Design Thinking for Product and Project Managers | Teresa Kowal | Skillshare

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Design Thinking for Product and Project Managers

teacher avatar Teresa Kowal, Earn professional certification!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 11m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. What Is Design Thinking?

    • 3. Five Mindsets of Design Thinking

    • 4. Design Thinking Model

    • 5. Discovery

    • 6. Customer Journey Map

    • 7. The Solve Stage

    • 8. SCAMPER

    • 9. SCAPMER Example

    • 10. Mindmaps

    • 11. Create

    • 12. Evaluate

    • 13. Rapid Prototyping Tests

    • 14. Conclusion

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About This Class

Design Thinking (DT) is an emerging practice in product development and project management.  In this course, you will learn how to use DT to engage your customers, improve creativity, and increase project effectiveness. You will create a project using one or more DT tools such as heuristics (SCAMPER), customer journey maps, and mindmapping.

This class is designed for anyone working in project or product development that wants to increase the success of commercial product launches.  You can use DT tools and techniques in product development, project management, quality improvement, and even to help supercharge your career.

Meet Your Teacher

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Teresa Kowal

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Teresa is the president of Global NP Solutions consulting in innovation best practices. is our sister website offering diverse on-line and face-to-face certification and PDH (professional development hour) training courses. Teresa has a PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Washington, a BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Idaho, and an MBA from West Texas A&M University. She has over 20 years of experience working in the petrochemical industry and teaching at the college/university level and has helped dozens of individuals earn their professional certification as New Product Development Professionals (NPDP) and Project Management Professionals (PMP). She has a passion for lifelong learning and can be reached at [email protected] In h... See full profile

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1. Introduction : Hi, my name is to research organs Call and I am very passionate about innovation. Over the years, I've helped dozens of companies and individuals improve their innovation practices and to speed their new product development. Today, we're going to talk about design thinking. Design thinking is an emerging practice within new product development that helps us to improve customer satisfaction by using collaborative creative problem solving techniques that focus on the customer up front. You'll want toe follow along in your hand out because we have many of the terms defined there, as well as an outline of some tools and exercises that you can practice so that you can put into place design thinking right away. Let's go ahead and get started by diving into the first module, talking about what is design thinking. 2. What Is Design Thinking? : welcome back. So we have established that design thinking is an emerging philosophy for new product development and innovation, but we haven't yet discussed what is designed thinking. So in this lesson will define design, thinking and relate new product development quality to design thinking the definition of design thinking is a systematic and collaborative creative problem solving approach, focusing on customer needs. All of those words are very important. It is a systematic methodology, meaning that there are tools and techniques that we use in order to implement design thinking. And we can integrate design thinking into our standard new product development and innovation processes. It is a collaborative technique in that we use cross functional teams to help identify customer needs and then to identify design and development methodologies that will help us Teoh meet those customer needs through product features and functionality. It's a creative problem solving technique. We'll go through many of those different tools later in this session so that we can learn which tools in design thinking help us to generate a lot of different and creative solutions so that our customers can get the best alternative at the best price. When we release a new product, and we want to especially emphasize that design thinking focuses on customer needs. Customers buy our products customers by our services. We want to make sure that we keep our customers satisfied and when we meet customer satisfaction goals were really delivering quality to the customer. Quality is always defined by the end user, and quality differentiates any company from the competition. Moreover, happy customers are repeat customers. So the more quality that we delivered to our customers to keep them satisfied means that we will continue to grow our own businesses. Satisfied customers will actually evangelize for you. And we know that the retention cost of a customer is far less in the acquisition cost of new customers. So keeping our customer focus up front in all of our design and development activities allows us to design and develop better products and services for those target market segments. Let's remember that the definition and what we're gonna be working with today of design thinking is a systematic and collaborative creative problem solving technique that focuses on customer needs. Up front. You'll find that definition on your project sheet, so let's move on to the next lesson in which we're going to discuss the five mindsets of design thinking Thanks 3. Five Mindsets of Design Thinking: so welcome back. We have defined design thinking as a systematic and collaborative and creative problem solving approach to focus on and meet our customer needs. This is an innovative and creative approach to solving problems and to approach new product development with the customer in mind at all points in time. So in order to meet those objectives, we will want to use five different mindsets. Design thinking is a new way to approach customer issues and to develop the best product solutions for those customers that will put us at an advantage above our competitors. So we want to be able to use creativity to use different perspectives in approaching new product development and innovation. With the design thinking approach, we will work with different people to bring in different perspectives throughout the product development approach, including the customer and other team members with whom maybe we don't normally work. So the first idea behind design thinking and a mindset that we need to apply is curiosity. Most of us actually are very curious people. Um, anybody that has had Children knows that around age 2 to 4, everything is why, why, why, why, why? But we start to lose that curiosity as we find answers. And as we're sort of tone down in school, too, monitor our curiosity and focus our curiosity, design, thinking, needs toe have a wide open curiosity. Who are the customers with what problems? Why do they have that problem? What might be a potential solution to that problem? Our innate curiosity can help us approach design thinking from various perspectives. Look at things from different perspectives. Look at it as if you're a tall person or a child's viewpoint. Look at it is if you're a short person or look at the perspective of the customers problem through their eyes, and that will help you create the best new product solutions as well as the most innovative solutions that put you at an advantage versus the competitors. So go back to being a five year old search for that curiosity, and that will make a competitive difference with design thinking. The second mindset that we use is called biased to action. Designers want to just try stuff. It's no use to just sit in your office and make a sketch. What is useful is to get out there, talk to customers, find out what they need and what they're interested in. And if you think you have an idea of a solution that might work to solve their problems, try it. See if it works. Try it on a small scale, test it and will later talk about in this course rapid prototyping as a way to test those various ideas. But take action. Go ahead and make a small task. Make a small experiment and see if that potential solution delivers an answer for your customers. That's more innovative than the competition that's out there. So try stuff. The third mindset of design thinking is reframing. A lot of times we approach problems with solutions that we've seen that worked in the past . I like to use the example of looking in the sky and seeing that it's cloudy. If the sky is normally cloudy in the west and it normally produces rain. When the skies cloud in the west and you get up one morning and you see that the sky is cloudy in the west, you'll probably take an umbrella toe. Work with you. But if you reframe that problem, the sky might be cloudy in the West because there's a forest fire, there might be other situations that are causing that result. You want to include many different potential solutions as you go through the design thinking model to come up with the best product solutions for your customers. So if you reframe the problem from a different perspective, maybe somebody who's never seen that product before, maybe from somebody that will use that product in a different way than you have envisioned . And certainly you want to reframe a problem from the customer's perspective so that you can solve that problem in the best way possible. So think about every problem from a different perspective, and that's an important mindset of design thinking. The next mindset of design thinking is awareness. There's two elements to awareness. One is our own awareness of how we think and we've you problems, and the other is awareness of the customer and in the environment and in market trends. Again, we often approach problems from our own perspective and were not aware of our own boundaries and constraints. That's the old story of If you're a hammer, everything looks like a nail. The second part of awareness is inattentive to what's going on in market situations and in market trends. What sort of emerging technologies air impacting your business or could impact your business? Take a look at what's going on in industry and in tangential industries, the smartphone has disrupted a lot of industries that one would not have thought it could disrupt. So think about the taxicab industry being disrupted, essentially by the smartphone that we can now use uber to call for a ride. We need to be aware of what's going on in industry technology markets, and that includes global markets as well as local markets. And the fifth mindset of design thinking is collaboration. One thing that happens in product development and innovation is that the more mature and organisation becomes, the more internally focused it becomes. We often have groups of research and developers that focus on new product development, but they have a very narrow focus. May be just the chemistry of a new product, or maybe just the packaging or the marketing of a new product. We want to collaborate with a vast wide swath of people and entities that interact with both the customer and the product. That collaboration means we need a cross functional team for innovation in product development that starts with the developers. Starts with the customer, starts with those interactions and includes things like operations. Logistics includes the marketers in sales collaboration. If you're using design, thinking on a personal basis means you also include in your decision making processes your mentors, your guides, your coaches and that collaboration gives you different perspectives back to reframing the problem and looking at a problem with curiosity so that you can come up with the best decision in your own personal life as well as in an organisational description. So the five mindsets of design thinking and you'll find these on your hand out our curiosity. A bias toe action, which means just try stuff reframing, especially looking at problems from the customer's perspective awareness, which includes self awareness and environmental awareness, and collaboration with a cross functional team. In the next lesson, we're going to take a look at a model for design thinking, and throughout that model you will want to apply these different mindsets so that you continue to strive to come up with the most creative solutions and most innovative solutions that will solve your customers problems. So let's go ahead and move on to the model for design thinking 4. Design Thinking Model: In the last lesson, we talked about the five mindsets of design thinking, curiosity, a bias toe action, reframing awareness and collaboration. You'll find those mindsets listed on your hand out and project sheet. You'll also find a copy of the model for design thinking, which we're going to discuss in this lesson. The model for design thinking is really quite simple. There are two steps. Identify and solve. They are iterative, though, meaning that when you complete identifying a problem and try to solve it, you're going to learn more and return to the identify step within each step. There are two stages of investigation that we undergo to encounter the best interaction with our customers so that we can design products and services that are innovative and delight our customers and give us an advantage over all other competitors. So within the identify step, we have two stages of discovery and define in discovery. We're trying to identify the customer problem as well as narrowly defining the target market segment. This means we have to understand who the customer is and what their problems are to a very high degree, and we'll investigate different methods of discoveries such as ethnographic research, which means camping out with the customer or living with the customer. And we'll also talk about in another lesson how to use discovery tools to hone in on those particular problems that customers have. As we discover different customer problems, we can't solve a problem unless we exactly know what that problem is. So when we observe in the discovery stage that customers face difficulty with a certain situation, we will then define that specifically so that we can then later solve that problem. I like to use the analogy of our New Year's resolutions. Many of us use a New Year's resolution to say I'm going to get healthier this year. That's a discovery that we know we need to be healthier. However, it's very ill defined. A better definition of the problem would be I need to lose £5 this year. That's something specific that we can work on in the solving stage. So the discovery stage is to identify the problem, and the defining phase of identify is to state that in specific, measurable results. And then we'll move to the solving stage once we have a carefully defined customer problem in the create stage. We're going to generate lots and lots of alternatives, and that's going to be the focus of some later lessons in this, of course, where we discuss some tools that we can use to creatively generate many alternatives, the more alternatives we have, the more likely we're going. Teoh come up with the best solution, the most innovative solution that will solve customer problems. And then, as we create these different alternatives, we're going to evaluate them primarily using a tool called rapid prototyping. But we'll use other evaluations as we evaluate various solutions will take those back to the customer and say, What do you think of this potential solution? And we may discover MAWR and identify deeper what their real needs ISS. And then we can further clarify the definition of that problem, create more alternatives and then evaluate those alternatives to see if they specifically meet the customers problem. So this is an iterative process Maybe you're never ever done, but at some point you will say this is the best solution that I can deliver at this point in time. Under these market conditions within my industry to meet customer needs in a profitable fashion, and those customers will be delighted with the solution, and I will have a competitive advantage. So a simple model for design thinking two steps identify the problem and solve the problem . And within those we discover that problems specifically define it specifically create solutions and evaluate those solutions. So in the next lesson, we're going to delve deeper into that discovery phase of identify, so we'll see you then. 5. Discovery : welcome back. In the last lesson, we discussed the five mindsets of design thinking, which include curiosity, a bias toe action, reframing the problem awareness, full self awareness, an awareness of the environment and collaboration. As we continue with the model of design thinking, we want to talk about the discovery stage and in that discovery stage, we want to understand who our customers are and what problems they face. So you might be wondering why that's important. The average retail store has over 100,000 products for sale. We're talking about a typical WalMart or supermarket. About 50,000 new products are introduced as new products every year, but about 2/3 of those products will fail within the 1st 2 years of introduction. Furthermore, the average family buys on a repeat basis week to week the same 150 products. Your competition on a store shelf is huge, so you want to seek your new product development processes to design products that grab the customers attention. But more than that delight them and that they will use with pleasure and want to continue to purchase with repeat purchases because they're satisfied with that product. So the way we apply design. Thinking to that discovery stage is to consider who has what problem and where are those problems. So when we think about market segmentation as a piece of discovery stage, we want to identify which customer segment were seeking to solve the problem for and where we would find those particular customers. We also want to understand the customer need their two pieces to this. First, customers can articulate some of their needs. I know I need some sort of transportation to get from my home toe work on a daily basis, but I have unarticulated needs that I want that to be a car, maybe a luxury model, and I want it to have different feature so that I can talk on the phone while I'm driving through school zones and that doesn't interfere with the legal requirements in my state or city. I wanted to reflect my personality, and I want that car to be reliable. Those air all unarticulated needs that sometimes people have difficulty expressing. Steve Jobs was famous for saying something to the effect that customers don't know what they need until I show them what they need. Those were the unarticulated needs that we're talking about when we talk about the discovery stage of finding which customers have what problems. The fancy word for this is ethnographic research. Procter and Gamble, for example, has a huge market research department, and they practice ethnographic research frequently and a very, very effective basis. They do things like camped out with customers or live with the customer for a while to follow customers around in their day to day activities and understand what their needs are those unarticulated needs. So as you're thinking about market research for your new product development or new service development activity, you want to think about the customer first and from our design thinking model. In identifying the problem, we want to discover customer needs both articulated and unarticulated needs. In the next lesson, we're going to talk about some more tools for design thinking, and that first tool we're going to talk about is called a customer journey map. So I hope that you consider what are your customer needs that are articulated as well as unstated customer needs. And then we'll follow the customer through their journey of needing a product, choosing the most competitors buying that product and then using it, will discuss that with the customer journey math. In the next lesson, 6. Customer Journey Map: in this lesson, we're going to delve into details of the defining stage of the design thinking model. Remember, there's just two overall steps. Identify the problem and solve the problem. But within the identify stage, we want to discover the exact problem and particular target market group of customers for whom we want to solve that problem. And then, after we track our customers, shadow our customers and get some idea of what their problem is and where the problem occurs, we can begin to clearly define the problem in measurable terms so that we can solve that problem later, using design, thinking and product development and innovation tools. One of the tools that we're going to borrow from defining the problem is from quality management. This is called a swim lane diagram. I personally love to go swimming for exercise, and I usually swim at least once a week. When you are a swimmer, you'll notice, or if you even watch the Olympics on television in the summer, the lanes are divided, and there's one swimmer per lane in this case from a swim lane diagram for quality management. We have different rows that represent different stakeholders, so in this simple process example in which we're trying to improve the quality of a process . We have the swim lanes with swimmers represented for an expense reporting process in which the consultant, a manager and a data entry clerk are important stakeholders. We also borrow tools from the computer industry in which process flow diagrams use different symbols to represent different actions or decisions. So in this example, boxes represent actions, whereas a diamond represents a decision point. And we can use an adaptation of this swim lane diagram to sketch our own processes in which a customer interacts with our products to identify their problems. In this particular example, just to run through it. To give you a better understanding of how you can apply this tool, the consultant will submit an expense report. A manager will receive that report and then verify that it is the correct report. If it's not the correct report, the manager would return the report to the consultant. However, if it is the correct report, the manager would forward that report to a data entry clerk who inter sedated to this system. There's an opportunity to improve this process by perhaps having the consultant. Submit the report to the data entry clerk who could check it for corrections. At that point, we can use these types of process diagrams to improve and recognize elements that have too many decision points or where the customer has too many actions. If we were to substitute a customer purchasing behavior instead of an expense report in this example, So let's take a look at one of those examples where we adapt a quality management tool called the Swim Lame diagram to a tool that we call a customer journey map in design thinking, we use a customer journey map to track how a customer becomes familiar with a product in order to solve a problem and then uses information available to them, whether that's through shopping at the mall or looking on the Internet to research that solution, and then how they make that purchase and then any after sales interactions. So in this particular example, it's a travel website, and the customer may interact with that website. If we're looking at the rows of information from the desktop or from a mobile application, they may also contact a new airline through social media by telephone in person or through chat on the website. And this particular company has noted that there are four stages to their customers, interaction with their product. They have to first discover, and then they'll often do research. There's conversion and a post sale engagement and all those steps that are listed for discovery, for example, searching for different flights, maybe to have to learn about traveling internationally or watching the website promotional video. Those different steps are shown as interactions in this particular example, the personas air indicated by different symbols, and those personas are not necessarily specific individuals. But during the Discover stage, this company has identified that they encounter business travelers that are middle aged, and they represented that as a persona named Theresa age 35 business traveler. They also noted that some of their customers are recent retirees that want to travel internationally. And finally, they also have college students as another persona thes personas, and we'll talk about them a little bit more. In the next lesson are a mouth intimations of many different customers whom the company and organization has interacted with, and they create a persona that is a blend of characteristics in order to increase the empathy of the design team and the development team with a particular customer group. Each of these personas is part of the target market segment for this company that has created this customer journey map. Another thing to note on this particular customer journey map is that when the customer or persona has experienced a positive result, they show that in green that's an emotional result. Many of our purchases nearly all of our purchases, whether their personal, retail, wholesale or commercial and industrial having emotional come opponent to them. So when there is a positive experience that's highlighted in Green and the company of the Innovate and create new products will want to capitalize on those positive emotions. On the other hand, negative emotions have occurred for a couple of these different personas in comparing rates and in getting help on deciding on a flight. Those particularly negative occurrences in the purchase and in the customer's journey from identifying a potential solution to purchasing a product or service and then the after market support our opportunities for the organization to create new solutions, to innovate and to have an advantage over competitors. So this is one example of how we might show a customer journey map. Here the rows are representative user actions and the columns as decisions and the personas air showing his different symbols. In the next lesson, we will talk about how we can use a customer journey map in those three key elements of the customer journey map, which are include the persona and having empathy, as well as those emotional experiences that the customer has throughout the identification of potential solutions. Selecting a product solution or service solution, making the purchase and then after market support on your handout, you have a different model of a customer journey map in which they're the rows represent personas, and then the columns represent the different stages of interaction with the product you can use for your own project any of these models that appeal to you or are easiest for you to use. I like the simplicity of the model that's in the project handout, but you can certainly use a more sophisticated customer journey map. You can Google or search the Internet for customer journey maps to find other alternatives , but I advise you to please take five minutes now or after the next lesson to sketch out some ideas for how customers interact with your products. This will be a very important step in design thinking, so that you can identify the personas for which your team will have more empathy. And you can identify opportunities where your customers have very positive experiences with your products or services or where they're running into trouble and are feeling frustrated or having a negative emotion with the interaction with your product. So in the next lesson, we're gonna talk about the three important elements of a customer journey map. Feel free to jump into the first draft of your customer journey map now and update it with the next lesson. Or draw your first customer journey map with the next lesson. One additional piece of advice is that you're never going to get this right on your first try. You need to keep going back to the discovery stage to understanding what your customers problem really is and who your customer is exactly from a market segment identification. So your first draft isn't going to be right or perfect, but continue to update that as you look at design thinking tools so that you can clearly understand your customers problems and how they interact with your product or service. In the next lesson, we're going to go ahead and talk about those key elements of the customer journey map and then following that will movinto lessons where we move from identifying in our design thinking model to solving the customer's problem. So stick with us and start to sketch that customer journey map. 7. The Solve Stage: welcome back, and I hope you had an opportunity to take at least a few minutes to draft your first customer journey map. Considering how your customer or a persona within a market segment feels emotionally about identifying a product, need comparing your product to competitors, making the purchase, using the product, disposing of the product and perhaps any after market support that you provide as a service that goes with that product. Remember that that first draft customer journey map is not gonna be your final draft as you learn more about your customers and product development. And as we investigate more design thinking tools will probably add to that customer journey map. So that was the last step creating the customer journey map in the identify stage of our design thinking model. Remember, there were two steps identify and solve within the solving step. We have two elements create and evaluate as we create alternative solutions. Once we've identified that customer problem, we want to fail fast and fail. Often that means we want Teoh tasked a lot of ideas to understand what which solutions may meet our customer needs and to make sure that bad ideas are killed quickly. We want to generate lots and lots of alternatives. The more alternatives we generate, the better because one of those will probably or some combination of them will probably meet the customer's needs the best and perhaps far better than the existing solutions or our competition can dio. One thing that's important during the create stage is to almost abandoned science. We want to imagine what could be not what has to be or what shall be or what is today. We want to imagine sort of a utopia world in which we saw all of our customers problems. What could be and that will point us towards generating lots of alternatives. We will fail many times, but each one of those failures is a learning opportunity. So we want to have limitless boundaries. This is hard for adults. It's easy for five year olds. Watch kids play in a park. They have limitless imaginations, so you need to go ahead and put yourself a za design thinker back into a five year old mind set and imagine what possibilities could be there. The reason is that we tend as adults in our thinking and problem solving to get bound by different anchors. The first anchor is gravity. We say there is gravity and we cannot get past this problem. There's gravity on Earth. And so if you make a shoe, that shoe has to interact with the Earth because gravity is holding our feet and our shoes onto the earth, we can generate alternatives like NASA did. For example, NASA said, we need to test how are astronauts can manipulate tools in and an anti gravity or almost anti gravity in the vacuum of space so that they can manipulate the tools on the international space station while they're in space. Gravity, of course, holds astronauts to earth, and so you don't want to send an astronaut to space without any training. So NASA overcame gravity, the anchor of gravity, by building a gigantic swimming pool and balancing the weight of the person the astronaut in training with the water so that they had near buoyancy that mimics the vacuum of space. And in that way, after not skin practice, wasn't the first idea now say came up with. But it's an idea that works, and they could overcome the gravity anchor. So as you're considering alternate solutions for your product solutions. Try to get over gravity. What can you do to overcome those anchors that are holding you to Earth? The other anchor that we have in creative problem solving is what I call tunnel vision. As a young chemical engineer, I was faced with a new problem. My senior adviser had come to me and said, You know, after that turn around, which is a maintenance period, we were getting lower than expected yield out of this unit, and we should have had higher yield than before the maintenance period or turn around, he said. Please take a look at all of the temperatures and pressures in that vessel so that we can understand why our yield has dropped. So I gathered a small team and spent weeks and weeks analyzing data collecting samples, looking at every possible data point that was on the reactor. No change. The yield was still down. Finally, at lunch one day, I was chatting with another young engineer, and I said, What did you learn from the turnaround? Did you? What did you do on your unit? And he told me we changed a valve and I thought for a moment. What valve was that? And I learned that the valve he had changed was a meat oring vow to my unit that metering Val changed all of the numbers. When we went back and corrected for the new numbers from that new media ring valve, we learned that the yield indeed had improved. But we were approaching the problem with tunnel vision. I assumed because my senior adviser had directed me that way that it was a temperature of pressure problem. So don't get trapped in the anchor of tunnel vision when you're looking for creative solutions as you're trying to solve the customers problem in the next lesson, we're going to talk about so more areas for but tools in the creative stage. So we're going to talk about scamper in particular, and you'll have another exercise for that. I hope you enjoy that exercise so we'll see you in the next lesson. 8. SCAMPER: in the last lesson, we talked about moving from the identify stage of the design thinking model to the solving stage in solving. We want to have as many creative ideas as possible concepts, tests, ideas, perspectives that we can evaluate later, too, find the best solution to our customers problems. Remember, we talked about failing fast and failing, often generating lots of solutions and having limitless boundaries. One of the things that we talked about also was to avoid those anchors of gravity and tunnel vision. So you might be wondering, How on earth do I come up with new ideas If I have to avoid gravity and I have to avoid tunnel vision and I'm supposed to view things from the customer's perspective, we can use a heuristic, which is a fancy word for learning and viewing things from a different perspective. And hands on approach is to come up with some of these different solutions. One way to brainstorm new ideas is to use a tool to guide us through a thought process. One tool is scamper. Each of the initials in the acronym Scamper gives us a way to look at something from a different perspective. asked me and substitute C is for combined. A is for adapt Emmis for modify P is for put to another use in ours. Reverse in your hand out of giving you some ideas of how you might use scamper for looking at new uses for new applications. For a water bottle, you will use scamper to apply to your product. This means looking at it from a lot of different perspectives. It also means looking at alternatives and substitutes for your product and looking at your competitors, products and services and how they might apply different ideas to solving the customer's problem. So in the next lesson will take a look at how we can apply this scamper tool to using a specific example of a product and how you will then take your project and apply scamper to it so that you can find different perspectives and create a list of alternatives that may be better than the competition in solving your customers problems. 9. SCAPMER Example: In the last lesson, we introduced a heuristic with the acronym Scamper that can help us to create alternatives . New ideas, new concepts that might help us to solve customer problems. Scamper stands for again. Substitute combined, adapt, modify. Put to another use, eliminate and reverse so you can just take your product and start applying these different verbs. Spend five or 10 minutes with your team to start generating different alternatives. The example I'm going to use is glad. Prescence seal. I have no association with glad, and I actually had never heard of this product until recently. The product is designed Teoh put a covering over maybe a plate of food or a glass of liquid to keep it from spilling to keep the food fresh. And that's its primary purpose. But we can apply some of the acronyms from Scamper and some of the heuristics to find alternate uses for this particular product. This may give us insight or would give glad insight into alternate uses for their product, maybe new product ideas. Or it could give competitors to glad ideas on how to introduce products that would be more successful in particular target markets than the prescence seal product, so there's a lot of different applications for this. I just chose to use this in addition to the example in your handout, to give you some more ideas on how to apply the scamper tool. So let's talk about adapt as an alternative use for glad prescence seal normally use it to cover a plate of food. Maybe that you're giving to your neighbor. You can also adapt in order to protect food from damage. So my husband one time came home with this giant carton of ice cream. I like to work out and try to maintain a specific fitness level and weight. And so I was really surprised that he brought this giant carton of ice cream home. I knew if we didn't eat it rapidly, it would get freezer burn and wouldn't be a good product anymore. But I didn't want to eat it all at once. I didn't want to get fat, so I adapted the use of glad press and sealed by putting the product right onto the ice cream surface and then putting it back in the freezer. This prevented the freezer burn and we could enjoy the product over a longer period of time . So I adapted the use rather than as a covering for fresh food or covering to prevent spills of liquids to protecting a food in the freezer. I also can use glad prescence seal and put it to another use the P and scamper. I was painting my dining room, but because of my work schedule and travel on business schedule, I was only able to paint for about an hour and night. I also was using a complicated painting scheme with three different colors of paint, so I didn't want tohave toe wash out the paintbrush every night because I knew I would be back again the next night and washing out the paintbrush took part of my time away from painting and then getting the paintbrush reconditioned to start painting. The next night would also take time away, and I had very little time to get this project done. So I used glad press and still, by putting it to another use to protect the paint brush. As you can see in the picture here, I just wrapped the paintbrush in in the glad press and seal, and it was still moist. The next day, and I did not have to retreat it or wash it in order to use that paintbrush the next day, and I finished my project much more of efficiently by using this product in an alternate use. The last story I'm going to tell you is reverse Reverse is a situation in which you can completely turn the product upside down. So the idea of glad prescence seal is to keep liquids in, and I will tell you a little story about myself. I broke my shoulder very severely in a cycling accident and had to have surgery. When I came out of surgery, the nurse said, Oh, you can go home and you can take a shower. No worries. And I said, Well, how on earth can I take a shower? You've got stitches and bandages and surgical tape and all kinds of gauze and padding. How on earth can I take a shower without getting all this wet? And the nurse told me, apply glad prescence seal, and it will keep the liquid out when you're showering. That's a reverse use rather than using glad prescence seal to keep the liquid in. I used glad prescence seal to keep the liquid out so you can use scamper, and I advise you to go ahead and take 5 10 minutes, but not longer than that. And take your project sheet, hand out and just jot down some ideas around your product idea and your product concept or your existing product or service. How can you substitute something different in that product or substitute it for another use ? Or how could your competitors er substitute for your product? How could you combine that product or service with another element to enhance the customers utility of it? Can you adapt in order to use that idea in a different way? How can it be changed and what can be changed? Can you modify it using the letter M and scamper? Can you make it larger? Smaller? Can you change the color or size of it? P Put to another use? Can you find another way that the product can use be used, or can you apply it to a different market segments and then e eliminate or minimize? Can you change the structure of the product so it takes less materials to manufacture? Can you eliminate a competitors product by using your product, especially if you've combined it with another element. And can you simplify the product? Can you minimize the waste that occurs in the use of the product and then reverse Turn it upside down? Use it backwards? Can you entertained different components or like in my situation, instead of using glad prescence sealed to keep liquid in? Can you use it to keep liquid out? In the next lesson, we're going to talk about a couple other tools. We're going to talk about mind mapping and how we could use that as another tool to generate ideas and categories of ideas and concepts as we create solutions to solve those problems of our customers. 10. Mindmaps: in the last left in, we discussed using the heuristic of scamper to come up with some new product ideas. I hope you used five or 10 minutes to generate some creative ideas around your product or service solution. Using the scamper tool, you often Onley want to spend five or 10 minutes because after that time period, we normally as humans, start to screen or ideas. And remember, when we're talking about using the creative solution generation tools in solving customer problems, we want to come up with as many ideas as possible, so we don't want to screen them with those anchors that we talked about of gravity and tunnel vision. We just want to generate a lot of ideas. And then, in the next step of our design thinking model, we will evaluate those ideas for which ones are the most practical or would generate the best interest among our customers as potential solutions to their problems. Another tool that's very useful is mind mapping. Many of you are probably already familiar with mind mapping. You can make different sketches. You can generate different ideas, different levels and try to link ideas together to find categories of products solutions. I've used mind mapping myself to generate new career opportunities to generate ideas for my business. I'm going to share one of those with you today. There are a lot of different mind mapping tools available that you can use with your teams , especially if they are dispersed over tool teams. You can just look those up on the Internet. The main idea behind mind mapping is similar to what you want to do with any creative brainstorming tool that you would use in design thinking you wanna limit the amount of time so that you don't start filtering those ideas against our anchors of gravity and tunnel vision. So spend five or 10 minutes on a mind map as you create different ideas for product or service solutions. And do this normally in a quiet environment. And you might want to do it by yourself and then move to the collaboration stages once you've selected some categories of products solutions with your team. So I asked the question of What should I be doing in my business? And training is what I do in my business. So I started with an idea. What opportunities do I have with training. And so I put that at the center of the page. And then I considered different avenues that I can deliver training. I can deliver training through books, and I do have a book for sale on Amazon Aiken do corporate training, which is a big piece of my business. I can participate in conferences. Aiken do training online like with skill share, and I can offer public face to face courses. So those were different opportunities that came into my mind immediately. When I think about training, I'm probably missing some ideas. So if you have some ideas on how to deliver training, please go ahead and put those in the discussion with the community below. And then I wanted to brand storm specific ideas around these, and I thought of many different ideas. When I do corporate training, for example, Aiken Subcontract, or it can do it direct with a corporation. There are many different conferences where I speak at, for example, the Product Development and Management Association, and I've left a few off here. I talked to American Society of Quality, the Project Management Institute, so I can deliver training at conferences and then I brainstormed a bunch of different courses I could offer in public face to face courses, Um, including change management quality, new product development. Certainly I should be adding design thinking to that map as well. And then, under online training, I thought about some more ways that I can offer certification. Or I can offer continuing education units and professional development. Our training, and then the ones that I've circled certification and direct corporate training were opportunities that were immediate for me. Those were the ones that resonated emotionally. Remember we talked about in a customer journey map. We want to choose solutions that resonate emotionally with our customers, and these were things I could take action on right away. You usually drawing a mind map might want to spend again five or 10 minutes brainstorming around a specific idea and then go out. In this instance, I've gone out three levels. You might want to go out 3 to 5 levels for especially vaccine problems, and then when there are certain ideas that resonate with you that that you highlight like I did with certification and direct training. Those are opportunities you'll bring back to the group within your organization that cross functional team, and you can further design creative solutions around those specific ideas. So, just in example, of using a tool with which you're probably familiar to use mind mapping as a creative solution generation tool in the next lesson, we're going to talk about some more tools that we can use for generating ideas in the creation step of solving or customer problems. So I'll see you then. 11. Create: so earlier. We talked him out limitless boundaries when we're trying to identify different solutions, and there are limitless ways to come up with ideas to solve customer problems and we'll talk about some more. Those in this lesson about create. We've already talked about a couple of ideas using the scamper tool and using a mind map to come up with different ideas to solve customer problems. There are lots of tools available. You can use tools that you're familiar with. If you really want to push the envelope, you can use tools in their new to you, which might generate more creative solutions. And it's a really good idea to combine the tools to generate new insights for solving customer problems. One to like a mind map might create some categories of ideas for solutions, and then you could apply the scamper to, on top of that to look at different substitutes or combinations or modifications of those product categories and concepts ideas in order to come up with even better solutions. So in this lesson, I'm going to talk about a few more tools that you can use for create in different products , solutions and ideas and concepts feel free. Teoh. Add your list of tools to the discussion in the community below, and we'll build on those and we can come up with ideas. And if you need more information on any of these, go ahead and post on in the discussion community and we'll talk about them as we go. So interviews and focus groups are also great ways to understand your customer needs and to generate ideas. You can use interviews directly with customers. You can use interviews with retailers and wholesalers to understand how customers interact with the product and find new solutions to that. Focus groups are also a collaborative tool like design thinking, where you can put a bunch of potential customers, including nonusers, together in a room and identify what's attractive about a product. And what's the disadvantage to that product solution? Some other tools We talked about personas earlier when we talked about defining the customer problem and identifying that in particular, we've talked about some brainstorming methods. Scamper to substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to another use, eliminate or reverse a product or solution. Pedestal is also a tool, a set of acronyms that you can use to look at products, solutions and ideas and concepts that might meet narrow target market needs, as well as fill in opportunities that your competitors are not taking advantage of. Pest ALS stands for political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental as you think through those different aspects of a products development and use, and how customers interact with the product through those different elements that might be able to brainstorm and come up with some new creative solutions for your product or service . In a different situation, brain writing is a tool that I believe personally is more effective than brainstorming. Most people are not really great at just throwing out ideas and shouting them to a facilitator. There are often people that are more introverted or deferred to the loudest voice in the room. Brain writing is a technique that gives you a lot of access to your cross functional team to come up with great ideas to create new solutions for the product or service to solve customer problems. But it allows some quiet thymus well, here's how brain writing works. Everybody in the room is charged with solving a problem. We're coming up with a creative solution And so everybody writes one idea on a piece of paper. After 30 seconds a minute, they pass it to the person on the right. That person can read that idea and then build on it and you passing around maybe three or five times. And then the piece of paper goes back to the original Submit ER, who selects the best idea off that piece of paper. This gives you both the opportunity to have some quiet idea generation time, as well as the collaboration that comes from group interactivity and cross functional roles . Role plane is also a really great way to come up with creative solutions for customer problems. If you do not use the product yourself, you can role play the customer using that product and understand what issues they face. Some other elements of creativity that are along the lines of our customer journey map are using customer journals. Have your customer track their emotions, their interactions, what else they're doing during the course of a day when they interact with your product. In what environment do they interact with your product? What do they wish could be different and you can review those journals to help build your personas as well is to understand those emotional, negative and positive interactions with the product or with situations for which there is not a product. All of those lead to innovative solutions to building customer solutions. You can use your customers to build collages or sort images to get mawr qualitative information and market research about how they feel about a different product solution or different ideas. Just give them a handful of magazines, some scissors at some tape or glue, and let them use their curiosity and different mindsets of design thinking to build a collage that gives information about their problems and potential solutions. Image sorting allows you to qualitatively and quantitatively assessed different solutions so you can give a customer several images of products solutions and allow them to sort and rank them. And that will give you some ideas of what design elements are most important in that product solution. And then, finally, there are some traditional strategic analysis tools that you can apply to creating problems solutions for your customers. A SWAT analysis is a strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis that allows you to look both internally and externally at your competitors, as well as a suite of products solutions that may be available or are coming available due to market trends. The BCG Matrix is a Boston consulting group matrix that allows you to look at the competitiveness of your particular business versus the expected market growth again, this concave you some ideas on opportunities and maybe ideas around which product arenas should not be pursued. And finally, the innovation landscape is a rather new tool that looks at technical competency versus the newness of a business model. Again, these last three tools SWAT analysis the BCG matrix in the innovation landscape are used on a more strategic basis. However, they do give you insight into the market to the technologies and Teoh, finding specific creative solutions for products that your customers may need to address their particular issues in the next lesson will talk real quickly about some more evaluation tools that we can use Once we've generated ideas from any of these methodologies , and then we'll wrap up our lessons on design thinking 12. Evaluate: in the last lesson, we wrapped up with a long list of ideas that we can use for creating alternatives for solving the customer's problem. Remember, our design thinking model is identify the problem and then solve the problem and with in solving the problem, we want to create and generate a long list of alternatives and then evaluate those so that we can choose the best solution for our customers. One methodology we use for evaluation is rapid prototyping, and we'll talk about that in the next lesson. Some other methods that we can use for evaluating different ideas and alternatives for solving the customer's problem are things like concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering means that we're going to take a look at all of the processes and all of the systems involved in developing a new product that is innovative at the beginning and throughout the development of that new product. So concurrent engineering means that we involve a cross functional team. We involve operations. We involve sales and logistics throughout the product solution phase. We can use it to a called design of experiments to evaluate our different solutions. Design of experiments is a scientific methodology that instead of just testing one variable at a time. We contest many different variables at once. It allows us to have much more efficient testing of different products solutions. That's important because back in our creates step, we generated a lot of difference potential solutions to solve that customers problem So we can use a method like design of experiments to test multiple variables at once, and that will help us to identify the most important variables, which we can then go back to that identify stage and make sure that those are the elements that our customers are needing salt to delight and give them satisfaction from a quality perspective. We want to test during the evaluation stage both form and function. Those are very important design principles. Not only does the product have toe work, as we said it would work, which means function, but it also needs to be attractive. And that form is something that is definitely within the designers wheelhouse as far as looking at aesthetically pleasing shapes, sizes and colors, so during the evaluation stage will test both form and function, and then there's a whole bunch of design for excellence elements that we can test for during the evaluation stage. Not only do we need to test that our customer will be pleased with this product, but we also need to ensure that we can actually manufacture that product. And so we need to design for construction if the product requires any kind of maintenance or the service relationship requires maintenance. We also need to design for that maintenance, not on Lee the maintenance of the product or service, but also the maintenance of our manufacturing equipment. We need to think about reliability and sustainability as well. We often call these design for X X standing for excellence. But design can also include not only construction, maintenance, reliability and sustainability, but for the environment, for many different variables. You want to consider all of those at this point in time. Then, as we have wrapped up our model for design, thinking between identifying the solution for different customers and creating those various alternatives and now evaluating them will go back to the stage is to define and discover the problem, make sure that we have defined and discover the correct problems and then move again into our solving and testing phases in the next lesson. We're going to go ahead and wrap up with a summary of design thinking. So thanks for being with me today on this introductory course to design thinking. 13. Rapid Prototyping Tests: welcome back. So in the last lesson, we talked about some different ideas that help us to evaluate the many ideas recreated in the salt stage of design thinking. In this lesson, we're going to talk about three particular rapid prototyping tests that we can use in order to generate numbers and interest around potential new products that will help us to narrow in on what are new products. Solution needs to look like the first method is called a paper prototype. So let's say you want to create a new Web page, and maybe that Web page is to sell products. Maybe that Web pages to sell information. And maybe it's just a Web page. Um, that keeps your personal blawg on it. However, Actually, creating the Web page is time consuming and probably cost money. So you want to minimize all of that effort and just see what it might want to look like so you can sketch that out on a piece of paper. In fact, I did that myself when I first set up my business, global and peace solution several years ago. The I T professional with whom I was working asked me what do you want the Web page to look like? Where do you want different features? The blogged to show up? Where do you want different items for? For references, information to show up, etcetera instead of a paper prototype? I did quickly sketch something out on Power Point and sent it to him. That allowed him to understand what my needs were much better so that his development work went quicker and met my needs, and I was satisfied with that. So the paper prototype can be used really quickly for Web pages. In particular, the second test is called a smoke test and where, as they say, where there's smoke, there's fire. The smoke test is a way to understand if there's interest in the particular product solution you've generated. You may offer the product through a Google ad or some other direct mail advertising and direct people to a particular Web page or to a phone number. That Web page or phone number simply collects data from those potential customers and compares out to the entire market size. If there is enough interest, then you will go ahead and proceed with that particular product solution. But the smoke test does not actually produce a product. It just is a tool that we use to collect information on whether our customers really do like this particular concept that we've marketed. The final tests that we use is called a full market test Boaz in fake. In this particular test, the product, along with its marketing collateral, is presented, say, at a trade show, and customers are exposed to all of the marketing collateral as well as to the product. And again, this test lets us know if customers are interested in this particular product solution and with the marking collateral, we can gather pricing information as well. So this design thinking tool allows us to get a lot of customer feedback in a short time. However, there's no actual sale of the product and there's no exchange of money. So the three tests that we use for rapid prototyping and there are many more. So please feel free to check out the references on the handout or check out my website at Global and Peace Solutions to learn mawr of these prototyping tests. But the three that we want to focus on for design thinking are the paper prototype smoke tests and full market tests. So that concludes our solved step. So remember, our model had just two steps identify and solve in and identify. We wanted to discover and define the problem, and then in solving, we create alternate solutions and then evaluate them using rapid prototyping. We'll take that those one or two top solutions, and then go ahead and take them back to the identify stage to make sure that we've understood what the customer problem waas and whether we've met him with this particular solution. And that's why we show the model is an iterative model. So in the next lesson, we're going to wrap up everything that we've talked about today. Wow, it's been a lot, and we'll go ahead and let you submit your projects as practice activities. And hopefully you've enjoyed design thinking. So stick with me for a few more minutes and we'll wrap up design thinking 14. Conclusion: in this lesson, we're going to summarize all of the stuff that we've talked about for design thinking. Yes, I know it's a lot. We started out talking about the five mindsets of design thinking, which include curiosity, bias, toe action, reframing awareness and collaboration. We define design thinking as a systematic and collaborative creative problem solving method that focuses on customer needs. And then we discussed a quick model that has only two steps. Identify and solve problems that are built into design thinking. And we've discussed a whole bunch of different tools that we can use for design thinking, including a customer journey map, including scamper and pestle, as acronyms for helping us to discover and define customer problems. We've talked about rapid prototyping as a way to evaluate many different alternatives for ideas that we generate during the create stage of design thinking we can use design thinking to help us hone in on the particular problems that customers have so that we can develop quality product and service solutions that meet our customers needs. This allows us to innovate more quickly and put us ahead of the competition because we deliver quality customer satisfaction by using design thinking more over many of the tools that we talked about in design thinking can be used to help you think about the next stage of your career or your life. So the tool of mind mapping, for example, is a great tool to consider what you might want to do in the next stage of your career. I've used it personally myself many times to help come up with ideas of what I should be doing. You can also use the rapid prototyping if you're thinking about, say, opening a restaurant rather than investing the money the time and quitting your day job. You could just start a food truck instead and find out with that rapid experiment whether that meets customer means and it needs your own means as a fender. So I hope that you've enjoyed learning about design thinking. It's a really cool, emerging practice, and I hope that more companies and individuals begin using design thinking tools in their new product development and innovation processes because it delivers quality faster so that we can meet customer satisfaction needs by developing the best new products that meet their needs. And we can beat the competition I hope that you will go ahead and post some of your projects below using the handout that is in the skill share portal. And if you have questions, please feel free to contact me. I'm always passionate to talk about innovation. And I wish you luck in your design thinking journey. Thank you for paying attention during this blessing and good luck.