everything they need to know to become a master or photography, a little background information about myself. My name is fads. I. I am a photographer and videographer, with over four years of experience doing online content creation for networks like YouTube and a lot of photography and video work for clients. I am also an engineer. In this first class, we will focus mainly on the basic fundamentals of photography. We're going to look at how digital cameras work. What exposure is what I s o r. Shutter and aperture. We will take a look at the exposure triangle and what it entails in our final listen. We'll take a look at white balance what it is, how it affects your image and why it is very important. There will be a quiz or couple of quizzes at the end of the class, or each lesson that I highly encourage you all to take in order to judge your learning. Once again, I welcome you all to this journey and I don't want any of you to be intimidated by the animal that is photography. We'll work away slowly through the different aspects off the art, and I'll try my best to keep everything in layman terms so that it is as easy to understand as driving your car. This is digital photography for dummies. Greetings, everyone and happy learning. 2. How Digital Cameras Work: In the old days, you knew that you could not use your camera without any film. That's right. That pricey little Celinda that contained the film was the heart of your camera. This foam is a flexible plastic material that is designed with chemicals that are sensitive to light. When you hit the shadow button, the camera would allow light to hit the film and cause reactions to take place with the chemicals on the film. This would then store the image that is how film cameras worked. These days we have digital cameras, and while they might look similar to film cameras in terms of appearance, they function differently on a very basic level. When you press the shutter button, a digital camera works by operating a mechanism called a shutter that then let's like through a hole that is in the lens. Also called the aperture onto a light sensitive medium cold sensor. This sensor is digital and absorbs the light than it captures the image. The light detecting medium can be one of two types a complementary metal oxide semiconductor or CMOS image sensor or a charged couple device, but that is not very important. They both serve the same function in the most laymen of terms. The image sensor converts all the light or picture from the lens into millions of pixels. The sensor measures color and brightness variations and the pixels and stores them as a number. That means that the picture coming out off your digital camera is a very long string of numbers that describe all the pixels that the image contains. And while food images were essentially analog, the beauty off images from a digital camera is that they are digital. You can upload them onto your computer and into programs like Adobe Light Room or Photoshopped to manipulate them. And by doing this, the program is essentially just changing and adjusting that long string of numbers we mentioned earlier that represent each and every pixel in the image. So to sum up, a digital camera works by letting light through a lens that focuses light rays onto the image sensor that is exposed by a shutter mechanism at the press off the shutter button. The sensor then does a whole lot of image processing to convert those light rays into usable digital information that is then presented to us in the form off a digital image. Thanks for listening and tune into the next lesson where we focus on other fundamental aspect off digital photography. 3. What is ISO?: in traditional film photography is a was the measure of how sensitive your film was too light. It was also called s a film speed and was represented as a number like 200 or 400 or 800. And so once a high number men that your film was very sensitive to light at the expense off larger film grain in the images. A lo eso meant that your film was less sensitive to light and the images would have finer grain in digital. Photography is so simply, just measures the sensitivity off the image sensor to light as mentioned before in the previous lesson. On a very basic level, a camera works by letting light through a hole that is in the lens onto a light sensitive medium cold. A sensor. This sensor is digital and absorbs the light. Then it captures the image I so I s O stands for the International Organization for Standardization. The organization combined many classifications of film sensitivity into one system that was uniforms. Now don't get confused because the International Organization for Standardization standardizes sensitivity ratings for camera senses. But this is also amongst many other things. So how does I so affect your image well in simple terms, if you're shooting outside in daylight, you almost never need to raise the isil sensitivity because there is a lot of light available. Hence, there's no need to make your sense of more sensitive to light when it's already getting more than enough of it. Take this picture, for example. This is shot at a certain aperture and shutter speed, which will cover in later lessons, but it's not important for this demonstration. The isil is set to 200. In the second image. I made sure the zoom, aperture and shutter speed were kept constant, with only the I so changing. This is short at Isil 3200. The effect of changing the eso is obvious. In the second picture, the sensor is more sensitive to light and therefore absorbs more offered, creating a much brighter image but notice that the image is also a lot more Granier. In digital photography, the amount of light hitting the image sensor per unit area when an image is captured is cold exposure. It is affected by the isil shutter speed and aperture again will cover shutter speed and aperture in the next few lessons. To capture a good image, you need to have the right exposure or captured the right amount of light. Where isil becomes very useful is in low light situations because it is dark. Taking a picture with a low isil wield an image with the wrong exposure because there isn't enough light captured. We call this an under exposed image, but by raising your eyes. So the image sensor is a lot more sensitive to light, meaning that even though they might not be a lot of light altogether, your image sensor is a lot more sensitive to it, which can be seen in these images and as mentioned before the exposure is controlled by the three variables Isil, aperture and shut a speed. These three parables make up what is known as the exposure triangle, also to be covered in the next few misses. So essentially digital photography is about finding the perfect balance between the three exposure controls aperture, shutter and isil. You can always raise your eyes so if needed, but you do not want to raise it too much, while also image will become noisy and have poor color reproduction. So we have learned that Isil is a measure of how sensitive and image sensor is too light represented by numbers, which is essential to correctly exposing an image. We have also learned that exposure is the amount of light per unit area of imaging sensor that is captured when an image is taken, controlled by isil, aperture and shutter speed. We've only just mentioned shutter speed and aperture. In the next few lessons, we will look at what these variables are and how they actually affect the exposure off your image. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the rest of the lessons in this class, where we focus on other fundamental aspects off digital photography. 4. What is Shutter Speed?: one of the three variables controlling your exposure is the shutter speed. Shutter speed is vital in determining the correct exposure in your image as well as the creative look of it. In the previous lessons, we spoke about how a digital camera works. Just a quick read run when you press the shutter button on your digital camera. A mechanism called a shutter allows light that passes through the lens to get to the imaging sensor off the camera. The sensor then captures and stores the image. The mechanism that opens up and allows light to be absorbed by the sensor is like a curse and covering the image sensor that opens up when a button is pressed, it is very important and known as the shutter. So the way in which a shutter functions is that when the camera fires, it opens to let light through to the image sensor and after a specific period of time. The shutter then closes, stopping light from hitting the center the length of time during which your camera shutter remains open. Exposing light onto the sensor is called the shutter speed. It is basically the amount of time that your cameras friends taking a photo. There are three important things to know about shutter speed. When you have a long shutter speed, you expose your sensor for a lengthy period of time, which causes motion blur off the image as well as a brighter image. Fast moving objects appear blurred in the direction off the motion, and this effect is used in many creative ways. Like to emphasize the sense of motion off cars or people walking on the street. And if you have a very dog but stationary scene, a slow shutter speed can allow you together enough light to expose correctly. There isn't much motion blur since the scene aesthetic, and nothing is moving. Use off a tripod is, however, vital to be able to achieve this. I don't know if any of you have seen photographs off waterfalls of fireworks, where the water appears to be a soothing cloud or the fireworks are long streaks of light that is all achieved by a slow shutter speed. On the other hand, if you have a faster speed, you can effectively do the opposite and freeze motion, and if you use a particularly fast shutter speed, you can freeze fast moving objects that would otherwise not be easily visible to the human eye, like a bird in mid flight or a dolphin as it reaches and even athletes during sporting events. All of this can be achieved simply by altering the shutter speed off your camera. Shutter speed is typically measured as a fraction off a second, when the value is shorter than a second. So, for example, a shutter speed off 1 1/100 of a second means nor point not one seconds and 1/4 of a second is 1/4 of a second or no 10.25 seconds. Most modern digital cameras have mechanical shutters that can handle speeds off upto one for thousands of a second, with the more premium models being able to handle upto 1 8000 off a second. The longest available shutter speed on most cameras is generally 30 seconds, so we've discussed the two important creative effects show to speak and have on your image out of the three. The final and most important effect that showed us feed has on your image is the exposure. Remember that in the last few listens, we've been talking about how exposure is affected by isil, aperture and shutter speed. Shutter speed alone can be used to determine the correct exposure often image, albeit with some limitations that will discuss in a minute. So, for example, a quicker shutter speed or short exposure time will result in a darker image, while a longer shutter speed or lengthy exposure time will result in a much brighter image . And if you stop and think about this logically for a second, it actually makes a great deal of sense. We said that the camera's image sensor is sensitive to light, meaning that it absorbs light when exposed to it. So if we allow the sensor to be exposed to light for longer, like we do with a long shutter speed, were essentially just giving the sense of more time together. More light, making the image brighter and conversely, if we're shooting with a faster speed or short exposure time, were effectively giving the image sensor a shorter period of time. Together light making the image doctor So yes, you can correctly expose your image simply by individually altering the shutter speed. But there are limitations for example, if you're shooting on a very bright day, but want to use a slow shutter to emphasize the motion in your image, you find that your image will come out with an exposure that is too high. It will be too bright. This is cold and over exposed image. This is because there's plenty of light outside, and if you allow your sensitive were exposed to it for too long, then it will absorb too much light, overexposing and effectively ruining the image. And on the other hand, if you're shooting in low light, you need a slow showed us be together more light. However, you quickly realize that your images will end up being way too blurry and out of focus due to slack movements of vibrations when handling the camera. Ultimately, you have to find the perfect balance and lucky for you and I exposure is not only controlled by the shutter speed, but by the three variables isil, aperture and shutter speed. This is where balancing those three becomes essential. We'll talk more about that in a later listen. Another limitation you will find with your shudder is that since it is an actual mechanical device, there is a blinder looking device that has to move up and down to cover and expose your sensor when you hit the shutter button. That alone comes with its own physical limitations. And that is why, as mentioned earlier, the fastest mechanical shudder today can achieve a shutter speed off 1 8000 but not any quicker. So if that is not enough to correctly expose your image, then you're out of luck and won't be able to expose your image using just your shutter speed Or will you not remember? We said that the image sensor in a digital camera is digital, so basically it functions through Elektronik circuitry. Well, that means it can be turned on and off, right? That is absolutely right. And this is where Elektronik, shutter or E shudder comes into play. It turns out that you can actually expose your sensor to light without ever using an actual mechanical shutter, So basically you're sensor is constantly exposed to light. Then the image sensor is activated for a specific period of time and then turned off again . The time during which the sensor is on becomes your shutter speed, and you are able to achieve the right exposure in your image. And because Elektronik shutter has no mechanical parts, it is able to achieve much faster shutter speed than a traditional mechanical shudder without ever making a sound. Some of the fastest cameras today can achieve electronic shutter speeds off upto 1 32,000 of a second, and you can see that it's significantly quicker than the fastest mechanical shut. So it appears that the shutter is better than a mechanical shut in every way. So why do we still have and use both in our cameras? Well, it turns out that electronic shutter actually has some pretty significant disadvantages, but that will be covered in a future class that focuses on more complex aspects. Off digital photography in summary shutter speed is the time that your sensor is exposed to light controlled by the shutter in your camera. It can be used to expose your image and also to achieve some creative photographic effects . Modern digital cameras have two types of shutter, a mechanical shutter that is like a shade that covers and exposes the image sensor and an electronic shutter that has no moving parts and works by simply turning the image sensor on and off a fast shutter speed or short exposure time freezes motion and can be used to photograph fast moving objects. A slow shutter speed or lengthy exposure time can be used to expose a very dark but static seen or create motion blur in your images, which emphasizes motion. So far, we've only covered isil and shutter speed when it comes to the variables that control exposure and the exposure triangle in upcoming classes will take a look at aperture, the exposure triangle and more. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the rest of the lessons in this class, where we focus on other fundamental aspects off digital photography. 5. What is Aperture?: the last of three variables that control the exposure off your image is aperture. Aperture can be useful when determining the correct exposure, but also useful in achieving certain visual effects. So a quick roundup off how a digital camera works light passes through a hole in your lands known as the aperture. When you press the shutter button, the shutter mechanism exposes the camera image sensor to the light for a period of time and then closes. The sensor, then captures the image and stores it. The whole opening that allows light to pass through the optics in the lens is called the Aperture. This is kind of like the pupil in your eyes. It controls the amount of light that enters the lens and hits the imaging sensor. And while the disadvantages associated with shutter speed and isil can be sometimes significant to the outcome of your image, the disadvantages that stem from the aperture of Finland's are far less profound. Think about your eyes for a second whenever you go into a dark room, where these little light your iris expands in an attempt to gather as much light as possible so you can see and when you move to a well lit environment, your iris get smaller and smaller because there's more than enough light in the room for you to see you correctly. Aperture affect your exposure and can be individually manipulated in order to achieve the correct exposure in your image. In low light, you use a wider aperture to capture more light. And in bright environments, you use a smaller aperture to capture list like aperture also controlled. One other important factor in your image and that is something called the depth of field depth of field is the amount of your image that is sharp from the front to the back. When you take a photo, you're taking an image of a three dimensional space with the things in the front closest to the camera and those at the back furthest from the camera. If you draw a straight line from the front of the camera. To the very back of what's visible in the seen, the depth of field is the length on that line where everything is in focus. The depth of field can be shallow or narrow, depending on your aperture, or it can be large or deep a deep depth of field means that both the foreground and background of the image are sharp and a shallow depth of field will generally have a subject that isn't focused with the background of foreground, completely out of focus, creating a visual aesthetic that is pleasing to the eye. This blurt out OD focusing effect is known as Boca Job Okay and is a property off the lens that is being used. A large aperture will give you a narrow a depth of field and hence providing a more pronounced bouquet or D focusing effect in your image. A smaller aperture will result in a deep depth of field, where a very large off, both the foreground and the background will be focused. So all those very interesting and dreamy portrait photos you see where the model isn't focused with the background nicely blurred out in some very creamy brok, a shot at wide apertures. It's important to note that since a wide aperture and narrow depth of field gives you a smaller area and focus, the bow K or D focusing effect can be both in the foreground and in the background, depending on how you compose your short so wider. Apertures are useful when you want to isolate a subject from its surrounding and smaller apertures are ideal when you want everything in focus, like when doing landscape photography off large to range. So we have spoken about what aperture is and how it affect your image, but we haven't looked at how it is presented on your camera and lens. The aperture is a function off your lens. Some lenses have white apertures, and some don't. The more technically engineered and premium lenses tend to have wider apertures with cheaper options having smaller apertures, the aperture on your lens and in your camera is expressed in terms off a number known as the F number, or F stop. The F is always at the front. So, for example, you can have an aperture off F 1.8 or F eight or even F 16 and so on. Now, remember, we said that the aperture is a function of the lens that is being used, while the F stop or F number is actually derived from the ratio off the lens focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil or opening at the front of the legs. We'll cover the F stop focal length in depth in future classes. For now, it's important for you to know the difference is between a wide and small aperture and the F numbers that are associated with the 21 very important but confusing area of understanding for beginning photographers is that a wide aperture translate into a small F number, or F stop, and a small aperture represents a large F stop. This is very important, and you need to really pay attention to make sure you always get this right, I said. Just jotting down some diagrams and some notes in your notebook. A lens with an F stop off F two has a wider aperture than a lens that, as an F number off for so small numbers, represent large apertures and large numbers represent small apertures. This generally results in a lot of confusion because it is the opposite of what a lot of people would expect. But there is logic behind this madness. Remember that the F number is derived from a ratio between the lens focal ing and entrance pupil diameter. So picture this for a greater understanding. Suppose you have two lenses both of equal focal lengths. We know that the F number is equal to the focal length, divided by the damage off the entrance people. The two lenses have different apertures, or different entrance people damages, meaning that they're letting in different amounts of light and ends, both having different s numbers. The one with the larger entrance pupil will have a wider aperture because the opening is bigger, but the F number will be smaller. And conversely, for the other lens, the F number will be bigger due to the smaller pupil diameter. When looking at F stops, always considered this equation to help you gain a better understanding and always remember that the F number has an inversely proportional relationship to the pupil diameter off the lens at a given. Vocally, as mentioned before, aperture is a function off the lens. And while every digital camera has a sensor and a shutter, the aperture becomes the most important exposure control because it is easy to manipulate without any drawbacks to the image quality. Not every lens has a fast aperture, and that is why lenses with wide apertures, also known as fast lenses, are very expensive. A camera is a camera that cannot change. But what a photographer can change is the lenses. You can use lenses with faster apertures or longer zooms and better optics, all of which can result in a better image. So in summary, we have discussed that the aperture is the opening in the lens that controls the amount of light going into the camera. It is represented by an F number where a smaller value is a wider aperture and a bigger value is a smaller aperture. We also know that the aperture effects two things. The exposure off your image and the depth of field off your image images where the foreground and background is blurred out. Enb okay, have a narrow depth of field, a wide aperture and a small F number. Photos where the foreground and background are in focus have a deep depth of field, a small aperture and a large F number. And unlike ISO and shutter speed, which have disadvantages that can significantly affect your image in a negative way, manipulating your aperture doesn't really result in any sort of draw back to your image quality. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the rest of the lessons in this class, where we focus on other fundamental aspects of digital photography, 6. The Exposure Triangle: we have discussed individually what isil, shutter speed and aperture are and how they affect your images. But now we will take a look at how these three variables come together to create what is known as the exposure. Trying. A digital camera works by letting light through a whole cold and aperture that is in the lens onto a light sensitive medium called a sensor. When you press the shutter button, a mechanism called a shutter exposes the sensor to light for a period of time. The sensor is digital and absorbs the light. Then it captures and stores the image. Taking a photograph is all about achieving the right exposure in your image as mentioned before. You don't want to over expose your image because it will be too bright. But you also don't want to under expose it where things will be too dark. We already know that exposure is controlled by isil, shutter speed and aperture. Together, these three variables are the three pillars of photography and make up the exposure triangle. So what exactly is this exposure Triangle? Exposure Triangle is an imaginary triangle that brings together your isil, shutter speed and aperture. The three pillars work together to produce a correctly exposed image. This means that if any one of the three pillars changes that at least one other variable would need to change in order to maintain the sick of exposure, that might sound a little confusing. But if you think about it logically for a second, it actually makes the whole lot of sense. Now remember that from the way of camera functions, whenever you take a photo, you always have an isil, a shutter speed and aperture. You cannot take a picture without all three of these together, so imagine you have it correctly exposed image. You want to open up your aperture to get a narrow a depth of field, but by doing so, your image will become overexposed because there's too much light to balance your exposure . You could do one of two things. Lower your isil if possible, or increase your shutter speed if possible. All of which will cut down on the light in your image, helping to expose properly an important terminology and exposure is what is known as a light stop. A stop of light refers to the doubling and halving off light when exposing an image. So if you want to reduce your exposure by one stop, you are having the amount of light captured. And conversely, if you increase the exposure by one stop, you are doubling the light that is captured. We will talk about light stops in how they're controlled by your isil, shutter speed and aperture in terms of actual numerical values in the next list. For now, it is important for you to understand that the exposure in your image is a function off the three pillars photography for any given photograph. They can only be one correct exposure. However, they can be hundreds of combinations off your isil, shutter speed and aperture. We can easily relate this to what is known as the bucket analogy instead of flight. Let's use what Suppose you have a bucket that you're trying to fill up with water using a hose, the damn it of the hoses, the aperture and the shutter Speed is the time the water flows into the bucket. You're so is the size of the bucket. However, a small bucket represents a large isil, and a big bucket represents. A small is. So this is because at a higher I, so you need a shorter time to expose correctly or fill up a smaller bucket. Now let's say we have two buckets of different sizes, both with their own hose. Let's also say that to correctly exposed the image we need to fill up fourth buckets, a large damage. The holes, which represents a large aperture. Well, let more would flow into the bucket. Please note that this analogy only works when the velocity or speed of water in the pipes stays the same, regardless off the holes diameter. After all, the speed of light does not change whether you have a wide aperture in your lens for a smaller one. So here, if we use the same hose, it will take a short of time to fill up the small bucket, which represents the high I S O. The bigger bucket will take longer to fill up, meaning that a Loaiza will require a longer shutter speed. Now, if we use buckets that are the same size for the same ice, so by then, use a larger hose for one bucket. It's easy to see that to fill up the buckets, we have to open the large hose for a short of time. Those are just two examples, and already you can see that there could be countless combinations. In all cases, we arrive at the same goal, which is filling our pockets and hands correctly, exposing our image. To get the right exposure. You can change your aperture, which controls the size of the opening to which light will pass. But doing that will also affect your depth of field. You can also change your shutter speed, which controls the amount of time that the shutter remains open, exposing your sensor to light. This will also affect the motion blur off your image. Finally, you can change how sensitive the image sensor is too light, but in doing so, this will also affect the amount of digital noise for grain that will be in the photograph . The art of digital photography is all about finding the perfect balance between the three pillars of photography. It all comes down to the artistic effect that you are trying to achieve. If you want a blurry foreground and background from a shallow depth of field, then you will have a wide aperture, relatively fast shutter and low. So you always want to keep as low a nice so as possible in all scenarios. Because remember that a high I saw results in digital noise that negatively effects image quality. So we've covered exposure and the three pillars of exposure in a future. Listen, we will look at light stops, white balance and ways in which you can be creative with F numbers and shutter speeds. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the rest of the lessons in this class where we focus on other fundamental aspect of digital photography. 7. A Stop of Light Explained: At this point, we know that a digital camera works by letting light through a whole cold and aperture that is in the lens onto a light sensitive medium called a sensor. When you press the shutter button, a mechanism called a shutter exposes the sensor to light for a period of time. The sensor is digital and absorbs the light that captures and stores the image. We also know that to correctly expose your image, you need to find a balance between the three pillars of photography. Isil, shutter speed and aperture exposure is all about light. After all, to capture a correctly exposed image were essentially just attempting to gather the right amount of light. So what did it be useful for photographers if we could put the amount of light into quantifiable terms, like maybe a number or something? Well, it turns out that we can, in what is known as a stop of light, as mentioned in the previous listen. A stop of light refers to the doubling or having off light that we used to make up in exposure. So if we have a perfectly exposed image, we can double the amount of light by adding a stop off light. Or we can have the amount of light by reducing the exposure by one stop. And we can easily do this by simply changing our isil shutter speed or aperture. Shutter speed measures the length of time the sensor is exposed to light. So if we double the amount of time that the shutter stays open, we also double the amount of light, effectively increasing the exposure by one stop of light. If our shutter speed is 1 1/100 of a second, we can double the light by multiplying by two, which gives us 1/50 of a second. This means that the shutter is open for twice as long. Exposure increases by one stop, and if we speed up or shutter from 1 25th of face second 1 100 of a second, we have decreased the amount of light by two stops because we have our light twice. This diagram shows how should this be changes as light increases or decreases by a stop? Remember, all you have to do is double the shutter to increase by a stop and have to decrease by a stop. Aperture is the size of the opening that lets light through the lens and into the camera system. The bigger the aperture, the more than light that can reach the sensor. Every time you double the area of the opening of your aperture, you double the amount of light, and if you have the area, you have the amount of light reaching the sensor from a previous listen. We already know that large F numbers represent smaller apertures, and small F numbers represent large apertures. We also know that the F number is equal to the focal length, divided by the damage off the aperture. That means that for any focal length, we can determine the damage off the aperture. By rearranging the equation, the area off a circle is equal to pi over four times the damages squared, so if we have the damage of the aperture, we can easily calculate the area off the opening. But anyway, that is already done for you in the form of this diagram. So all you have to do is memorize it. Here we see what F numbers correspond to consecutive increases and decreases in light by one stop done by halving and doubling the area off the aperture opening at any F stop. If you multiply by 1.414 you have the area off the opening, increasing the exposure by one stop. And conversely, if you divide your F number by 1.414 you double the area of opening an increase exposure by one stop. Now we know that we can think of ice. So as the measure off the image sensor's sensitivity to light, if we double the isil, we increase exposure by one stop. And if we have it, we decreased by one stop now in reality is a was actually a little bit more complicated than that, because if you think about it, you know many different sensors off many different sizes with different circuitry and manufactured in different ways. So when I saw off, 100 on two different cameras might not correspond to the same thing in terms off light gathered and what's happening inside the camera. But that is not very important. All you need to know is that isil is a measure off the camera sense of sensitivity to light . This diagram shows how your isil doubles and halves to increase and decrease the exposure by a stop of light each time. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the rest of the lessons in this class where we focus on other fundamental aspects of digital photography. 8. Understanding White Balance: in digital photography. White balance is the process of removing unrealistic color casts so that objects that appear white in person actually look quite in your photograph. True white violence in your camera has to take into consideration the color temperature off the light source. Color temperatures simply refers to the warmth or coolness off white light. The human eye is very good at judging true white under different types of lighting. Digital cameras, on the other hand, often have difficulty determining the white balance automatically resulting in images with strange blue, orange or green color casts. Understanding how white balance works can help you avoid these strange color casts, which can improve your photographs under a wide range of lighting conditions. This is an example off both a correct and incorrect white balance for the same image in the correctly white balanced image on the left, the skin tones look natural, while the image on the right has skin tones that look orange. Different sources of light have different color temperatures. Thes temperatures are measured in Kelvin, and a lot of the times you might find 2000 K or 6500 k on the white balance menu in your camera. A high Kelvin value means a very blue cast light source and a low kelvin value represents a very orange like cast light source. When your camera is set toe order white balance, it will try its best to make a guess. That is based on a white object in the scene as a reference, and you can already see how this can be an issue because what if there is no white object in the sea? That is where your camera is very likely to misjudge the white balance in the image. This is why it is essential for you to understand what white balances so that in such situations you can manually set the correct white balance on your camera. This table represents the approximate color temperatures and Kelvin for different light sources. In most cases, these values are more than adequate to get the right white balance straight off the table. However, some tweaking might be necessary, especially in mixed lighting environments. The advantage of digital photography is that the use off white cards is no longer necessary if you shoot roll, which is a image file format that is less compressed than J pegs and has a lot more information. You can essentially do your white balancing after taking the picture on your computer. Raw shooting would be covered in another class in the future, where more complex aspects of digital photography will be taught. A quick and easy way to change your white violence on the fly issues. The presets that are in your camera. Basically, every single camera these days has white balance presets that the user can change at the flick of a button. I suggest just scrolling through all of them and I bowling to pick the right one. And easy way to help you decide on the correct one is to look at the scene with the naked eye and then try to match that with what's at the back of your camera display. Now, White balance doesn't always have to be correct, and as a metal effect, it can actually be completely off to achieve a desired artistic effect. For example, I'm sure a lot off you have heard off the orange and teal look that a lot of photographers used these days in their images. That look is intentional, and if you put a white sheet of paper in a orange until photograph, you easily see that the paper will have a very weird color cast to it that can be orange or greenish. In situations like that, the color caste is completely intentional. However, it is important to remember that all those images are initially shot with a correct white violence as shuttle images and then filters or presets and edits are done in post production on a computer or mobile device to achieve the desired look. So ultimately, when it comes to taking photographs, the white balance should always be correct. Thanks for listening and stay tuned for the finalists. Enough this class, where we'll take a look at different ways in which you can tinkle with your aperture, shutter speed and even isil toe, achieve certain visual artistic effects. 9. Being Creative with ISO, Shutter Speed, & Aperture: This is the final listen in this photography for dummies class, and if you've made it this far, then I really applaud you for your commitment and effort. In this concluding video, we will take a look at different ways in which you can tinkle with your ISO shutter speed and aperture toe. Achieve certain artistic effects in your images. Let's begin with Isil In a lot of proceeding lessons, we've spoken about how you ideally want to maintain as low and I so as possible at all times to avoid digital noise in your image. However, I'm sure a lot of you have seen those vintage looking photos that are usually black and white or sepia, that have a very characteristic grain that is pleasing to the eye. And while the effects can be achieved in post production, the grain can also be achieved by simply just raising your isil. Of course, your mileage will very because this will depend on how well your camera performs in low light. But my advice is play around with your isil settings and determine what the limitations of your camera are before attempting this Now, as mentioned before in previous lessons, aperture is the most important tool for controlling exposure, and this is primarily due to the fact that it does not negatively affect image quality in any way. Aperture is also important because it is one of the most important factors to consider when picking out a lens system. We know that a wider aperture will give you a narrow A dip. The field and a small aperture will result in a deep depth of field. But where exactly would you want to make use of that? Here are just a few situations If you want to take professional looking portrait photos where the foreground and background are a creamy blur of okay, then you need to make use off a wide aperture. I suggest nothing smaller than F to to get the best D focusing effect. You also want to move as close as possible to your subject whilst maintaining, framing and use a background that is as far behind as possible from the subject. A smaller aperture can be useful for photographing fast landscapes where you want a large portion of the foreground and background and focus. But another scenario where a small aperture is useful is with slow shutter photography. We said that a slower shutter causes motion blurring in your image, and it also increases your exposure, sometimes to excessively so to cut down on the light. In order to correctly expose, you can close your aperture, which can help you achieve the desired effect like a waterfall, where the water is a dreamy white cloud, or the cosmos, where the stars are eye catching light streaks, or even in the city where moving objects become interesting smudges off color. In the last few examples, it's easy to see that shutter speed and aperture come together to produce some truly creative and beautiful artistic effects. In terms of shutter speed, a fast shutter can be used to freeze motion, like a cheetah running at full speed or a basketball player as they jump for the shot, or even a chameleon as it catches its prey. As mentioned earlier, a slow shutter can be used to emphasize the motion of moving objects with motion blur alongside the help of aperture to keep the exposure in check. But another place where a slow shutter can be used to achieve stunning results is in low light station or environments where they really isn't enough light to expose correctly with isil and aperture. These images generally come out looking really nice with a characteristic wallpaper like looking effect. In most cases, you also get a very subtle grain in the image as a result of the sensor being exposed for such a lengthy period of time. Don't be afraid to experiment with your camera and play around with different settings to see what the results will be. The best way to learn is through trial and error. A wise man once said that for the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them. Thank you very much for shooting into this digital photography fundamentals class. I hope that your time here has been well spent and educationally fruitful. You should all now be able to pick up your cameras, put them in manual mode and take amazing photographs for those of you that haven't already done. So, make sure to check out the quizzes I prepared in the project section off this class. The quizzes are designed to test your learning and understanding. I promise they really onto difficult once again, thank you guys for joining me and I look forward to hearing from you in future classes. Where will go further in depth into digital photography, happy learning, everyone.