Designing Successful Game Mechanics: Game Design Fundamentals | Jack Wakem | Skillshare

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Designing Successful Game Mechanics: Game Design Fundamentals

teacher avatar Jack Wakem, Video Game Designer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

19 Lessons (2h 10m)
    • 1. 1.0 Class Introduction

      0:49
    • 2. 1.1 Class Tips

      1:08
    • 3. 2.0 The Defining Mechanics

      3:24
    • 4. 2.1 The Mechanic Of Space

      8:27
    • 5. 2.2 The Application Of Space

      5:30
    • 6. 2.3 The Mechanic Of Time

      10:19
    • 7. 2.4 The Application Of Time

      6:58
    • 8. 2.5 The Mechanics Of Objects, Attributes And States

      11:34
    • 9. 2.6 The Application Of Objects, Attributes And States

      9:11
    • 10. 2.7 The Mechanic Of Player Action

      10:16
    • 11. 2.8 The Application Of Player Action

      8:32
    • 12. 2.9 The Mechanic Of Rules

      13:56
    • 13. 2.10 The Application Of Rules

      10:16
    • 14. 2.11 The Mechanic Of Skill

      4:24
    • 15. 2.12 The Application Of Skill

      4:53
    • 16. 2.13 The Mechanic Of Chance

      9:23
    • 17. 2.14 The Application Of Chance

      8:20
    • 18. 3.0 Class Project

      1:25
    • 19. 3.1 Class Conclusion

      1:19
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About This Class

Learn how to develop successful game mechanics and take your video game to the next level!

Why should I take this course?

The video game industry is massive, worth an estimated $155 billion in 2020. And this industry is rapidly growing posing opportunity for anyone who dares to get involved. This course will provide you with a deep understanding of the mechanics within games, perhaps, the start you need to begin your career within the game industry?

For existing game developers, this course will take your abilities as a game developer to the next level, enabling you to design game mechanics that truly resonate with audiences. 

Who is this course for?

Anyone and everyone with an interest in game design and development. Whether you are a programmer, artist or game hobbyist, this course is for you. Anyone who wants to develop their understanding of what truly makes a video game work. 

Any requirements for this course?

Nope! Although some sort of familiarity with video games would help immensely. 

What will I learn in this course?

In this course, you will learn;

  • How to classify game mechanics and how we can distinguish between the different types
  • How to implement game mechanics while maintaining balance with other game elements
  • Several best practices for when designing game mechanics
  • Evaluating game mechanics and player enjoyment

So join this class today and learn how you can design game mechanics that get players hooked!

Meet Your Teacher

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Jack Wakem

Video Game Designer

Teacher

Email: [email protected]

Discord: Alpenglow#1251

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Transcripts

1. 1.0 Class Introduction: Welcome to my new course that would teach you how to successfully device design and implement unique and effective game mechanics that will engage pliers and encourage extended play Tom VR video games. In this course, we will learn how to classify game mechanics and how we can distinguish between the different types, how to implement game mechanics while maintaining balanced with other game elements. Several best practices for when designing game mechanics, strategies to boost creativity, to produce more unique IDs for mechanics, how to evaluate the effectiveness and enjoy ability of your game's mechanics for players. So enrolling these cost today and learn how you can improve your game mechanics and gets you apply is hooked with immersive and innovative gameplay. 2. 1.1 Class Tips: Welcome and thank you for enrolling in this course. Before we get started on the course content, I would like to outline some guidelines on how you can get the most from this course. The course is organized into a sequence of theoretical and practical application videos on game mechanics. I person suggests you attempt to take notes while working your way through the course in order to get the most from it and help retain the information that you learn. So the class project, the final exercise of this course, we'll be focusing on developing your ability to identify and analyze existing game mechanics within video games. I'll be posting in example of this in the community section of this course. So make sure you check it out, some inspiration for starting your own project. Make sure you have got the class project. This is because game design is a skill, not simply information in its were retained to regurgitate. So practical exercises going prove your understanding of the course content and help improve your abilities as game designer. Once again, thank you for enrolling in this course, and I'll see you next lesson. 3. 2.0 The Defining Mechanics: Before we get started designing and inventing SME, unique and wonderful game mechanics is probably a good idea to know just what exactly a game mechanic is. Now, this does not have a simple answer, but it can essentially be distilled down to the conclusion that game mechanics of the core of what a game truly is. Game mechanics are the underlying rules within a game that determine player motivations and actions within the game. It's hard to quantify the exact nature of gamma mechanics, but it's important to realize that the essence of mechanics can be interpreted. The relationship between each of the game elements and the rules of interaction between them. Let's look an example. Tetris. Tetris is extremely well-known and I doubt that any aspiring game designer hasn't heard of its existence. But just in case, let me outline the premise of the game. Geometric shapes made up from square cells descend from the top of the screen and fall towards the bottom. Players can rotate and move the chef laterally across the screen. The objective of the game is to move the shapes into positions to create horizontal lines across the screen. When a line is completed, it would disappear. Clearing lines own supplier points. The player doesn't clear the lines quickly enough and the shapes accumulate to the top of the screen, preventing new shapes from arriving. Then the game ends. Let's look at some of them. But mechanics within this game, the scoring system is essentially it's a mechanic, a clear relationship between the score and the positions of the piece within the game space can be observed. When the line is establish across the screen, it is cleared and the pliers score in crisis. When the line clears, it also influences the position of the other pieces. The pieces fall with gravity until they are resting on novel surface. All these interactions between the different elements of the game, our game mechanics. Game mechanics can be direct or indirect, meaning that the player can directly interact with them. Mechanics to achieve the objectives of a game. For example, within Tetris, the system of rotating the pieces is directly influenced by the player. Then being able to rotate the pieces on command to try and maneuver the pieces into sequences to score points. This mechanic can also be interpreted as the relationship between play import and the position slash rotation of the pieces among go into more detail about the nature of this relationship, but we will be covering it in a future lesson. Indirect mechanics such as the spawning positions of the paces in Tetris are elements of the game. The player has no control over. These mechanics, indirectly influenced the player by impacting the decision-making process. The players sees where the piece spawned and its shape and must act accordingly. As game designers, we can clearly see this relationship between the player and the game space. Game mechanics can be further classified into seven categories. The mechanics of space, time, object's attributes and states, player actions, game rules, skill, and chance. We will learn the identification and features of each mechanic in the next couple of upcoming lesson. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next class. 4. 2.1 The Mechanic Of Space: All games exist within a space determined by the game designer. But what exactly can we classify as space? You say, space is simply a mathematical construct that is assigned various characteristics such as boundaries, dimensions, and continuity. Space can be interpreted as the player's range of movement or the area of play within a video game. Let's take the example of chess. The chessboard is comprised of an eight by eight grid space. Each player taking control of 16 movable game pieces, comprising of eight pawns to castles, to horses, to bishops, and the king and the queen. Some basic rules regarding space within the game include each different type of game piece has a unique movement pattern with certain restrictions to that hospital movements. Player pieces cannot occupy a space that already has a piece in it. The pliers paces can only occupy space within the 64 grid tiles, etcetera. Say Amarna glossing over the game mechanics here. But as you can see, the idea of space is an integral part of what makes chess chairs. The basic idea is space can be interpreted as restrictions to apply a choice within the game, which paradoxically allows for greater enjoyment. Three puzzle-solving, ie, how can I take my opponents King using a castle and a bishop and a unique movement restrictions. So their poems are currently occupying these squares in front of their King. How can I eliminate or four-thirds ponds to move so I can take my opponents king. My opponent's Queen has just exceeded their backline, is now in direct line of sight. My castle. How can I move to prevent the queen pheromone eliminating my castle? You say, as we have established the concept of spaces, game mechanic is a prime catalyst for problem-solving. Now, let's discuss the three attributes of spaces again, mechanic. The first key component of spaces continuity. Continuity essentially is description of the pliers, possible movements, and end positions. Continuity within a game space can take on two distinctive states, discrete or continuous, discrete game spaces categorized playa positioning within a space into define states all limits the variance in position to a set number of possibilities. So what does this actually look like? Let's break it down with some examples. Tic Tac toes, easy began to understand the game consists of nine cells, and both players can place either an X or an O within a cell with the objective of placing their tokens in a way that three cells align horizontally, vertically, or diagonally before their opponent. The play can only place tokens within cells that aren't occupied by other tokens. Technically, the play complies, they're talking in an infinite number of positions within the cells. However, the game disregards positions within the cells. And instead, the positions within the cell, or simplified slash converted to nine distinctive spaces that have any sort of meaning within the game. From these limited nine positions, the game of tic-tac-toe we know exists and the adjacency of these nine positions to each other. Allows the game to develop its core mechanics. Continuous space is simple to categorize. In continuous spaces, supplier can exist within an infinite number of positions within the game space. All positions that the player can exist that have different implications within the game. Again, of looking at an example. An example of a continuous Genspace is FIFA, the official video game series created by AA. In this soccer simulator, the player controls a soccer player who essentially as free reign of movement. That is, they can take an infinite number of positions across a soccer field and aren't confined to a set of defined positions like the tokens in tic-tac-toe. Although the player is confined to the boundaries of the soccer field, they can exist in an unlimited number of positions. This trend of continuous space is commonly found in modern, modern video games, particularly open world are PJs and FPS. Assorted reason being the freedom continuous spaces offer pliers, allowing them to explore an infinite number of possible movements to reach a given destination, to achieve a certain goal. All spaces must be assigned boundaries. That is, limits as to where the elements of a game can exist at a given time. This is the easiest characteristic of gangs passes to understand. But let's break it down for an example. Paul, Probably the first video again to L Bay developed has some very clear boundaries. The boundary within Pong is obviously the field. The ball can move freely within the field and bounces off walls, yet the ball cannot exit the players screen. And enough example of space boundary, again, Keynesian in Pong, other restrictions to ply of movement. The players movement is locked to the y-axis with a constant x value, meaning the plague. And simply move their paddle upwards or downwards within a set range of y values, which is the boundary. Although boundaries is restrict the choices applies. They are primarily used by game designers to direct the player's attention to a manageable selection of gameplay, reducing the sheer volume of choices the player must make throughout game. Alternatively, restrictions to game element positions, attributes to a hot and sense of complexity which feeds into pal, player puzzle solving. The final component of space is dimensions. Dimensions can be interpreted as a relationship that positions on underdetermined Genspace have with a Java. It, once again is best explained with an example. Let's deconstruct tic-tac-toe. Once again, each of the nine cells within the discrete space can be considered 0 dimensional spaces because each cell simply exist as its own unique space with no meaningful connection between other cells. However, once you consider adjacency of the cells in the prime objective of the game, the space becomes classifiable as two-dimensional. That is because each individual cell now shares a spatial relationship in two dimensions. Each cell is directly connected to the adjacent cells from two different directions, horizontally and vertically. This concept seems overly simplistic, but it's the foundation for many video games. Today. Once you peel back the fancy aesthetics, iOS game hit mangoes as simple grid-based strategy game, the player is tasked with navigating a linearly connected two-dimensional space to eliminate enemies, the pi's movement is restricted to a single dimension, being only able to move horizontally or vertically along a pre connected route. So how can we classify three-dimensional spaces now? And that's pretty simple. A three-dimensional space is simply a spice and enables the players to interact with game elements in three dimensions. For example, every Call of Duty game allows the player to move in all directions on the x and the z axis, that is along the floor. However, the players also enabled to quickly dive, crouch, and jump, which changes the value of y axis. Therefore categorizing and as a three-dimensional space. Of course, there is also one-dimensional space. One-dimensional space can be found on many simple board games, such as Pictionary. The player can simply move forward or backwards if there is a penalty, each cell on the board is connected with cell in front and behind with a simple line, a linear path along one game axis. So in summary, all gains can be distilled down to a dimension. Classification dimensions can be considered the spatial relationship. Spaces within a game share with a Chihuahua and are often linked with pyre movement. Alright, thanks for watching. I'll see you next lesson where we will break down the spatial mechanics of an existing video game to demonstrate the creative process that designers use to design and implement space game mechanics. 5. 2.2 The Application Of Space: So a useful strategy for when designing the various gains spaces that will exist within your video game is to ask yourself the following questions regarding space. So for the fallen questions, I will be using the video game Tour area by Ray logic as an example of how the concept of space as a mechanic is used within the game design and expanding interpretation of the studios decision-making when it comes to the game choices regarding space. Alright, first question, is my game space discrete or continuous? Now, the game space with interior is continuous. The player can maintain a seemingly unlimited number of positions. However, it must be noted that additional game spaces such as the inventory, can be classified as discrete. Second question. How does the selected continuity restrict player actions or conversely, empower players with the sense of freedom. Continuity within this game offers pies an immense sense of freedom. The player maneuverability credited for movement within continuous space, plays well into the combat system and theme of exploration. With the playa being able to actively maneuver during play. Play of movement with inter area is also a point of player improvement for the player being able to upgrade their movement with new accessories. Does the allocated continuity successfully balanced simplification and sand player understanding with challenging, yet well-received complexity. The continuity of tere's well-done complexity that it brings is balanced with the two-dimensional space, which lowers the complexity of the game world to a manageable limit, able to be easily understood by players. Does the movement of game elements within this space seemed natural and cohesive to pliers. Yes, definitely to an overwhelming and extend movement is a core mechanic within the game with plays able to utilize grappling hooks, wings mount, jetpacks, teleporters, and mine carts to move around the world. These varied approaches to movement within the game, we're all unique with different speeds, accelerations, movement patterns, and animation states. Yet they are all natural, end, very cohesive. How does the player interact with these guys face? Is the space sensitive to prior actions or does it remain static? With inter area, the player has the ability to actively change space around them through mining and placing tiles. These in turn empowers pies with a sense of mastery and allows for massive customization of the world around the player. Additionally, environments such as the Crimson corruption and hello can spread between tiles, leading to growth in size of prompted spaces. A slow but dynamic process the plasmas contend with in order to avoid a whole world of corruption. How will I establish my gang boundaries? Within your area? There exists a physical barrier on the edges of the map with the apply and not being able to exit the playable area. Also, late game areas are protected by boundaries in the form of unbreakable tires that only Gleick game tools can break successfully. Note, the lizard Temple are my boundaries overbearing on player freedoms. Within expansive map, the gain boundaries on the edge of the map adjust violin players are unlikely to feel constrained. Are my boundaries is clearly understandable to pliers. The player receives immediate feedback on the presence of in-game boundaries at the extremes of the map, the players camera phrases and cannot exceed the boundaries of the map. The player, when they attempt to move past again, boundaries are unable to do so with a clear feedback loop. What dimension will my game space Bay to area is obviously a continuous today's space, with game elements being able to move across two axis, the x and y. This balances nicely with the continuity of the Genspace, allowing for men's player freedom at manageable complexity. How do I connect the various spaces in my Gantt with each other? Temporaries world is a continuous space with a single map that plays can explore without subspaces. However, if we defined different buyer and has their own unique spaces than real logic simply transitions between spaces with a deteriorating biome specific tall count, which consistently gives the appearance of a seamless changing environments. All of this is done with procedural generation, of course. So as demonstrate the process of designing the spaces within your video game involves a lot of questioning. But at the end of the day, the most important questions you as a game designer can be asking yourself, involved the playa and their relationship with the game space. Always remember to quantify the continuity, boundaries, and dimensions of your game space and design accordingly to play interactions with age, balancing freedom with complexity. Thanks for watching, and I'll see you next lesson. 6. 2.3 The Mechanic Of Time: In this lesson, we will be discussing the concept of time and needs role within video games. Within the real-world, time represents a constant. It only moves one way. And despite our best efforts, we are unable to slow down, speed it up. But video games aren't the real world. And in these virtual worlds, plays are often given the unruly power of control. Letting us play with time as if we were gods. As previously discussed in my player psychology course, which you can find on skill share, the power derived from the player's sense of control is an important concept that is extremely powerful to draw plays into game worlds and fully immerse them in a state of complete enjoyment. Noting that this is extremely important, that we learn to correctly implement Tom game mechanics into our videogames. Time within video games can be classified into two distinctive categories, discrete or continuous time. Similarly to the definition of discrete space, we can classify discrete time as a system of time within the gain that can be described as a series of states. Essentially, we simply know discrete-time as turns. These turn-based videogames are extremely common and you can probably think of a million examples from simple games such as chess to more advanced turn-based strategy games like risk or civilization. Within these games, each turn cancerous, discrete unit of time, and the time between turns as far as the game is concerned, doesn't even matter. Continuous time, on the other hand, can be considered a direct replication of the real world. Time within these games exist as timers, real clock time, etc. Most action video games uses category of TA1. Video games that involve constant control of the player's avatar within the game. For example, call Judy's multiplayer game modes such as tame death match and domination. Time is dictated as continuous, controlled by a time, a mechanism. Players have a certain time limit, for example, ten minutes to achieve the objective, which could be to get a certain number of kills. We will be discussing common get time game mechanics such a time as later in the video. But the important takeaway from this is to simply distinguish between the two categories of time the in video games. Now, from a technical standpoint, elements within the gamma updated every frame, in some cases up to a 100 times a second. So as game design as it would be silly to consider every update to the games a turn. So instead we operate under the continuous time model. Now, of course, there are games exist with the selection of both Tom categories. Most notably, some turn-based games often cooperate a continuous time clock within age. And to ensure that each term doesn't take too long and ruin the pacing of the game. This is mostly a feature found within Competitive turn-based multiplayer games implemented for the consideration of other players. Notable gains that incorporate time-based turns include competitive chess, online, Ohno, and poker. By far, the most commonly used Tom mechanic within video games is the classic Tama, often implemented by game designers with the intention of limiting gameplay and encouraging adequate pacing of the game by players. The timer is commonly used as a balancing mechanism. Balancing mechanism being any sort of mechanic used to control difficulty within the game. Designs will often sit time limits to challenge the player. Encouraging puzzle solver to find an optimal solution to the game level that is as quick as possible. Increasing the time limit law was the difficulty, and conversely, lowering the time limit increases difficulty. Video again, that incorporates the classic timer as a central mechanic is kept talking in known explodes, a puzzle video game developed by steel Craig games. In this game plays a tasked with disarming a bomb under strict time limits with the help of another player who has access to the instruction manual for disarming the bomb within each level of the tile limit and the countdown are clearly presented to the player who is able to keep track of how long they have to disarm the bomb. Usually it is atomic component attached to the main body of the bomb. The Talmud mechanic within this game is important, presenting players with a visual reminder to entice them to maintain an optimal pace and introduces the main technique of challenge. This is cleverly woven into the game and works with the whole theme of disarming a bomb. As you would expect. Time is up. Thomas aren't always immediately noticeable to players, but they are there. For example, within the various Grand Theft Auto videogames, there's a certain mission top cleverly involves a Tama, the classic race to a location before your allies killed or injured. Usually these character will renew mobile and tell you they are in danger, compelling you to stop what you are doing steel car and race their location before they are killed. Although plays are and actually save a timer, There is one that starts from the moment you get the phone call and slow the counts down to the point where your allies killed, which usually triggers a failed mission state. Another example of this is the classic video game Space Invaders, the hidden Tama, counting down to the point that aliens reached the place location. Encouraging plays to quickly destroy the incoming rate is before they reach the ground. Although these times on immediately noticeable to players, they have a profound effect on them. Pressuring the pliers to challenge themselves to be faster, motivated by far more powerful reasons than simply banning of physical Tama. Personally by would claim that the whole physical Tom again mechanics outdated and has become a video game cliched mechanic. These hidden time as may be better in motivating plays naturally. Encouraging place to speed up their gameplay for a plethora of psychological reasons such as the emotional attachment to characters, the shame of failure in stopping now invasion, et cetera. Instead of simply false, implies to go faster for the sake of going faster to beat a physical Tama. Tom can also be used to derive the wind condition for a video game. Most notably the various racing games, Forza Horizon, Nate for speed, Mario Kart, etc. The list goes on. The wind condition will be explicitly spine within the game's rules category of game mechanics. But essentially it is a criteria the player must achieve in order to successfully complete a level. Within these games, time is used to determine whether or not a players has successfully completed the game. Within days. Racing games, we must consider times relative, meaning they're reasonably fixed, Tomlin. And instead plays focus on being faster than the other player's II or real people. Within Forza Horizon, the player must successfully bait other plays in an OLAP race around a determined track in order to complete some levels. Once again, using time, this situation can appeal to human psychological conditioning of competitiveness and mastery, which by the way, you can find out all about within Moscow, share class on Play psychology. One last note. Within video games, players often have the availability to control time consciously or unconsciously, where the time is altered with features such as the pause button, often included by designers within video games for simple PI convenience, all the common mechanic with the macro-management simulators to speed up time. Giving plays an innate sense of control. For example, within the video game world, conqueror for pleasure, able to speed up time in between turns when they normally would be viewing the enemies turn and their changes to their positions. Although it isn't strategic from a gameplay point of view, to skip this process, it does give us a sense of control and can be used to avoid player boredom in between turns. Some games even give players the ability to skip ahead in time. Minecraft, For example, let's play as sleep throughout the night. Provided they have crafted bed, allowing players to skip the dangers of the knot and avoid the monsters that spawn. While some people may interpret this as a feature that reduces the overall difficulty of the game to an all time low desires can interpret this as an appeal to players desires of control. That is the ability of the player to patrol their experience directly. And this decision the Minecraft presents them with, whether to simply sleep and skip the dangers of the night, or power through the night and go kill mobs for valuable resources is very appealing to the player base. Allowing them to skip the night where players often cannot achieve their objectives of building or exploration due to low visibility and Kauzmann harassment from monsters. At the end the day, Tom game mechanics imbue players with a sense of control not present within the real world, drawing them into these virtual worlds into a state of complete enjoyment. Now, in summary, times, an important mechanic to consider within your games, often used to invoke, challenge or stimulate pleasure, enjoyment through the win condition and player desires for mastery, control and competitiveness. Time is an inevitable feature that will be present within your video game. So it is important to consciously consider how you can utilize it to stimulate your players. Thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson where once again, we will be dissecting the video game Tour area in order to analyze how the game designers have incorporated time and use it to invoke challenge and pleasure, enjoyment. 7. 2.4 The Application Of Time: So once again, we will be asking ourselves the selection of questions as we design our game mechanics involving time. And once again, I will be using the video again as an example. First question, does my game make use of discrete or continuous time or a combination of both? Tour area uses a continuous time systems structured around a day, night cycle. Tom within the game following a 24-hour cycle, which is simply sped up with one hour of in-game time, representing one minute of real time. Based on my time system, does the length of gameplay fuel rod suppliers, based on tere's day, night cycle, which takes approximately 24 minutes to complete. Players have ample opportunity to experience both day and night States. Unlikely to feel Z if either is dragging out too long. However, within the early stages of gameplay, and especially within the harder difficulties, players can sometimes feel that nights last too long as they are unable to do anything productive because they are ill-equipped for combat with nighttime monsters such as Zombies. Applies over all. Happy with the duration of total gameplay. Terrestrial OLAP text approximately a 100 hours to complete. However, the game's duration can be stretched out over even longer periods of time due to the nature of trailers gameplay and its themes of exploration and customization. At the completion of the main gameplay arc of boss battles, places still empowered with a bunch of other activities such as building massive structures, developing farms to fading bosses, again, acquiring rare items and weapons, et cetera. Essentially meaning that plague me prolonged with that boredom taking over completely. If my game uses the turn-based structure, should I implement continuous time systems within each turn to pressure the player? This is not applicable to Teresa, but definitely important question you should be asking yourself when involved with turn-based video games, is written necessity for the player to have access to information regarding time. If so, how should I represent onto the player? It often isn't necessary to constantly access the in-game time. However, with interior, some bosses can only be spawned at nighttime around seven PM. So maybe useful for players to have an indication of time. Teresa has a dynamic day, night cycle with beautiful animations that clearly demonstrate the passage of time and transitions from day to night. There are also some in-game items such as the grandfather clock and accessories such as the clock that can detail exact time details to the player, which is viewable through the place you are. Does my game utilize timers or other game mechanics that encourage players to speed through certain sections of the game. If so, do the time limit seem reasonable, while at the same time, making the gameplay more exciting. Tour area definitely uses timers in some of its gameplay. Most notably first specific boss fights and events. These boss fights and events can usually be attended by the plays during the night. And failure to complete them by the end of the night may result in either an instance of the player by the boss. The boss simply day spawning. The event simply ending. Notable exception to this is the wall of flesh boss fight the plies can undertake in the hell biome. This boss can be spawned at any time provided the player has Abbas summoning Artem. However, there is a timer involved with these. This boss fot. The boss normally spawns on the edge of the map and we'll move horizontally across the map until they reach the opposite side. So essentially the player has the time the boss moves across the map to defeat it. And if supplier fails to do so in this time they will be instantly killed. If I involve Tom x2, then my game, would they be explicit or implicit? Although there are definitely Tom within the game, they are represented implicitly. The designers of Treasury and short, the players would think of time in terms of nominates. Thinking, for example, I must fit this passive her turned into daytime. Instead of, I must have hit this boson eight minutes. This has a profound effect on the player, and these established time limits are given a hot and sense of meaning. Do I involve time as part of the wink niche within my game? Is its role in the player's success primary. If we classify boss fights as their own section of gameplay, we can establish a criteria for the wind condition. In order to successfully defeat a boss, the player must one not died during the duration of the file to attack the boss and reduced their health to 03, defeat the boss within a certain time limit. In conditions like this, Tom is equally as important as the other criteria. However, within boss fights, players aren't often pressure by the time constraints. Instead focusing mainly on their own survival. So although important theoretically within the gameplay, it is obviously a second priority for concern for players. Time limits can feel restrictive to pliers. My better off without time limits. Definitely not within the time limit. Added degree of challenge and encourage players to take more risks when filing bosses in order to fit them quickly. Although they can be challenging, it's necessary to avoid Cavic strategies that reduce the overall enjoy ability of the game. Two players have profound control of time with him, my game. If so, how does this affect other gameplay? Plays actually have control of the day, night cycle, interiors news Gamow, known as journey's end. Journey's end can be classified as more of a sandbox to our game with an emphasis on exploration and building rather than combat. Within control of time, the pliers, I will just set the time to whatever they want, whenever they want. The sense of control derived from this elevates pliers to a new degree of mastery and helps them feel in control. Proving especially useful for players who simply want to build massive houses without the harassment from monsters. So those are several questions you should be asking yourself in Zion time-based mechanics within your game. Of course, there are plenty of other aspects to question and explore, but you get the point. Tom is an immensely important part of all video games and is crucial in establishing player flow states. I will leave you with one final comment. When planning duration of aspects of your gameplay is much more forgivable to players if it is shorter, rather than dragging it on and boring, most players leave them wanting more. Thanks for watching, and I'll see you next time. 8. 2.5 The Mechanics Of Objects, Attributes And States: So now it is Tom to finally disgust with weight traditionally recognized as game mechanics. The most notable features of video games, objects, their attributes, and the states that they can exist in. Four, we get started. It's important to know that this is probably the most convoluted, revolted hubs, again, mechanics, yet responsible for 90% of mechanics within your game. With this in mind, let's get started. So we've got our game space and we've determined the continuity dimensions and we set some boundaries. Now it is time to fill this empty void with objects and truly make this video game. Let's start with some objects. Objects are essentially anything within a video game that can be seen or manipulated by the player. For example, the player's avatar, tokens, the score you are display, buildings, dynamic clouds, etc. The list is essentially endless. Now, of course, objects on their own or simply classifiers objects and have no purpose within the video game part from pure aesthetics, what gives these objects meaning? Is the attributes assigned to them? Attributes are pieces of information. We assign two objects, for example, the car position of that object within the namespace. The maximum speed of a certain car within a racing game, or the color of the players token within a turn-based strategy game. Attributes can either be static or dynamic. Static, meaning that attribute doesn't change throughout the gameplay. For example, the color of a car in a racing game doesn't change throughout the rise. Unless perhaps players have access to a customization feature where they can change the colors of their cars within a workshop, outside of races, dynamic attributes are in constant flux. The current speed of a player's car within the racing m. This value constantly change throughout the race with the playa rapidly accelerating and breaking to avoid obstacles. Of course, attributes also have the features of states, which can be described as descriptions of certain values of the attribute. For example, let's look at the racing game again, and in particular, the car's speed. The plays speed within the game exists as a constantly changing value. But it's useful to categorize some of these values. For example, at the start of the race, when the play is speed equals 0, we could assign this a state called idle. Or conversely, if the player accelerates down straight and achieves the maximum speed allowable for the car. We could assign this the state maximum spade. Now, why exactly do we assign states two objects within the game? Well, we can examine this from two different perspectives. The perspective of game programming and a refined game design lens. Let's start with a game design perspective. When designing games, we need to constantly know information about certain values associated with objects in order to make decisions about what will happen to the objects within our game. Now states, let us establish thresholds of values. For example, we can assign ADL site to apply controller if they are not moving by measuring values within the game, such as plaza speed, deducing that the value is equal to 0. So once we have established what values the attributes need to be in order to reach a state, we can actually devise what each state actually means within the game. For example, in the car racing game, we assign the card the state of ADL because we have examined the current speed of the car, introduced it to be equal to 0. Now, since we know that the cars in ADL state, we can link the state to some more attributes. In auto mode, the car will be static with no animations. The accelerometer will be equal to 0. There won't be any motion blur despite the players screen. The car will admit an ADL roving sound, et cetera. As a game designer, you can designate all these changes to both the car and other elements within the game to a state, listing what exactly will happen within each state and the changes that will occur within the game. If you design your games with considerations for states and attributes, your game programmers will not be able to thank you enough because you've just single-handedly planned out most of your game systems. Game programming explicitly uses a system of objects, attributes, and states for the games architecture. So defining these states and attributes is immensely helpful to game programmers. There is also one more aspect of states and that is triggers. Essentially the criteria that needs to be fulfilled for the state of the game objects to chain from one thing to another. For example, let's look at the gamer Minecraft and the game mechanic of sleeping within the bed. Let's establish some states associated with a bed gameObject. Let's say the play can either be sleeping or not sleeping. By default, the player exists in the not sleeping state. All right, so how does the plastic within Minecraft the Primary trigger for the player to move from the state of not sleeping to sleeping is the play of right-clicking on the bed, gameObject. Bunch of secondary criteria also needs to be fulfilled. For example, current time needs to exist within a set of values associated with not. There cannot be any monsters when a certain radius of the player and the world taught needs to be classified as the overwhelms. All of these secondary criteria can be described as attributes of other objects in the game, which need to have certain values to change from one state to another. Also, we could look at the world tops, the state with the current state needing to exist as the overwhelmed for the player to be able to sleep. This does sound very technical, but this is often the backbone of a gatt. Him and designers use this system of organizing game objects within the game to derive majority of the primary game mechanics. Ok, so all these talks about object's attributes and states can get very convoluted and very complicated very quickly. Trying to keep track of all possible states of certain GameObjects and the triggers to change between each state, which is determined by the values of your object's attributes or attributes of others. So how exactly do we planned this out in the most efficient manner possible? That's simple. We draw diagram. Now, before we had started a few quick tips when drawing state diagrams, focus on one feature of the game at a time. Because if you try to incorporate multiple, the got, the diagram will exponentially grow in size and become completely unruly. Have a system for differentiating between states, triggers, objects, and attributes within the diagram for clarity. Easy understanding. Also try to ensure the diagram is easily communicable to other people. As you will often use this to pitch game mechanics to other people. Alright, so let's get started for this example. I, once again, we'll be using Minecraft, but this time I will be deconstructing the whole movement system. So first of all, I went away and I drew this diagram wall. So now in this diagram I've only included the three default movement states, sprinting, walking in idle. I have totally discounted movement states, such as jumping and crouching. But you can still see how complicated disease even for three states. Let's start at the idle state, the default state. When the playa is normally within this state, a few things happened, which I've represented by listing them with a downwards arrow from the main state box. I'll also the red IM means a listed thing can be classified as attributes. So the plays hunger, right? Which is the rate at which they go hungry, goes to 0. The attribute of playa footsteps sound fx is equal to false, meaning that the play doesn't emit foot footstep sound effects when auto straight. The players movement animation is set to ADL, which essentially means a static player position with limited animation. Also, the players spade, another attribute is set to 0. Now, let's move on to the Walking state and determined the triggers for this transformation of the players is state from ADL to walk. Essentially, the Arnie trigger for this transformation is a check of the attribute that measures the status of the movement k. If the movement K is activated, then the player will begin to walk. When the player is in the walking site, a few things will happen. The hunger rate will increase to one. The footstep sound effects will begin to play. The movement animation will change to walking and the plays speed will increase to one. So now that we are walking, how do we move into the sprinting study? Let's look at the triggers and the requirements. So essentially the primary trigger to move from walking to sprinting is the activation of the sprint k on the place controller slash keyboard. This again is its own attribute. Being able to take the value of true or false. The player will move from walking to sprinting when this process occurs, providing the following criteria is also met. The movement key must still be activated and the plays overall hunger level must be greater than or equal to two. Within Minecraft, if the plays hunger drops below a certain level, they will lose the ability to sprint. The hunger value of the pie is an attribute that is checked by the game and the player attempts to change to the sprint, sprinting movements state. Alright, we've now successfully change to the sprint state. A few attribute changes are all associated with this print died. The hunger rate will increase to two. The footsteps sand FE_Q will remain constant, but perhaps to apply to more frequently. The movement animations will also be changed to the sprint animation. And the plays speed also increases. Now of course, there are transitions back from Sprint walk, sprint, Arlen walk to idle, all of which you can find in my diagram. I won't read them out because you get the point. So now that we've discovered object's attributes and states, we've examined the processes of state changes and the role of triggers, which, which all in all is where the real magic of game design comes together. The primary mechanics of a video game can be found. Think of any relationship in between two game objects within your video game. See how we can be distilled down to a changing of states when they interact with each other, caused by a criteria of certain attributes in a primary trigger. See how when this interaction occurs there are flown effects were even more attributes change to new values. So in summary, this aspect of game mechanics is definitely the most widely used. And this system of distilling relationships within the game into states and attributes makes his process easier, both for game designers and game programs who actually implement the design into a working prototype. Once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson, where we will be analyzing the odd objects, attributes, and states, game mechanics of the video again. 9. 2.6 The Application Of Objects, Attributes And States: All right, so this is probably going to be lungs video out of all the game mechanics analyzing Tour area, just from the sheer amount of applications to the video game. So without further ado, here are some questions you should be asking yourself when designing your games. One of the objects within my KM, heroin introduced them to pliers or so. I could talk about every object within the game, but that would just take that ten years to do so. So for this analysis, I will be focusing on the weapons system. But before that, I will just list off a couple of categories of objects within the game. We have the player's avatar. First of all, we have well tiles, weapons, accessories, mounts, enemies, bosses, the Skybox in the dynamic environment to backgrounds, weapons and enemy projectiles, chess and cropping systems, the player's inventory. You are the plays minimap, play Health, UI, MPC's, et cetera. All right, so now that's out of the way. Let's talk about the weapons in particular. The weapon system is introduced to the player almost immediately. Once again, begins with the players spawning with a copper broad sort equipped, clearly labeled through the plays UI as the sword and responsive to play actions when they swing the sod using their controller slash keyboard, the player is clearly introduce it to the combat system when they inevitably stumble across if first enemy, which most likely will be green slime, which should be an easy kill. What attributes Hou Lai assigned to each of the objects within my game. Weapons within the game can broadly be classified into the following categories of which most of the attributes remained consistent. Bows, guns, swords, magic weapons, and summoning staffs. So let's take a look at the sword category. So right off the bat, sorts of given the attributes of damage, speed, size, and critical chance. However, some ally weapons are also given special attributes, particularly as the player progresses and has better access to rare, a more powerful weapons. The husband's buy it, for instance, shoots a scowl projectile on the swing of the sword. This new feature associated with the sword introduces some new attributes that must be contended with. For example, the frequency of scowl projectiles, the psoas lip, projectile's, the spade of the projectile's the path of the projectile, etcetera. Now, of course, there are also some other knots as obvious attributes we must assign to the sword. For example, is the sword currently in the process of being swung? Has the sword made contact with an enemy? The sword static despite within the inventory menu, is the salt currently equipped? The set of all attributes that should be assigned values of the attributes associated with my objects. Will they be static or dynamic? The weapons within the game have an inconsistent damage rep, value. Damage of a weapon is determined by r and j, and the possible damage inflicted upon an enemy is randomly selected from a range of values may be plus or minus 10% of the base damage of a weapon. So in this, in this regard, we would consider damage of Malaya weapons to be a dynamic attribute. However, let's consider that the base damage associated with the weapon is a static attribute. The static attribute can still be modified through the accessory system and reforged system. Let's start with the accessory system. So with inter area, the player can obtain accessories that change the base attributes associated with the player. For example, the player may obtain a warrior sample which increases base damage or Malaya weapons by 20%. Or alternatively, the player may also craft lbf Ulama that also increases Malaysia image, thereby changing the base damage attribute of a melee weapon. Although I would consider base damage to be a static attributes as it doesn't constantly change throughout the game. Now, we also have the reforged system, a system where the player can roll the Dawson a weapon and attempt to get various attribute bonuses by paying money to the goblin MPC. That should be bonuses could be positive. 9y plus 10% damage and 5% speed. O negative i minus 15% size and minus 20% image. However, the reforged system Mozi produces a combination of good and bad attribute changes. So all in all these attributes associated with a weapon can still change. Blog would consider them static. Some attributes associated with weapons that are static beyond doubt include the animations associated with the weapon, the color of the weapon, et cetera. Which of my objects have defined attributes, states, and what are they? So absolutely, weapons have some well-defined states examining the damage from melee weapon alone, we should consider a few possible states for the weapon. There's the ADL state, meaning the sword is currently not being used. From this, we can also derive two other states being one, the sort is currently equipped or to the sword is not equipped. Now, we could also consider an active state where the source in the process of being Swan now sought from the sword itself, we should consider damaged states. One, default damage range applied to critical heat applied. Now, of course, these attributes states actually overlap and the weapon could exist in multiple states within the same instance. For example, the soul could exist within an active swing state, but also the enemy context. What is the process of state changes for my objects within the game? Alright, let's define some state changes for the Malaya weapons. In particular, we have the base states of equips status with weapons able to exist as equipped within a pies inventory or unequipped. In order for the weapon to exist in state as equipped it, one must be currently in the pi's hot bar to selected within the hot bar. For the state to change from equipped to unequipped for attribute is selected must be equal to false. In other words, the play-out de-select the weapon to move from the state unequipped to a quipped, that attribute is equipped must be equal to 0. A main must be equal to true, meaning that the player equips the weapon. This attribute can also be considered a trigger for this state change. With the web, liquidity could also exist within two other states. The weapon can either be ADL or in news, Adleman. And the player has the, has equipped the weapon but isn't using it. And in US main, the player is currently in the process is swinging facade for the weapon state to move from Areal to in use, the attribute is being S1 must be equal to true, which is triggered by the player using their attack on their controllers slash keyboard. How did these state changes affect other attributes of my object end or others? Right off the bat. If the default damage applaud state is reached, it will affect enemy GameObjects who will deduct the damage receive from their total health. Changing the health attribute associated with the enemy gameObject. Also, when the play uses a weapon, when it exists as active in the swing state, it will affect the towels around it. In particularly glob grass tiles with the sword breaking grass blocks. This would change the attribute of whether or not grasses growing on a dirt block to false and also affect the attribute grass hot. Decreasing its value to approximately 0 cannot distill the features associated with some of my objects into simplified state change diagrams? Yes, absolutely. And you know what, I actually sat down and did that fingers are decided to do the diagram around the melee weapon system and it is massive. I've glossed over some of the data files in my discussion of state challenges and attributes a Malaya weapons. But feel free to pause the video right now and take a look for yourself. Thanks for getting through all of that. I have only scratched the surface when it comes to exploring object's attributes and stats within the goniometer area. And I hope that from this small example you can recognize some other relationships within the game. The questions I have explored a universal Lee applicable to all games, but feel free to devise your own more specific questions related to your nature of the game. The object's attributes and states will differ immensely between simplistic casual mobile game and a large strategy based real-time, massively multiplayer online role-playing game. But these generalizations should still be applicable. Once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next class. 10. 2.7 The Mechanic Of Player Action: Games are driven by pyre action, player action being the abilities of the playa to manipulate elements of the game in order to achieve objectives. As game designers, we can view player actions from two perspectives, objective action and immersive action. Objective action involves viewing player action from a detached service level perspective. Primarily viewing player actions as a relationship between play input, I, player movements on the cable such controller, etc. And the linked reciprocation within the game. For example, within our game, we could link the jump state to the player in putting a certain button value, maybe the Spacebar on the keyboard. This may seem nonsensical to some of you that we are paying such close attention to the minute details of play input. But from the perspective of game design, this encapsulates the entirety of player potential. Now, immersive action is definitely the most important in terms of game design, being the actions of player viewed from within the game. So for example, we would be talking about player actions within the game such as jumping, sprinting, sliding, shooting, etc. An important note before we get started, we view player actions from a more abstract distance. Then simple stayed in attribute changes. Although we can still distill down all player actions within the game to state changes of their avatar. And doing so would be beneficial when we decide to get into the nitty gritty details apply movements. But the ability to zoom out and be more abstract allows us to grow, gains, new critical insights. From these two definitions, a player action, we can further categorized player actions into basic and strategic actions. We'll start by looking at basic actions. Basic actions of the base actions that a player can take. The primary abilities of a player within the game. Let's look at the game Minecraft again, and the movement system in particular. Within the game, the player can walk, sprint, and jump. These are the primary actions and the direct reciprocation of objective player actions. The actions apply a contact from darn near direct manipulation of the input controller or keyboard. These basic actions are important and the base from which the strategic actions develop. Strategic actions are actions that can be compounded from these basic actions. Using these basic actions to develop more strategic actions to achieve an objective. For example, in Minecraft player has the ability to run and jump. A strategic action that arises from this is the combination of these two to develop a pattern of strafing and enemy avoidance. The skeleton enemy within the game possesses the ability to shoot arrow projectiles at the player. And the players soon realizes that they must develop a strategic course of action when dealing with his enemy type. It isn't simply enough to run directly at the enemy to attack it. So the player learns to strengthen jump, developing a unique strategic method of movement to avoid a tax from skeleton. This is a fairly simple example. Let's look at something more complex. The game of Call of Duty Cold War by triadic studios. It's a fairly new release with consistent mechanics based on previous college judy games. Within the game, the player can take the basic action of throwing a stun grenade. A grenade that inflicts loss of visibility to enemy players. The player also possess the ability to shoot and reload their gun. Now, from these basic core game actions, the player can develop a series of strategic actions to act on their opponent. Pitcher this and enemies are firing upon the player's position and they need to reload their gun, but doing so would leave them vulnerable to enemy attack. So the player uses the basic action of throwing stun grenade to strategically immobilize the enemy so they can reload their gun and continue the firefight. Game designers would classify that as a strategic action with the player compounding basic actions to, to develop a unique style of gameplay in order to achieve the goals of the video again, which in this case would be not dying or successfully killing enemy soldiers. Here's some more strategic actions within Call of Duty, the player using the ability to go prone to hide, hide in a low visibility positioned surprise enemies. The player using the ability to run a maneuver around obstacles to attempt to Flink enemies and attack them from behind. The player using the ability to throw grenades to force enemy, enemies out of cover into the open. The player using the ability to jump to confuse enemies and force the enemy to quickly changed their aim. The player, using the ability of snapper scopes to identify three positions on a large map. The player using the ability to shoot, draw messages on Walt taught slash trawl enemies or other players. The list goes on and the strategic actions that arise from the simple bass player actions are seemingly endless and make for some interesting gameplay. It is often best practice when designing player action systems to attempt to incorporate as much strategic actions as possible to reinvigorate player discovery and stimulate overall enjoyment. Plain Zu often remarked that the ability of again, to give them the ability to develop their own unique place styles is imperative and the hallmark of any great video game. Game design is classify the ability of a game to give rise to strategic player actions as emergence. That meaning new play styles naturally arise from the pliers simple exploration of the plot of the base pair actions. As a rule of thumb, you should aim to maximize the mash strategic actions that can arise for basic actions while keeping the amount of basic actions to a manageable limit for players to avoid confusion and the player being overwhelmed. So how do we do this? How can we maximize the amount of strategic actions within our game to develop emergent gameplay? Well, here are a few tips. One, we can add some more basic actions, pretty self-explanatory. If the player can do more basic actions. And this will naturally lead to an increase in the amount of strategic actions that can be taken. For example, in a simple platform or when the player can only run and jump. Adding the action of shooting changes the grain game dramatically and a new strategic actions will naturally evolve. To add multifunctionality to basic actions. This essentially mains design your basic actions in a way where they interact with multiple game elements in different ways. Take example of cold Judy shooting community used to kill enemies, but also drawn walls. He can shoot locks and damage specific areas of cover, break windows, etcetera. This makes for much more interesting game by where the player can use one basic action, two different effects on different game objects. Three, design your game with goals that can be achieved in multiple ways. It's a good idea to let plays have freedom in achieving goals within your game. If placed only have one way to, to achieve an objective, they won't have any reason to experiment and try to devise you. New unique styles apply. Let's look at the game Minecraft again, the Enter Dragon is the final boss within the game, and the pilots have arranges strategies to, to faded. The player can use bows, saw driven beds that exploded in the end. When the pyre attempts to sleepin. Also within the boss fired, the player is required to climb series of pillars to destroy crystals that heal the boss throughout the fall. This objective can be achieved multiple ways. For example, the player may use lattice to con the pillars. Terror building blocks will use water to slowly make their way up the tower. Or they can simply shoot the crystals from the ground. Fair unskilled marksman, the bot. All these choices the player has access to makes for much more interesting gameplay and leads to the development of new and unique strategic player actions. The main draw back from this approach is game balancing, which we'll get to in a later lesson. One strategy may emerge dominant and players may lean towards it, rendering all other options obsolete. For we can invoke consequences and change the constraints from basic actions every time the player takes the basic axioms in the game, sometimes it is useful to provoke a variety of side effects. For example, within college, judy, whenever the player shoots a gun, the side effect of recoil is evident. From the side effects of shooting. New strategic actions arise. For example, with the player may learn to shoot their gun in bursts, decreasing the overall effects of recoil, but conversely, reducing their overall firepower. These consequences invoked from basic actions give rise to new strategic actions, each with their own drawbacks, making for varied and interesting gameplay. So in summary, player actions represent the relationship the pies have with the game world. And then methods for control. This system of defining base actions and then using it to foster new and unique strategic actions is immensely important and the hallmark of interesting gameplay. As again, Amazon, you must pay close attention to this and consciously plan how you plan to develop emerging gameplay within yoga him. Thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson where we once again, we'll be analyzing the role of pyre action as a game mechanic within the video game of terrain. 11. 2.8 The Application Of Player Action: All right, now we are going to learn the practical applications of this game mechanic through an analysis of terror area. Once again, are provide a bunch of questions that you should ask yourself when designing your game and the player actions within it. First question, what are the service level objective actions? The PIO, the my game. For this example, I will be considering the input from a standard console controller. The play has a profound ability to manipulate the input device to achieve most base actions within the game. For example, the left stick on the control is directly linked to the movement of the player within the game. And the left trigger makes the player jump in game. The right trigger is linked to the US base actions in the game often used to trigger a weapon's attack. The controls responsive and the players feel in control of their in-game avatars actions. What are the primary immersive actions of the pile within my game? From the objective actions the player, we derive the primary immersive actions within. The player can move, jump, interact with objects, shoot, attack, enemies, fly, mine, build, summon, cetera. What are the basic actions of the player within my game? Alright, let's consider the movement system. First of all, players have the base abilities to move laterally, the ability to jump, and the ability to aim. The players currently selected tool in a desired direction. The second category of the players based abilities include building. The player can place and destroy tiles. They may also paint some tiles and hematomas to change your orientation. Within the combat system, the playa possesses the ability to attack enemies using each respective weapon class. Within the Malaya cause, the player has the basic action of swing their weapon. Within the magic and range classes, the player has the ability to shoot, slash, summon projectiles. And finally, within the summoning class, the pliers possessed the basic ability to summon minions. Those are just a couple of basic actions with inter area. And there is no doubt that there is plenty of more examples. How I incorporate strategic actions into my game based with my basic actions. All right, so for this question, I will examine the strategy that arises within a boss fired from the basic actions of the player. Within late game boss fights the pliers likely to have access to wings, which changes the whole dynamic of movement considerably. Using the base action of flying, the player learns to maneuver in a way to avoid the boss attacks. The movement pattern will usually involve massive overhead arcs over the boss. The boss file itself demands for some sort of strategic action from the player. And this demand forces pliers to incorporate strategic actions into their game. Based off the core base actions they have access to. This is applicable to the Pi's bisections to attack and MS with weapons. Building, building upon this simple bisection plays, develop a strategy and learn where to aim and when they should attack the boss. Contributing to the development of strategic player action. Is the ratio of basic actions to strategic actions adequate for a sustained level of pleasure, enjoyment? Absolutely. Using the example of a boss fight again, it becomes apparent suppliers that there is a range of strategic actions they can develop to successfully achieve the objective of killing the boss. The range of base actions, the attack actions, for example, the ability of the pietas shoot, swing a sword, someone Dominion, et cetera, contributes to a variety of possible strategic actions supplier may incorporate from these very simple bisections, complex strategic actions arise and the prior is immensely satisfied with the variety of strategies that they may incorporate into their play style. Whereas the process for plies learning to develop strategic actions within my game with inter area, the process of trial and error is the most common method of developing strategic actions outside of community influence, like YouTube videos online, God's, et cetera. For example, when the player in Canada first boss, they will probably die because they most likely will use a series of limited strategic actions in order to attempt to take them down. Most likely simply running at the boss with a sword and hitting it repeatedly until they inevitably killed. After this first interaction, they will learn to keep their distance and attempt perhaps a new strategy involving moral strategic actions. For instance, they may build an arena and learn to circle the boss with their movement. Or use range weapons, combining base actions of shooting with movement to develop a strategy where the player keeps their distance while shooting the boss repeatedly. How many ways can players accomplish the objectives within my game? Although the only way to achieve majority of the objectives within the game is through combat. Within combat, the player has a variety of play styles available to them in order to achieve the game's objectives. The class structure of Millay Ranger magic and summoning, and their respective basic actions can be used to accomplish the overriding goal of defeating bosses in the game. Of course, there are also a combination strategic player actions regarding movement, there may be utilized. Perhaps the player may opt to use their wings to outmaneuver the bosses. Or perhaps they may use mine carts in attractive outpaced them. Perhaps the pie could build a massive flat plane and use its flatness to attempt to run the boss while dealing damage. The strategic actions of the playa, derived from the endless amount of base actions proves that beyond a doubt, there are many ways to achieve overriding objectives such as defaming bosses. Do I incorporate multifunctionality of the base actions within my game? Treasury doesn't incorporate a lot of multifunctionality within this base actions. Choosing instead to compensate with the sheer volume of basic actions. For example, combat systems don't really serve any purpose outside of combat. Assault, for example, can be used to defeat enemies primarily. And that's all an ass. Just bury it, sends the morning system. Pick axes can be used to break brought blocks primarily, although you can attack enemies with it. But plays soon realized that the pickaxe is completely ineffective within combat. More obscure player actions such as setting off fireworks have dual functionality. Both being an aesthetic display of vanity and applying damage to anything that it hits when it explodes in the sky. With this in mind, there are probably a few more obscure player actions that have joule effects, but they are rare and unknown to the place. Do I invoke side effects of basic actions to stimulate strategic actions from players. There aren't really a lot of consequences to many of the base actions in the game. There must be strategically contended with. Side effects on basic actions are often used to instill a sense of difficulty and all problem-solving than the game, which Tour area naturally does through its progression systems. I can only think of one example. When the player receives the rocket boost, they gain the ability to fly for a limited amount of time. However, rocket birds don't have a slow falling effect like wings do. Supplies must contend with this fact and strategically develop a course of action when using the boots to avoid full damage. Often this can be just completely negated by equipping, equipping a accessory that limits fall damage. So as you can see, player actions are important became the inter area, which can also be interpreted as broad catalysts for state and attributes. A hope from this example, you can understand my design process when it comes to designing systems of player actions within the game. Once again, feel free to develop your own design process of questioning and devise some different questions for your video game. Thanks for watching, and I'll see you next class. 12. 2.9 The Mechanic Of Rules: Games are governed by rules for most fundamental for game mechanics. Rules define the space time object's attributes and states, player actions, the objectives of the game, and the relationship between all game elements. Essentially rules dictate the nature of all the other game mechanics. Adding crucial definitions to the mechanics and making the game come together in a cohesive manner. Rules also dictate the objectives of a game, searing the playa and their actions towards achieving an overriding goal. Now, rules exist within certain categories applicable to defer parsing of your game explicitly or implicitly. The four main categories we will be exploring this lesson. Operational rules, foundational rules, behavior rules, and strategic rules. Let's start with discussing the operational rules of the game. Essentially, operational rules are the rules understood by players that allows them to play the game. It doesn't mean that we'll play the game well, but it means that they will have some sort of understanding of the primary features that allows them to interact with the game world. Essentially, we can define operational rules as the player's understanding of what they should do within the game. Let's go back to the example of Minecraft. And operational rule. Could be that the player moves forward when the W key is pressed on the keyboard. Very simplistic, but you get the point. These are rules that need to be understood. Again, the rule that the player must eat food within the game to avoid going hungry and lose the ability to sprint, et cetera. When these rules are understood by the player, the game is able to be interacted with. The player can begin to successfully manipulate elements to achieve the objectives of the game. Now we have foundational rules, the underlining formal structure of a video game, the rules of interaction between different game elements. These rules are often Technical and mathematical representations of the relationships between different game elements. For example, in Minecraft, when the player eats an apple, the hunger bar will increase by two units. We could say in foundational rule sense, that should be of player hunger decreases by two units when the food item, Apple is consumed by the player. This foundational rule, combined with all the others, is often obscured from the player. Yet they constantly informed operational rules. With the example of eating the apple within Minecraft plays derive the operational rule that they should eat to avoid going hungry and an apple will suffice if they only need to restore two points. Foundational rules are often difficult to document, and many of them only a rise into being during the development of a game. Often as a result of experimentation, playtesting and game balancing. Behavior rules and the rules that are rise to control a Paez behavior often in a social setting. What we commonly refer to as good sportsmanship. For example, within the game of Call of Duty, it would be considered poor form to eliminate your own team on purpose within a game of hardcore search and destroy, sabotaging your tamed chances for success. Often these are unwritten rules, commonly held beliefs by the player base as to how one should behave during the player of the game. Not really needed to be stated explicitly. Again, behavior rules impact the operational rules of a game, causing plays to modify their behavior within the game to satisfy the requirements expected of them, and influencing the place ID of what they should do in the game. Strategic rules aren't really rules in a traditional sense, more of a series of guidelines that dictate how the player should maximize their chances for success within a game. However, they still remain important to game designers who must foster the development of strategic rules within the minds of players. Again, strategic rules impact the plays understanding of what they should do in the game, which essentially changes the operational rules. Strategic rules are molded by player experience within a certain game and often the experience of others within the game. If you take a peek back to the previous lesson on prior actions, we can see a direct link between strategic action and strategic rules. Strategic actions developed from an understanding of the strategic rules developed through the plays, interaction with all the basic game actions and experienced from playing the game. So those are basically the categories of rules. Take special note of how all the categories influenced the operational rules. That is, the rules the player has in their head as to how they should play the game. Now, let's explore some other aspects of rules within the gallium. Considered the mechanisms behind morals within video games. Modes essentially meaning different parts of your game experienced by the player or through their play, through with inherently different features and all rules. The changing of rules but between modes sometimes completely changes the dynamic of a game. Take for example, GTA five. Gta five has plenty of unique mode scattered throughout its main gameplay. Ok. The player being able to proceed to participate in yoga classes, control RC cars and planes, enhanced interrogation of a character within the narrative, etcetera. Within these modes, it seems as if the game has completely changed. However, the space the game exists in remains consistent. The timing of these modes is similar to the main gameplay, OK, the objects still exist within this mode, etcetera. What's really changed other rules of the game? Take for example, the ability of the player to undertake a yoga class. Now, within this game mode, there are a couple of obvious rule changes. The foundational rules for play import is completely scrapped and a new set of rules regarding input had been established. Throughout the game mode of yoga, the primary controls for the game change into something more simplistic with mapped functionalities for posing within the class. The scrapped foundational rules and play input also indirectly changed the rules of movement by disregarding them entirely. You can see from this example that rule changes are essentially what causes the change of game modes and the mechanics within them. Of course, mode changes can exist on a smaller scale. For instance, let's look at called Judea again. Within each mode change, take for example the modes of ten death match in search and destroy, domination and capture the flag. The primary game mechanics don't change. The player is still able to move around the map. The same movement states, shoot enemies, etcetera. So what rules dictate the differences between the game? That's the primary difference between the different college Duty game modes is simply a change of objectives slash goals. The overriding rules that dictate the wind condition of a game has changed, and the player must adapt in order to achieve these new goals. The most commonly played game mode and in college duty has to be tamed. Six aside, first came to a 100 kills wins the match. The overriding wind condition for this game mode, the objective of the game mode being to get 100 kills. Now, let's consider the Game Mode hard point. Within this game mode, each team may mast capture a zone that regularly moves around the map. To capture a zone the player on one team mast one, successfully clear the enemy players from the proximity of this I1 and to maintain a position within the zone. After the successful completion of these two requirements that the team that captured the zone begins to earn points approximately one per second. The game is won by the team that can successfully get to 300 points first or have the most points at the end of the time limit. It can be noted that simply changing a couple of rules that dictate the goal, such objectives within the game drastically changes the game and inspires new modes of game player. This example highlights the most important function of rules above all else, the setting of a game's objectives and goals. Games are defined by their respective end goals. The entirety of a player's game play experience will be spent in direct attempt to achieve the objectives of the game. Goals and objectives within video games are often multiple, represented as a string of ever accumulating goals, a sequence of goals almost. When you put a clearly defined goal within the pyres head, it will do wonders to sustain motivation and inspire them to keep playing. So with that in mind, here are some general tips for when setting rewarding game goals. One, goals need to be easily understood by players. They need to clearly be able to see what they need to achieve. And they need to have the ability to easily devise a plan of attack in order to work towards achieving the goal, too. The goal needs to be achievable in the player's mind. They need to believe they have a realistic chance of achieving this goal. The goal seems impossible, plays will likely give up. Three. A goal needs to be rewarding, meaning that there is sufficient motivation for the player to want to actually achieve the goal. That working towards achieving the goal is worthwhile of the players time. The rules that dictate the goals within your game need to be easily understood by players. And it is important for all goals within the game to have these qualities. If you wish to truly loser pays into extended playtime and motivate them to achieve the goals of in your video game, you must incorporate these values. Now, it's commonly held knowledge that rules are only as good as their ability to be enforced. And within video games, we have the unparalleled ability to enforce rules. Traditionally in board games, the amount of and the complexity of foundational rules was limited severely by the technology of the time. With calculations involving math having to be done by the players as they play the game. For example, imagine a board game, bad golf, where the pi's rolled two dice. One Das, determining the force of the players club bowl, and the other DIE dice, determining the angle at which they hit the ball. Now, I mean, these players could do some fancy trigonometry every time they hit the ball within the game. But that's very unlikely. And I am sure that the pi's would quickly tile from constantly calculating values as per the foundational rules, computers are immensely powerful and calculations like this can be done in nano Saxon seconds, allowing the creation of profoundly complex video games governed by long lists of immensely complex foundational rules. For example, within the traditional board game of monopoly power, plays could physically move their token an exact amount of spaces to a desirable location. Completely disregarding the value of the docx within the board game. Plays are required to regulate the rules within themselves and keep each other accountable for following them. However, let's look at the online version of Monopoly. When this game, when the player Valls the virtual dies, the plays tokens simply moves to the new location, removing the need to physically count out how much space is you should be moving to the foundational rule that the player needs to move the number of spaces forward, as shown on the dice, is enforced automatically by the computer, bypassing any possibility for pies to cheat this rule. And additional benefit from involving computers as the forces of complex foundational rules is the removal of the need for players to memorize all roles within the game. The removal of this physical constraint allows players to achieve an unprecedented level of immersion in the game on uninterrupted by the place having to self-regulate. And if for such rules constantly as they play. So in summary, rules are the backbone of a game and define the relationships of all game elements and the rules of interactions between them. As a game designer, it is important to realize that rules can't be devised at the start of a project. Instead, designers should allow them to grow, change, and involved throughout the games development. Often influenced through the evaluation processes, which we will get to in a later lesson but way. So once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson where we will be looking at some of the rules that govern the gambit terrain and analyzing their effects on pious. 13. 2.10 The Application Of Rules: Now it's time to look at how game designers implement role-based mechanics into video games through the example of trade area. Once again, I'll provide a bunch of questions that you can be asking yourself as you develop your game rules. First question, what are the foundational rules of my game? Which of the foundational rules are explicitly included within the play's set of operational rules. Or there is a lot of foundational rules that I could talk about. Let's attempt to categorize some aspects of the foundational rule set with inter area rot. So first of all, we have a foundational rules that govern Combat, including weapon damage, spawning, player health, enemy movement, boss spawn conditions, et cetera. For example, a simple foundational rule could be that when the enemy damages the player, the damages subtracted from the total Players Health. Or perhaps the foundational rule that is specific boss can only be spawned when the time is between 07:00 PM, four AM. These foundational rules regarding combat should be explicitly included within the play is set of operational rules in order for them to achieve any sorters who says within the game, the foundational ruled that the enemy hits the doctrine applies, health would evolve into a generalized rule that if in the player's mind that being hit by an enemy hurts you. Some more aspects of foundational rules in the game include all the rules that control building mechanics, player movement, accessory systems, boss mechanics, level progression, etc. The list goes on. But all these are important areas that are governed by foundational rules. Now the question, does the plan need to maintain a series of behavioral rules within the game? What set of behavioral rules can I expect to see develop? Within the single-player mode? The development of behavioral rules doesn't matter. However, within the multiplayer mode of trivia, the need for players to develop a common set of behavioral rules is often necessary. Some basic rules that you could expect to develop include anti grieving rules, IE, the players shouldn't destroy other players houses with explosives. Or the players shouldn't steal other plays items from chests and throw them into lava, cetera. Terrain area within the multiplayer mode becomes increasingly cooperative. Plays are required to fast fight bosses together if they hope to succeed, because boss health is increased in ratio with the number of players currently on a map. So perhaps some behavioral rules may develop the dictate how the players collectively decide when and where to file a boss. Based of pure convenience for majority of the players of a behavioral rules could evolve that dictate how the place share the loop gain from defamed bosses, cetera. How can I, as a game designer, helped facilitate the development of strategic rules within my game. Has again, Rosanna, you must realize how strategic rules that are developed within the plasma and interior. The difficulty scaling in the variety of gameplay within each stage of the game demands plays develop some sort of plan of attack to successfully complete objectives. This leads to the creation of a series of rules that should help them. For example, as the player prepares to Father mechanical bosses, they observe some patterns in their attacks, leading to a series of general rules. Within the twins mechanical boss fight, the player could develop several strategic rules, always running one direction on the flat platform to avoid a tax. Take out the i that spits flames first. Never cut back and on the opposite direction unless you really have to, or the bosses in the state of transformation to second form, et cetera. These rules developed from player experience alone and designers must pay close attention to player action in order to facilitate the development of strategic rule sets. Are there different Muslim, my game heroine communicate the change of rules to pyres. Do additional modes make the game more complex? Tertiary doesn't have distinctive modes that are inherently different from the main gameplay. But let's consider boss fights as their own unique mode because of the obvious rule changes. Let's look at the wall of flesh boss fight in particular. Within this mode, rules governing space unchanged and new boundaries are established, with the player being unable to leave the underworld or move past the wall of flesh. Attempting to do so may result in, in instinct killing of the player. Although a small rule change is indicative of a mode change. These changes to the mode of a game on exclusively conveyed to the player with no direct messages that inform them that they can't attempt to leave the boss fired, otherwise they will die. Instead, the play is once again informed by a clear feedback loop of trial and error, with the play discovering naturally the new constraints now imposed upon them. These additional modes don't really increase the complexity of the game significantly. Instead, just imposing new constraints upon the player, making for some more interesting gameplay. How do I enforce the rules of my game? Most of the foundational rules are enforced by physical constraint alone. Plays a physically unable to break these rules within the game. For example, the foundational rule that the players lose health when attacked by an enemy cannot be ignored. The player we'll encounter damage no matter what they try. Of course, the player could install cheat software and changed against architects to avoid damage. But realistically this rule cannot be broken. Strategic rules are often encouraged. I won't use the word enforced through the difficulty of the game and the demand for the player to develop strategies to successfully complete objectives. Behavior rules are enforced by the players themselves and each individual's desire for social accepting an overriding desires for community. See my class on player psychology. Are the rules are developed, easy to understand, to pliers. Carefully, you need to expand them. Although temporary does have an option tutorial, Most of the rules is deduced from the player, from trial and error alone. Most of the foundational rules that the player learns to identify and incorporate veneer operational rule set. A result of explicit association, essentially meaning the players experimentation and observation of the effects from their actions. For example, when the player break shadow orbs, when the corruption, a series of messages pop up on their screen. Breaking three Shadow or results in spawning of a boss from the responsive feedback from the game and the clear association of cause and effect plays. You're able to understand the majority of the game's rules. What is the overarching goal of my game? The overarching goal of the game is to defeat the final boss, the moon Lord. Although plays aren't really introduced to this mango until just before the fires. Do I include a sequence of goals accumulating to the overriding goal applies motivated by my goals? Yes, absolutely. Plays have a sequence of goals they need to accomplish as they work up to defeating the final boss. Most of these goals are centered around feeding a series of progressively harder bosses. From this primary strand of goals, secondary objectives is the player are derived. The challenge of H Boss demands the playa upgrades their weapons, armour, and accessories to successfully defeat them. And nice secondary strand of goals centered around upgrading the plays geared at each stage of the game is clearly obvious. Are my goals well-defined, achievable, and rewarding to pliers? Yes, most definitely. I would say that the goals we didn't again, are definitely achievable and rewarding to players. Although sometimes confusing from the perspective that plays are sometimes unsure as to what they should be doing next. For example, after the play defeats the Wall of flesh and then unlocks hard mode, the next step for the player, the player is to upgrade their equipment and then craft a summoning item to spawn the mechanical bosses to a new player. Someone not familiar with this step will have great difficulty because in order to craft something, you must have the exact materials required and be standing at the required crafting station. Apart from this, the goals are most definitely rewarding to pliers with them receiving rail loop immediately after defeating bosses. From this loop that designers often point the plays into the direction that they should be going next, hinting as, as to what gear upgrades the players should strive to obtain. So there you go. As you can clearly see, rules play an important role with inter area and are extremely important in directing pliers to develop their own unique style of gameplay. Rules clearly define the objectives and goals within a game. And as a game designer, you must pay close attention to this formulating rules that empower plays to seek out achievement and sufficiently motivate them to achieve the objectives. You have said, thanks for watching, and I'll see you next lesson. 14. 2.11 The Mechanic Of Skill: Plays possessed skills and attributes that differentiates pilots from each other. Using the mechanic of skill mean shifting attention away from the game to the players themselves. The mechanic of skill when correctly linked to the game's difficulty, provides players with a sense of challenge and opportunity for mastery. Positioning within the flow state, which is instrumental in pleasure, enjoyment, and encouraging and extended playtime of your game. We can categorize players skill into three main categories. Physical skills, mental skills, and social skills. Physical skills are easy to classify or simply the player's abilities involving strength, coordination, reaction times, and endurance. Typically, physical skills are associated with games such as Rugby, soccer, gymnastics. But within the realm of video games, we can consider, consider physical skills to encapsulate the plausibly to manipulate a controller to achieve the objectives within the game. Met two skills involved, the plausibility to memorize information, identify patterns, puzzle, solve, and observe causes and effects within a video game. We typically associate games that require high level of mental skill to solve as puzzles. Games such as sudoku mash on 2048 and hangman. However, all games evolved mental skills because players are required to make decisions. And decisions are within the realm of the mind for acquiring mental skills to evaluate the pliers current options, identify new op, new potential options and puzzles of to deduce the most effective option for the player to undertake with the highest chance of success. Finally, we have social skills, which includes the abilities of pliers to successfully cooperate or compete with other players. Cooperating with players, such as coordinating attacks, communicating crucial information such as the position of enemies or the location of Lu, et cetera. Social skills also include the ability of a player to manipulate opponents, guessing what your opponent is thinking within their mind and their potential next moves and tricking your opponent. Social skills are imperative within multiplier based video games, such as World of Warcraft, Call the Duty multi-player Minecraft, et cetera. The individual's social skills of each member of the team are often linked to the overall strength of the team and the chances they have for success within the game. A distinction must be made between real and virtual skills. Real skills being the abilities of the piezo themselves, and virtue skills being the abilities of the player's avatar. We are primarily defining skills as the former, the real skills apply a possessors and using this attribute to derive gameplay that inspires pies to improve SQL's virtue skills, however, can still play an important part in influencing the abilities of apply within the game through various different means. For example, if the player increases their virtue, skill of sword fighting, they may be able to inflict more damage when they attacked enemies within a game, allowing the player to face more difficult enemies. Although this process has no correlation to improvements in a pies real skill, it is a useful mechanic for designers to implement as it allows designers to change difficulty effectively. Skill is a mechanic closely linked to scale difficulty, and a solid understanding of this mechanic will allow you to keep players within a constant state of challenge, the flow state, inspiring place to focus and lose themselves within your game. Thanks for watching and I'll see you necklace, where we will be analyzing the game terrain area and saying how the designers incorporated skill as a game. 15. 2.12 The Application Of Skill: Skills that are fairly easy mechanic to identify within your game. Once again, I will be analyzing the role of skill within the video game Tour area and providing you with some questions that you can be asking yourself to effectively implement skill-based mechanics into your game. First question, what skills does my game required from the player? Teresa is a fast-paced sandbox. Our page a centered around combat, therefore, requiring immense physical skills of coordination and fast reflexes. Plays also make use of mental skills and in particular, puzzle-solving to discover optimal strategies in defeating enemies and bosses. Within the multiplayer mode, it is evident that some degree of social skill is beneficial. Players being able to communicate with their teammates affectively helpful in coordinating attacks and efforts towards common goals. Of the skills required. Is there a dominant skill within the dominant physical skill of coordination is the most important in ensuring a pious success. Without this skill, players will have a hard time to fading bosses, which would completely stagnate apply as progress in, in the game. As many bosses are often bottlenecks in the camps regression with the player being unable to progress until they defeat a certain boss. Is the balance of skills required to complete the game diverse, or does the game focus on one aspect of skill? Terrestrial leans heavily towards physical skills in the pleasure of the game. And solo play throughs completely eliminate the need for any sort of social skills. Mental skills are important for developing successful strategies within the game, but they mean nothing if the player doesn't have the capacity to enact the strategy physically. So all in all, I would say the skill requirements exist as a combination of physical and mental skills, with physical skills clearly being dominant. Does the player have optimal opportunity to develop their skills throughout the game? The scaling of difficulty throughout the game offers players ample opportunity to develop their skills throughout the game. Within the game, bosses have simple movements to its move at slower rates and have more predictable, easier to dodge attacks. Plays. Learn to develop basic skills for these interactions, which are then scaled to match the ever increasing difficulty with faster, more unpredictable bosses. Also, most of the bosses in the game have simple spawn conditions. Mainly the player can spawn them with relative ease and minimum resources. Disability allows players to improve their skills through repeated farts and the same boss. How does the game differ between players with different skill levels? The gameplay experience at Treasury is massively impacted by the level of a player's skill. Experienced in more skilled players are likely to experience less deaths and quicker progression through the game's main gameplay arc of boss battles and gear upgrades. The most skilled plays aren't likely to die during boss fights in particular, mean there's less of a chance to waste crucial resources spent in crafting boss summoning items. These particular incentives inspire less skilled pious to strive to improve their skills and avoid these well-defined punishments. Does the game demand an optimal level of skill and inspire feelings of mastery within the pile? Yes, most definitely, the defined difficulty progression within the game to demands for the players to constantly improve their skills. Plays a motivated to improve their skills NORM.DIST true progress through the sequence of goals that the game provides them with. Mostly manifesting itself as a boss battle. Through the constant validation of a player's skill level, determined by boss battles, plays gain a sense of mastery as the game gives clear feedback when the player improves their skills. In summary, way, as game designers can clearly see the effect the mechanical skill has on a player's experience within the game and its role in regulating difficulty and inspiring players to improve their gameplay through the psychological desire for mastery. As a game designer, you must pay close attention to the relationship between individual skill and the gameplay of your game. Design your game in a way that motivates, motivates pliers to improve their skills. Thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson. 16. 2.13 The Mechanic Of Chance: Now it's time to discuss the final top of game mechanic, chance. Chances and essential part of all video games, and the catalyst for uncertainty within a game. Uncertainty in turn, is what makes games fun because of its ability to surprise players. As discussed with the Moscow shake horse on player psychology, surprises one of the primary sources of player enjoyment. Now, an important part of design chance based mechanics is a fundamental understanding of the math that surrounds it. As a game designer, it is a crucial skill to have a solid understanding of probability, which in itself is a rather difficult topic to master. I won't go too deep into the math involved with probability, but I will just outline some basic areas of the discipline for you to conduct further research in. If you don't know how to do the math and the niche area. The ranges of probability, understanding how probabilities can exist from scale of 0 to one with 0 indicating impossibility and one as a total certainty. Within your game, the probability of all possible outcomes from a certain action will total to one. Mainly, meaning that it is certain that one outcome will arise from that action. And understanding of permutations in combinatorics, permutations being used to calculate the total value of all possibilities of ranking certain elements. For example, I would use permutations to calculate the total possible ways that five people can stand in a line. And using this value, I can then deduce the probability that a certain sequence of people he's chosen. Combinatorics are used to calculate the total value of possibilities for selecting a group of things from a bigger group. For example, I could use combinatorics to care here at the number of possibilities of selecting five people from a group of ten, then I could reduce the possibility of selecting a certain person from that group, et cetera. Compounded events, essentially meaning the possibility of achieving multiple events in a row. For example, the probability that I will roll a six and then select a Jack from a randomized deck of cards. In simple cases like this, I would simply multiply the probability of each individual event. Bernoulli trials using probability to deduce the probability of achieving a certain number of outcomes from a repeated number of trials that have exactly two possible outcomes. Binomial expansions go in hand in hand with Bernoulli trials and is often how you can reduce the probability of a certain number of outcomes from a repeated trial. Probability distributions, more specifically, normal distribution curves, learning how to find averages, standard deviations and median values to map probability distributions to a normal distribution curve. Often useful for when you have a massive range of possible outcomes. For example, the damage produced from a sword could range from 30 to 70, and calculating the probability of damaging and enemy for 46 points can be achieved. Alright, so this just some aspects of probability that directly linked to games on. There are more, but an understanding of a should set you on your way to mastering probability. One of the most useful applications of probability is the calculation of expected values. Essentially the average. Within video games, whenever you take an action it will have a value. For example, selling a weapon to a vendor MPC. This MPC could offer the player a range of different process for the weapon and determined by probability. The expected value from this interaction is the average price the player will be quoted. Another important aspect of probability is standard deviation. That is how varied the values of an outcome could be. For example, let's look at the MPC weapon vendor again. Imagine this M-Pesa offered process for the weapon between 10.50 with an expected value of 35-year-olds. Now, imagine the same NPC offered process instead for between 20.40 with the same expected value of 35-year-olds. What does this mean? Well, standard deviations dictate how spread out the values are. And less of a standard deviation means that the player is likely to receive more consistent process for their weapons. As a game designer, we must play, pay close attention to standard deviations, using them to control variability within our game became mechanism of standard deviation within games is to regulate the risk slash reward of an action with more variability, the plaza higher chance to receive higher prices for their weapons. But conversely, the chance to get at an even lower price is even more. Of course, chance on its own. It's purely theoretical form isn't the only thing that the game designs must contend with. Chance has a human component. And designers must think of how players will interact with these chance based systems. Plays don't always choose options within the game that have the highest expected value, as you would expect. Whether this to be complete ignorance or lack of understanding of your chance based mechanics or something much deeper. Humans often deduce what options they should take base of pure trial and error alone. Within the game plays may lean towards options that have lower expected values based off their perceived ideas of what the value could be instead of what it actually is. Plays in a game may choose an option and notice that they are getting higher values for their option than the other one. Due to the nature of chances could be purely lock. And the player may have had a string of lock-in shoes met option plays, men may then decide to completely avoid the other option. Even though theoretically it has a greater expected value. Human behavior is regulated primarily by pain avoidance, which is much stronger than the human desire for pleasure. With this in mind, plays will often choose options that have lower expected values, but a higher certainties. For example, within a game where the player can choose to attacks one with 100% chance of hitting with a damaged value of four. Or an attack with a player has a 50% chance of hitting with the damage value of ten. Players may lean towards the attack with a 100% chance of hidden, driven by the fear that if they miss, if they did the other TAC, They could be less vulnerable for injury or death. Another aspect of human plunder with improbability is the tendency for humans to underestimate and overestimate the possibility of an event known by game designers as safe possibility. The human mind tends to over and flight the possibility of negative things happening within their life. For example, people are more likely to predict that they will die from homicide, which is hardly unlikely By the way. Conversely, humans may also, in flight the chances of probable success in achieving something such as the lottery, causing them to go out of their way to seemingly waste money on lottery tickets. There is one more aspect of chance we must discuss, and that is the connection chance has to skill. Some chance based mechanics involve a degree of skill where some are completely random and no amount of skill can shape the outcome. Here are some considerations for game designer when examining the relationship between these two game mechanics. Estimating chance is a skill. All skills have a probability for success. Estimating and opponents skills slash next moves is a skill in itself. No skill exists where the players can predict or control pure chance. So in summary, chances and mechanic is the main contributing factor towards uncertainty within your game, which in turn produces surprises for the player. Chance exists within the realm of mathematics and a solid understanding of probability is essential for game designers. Balancing chance based mechanics mostly involves changes to the expected value and standard deviation of probability distributions. And as a game designer, you must consider the human element within player decision-making when it comes to chance. I have included some resources within the, within the discussion section of the course to some links to some detailed explanations on the maths involved with probability. So for you, feel free to check that out if you want to learn more. Once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson where we will be deconstructing the chance based mechanics within the video gamma. 17. 2.14 The Application Of Chance: Alright, so now it is time to have a look at the video again to area and analyze some of the chance based mechanics within the game by asking an cells arrange a questions. First question, what aspects of my game a truly random. Teresa incorporates a lot of randomness into the game. Specifically randomness surrounding features such as autumn drops from enemies, loot probabilities within well chests, events, spawning systems, and all distributions. Does this included randomness contribute to play a feelings of surprise? Or does it give players feelings of hopelessness? Absolutely, most aspects of randomness within the game contribute positively towards plaza prize. However, some aspects, particularly items spawn mechanics can frustrate players. Occasionally, rare items have a very low dropped chance, and pliers can sometimes find themselves spending hours killing enemy in order to obtain said rare item. Some other aspects of chance within the game, such as the goblin AMI events, have a one in eight chance of spawning within early mode. Provided the plaza fulfill the cover requirements, their total health must be over 200 points in the time must be day. Sometimes it can be frustrating to pliers when this event doesn't spawn because some very useful items can be obtained, such as the rocket bits. However, the game designers considered this and decide to allow players to craft an event summoning item known as the goblin standard, crafted from tattered cloths that can be attained from killing a rare goblin enemy that spawns on the fringes of the map. How do I determine the chances of events within my game occurring? For this question, I will be exploring the chances of Autumns drop-in from enemies. A very randomized event within the game. Autumn drops exist within categories determined by the game. For example, rare, very rare and common, with respective dropped chances of ten to 25% to 10%, 30 to 50%. However, this is built further upon by enemies spawn mechanics. For example, the nymph enemy within the game is considered a very rare enemy with a very low chances spawning. Once spawned, they have approximately a 20% chance of dropping the autumn, known as the metal detector. We could represent the overall chance of applier obtaining the metal detector item as 0.2 times 0.01, which would bring the probability of obtaining the item to approximately 0.002 or 0.2% with inter area, these probabilities are consistent, determined by the game designer and unlikely to fluctuate throughout agains playthrough. However, there exists a mode known as expert mode that is far more difficult than the normal mode. Within this mode, probabilities of autumn drops are increased with the previous example of the metal detector dropping, increasing to maybe about 50%. Within this mode, enemies spawn chances remain consistent, but the autumn drop chances are increased. What is the perceived chance of these events occurring in the minds of pliers? Paez often don't think of the probabilities of certain events occurring in terms of percentages and fractions, instead of operating on a more abstract spectrum of rarity with qualitative descriptors of rare, very rare, common, almost impossible, et cetera. Of course, plays consult the online wiki, wiki for the game that details exact probabilities of certain events within the game. But the average player probably wouldn't consider this. The play is often likely to underestimate the chances of obtaining items such as the jungle K, a K that drops within hard mode from enemies within the jungle. That allows the plant to open a chest within the dungeon has very powerful loot within. It has approximately a chance of 0.05% chance to drop from an any enemy killed, wounded in the jungle. However, plays often underestimate their chance of obtaining set k as the probability compounds as they cure multiple enemies within the jungle. For example, if they kill 500 enemies, for overall probability of obtained, the key could be interpreted as 0.05 times by 500, which comes out as a twenty-five percent theoretical possibility. Within this game. If the player grinds hot enough, they have a sufficient, sufficient chance to obtain just about everything. Do the players have sufficient opportunity to take risks? Theme my game regarding chance. Most chance based on kinks in this game, don't really have a risk associated with them. Unless you consider the possibility of countless wasted hours attempting to obtain something or risk. I can think of one example, however, the goblin MPC and the re-form system essentially plays a gambling that when they reforged their weapon, they will receive positive bonuses. Whoever it is entirely possible, the player may only get negative ones. So in this regard, I would consider this a risk-based chance mechanics specifically to all the different expected values of different actions, empower the player with feelings of control and inspire them to take more risks. Once again, not a lot of risk-based chance mechanics in the game. However, I would consider the drop rates of certain items and the level of utility associated with them. To empower players with a sense of choice and the ability to make complex decisions on what they will focus on obtaining. Instilling a sense of control from the plausibility to choose what they will focus on. Are these expected values well balanced with plays feeling each action is viable. Sometimes some Artem dropped chances are absolutely ridiculous. For example, magic weapon uses may choose to fish within the Halliburton for the chance of obtaining a crystal serpent. However, due to the low drop chances, most players won't have the persistent two grand for the specific item. The game instead directs into a series of slightly less powerful magic weapons that have crafting materials that can be obtained more easily. However, I would still consider that this balance between weapon power and rarity is pretty well balanced. And the expected values of obtaining H makes players feel that each option is viable. What is the relationship between chance and skill in my game? Based on the probability of certain events occurring within the game, I would argue that players who have the mental skills of deciding what item to focus on obtaining is a clear relationship between these two elements. Players who decide what autumn such Autumns I wish to obtain will optimize their playthrough. For example, plays he clearly choose a weapons class and decide what specific weapons I will aim to obtain at each stage of the game, can focus them on obtaining a certain weapon and minimize the role of pure chance dictating what weapons they will have access to. So there we go. There's an analysis of the chance based mechanics within the video game of terrain area. From this way, as game designers can clearly see the role of chance in, in inspiring a sense of uncertainty and surprise for players. Which in turn makes the gameplay more varied and interesting within your game. Make sure you define the parameters surrounding chance and calculate the probability surrounding them. Useful both from the perspective of game balancing and development. Thanks for watching, and I'll see you next lesson. 18. 3.0 Class Project: Congratulations on completing this short course. Now, it's time to consolidate our knowledge and complete a short simple exercise on the game mechanics of a video game of your choosing. For this exercise, you will choose one game mechanic from each of the categories explored in this course. Space time, objects attribution states, player actions, game rules, skill, and chance. And complete a short outline of how it works in the game. For example, using the example Tour area, I could choose L on the game mechanic of the day night cycle within the time category. Completing a short evaluation of how the day night cycle works, explaining the link between attribute of in-game time and the animations of the dynamic Skybox. I could also talk about how the day, night cycle mechanic affects game rules regarding spawn conditions of certain bosses. So essentially you are going to explicitly choose one of each mechanic, explain the general functionality of it and how it links to our other elements within the game. I've included a brief template within the projects tab of this course to help you get started. Once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next lesson. 19. 3.1 Class Conclusion: Wow, what a journey it's been. Congratulations if you made it this far. Thank you so much for watching. And I hope you've gained some new insights into the process of designing outstanding innovative game mechanics. And that we, and that you will use what you've learned to develop some awesome games. Make sure to give me a follow on skill share if you want to watch more content like this and keep in the loop for when I dropped more courses on game design and other aspects of game development. Share this cause we're friends and remember to leave a review and let me know what you thought about this format. The course in general. I've gone over the course project in a previous lesson. So feel free to complete it if you were Kane and remember to check our everyone else's projects in the projects sections of this class. Also, feel free to ask me some more questions within the community tab of this class, I will be answering inactive. Alternatively, you can find my personal email within the course description. So feel free to send any questions you may have. Don't be a stranger. Once again, thanks for watching and I'll see you next time.