Descriptive Analytics using Excel | Ash Narayan Sah | Skillshare

Descriptive Analytics using Excel

Ash Narayan Sah

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17 Lessons (2h 20m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Summarizing data by graphical methods

    • 3. Simple and multiple bar graph

    • 4. Simple bar graph in MS Excel demostration

    • 5. Multiple bar graph excel demostration

    • 6. Linegraph

    • 7. Percentage bargraph

    • 8. Subdivided and percentage bar graph

    • 9. Subdivided bar excel demonstration

    • 10. Piechart

    • 11. Pie chart using excel

    • 12. Frequency distribution

    • 13. Scatter Plot

    • 14. Measures of Central Tendency

    • 15. Measures of Dispersion

    • 16. Measures of Shape

    • 17. Numerical Summary using MS Excel


About This Class

In this course, you will learn summarizing data with graphs and by numerical methods. This course covers in detail measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, measures of shape.


1. Introduction: Hello dairy students. Welcome back toe. Second Unit's off the started Steagall analysis In second units, I will be discussing a boat. Descriptive statistics. Let us dig introduction First. Descriptive statistics are descriptive data are facts collected through observation so various phenomena like trending sales boarding behavior off U. S. Citizens on spending behavior off girls, descriptive statistics, men's description off any phenomenon in terms off graph pictures, symbols and mathematical expression. So please, no down this. So it's specially describing phenomena in dumps off graph pictures, symbols and mathematical expressions. Describing data related to economy, business and other areas is the first state in data handling. So please remember this once the data is in hand, the first problem before the study ship is how data should be handled so that meaningful conclusions can be drawn from. It is important to note that this group diverse statistics take all the members off a population into consideration. So please keep this in mind. In this unit, we essentially focus on the user various graphs for presenting information and numerical matters off. Some raising did Okay, thank you. 2. Summarizing data by graphical methods: Hello, dear students. In this lecture, I will be talking about summarising data. Biographical matters. There is a famous saying one picture is worth 1000 words. Summarising data through graphic representation involves use off pictures to report G pieces, so data. So please give this in mind diagram critic on graphic representation. Diagrams and graphs are useful because they throw high a bird's eye view off, then diet data on information presented is easily understood. However, a distinction is therefore, between our diagram and graph, we must know what is the difference between diagram and nigra. The diagram is in really constructed on a plain paper. Diagrams are better suited for publicity, campaign and promotion. So please give this mind what is the meaning off? Dying grab brings the figures in concrete form In constructing a graph, we don't really make use off a graft for representing frequency distribution on time Series grafts are more appropriate than diagrams. Graphs indicate friends and relations. One of the steps you require for constructing a Magnum diagram must be given a suitable title. The title should convey the main idea in a few possible woods that the diagram intends to portray secon estate. He's proper proportion between the width and hide off the diagrams of cementing. A skill should be in even numbers or multiple off fight or the scale of 13579 should be avoided. Footnote should be given at the bottom of the dagger, and it makes off different types. Off lines or sets. Colors should be used, which may help in understanding the meaning off a diagram. Now one of the steves. Now let us discuss matters off constructing a graph. Grafts are drawn on a special type of people. Gold graph. People grafts are drawn on his physical type of people called graphic, which says a network off horizontal and vertical lines the peak lines for east. The reason off a sentimental or an injury measure on the 10 lines off. A small parts are the same in a graph off, and he says, do it strayed. Lines are drawn at right angle to each other. Intersecting at 0.0 was they scored for reasons to line San cord coordinate. Excess horizontal line is called X axis and is denoted by X. Our works on vertical line is called Why Exists On is denoted by Why? What graph is divided in four quadrants. Generally, we use first quadrant unless negative magnitudes to display. So you can see according it plain with four quadrants. Okay. In this graph, OK? A skill along the exists would be choosen that the entire data can be accommodated A in a level of space without probie. Your data are irregular. Used false land. So in this lecture, we discussed summarizing data, biographical matters, and basically, in this election, I tried toe make difference with win, uh, diagram and the graph. And what is the matter? Off Constructing a diagram on Mattered off. Constructing it graph. Okay. Thank you. 3. Simple and multiple bar graph: Hello, dear students, welcome back in this lecture, I will be dealing with simple bar graph. I wanted to prove Biograph. Let us first take simple body Simple bar graph is usedto represent the figures on a single very able. So please keep this in mind. Figure So for our foods off different companies in a particular year, population in various years, Judy v Figure or let's say, sister moreover off a company over the last five years may be represented by Biograph Bar graph has same wit. Please remember this bar graph has same with it, but the length is drawn in proportion to the size off the feed it. So please keep this in mind now table 2.1 So's dividend declared by companies in 2010 for example, dividend sewn in percentages companies is sissy, then dollar India game and now local provided this dividends Okay, No, this information may be represented by by love. Who's provides it visual display off this information. Good on. You can see when we put on a graph how by the draft Looks like OK, so this is how, uh, simple Biograph, uh, looks like Andi figure saws figure 2.2 so that in 2010 Davern India gave highest dividend off 250% to itself from the simple Biograph. Uh, it is also clear that Gail India provided the Louis dividend off 100 push in in 2000. Now how to construct? Ah paragraph on multiple Biograph in Emma's Excel. So let us look it how we can achieve this Microsoft Excel with Chart Wizard can also separate paragraph to construct Biograph in excellent endo level into one collar on data in tow Another color Jews and sent from the main over. Then go for chart from the poor Poneman Select bar from this and follow the instructions. And in 42 steps, Biograph is completed. There are options in excellent senses, including a listen deciding data levels and finally deciding the location off the charts. So how do you construct and ah, simple bar graph using Amos Excell is given a step by step matter. So first word, you know, in a state one open. Excellent on Endor data as soon below Like this. Okay, so this is, uh uh I'm in yearly data on we have dit down Judy P. Okay, so in this example, I have not used dividend data on Evolve companies. Okay, so it is a different set off data Nayan. Sick industry click insert on the do over the screen below will appear so like this. When you click insert, you will get this bar graph. Okay, now, in artistic Or do you do select Gaeta and click collar A son below? Fine. Okay. Click on the first option. Okay, here. So then they screen will appear as son below. So this is how your simple Biograph will look like now after you uh I mean, after getting this battleground the next to Steve, uh, is how toe, you know, give title do your chart how you level your excess. These procedures have already are disgusted while constructing line graph. OK, now in the state, for one I am saying the pro season for leveling the bar chart is same toe that off line graph discussed under Okay, stay five to Estate claimant Following these steps, the paragraph produced in Excel can be something like this. So this is the final the bar graph we have where we have you know, title of the chart. You can see the particle excess on particle X is GBP. Variable is there on on a horizontal axis. We have. Ah, here. That is. Okay, fine. So this is how we can't construct simple Biograph using Emma sexy now coming toe. Multiple paragraph When you want. Compare, you are more independent variables. It is better to construct Dubai a side by side in ST off drawing two separate bar graphs at two different places. So please keep this in mind. Yeah, When you have more than two variables or you want to compare to independent variables, you can have the body of a murdered people. Biograph in one, people Biograph. You are more but are drawn together on a common escape. So please remember this, Okay. Using different states for different cities. Okay. Now, for example, if you want to compare the revenue an explanation off a country each year, you can grow to a bus together to solve the revenue and expedition. You need you. Okay. So I am having one set off data relating to India the following table. So the total exports and Rufus grow on total imports and this crow off India from 4 4005 8 4009 The information in the above table can be suitably represented by using multiple Barbara, where you can compare total exports off India and totally boards off India. Uh, year device. Okay. No, when you float. Uh, these two variables on the multiple biograph the bar graph will look like this on You can immediately make out that total exports and total imports both her rising OK on from 2000 for 2005 to 2008. 2009. Okay, Imports off. India WAAS Always larger than total exports off India. Okay, so from the Evo multiple bar graph, it is clear that total imports off India is always higher than total exports to the rest of what Now, how to construct a multiple via graph using him a sex l. So step one is enter data in excellence it a son below. So, um, year wise, you simply Okay, ender total exports data and total imports state, I assume Bill. Okay, in second step, click insert on the tool, but then they screen will. Okay, so when you click incident, then you will get Okay. This is clean on in artistic select data as soon below. So you have to select your data. Andi. After selecting data, go to a state for a click column A son below. Okay, like this on duh. Click on the first option. Then the screen will appear Asan below. Okay, so when you get the first option, you were eager this picture. So after this, you know, uh, you have tow give Mamie only you have to level. You know your access on You must give a suitable title to your child. Okay, So the processor for leveling the multiple bar chart the same toe that off line, but graph or simple paragraph discussed. Interested. Five to ST Clement on following the steps tomorrow, people Bar grab produced in Emma's Excel. It's one bill. So this is our final body rough. Okay, On the title of the chart is total exports and imports off India during the 1004 502,000. 82,009 On the vertical axis, we have aborts and imports in service group on on a horizontal axis. We have years. So now the multiple but graph is okay. So this is how ah, we can construct a simple bar graph. I'm multiple. Okay. Thank you. 4. Simple bar graph in MS Excel demostration: in this election, I will be most straight. How do you construct Emma's symbol? Biograph using AMS Excel I'm having data on for offered off dolf i d companies in 2015. Now, with the help of the state, I will tell you how to construct a simple bar graph using Emma's Excel. What do you do? You first select your data. Goto insert Take column on you select the first option given here. Okay. When you click this, you will get the simple paragraph After getting this depending on your you know, our preferences you can go for any our design. Okay? Like suppose you like this color. Then you can go from this. I suppose you are looking for purple color that you can do that. I'm comfortable with blue. Okay, so what do you do? First you have tow click on the chat on click Ok, layout looking because, uh, without levelling off excess, your simple bar graph or chart is incomplete. So first I will try to level my horizontal excess. So sorry you go toe exist. Ate him so you can select this one titled below Texas Onda. You know that your nose these are the names off cos so I will write companies. Okay, Flight. So I have got the levels for my heart. Isn't the Lexus Similarly, I've been, uh, looking for my level for my particle excess. So I want the horse central title for my vertical axis. So I will select the third options. Yes. No, you can see this. Uh, this is nothing but a vertical excess owes profit in millions. So I will tie. You're off it in $1,000,000. Okay. Plan? No, finally I am looking for How do, uh give I don't do my ah shot on that. We can way I'm in. What is this chart? Basically portraying or displaying what information it is displaying. So if I based this chart like this and it's not going toe, you know, help me. So I want a title for my shot. Onda. Simply what do you know? You more deflate and this is proffered off. Don't us. I d companies can do the hoser 50. Okay, so you can also send last year graph like this. So now you're simple bar graph is ready. In this lecture, I demonstrated how to construct simple barter. Grab using Emma six. Thank you. 5. Multiple bar graph excel demostration: Hello, dear Students are in this election. I will be demonstrating. How do construct multiple bar graph in Hamasexiled? Suppose I am having en will later on total exports and total imports. Two variables are there on I want to bloat. Are this information graphically then in excel? How can I construct a multiple biograph first for you? Select your data like this. Go to and so and click Call him and select the first option. Okay, so, uh, this is your valuable paragraph on as I discussed earlier. Depending on your preferences, you can go for different sets are different colors. Okay, Like this, I will prefer this one. Okay, so this is your multiple paragraph blue bar SOS. Total exports in reverse. Crow on brown bar sauce. Total imports. Now, After this, I require a leveling off my access. So what do you do? Click on this and go toe Leo on click here. Excess staters. So, first letters level horizontal. Lexus. Um, life here? Yes. Okay. Some literally, uh, now we want to level. But Alexis, So go here on select this one. Fire on D practical excess. This is exports. Andi imports okay. And little beads. good old book. No. Uh, only one thing is left. That is the title off the charts. And for this, what we will do? Click that. I think the okay on. Let us have it. He is. Okay, shut data. Uh, let us go for a vulture. Hi. This option is but no. Let us give title to a friend off exports, um, and ports in India? No, Uh, the title seems to be appropriate, since data deals with exports on will exports them and will imports from 16,005 to 2008. 2009. Now, uh, my multiple Biograph is ready. Onda. It is clear from the Barbara that boat total exports and total imports in creasing over the years. Okay. In this lecture, I demonstrated how to construct multiple Biograph using a mess. Excel. Okay. Thank you. 6. Linegraph: Hello, dear Instruments, welcome back In this lecture I will be discussing about what is line graph and how to construct Landgraf in M a six line graph is usedto present day, but England very able visited various points over day. It is drawn by connecting lines between two data points. A line graph is very useful in highlighting trains in a variable over time, so please no don't this, uh, wind Monthly rupee Dollar X sensor data from January 1993 2 December 2005 years soon in figure go find one is an example off line graph This data said condense 156 observations on it is difficult for the reader to comprehend anything, anything meaningful Observing. Roddick Hollywood A reader can easily grasp man. Could men corrective sticks off on its staying over the years? Looking at the language as I wouldn't from figure 2.1. The rupee dollar X, censored before 1997 appears to be hovering around rupees $34. However, Rupert Dollar X censored souls a rising trend after 1997 and raise toe almost roof is 48 per dollar. During 2002 the line graphs was a little that line in X sensory. Afterwards, the central train in the line in a very able over time can be easily captured by a line graph. Now, how do construct a line graph using Emma six. So what? You have data? First word you do infested state open excell seat and enter data as soon below. Okay, so in the 1st 2 state first to you, open your excellence it and enter your data in next to stay Glick insect on the toolbar they screen below Will of you in part ist it. Select data on click line as soon below. Okay, so it is given here. Okay, if you click on the first option the screen below, in here. So if you select the 1st 1 that he will get this field, you know, still file food culture on the figure and click chattels will appear evoked the tool, but after this quickly out, you will find options like excess stated shut tighter. Except for leveling. XX is click exist tighter and slipped. Primary horizontal access title from broke. When you click Primary horizontal axis title, another drop menu will appear. Okay, click title below excess it box will appear below X axis like this It is soniya Write the name off variable in the box s son Bill for leveling Why exists? Click Xa stated and select primary particle X estatal from the dog Druckman When you click a primary vertical excess title another drop Manu will appear Click either of article title or horizontal title It Boxley appeared on way exists. Okay, so write the name off the variable in the books in Dentist it If you want to put Shark title than clicks That title it dropped. Many will appear next slipped either center, overstated title or ever after. Okay, on the right. The shark title in the box. Okay, like this. So with this, your Lang graph is now the rig. Okay, So this is how you can construct line shot our line graph in Emma Sex 7. Percentage bargraph: holiday straits. Welcome back In last lecture, I demonstrated how to construct subdivided bartella. In this election, I will tell you how to construct percenters bar graph the difference between subdivided bar graph and for Cindy's Biograph. He starred that in sub 200 Violent. We find Sayer off each component in daughter in terms off absolute value. Howard in person disbar grab we find for synthesis here in total, in terms of percent. Distance on that is the, you know, advantages off for Cindy's paragraph in comfort is in two sub divided paragraph. So here we have one data and will later on a total received off the common Andi, Uh, that is total have a total received off a government Is wife marketed in tow Three. That is text revenue, non text revenue and capitalism's no. First, what do you do? You select this data. Okay. Goto incident, then Goto column. Andi here. You can see there are three options. Now you select this one. Okay. Uh, 3rd 1 on that will give you percent this part. So when you click this, you will get percenters about No. Now you can see that the hide off the each bar is 100% on. You can see that in 2007. 2008 the come set off for synthesis here off. Excellent avenue. Okay, X 11 you in total government Recip Waas Ah, 61%. Okay. Andi s. Oh, this is how you can Onda. You can see that I think if you deduct I think from 77 or 78 61 then you will get the percent acero Non tax revenue. Ok, on the wrist is a sailor off capital research. So this is how you can construct percenters bar graph universe Excel on the rest of the things like labeling off access Onda giving title to your chart. Okay, I have a little demonstrated in Not Leah election. Now you can What? You can do it. Click on the bar quickly out on bond. Go for levelling. You know you're fine then. Good to but it's see it off off. Fine, tight. So Cissel come in. So now the percentages Barbara is complete. Okay. Thank you 8. Subdivided and percentage bar graph: Hello, dear Students are in this election. I will be demonstrating. How do construct multiple bar graph in Hamasexiled? Suppose I am having en will later on total exports and total imports. Two variables are there on I want to bloat. Are this information graphically then in excel? How can I construct a multiple biograph first for you? Select your data like this. Go to and so and click Call him and select the first option. Okay, so, uh, this is your valuable paragraph on as I discussed earlier. Depending on your preferences, you can go for different sets are different colors. Okay, Like this, I will prefer this one. Okay, so this is your multiple paragraph blue bar SOS. Total exports in reverse. Crow on brown bar sauce. Total imports. Now, After this, I require a leveling off my access. So what do you do? Click on this and go toe Leo on click here. Excess staters. So, first letters level horizontal. Lexus. Um, life here? Yes. Okay. Some literally, uh, now we want to level. But Alexis, So go here on select this one. Fire on D practical excess. This is exports. Andi imports okay. And little beads. good old book. No. Uh, only one thing is left. That is the title off the charts. And for this, what we will do? Click that. I think the okay on. Let us have it. He is. Okay, shut data. Uh, let us go for a vulture. Hi, this option is but no. Let us give title to a friend off exports, um, and ports in India? No, Uh, the title seems to be appropriate since data deals with exports on will exports them and will imports from 16,005 to 2008. 2009. Now, uh, my multiple Biograph is ready. Onda. It is clear from the Barbara that boat total exports and total imports in creasing over the years. Okay, In this lecture I demonstrated how to construct multiple Biograph using a mess Excel. Okay. Thank you. Hello, dear Students, welcome back in the selection, I will be discussing about subdivided photograph on person is a battleground. Subdivided are component bar graph is usedto prison various parts off the truth. So please remember some divided or component bar graph eyes usedto ah represent various parts of the total In this diagram, the total magnitude is divided into different parts or components. So please remember the total magnet. You is divided in two different parts off components. The processor for constructing a subdivided bar graph is that first we construct simple but for East class dicking Jordan in that class. Next we divide this simple bus indu parts in the race you off various components. So some divided by graph is also known as component Biograph. Now a little steak. One example. The table below So sector vice capital formation off household sector, private sector and public sector in India from two toes and 45 uh, 8 4009 The appropriate bar diagram to represent the contribution off. One sector in total Capital formation in India is obviously sewn by subdivided Biograph or component paragraph. Okay, so this is, uh, household sector contribution. This is private sector contribution, and this is public sentiment on this is daughter. Okay, so now you can see this is how, uh a some divided biograph are component. Biograph looks like. Okay, now how toe construct the this component Biograph in M s XO. So the processor is in for assistive. You enter data open any Emma's excel. Sit on Endor data first like this. Okay, household signal, private sector and public sector data like this. Then click and set on the toolbar menu on. Then the following screen will appear. Okay, Now select the data is son below. So select the data on then, uh, mix cake column as soon here. Onda finally, what do you do? Click on the second up. Some under, uh, two dimensional column. Okay. And they screen we appear s on. Okay, so if you do that, then the sub divided or component bar graph clean The, uh, constructed by off given by your Emma six and then, uh, the processor for living the subdivided paragraph Onda Marty Pilbara. It is like, you know, simple bar graph and multiple battleground is so so that off line graph Discuss Turner is 252 Step level for lying. This a step this up divider Paragraph produced. Excellent. We finally look like this. So this is subdivided or component. But enough. We have another type of bar around that is scored percenters. Biograph. Okay, now, when some 200 biograph is drawn on a personal basis, get so please remember when subdivided. Biograph is thrown on percentage basis. It is stunned as person days Bar graph. Okay, the main idea behind this is comparison on related business. OK, so why we But she tell you Go for you know, percenters bar diagram. So it will help you, you know, in better comparision. Okay, so do draw the person. Does Biograph Okay, The total off each bar escaped equal 200. Okay, so please keep this in my and it's of the East subdivision is card in the percentages off their component in the aggregate. So please remember this in this. The total off each bar escape vehicle 200 is subdivision. Is Kurt in the percentages off their component in the agree. Okay. Now, in this bar, the graph, all bars are off equal height and components. So the percent days visually and helping comparision very easily. Okay, So please keep this in mind. Now, look here. A little look at the illustration. Okay. The table. So so is measure components off. Central government recip strong 7 2008 to 2010. Left on. Uh, the question is how to construct bar. Okay. Uh, percenters. Biograph. Okay, Now The first thing is, uh we have to do some calculations. Okay? Like this. Onda, if you want to do it, the table below gives necessary competition for constructing. But since his body graph OK, so this is your text revenue. OK, Onda non text revenue capitalist seps and daughter on This is how percenters off picks Revenue in total is 61.6 exception and person is ah sail off Nordex revenue is 14 point 36 passion Andi capitalists. It is 23.97 and totally 600. So similarly, for 2008 and 2009 sailor off X revenue is 50.15% and 10.97 Onda Cero off capitalists tips in total is, you know, 38.8% so similarly you can do some simple calculations and can get at the cumulative devious humility percent days is six first one is not out 61.6 it the next the 77 76.4 you can obtain simply by adding 14% in this okay in 61 points. So when you add 61.6 said in a 68 to 14 point 3 60 wickets. 76.4 on when you add 23.97 to 76.4 You finally read it. 100. So this is how you can arrive it cumulative. What? Sindhis. Okay, Andi, when you blew this, finally, you will get this. Okay, did on this type of data is called? No, But since this paragraph on now, you can easily see that blue, uh, body, you know, days represents sail off X revenue or percent. Astaire off picks revenue in total triceps. So you can say this is a 61%. This is 14% on this is 21 passion. Okay, Onda, the height off the bar graph is, you know, east of autograph. Okay, Is 100 pushing? So that is why it is cumulated percent this point. So how can you have about sentence paragraph in? I'm a sexy. So this is how you can do and er open, excel and enter data. Okay. Like this. Okay, so you have X revenue, recip, non text revenue and capitalism. Okay, fine. Now what do you look, click and sit on the stool, but, uh, why constructing. Ah, you know Oh, percent this paragraph Enormous. Except there is no need to do, you know, manual calculations acceptable at a medically fine note. You know, percentages and cumulative percentages. That is the You know, this part off. You know, disseminating grabs an excel. The processor is same. You select the data. Okay? Like this on Duh. Uh, then you go for third option here. Okay, this one This this is called component battle. And when you, you know, select the turnoffs and the new e get this. But OK, this is how you can on after getting this percentage of paragraph the rest of the thing on now you must be aware off how to level, you know, X axis. Why excess on giving title to your appropriate title to your charge. Ok, so this is how you can get struck. Uh, subdivided. And what's in this paragraph In a sexy in this election, I discussed subdivided bar graph percent is bad. A graph and their construction in Emma's. Except in next election, I will demonstrate how to construct subdivided paragraph on a person's body using I'm a six . Ok, thank you. 9. Subdivided bar excel demonstration: holiday restaurants. In this lecture, I will be the most rooting. How do construct subdivided photograph in am a sex I'm having. And we'll data on capital formation from T's three sources that is household sector, private sector on public sector. Actually Dobbs, if Davis toe, find out what is the sear off household sector in total capital Permission on sear off private sector in total capital formation and sir off public sector in total capital. Information on to know that I think the appropriate bar graph is subdivided paragraph that we so set off each a component in total So how to construct the component are subdivided simply You slept this data like this instead go to insect big color on here. We have three options Select the 2nd 1 So, uh, this is the photograph we have got Andi from this You can easily make out that the sail off household sector on private sector are greater than okay but executive thisted type of graphics card some 200 paragraph or confident about it now. Uh, we know that after this, after getting the paragraph, the processor is to level your access horizontal x, x axis and particle why access and then gave title to your child. So click on the graph on click layout Onda Here we You Onda here we have capital formation. Onda Sure, you poor tear capital. No, my subdivided eight bar graph is complete on you can see the sear off each component. You know, in total capital permission in India. Okay. Thank you. 10. Piechart: Hello, dear. Students will come back in this lecture. I will be discussing about, if frequently used diagram called Fired. I don't are simply picture If I Chart is a circular chat, which is divided into various segments, gave, uh, an idea vote percent eases or the related Sears off parts to a hood. So please remember this. If I chart provides, say, quick visual idea off the related magnitudes off a part to a whole okay, by charts are frequently used when the objective is to compare a part off a group with the whole group. So please keep this in mind when the objective is to compare a part off a group with the whole group, then fine chart is the appropriate shot one can use if I teacher to so market Sears. For various airline companies in India or different types of toys sold by a store are for similar purposes, you can use fighter. However, a pie chart is not good picnic for sewing increases or decrease or direct relationship between two variables. Okay, so please remember, it is not a good idea to use fight chart for swing growth rate. Our relationship between two variables We will explain the construction off a fight shot with help. Often. Example. Okay, consider the high hypothetical and we'll advertising expenditure or various companies given in the following table. So he is stable one. So these are the various companies. Andi deserve the advertising expenditure off these companies given in a particular here. So given this data, how can you construct a pie chart manually? OK, now, the first step in the construction off my job is to deter mined the proportion off the sub union. Would that be? This can be accomplished by dividing eats of unit battle. Okay, so please remember this fine. The next step is to multiply each proportion by 3 60 for off taming number off degrees to represent each item. Because the circle contains this fighter is nothing but a circle contends 360 degree. For example, dark dia spends Ah, but if it's 600 lugs represent 0.2 proportion off the total advertising spending. When this were Louise multiplied by 3 60 degree, it resulted in tow. 72 degree and start expenses will account for 72 degree off the circle. Do draw other slices off the fighter it come, Bus can be used. Okay, So this is how you can manually draw If I okay, now, uh, how we can draw if I shot using Emma six. So the following data Saudi that. Okay, they will do SOS sectoral locations off financial resources off India during dental plan. So this data relates to sectoral locations or financial resources off India during death plan. So these are the various amounts given in this table. Now we will create pie chart using excellent off the fastest ive is open. Excellent on Endor data as soon below compute the percent this year off its So please remember, uh, this you can do using some family in exile compute the percent this year off each sector by dividing piece of unit by total next to off 10% is simply multiplied by hundreds column. See, in this, uh, uh, sale, I have no doubt it is directly given not in column C, because I have removed other columns. So column B gives person. He said in each sector in total. So the sailor off education in total Ah, plan out. Lee is on Lee seven points 67 passion. Similarly, in er ze constitute 5.85% and total priority landing. Our total priority sector constitute 55. Find one Russian. Okay, in total plan out. Lee. So this is how you can get percent. They set off each sector. Okay, Now in second. This too, Clegg. And sit on the toolbar. Okay, Onda, you select by China like this. This is done in second artistic. Okay, so there are so first you select data and then go to insect goto by Chuck and silly. The first options are depending on your, you know, preference. You can go for second option. Also tired option also. Okay. All you can also go for not really by chance. Now, if you click the first option, the screen will look like this. So we have guard the paycheck. Okay. Now our fight chart looks like this on. Duh. Uh, let us, uh, the front Susan for leveling the bar chart is same toe that off line graph discussed under state 5 to 11 on following those Just if the bar graph produced in Excel looks like this. So this is how you can construct Ah, fight shark in the I am a six. Okay, So, uh, in this lecture, we discussed the concept off by chart on its construct son, uh, in Emma's, except step by step manner in X election. I will. Using some other data. I will. They must read. How do? Constructed by check using. I'm a six. OK, thank you. 11. Pie chart using excel: Hello, dearest prints. Welcome back in this lecture, I will demonstrate how to construct If I shot in Emma Sexy. Some of this data is given to us. This have the various plan outlier on various items. Okay, Onda supposed this data are given like this. Then first, suppose I want toe so percent the sail off each component in total plan Oatley Then first I have to find out what's Cindy's said. Okay, Onda, suppose person, this is not given. Then how can you find out that? So where do you go first? You Some days, you know all expend Asian by using this formula, Okay? Used this formula some on then you simply on. Okay, close the bracket. And now you can see the sun is given. Uh, here on this is the total amount or total out. Lee uh, in dental plan now I want to find the percentage off education in total. Okay. Similarly, I want to find out for Sunday's Arciero off social justice in total plan. Huntley. So for this, this is my total. Okay, Onda, Uh, little sweet by some color. Let's say this is do the loudly. Okay, Now I want to find person this year. Okay, but send it. I see it on. I will use one formula for this on it is given by Okay, simply type be to be to by total that it's 12 six to one. It was okay. Delight. Okay, closed the practice. And since I want this sale in percentages, I will multiply it. This expression by hundreds. Okay, find end. Don't know. So you can see a SER off education. In total plan outlay is poor point pipers. Bring your cursory A and simply. Okay, So this is how you can calculate percent is safe? No, no, I won't to construct a fighter. So what I will do? I will insert one column. Okay. On let the spring. Oh, Saudi. Um, they may bring this information. He cool. You use, uh, based values. Okay, Onda, uh, let us use Know what you do? You select the data like this? Um, Goodwin said then big place. And when you click this one, you will care Fight shot like this. So this is of my bite shot, Onda. Uh similarly Suppose I want you can use any color depending on you, you know, reference You can use this. Okay, but I will prefer this one. Onda. Uh, click here on DSA pose. You want to give title to your picture? The new click here. Right. See it off. Bay Deace items in Dan Blanc off India Book. Now sometimes, you know, we are interested in giving you no title levels toe our child. Then what do you do? Uh, click on the shot and go to here. Andi symbols. I want level outside the circle. Then you click this one on You will have like this. Okay, so from this, you can make out that 35.53% days is the sear off Total priority sector intent Plan off India, sear off energy sector. He's three point, you know, 74 passion like this. So this is how you can construct your pie chart in Emma sex. Okay, now what do you get do sometimes, depending on the requirement, you can have some other kind of charts also supports. I want Oh, instead of fighter. I'm looking for a circular set. Then I can go for this also on. But this is also one kind off biter similar to fighter. Okay, Circular kind of So, uh, it doesn't bring this here, Onda. Similarly, you can give title to this shot on. Duh. Like this on. You can also keep labeled. Okay. Like this. Okay, so this is also looking good. Okay. Nowadays, most opt reports or magazine articles. You know, uh, in general, have this kind off circular chat. Okay, this also source, you know what's in this Here it is another type off by chance. Okay. So, depending on your requirement, you can go forward. You know these types off chart to embrace your report. Okay, so in this lecture, we learn how to construct a pie chart in Emma Sexy. OK, thank holiday restaurants. Welcome back in this lecture I will demonstrate how to, uh, compute a measures of central tendency Measures of dispersion on measures off safe in one book. Okay, uh, I'm having data and we'll sell sun over data off PCs. Okay. From 2000 for 2005 to 14 4015. Suppose the objectivist toe summarize cell storm our data numerically then. So in Emma's excell, there is a facility okay, By which you can summarize. And now what do you do first week you click data over to the journalist Sis. A big data analysis. When you click that data analysts issue will get one dialogue box. You select the descriptive statistics from dollar box and click. Ok, Okay, fine. No, What do you do? You select. You know, since stuff over data Okay, in import excellence. Onda, check this box. Since we have a name of variable given in first rule. Okay, then what do you do? You check this box. Somebody is statistics. Okay. After selecting some restricted sticks by default Acceptable provided you result in another Newark sit Are Suppose you want to have your result in current working city, Then check this books on gets specified where you want you out. I want my output in FC. Okay, So simply die Dollar if one Okay on. Now you pick. OK, 12. Frequency distribution: Welcome back in this lecture, I will be discussing about frequency distribution. Frequency distribution is a useful tool to summarize data in the form off class intervals and frequencies. For example, Mr David teaches businesses statistics paper in stand for diversity. The following devil gives final marks, often by students. Mr. David wants to develop some charts and grabs. So saw the every smart off timber students what are the highest and lowest marks? So this is the, you know, problem before Dave in the A wolf demon, individual marks are listed. Such unorganized data is called raw data or ungh. Rooted. No useful information can be easily comprehensible, even after careful examination off cystic. So please don't on this this raw data, this raw data can provide better insights. We've organized into a frequency distribution. Now, please remember one thing here. Frequency distribution bills with one sample. Okay, so please keep this in mind now. Frequency distribution. What is frequency distribution? Frequency distribution is a table where data against by glass interval along with class frequency. So please keep this in mind. This is the definition or meaning off frequency distribution. According Toa Morris. Humble if frequency distribution or friggin see table is simply a table in with the data grouped into classes and number off cases which fall in its class are recorded. Okay, these numbers in this class are referred ways frequencies. So please, ah, keep thes definition in mind. Given by Mori's, we will describe construction off frequency distribution with the help off on example. Okay. Constructive frequency distribution. Okay. We should first did remind the range of the data. So please remember the pro Caesar off constructing frequency distribution. So first, what you have to do you have to deter mean the range off the data. The range of the data can be computed as the difference between the iest on lowest Marx. In this case. Okay. For the over jumble, the range is 90 minus 41. Who's this coming? 49. So please keep this in mind. The range is 49. No. Next stay bees determine the number off classes. How did it remind the number off class interval? A useful rule in this context is the A to good A power Khairul. We suggest that select the smallest number that is key for the number off glasses such as that do to the power exceed the total number of observation. Okay, Uh, now, uh, in their world example, there are 64 marks or 64 individual month. So n is 64. If we dig, give five which men's glasses should be used. But due to the power five is only 32 which is less than the total number. Observation. I may Norden good. Every observation if we did Gable to six, then due to the power six equal to 64 which include every item. So the recommended number off class interval is six in this case. Okay, fine. So now, after deciding the number off classes, we must remain the width off the class interval. So please remember these. The 30 state is the two men. Well, it off the classic triples engine. It is computed by dividing the range by the number off classes. So please give this in mind. Uh, your glass weird is determined by okay. The number off kisses in this example, the class interval is coming 49 by six. That is 8.16 Generally, the number is around er up to the next number, which is in this case is coming night. However, in this case, we will keep 10 as the class with the frequency distribution must begin at the number equal toe or lower than the lowest number on ended. A number equal or equals toe are greater than the highest number in the data set. So please keep this in mind, Okay? Since the lowest number in our data set is 41 and the highest number is 90 the frequency distribution in our case, it starts with four p and end with 90. Okay, The frequency. Sorry. Four line table. They will do so. The frequency distribution for our data. Okay, so now you can say first class Interval is 40 to 50. 50 to 60. A 60 to 70 70 to 80 and 80 to 90 and got us. Warning frequencies are given here in glass interval. 40 50. There are two individual marks. Okay. In class in trouble. 50 and 60. There were, you know, seven instruments in 60 and 70. There were 15 Astrid's. Okay. Similarly, you know, we, uh, you have 23 frequency for 23 marks in class in terrible 70 80 and finally serve ending in, uh, 80 and 90 glasses Now related. The concept is called related. Frequency related frequency can be calculated by dividing individual class frequency by total frequency. So please keep this that related frequents. When we multiply related frequency with 100 it can be interpreted in terms of percentage. Thus 35% of students, uh, have got marks a bit with 70 and 80. Okay, 26 person historians guard marks between 80 and 90 and only 3% history in God's marks between 40 and 50. So I think the for moments off the glass seems to be, you know, very good because, you know, below 60 Onley 13%. Okay, lets students God marks eso 80%. I think 87 person estrogen's have got months more than 60%. Okay, our first division marks. So this is how a frequency distribution can be interpreted on, Do you know, for some, it can provide you insights. Okay, So in this lecture we discussed what is frequency distribution on how frequency distribution can be constructed on how you know a frequency distribution OK can be proved it on. What is the meaning off related frequency on how to interpret related pregnancy or humility related treatments. Okay. Thank you. 13. Scatter Plot: Hello, dear. Restaurants will come back in this election. I will be discussing about scattered float it graph which is used for sewing relations in between variables. Okay, sometimes we are interested to find Mr Off relationship between two or more very evidence so that one they re able or phenomenon can be used toe predict the movement off. Other very able, for example, are changes in interest rates related with profitability. Off Corporates are changes in foreign institutional investors. Activity associated with movement off BSE. Sensex. Okay, our subliminally, uh, when you float the money supply on inflation, OK, on a scatter upload, you can see they're both the variable are somewhat, uh, rising. Okay, Are there moving in the same direction? Okay, so such very Abel's between such a relation subside. Such a relationship between two variables can be soon graphically by a scatter plot. So please no don't are scattered Float gives a quick idea about the relations between money supply and inflation over the years as soon and figure one a careful inspection off This figure gives some indication that money supply on inflation are somewhat or somehow related . The relationship between these two very able uh seems to be okay. So from this figure, you can make out from Peter one. We cannot say precisely the degree off association. So this is one off the limitation office. Scattered blue. Scattered floor gives the direction off relationship between two variables. If two variables move in unison over time, there will be positive relations between there. However, when two variables move in opposite direction. Okay, so please, no dumb. We will have negative association between two variables. What important respect to be kept in mind is that relationships are only lettuces and may not hold necessarily for every Okay, So this is the concept off. You know, a scattered float on a scatter floor. Eyes usedto establish relationship between two or more variables. Graphically. Now, how do you construct a scattered bloat using Emma sexy? OK, so, um, let me take you do the first to stick. You know, I'm having data on in this excess it. Data on stock prices off. Satyam Computers on imposes. Okay, Andi, since about the companies are from I D sectors, we are respecting some relations between, you know, stock price off Satyam Computer and enforces. Okay, because if the whole industry is doing well then we are expecting that a stock price off both the company's move in same direction. OK, so to find the relations of between price movement off imposes on Satyam Computer's listed on BSE or Bombay stock oxen, we can construct a scattered float to construct the scattered float in Excel. First under data as soon will. Okay like this, then, uh, Goto instead, our click insert on the tool that the screen below will appear. Okay, Andi in Tartus tip and select Scatter. Okay, select. Scatter Assad below on. If you click on the first option, the screen will are you will generate this paragraph. Okay, Sorry. My rap. I'm saying scattered proof. Okay, so from this, you can see that prices off Satyam Computer Andi in forces are moving in Simulation on this observation is a outlier observation. OK, the procedure for after getting the graph the processor for leveling this scatter upload he same toe. That off line graph discussed another state 5 to 11 on following these Those steps the scatter produced in excel Finally we look like this. Okay, so now you're a scattered float is really on the you can uh, report this. Ah, scattered float in. Any boats are in any project work. OK, so in this lecture with discussed, what is scattered float on? Duh. How to establish relationship between any two variables are more than two variables. Okay, on how to construct a scatter plot using a section. Okay, take 14. Measures of Central Tendency: Hello, dear restaurants. Welcome back in this lecture, I will be discussing about a measure. Soft central pregnancy. Uh, Mrs Off Central tendency. Tell you where the medieval Ooh off the data. See lives the most common measures off central tendency. Mean median. And the mode Let us discuss a tragic, mean median and more One by one. That it's medic mean is what most lemon goal and every is mean is computed by adding all the observation in Adidas it on dividing the resulting some by the total number off observation. So ah, arithmetic mean are what is we call every are the same thing on arithmetic. Mean is computed by adding all observations. Okay, on divided by number off observations. So, uh, you can see the formula is given here, expert is every is our arithmetic mean on numerator? Summation X represents some off. All observations on end is total number off observation. The mean is usedto represent the entire data by a single number. Though it said you presented to figure in most of the cases but can mislead in cases where extreme values are presenting data set so out liars or extreme value okay, is you know, in Flint's every is a newly on. It is one of the limitation off 20 May. Okay, so now let us look at the salt. Example off at 20 men here, there are 10 students in a class on their individual. Marks are given like this. Okay, Rule number one has 56 months. Remember to 78 months okay, in same subject. Okay, in a statistics paper. So how to find the every sport? Moments off the class are worthy. Score every our arithmetic me. So simply, the processor is you simply add all these observations. Okay, so the some off all observation is coming. 667 on there are a total 10 number off his students. So your arithmetic mean is coming? 66 wine seven. Does the every performance off the class is 67.7%. Okay, so this is how we can find arithmetic. Mean? I said that arithmetic mean gates unduly affected by outliers or what is called extreme values. So do a word that we have another missile. That discord median Okay, on. And the median is another frequently used measure of central pregnancy. I'm in where the sectoral value. Our central figure is lying. OK, which is the middle Velux in Data said when it is arrest, either in ascending or descending order. Now, when the number of observations are or the middle value is the media in case off even number observation. So please remember when the number of observation okay in a Siri's is our okay, then the middle value is the 1,000,000 value, our 1,000,000. Okay. However, in case off, even number off the relations. So please remember this when you have even number. Okay, there is no signal. So in such case, the 1,000,000 is computed as they have resolved to middle officer vacations. So please, no down this. So in case off, even number off the relation Okay. Ah, 1,000,000 is computed as the ivory's off to middle observation. Now we are having some salt example for you. Okay. Compute For example. In this series, compute the median off the following sales data off EVC company. Okay, so, uh, now you see first operations a kind of derision. Hard observation. Fourth observation 50 Observation six have their relation. 17. So we have a seven observation. That means we have our number observation. So What is the processor off? Computing median. Okay, So first, what do you do? You ascend the sales either in ascending order or in descending order. Okay, Once you have a rinse data in either ascending order or descending order, then second stage is since the number of observation is are the middle value is the median . Does the median sales off every C company in this case is 400 80. Okay, so the middle value Okay, is the median. Okay, Now, let let's see. Okay, We have another example where the number observations are even. Okay, so look here, Computer, The median for the falling. Now you can see, uh, 12345678 So we have eight observation. Okay, A meaning. We have even number observation. Now, in this case, there is no, you know, single. Well, okay, So the procedure is first. You are in the daytime, in ascending order like this. Okay on. Then we have to find, you know, the every Zoff. Okay, Money value. Since the number of observation is even, we have to find out two middle values in there instead. Asset here, 66 68 are two middle values. The 1,000,000 is the every Zoff these two middle values on. In this case, it is coming 67. So this is how you can find, you know, a median off it cities. Okay, this is another measure off Central tendency. Now, more is defined as the value. Okay, Morty is another miserable for central tendency. On it is defined as the value that most often occurs with, Ah, highest your frequency and Adidas it. For example, consider the simple off marks off five students in the class given below. We have 45 60 to 58 60 to 76 in their robes. Example, the only figure occurs twice his 62. Okay, As this figure occurs with a frequency off to it has the highest frequency. This mortal Marthe off the class is 62. Sometimes highest frequency occur set toward more values. In this case, you know, more than one more can exist when the data have exactly two more words Discord by model. Later on, if there are more than two Moore's for a data set it Discord. Multimodal data. Ok, now, in this lecture we discussed three measures of central tendency. Uh, basically, we are discussing numerical matters off summarising data. So in summarising data, first will try to find out where is the middle value or representative figure is lying. Okay, Andi, there are basically three measures of central tendency. Mean 1,000,000 more. Okay, in case off, you know, normal later. Okay. Mean median more. All are equal. Okay. However, if data is not normally distributed than mean median more may be different on gifts off, you know? I mean, in case off skewed data, villian is the best measure off central tendency Because 1,000,000 lies between you know, mean and more. Okay, Thank you. 15. Measures of Dispersion: Hello, dear. So dense. Welcome back in this lecture I will be discussing Nable about measures off central measures off this person side. After discussing measures off sandaled in Nancy, whose stances where is the central value is lying? We will try to find the extent of deviation. Okay, from the meanwhile In fact, this is done by, you know, dispersion measures. So measures of dispersion give the extent of deviation from its mean measures off. Central penance is this is the mean our median Onley provides the location off middle value , but it does not deal anything about this period off did. Okay, so please keep this in mind. The significance of dispersion lies in the fact that that is small blue for a measure of discussion. So that data are clustered Blosil either the mean off the data is representing on. Therefore it is a level. Okay, so please give this in mind. However, a large value for him measure of dispersion so that data are scattered on in this case, mean is not the representative figure, and therefore it is not relying. The various measures of dispersion are the range inter quartile range men, aviation and a standard deviation. We will discuss these measures off dispersion one by one. Okay, Now we start with the simplest measure. Off dispersion is the range. Now the range is the simplest middle of dispersion on it is defined as the difference between the highest. Well Oh, and the lowest. Okay, so you get no down this formula range is equal to highest with blue minus lowest. Well, let us look at one example. A sample off six mbia graze words from I'm indoor. We will. There is starting package and rupees lacks compute the village. So for relax and we'll backers 21 lakh 12 black, 36 lack 25 black and it lasts. So the range is given by the following, uh, parabola that is range equal to highest value, minus low as well. So I s value is 36 in this case on lowest value is you know, eight in this case on does the range is rupees 20. It lacks Then use it. Good measure of dispersion when the data said so. This stable battle. However, the biggest limitation is that it is based on on Lee to observation that is the highest and lowest wells off the data set. All observations are not taken into consideration. Okay, in finding, you know, arrange. So that is the limitation off. Arrange. So we are utilizing all information. Welcome pleading. Arrange. Now, another missile off measure over. Dispersion is in the wartime bridge range as a measure of dispersion is based on maximum on minimum values. Off values in that day does do we word this problem? One can result toe intercourse. Eldridge Inter quartile really is computed on the middle. 50% off the observation after elimination, off highest and lowest 25%. Officer visions in Adidas whose is arranged in ascending order. Unlike range in purport, I'll range is not sensitive toe extreme values. OK, so please remember that inter quartile Raines's computed on the middle. 50% off doctor rations. Okay. After elimination, off highest and lowest. 25 percent observation. So please keep this in mind. Uh, let us, uh, look at one solid example the following day. Does SOS quarterly operating profit and rupees screw off Reliance Industries from September 2008 to June 2011? You have to calculate the intercourse tolerance for this data. So look at the solution first. Orender data in ascending order. So data are arranged in ascending order. Now you can see Drop us three figures. This this and this. Okay, 1st 3 figures on last three for years. Okay, so I think we have to Well, observation. So 1st 25% lower. 25% is dropped and higher. Uh, I use 25%. Observations are also dropped. The remaining observation cause tissue 50% of the operations. These observations are here. Okay, so this is the remaining observation for the remaining date observation. We will complete range. We will get a worthy school in report time. Planes. So, in the court, Elvin is simply, you know, highest minus lowest. So in this case, in the court, I'll win is coming to nine. Dude, you can notice that rents for this problem is not, you know, 4563 inter quartile grids is 2922 eyes much a smaller compared to raise the ceiling that it is less sensitive toe extreme numbers presenting the did I said so. So far, we have discussed do measures offer dispersion. That is a range on intercourse tell Vince another missile off measure of dispersion is mean Absolute division. Okay, so I m Eddie, you can say on mean absolute deviation is defined as this. It is given by this formula. Okay. No, uh, so simply what you have to do. You have to go find the deviation off X from expert inexistent you someday and divided. But number off the relation that is your mean deviation. Okay. I mean, absolute aviation. You can see now we, uh, having one sort of example off. I mean, absolute deviation. Okay, the following data source and will gross profit margin off Indian Oil Corporation LTD from Mars 7 2002 months, 2011 on we are going to conflict. Absolute mend aviation. Okay, so, uh, this is the mean Okay, mean off gross. And will gross profit margin. Okay, that this 4.616 So the deviation off mean deviation off these operation from mean is given here. Okay. So you can see somewhere lose our positive, and some values are negative. Okay, Now. And that is why we dig, have salute off that. Okay, so when you take absolute value off these, it is coming mainly aviation. Um, okay, it is coming. 0.540 point 5 to 2 point on summation off. That is coming up. I point 59 Okay, on the number of observations are filed. So mean, absolute deviation is coming in this case, one point 11 It that means how can be interpreted. It can be interpreted as, uh, no gross profit. Mars. It may deviate from its mean leleu by 1.11 uh, percent This. Okay, so does the mean absolute where deviation in gross profit margin is one point 11 Pushing fine. Finally, we have the most accepted measure off this person that is scored standard deviation. Okay, Standard deviations. Who? The dispersion or variability across strata. Other measures of variation which we have already discussed above are ran inter portal rent and in division. Okay, but the standard deviation considered with the most if you shouldn't measure off dispersion . So please keep this in mind. Okay? A standard aviation was introduced by Car Pearson in 18 93. It is a measure of variation presenting the simple later. Okay, if all the data points presenting a simple are near Tweeter the standard deviation is tend to be a small nevertheless, If data points are greatly dispersed, then standard aviation will tend to be last. It is denoted by sigma. Okay, you can see you can know down on the mathematical formula. Okay, is given by this'll. Standard deviation is given by this expression. Now a standard division has little meaning in its absolute sense. However, when the standard deviation off to distributions are compared, the distribution with a small, smaller standard aviation sores, less variability. The winning will become clear. Back a suit during the pulling example less. There are two presidents and the day of resident and time arising off. The two projects are the same. However, Project has a standard deviation off do point it and present B has a standard aviation off 3.6. Who's process will you prefer? No doubt a rational investor will choose Project A because it is less risky. It is important to note here that measuring risk, our reliability off financial very evils is an important area off researching financial markets studies. The risk or availability is defined in terms off a standard deviation on Lee. In fact, the a real standard deviation is the simplest Mesereau risk. Fine. Okay, so we have one example. How do solve example how to conflict? Standard aviation. Okay, off data set. So look here first. What do you do? Uh, you find the submission off this? Okay, Our first you find the every thought the city's. Then what do you do? Take the deviation off each X on each observation from being value as soon in column? Uh, OK, do OK, then in part. Insisted you Esquire the deviation. Okay, Esquire the deviation and take the summation. Uh, on this is coming. Poor zero. Poor zero. Okay, now you apply a parabola off. Standard deviation on. You can see the standard deviation in this case is coming. 20.9 Okay, there's the standard. Deviation is 20.0 night. It's willing. It's that, uh, from mean. Where Lou on lower side on upper side. Ok, there is the extent off deviation is around 20 points. Okay, Now we have a related concept over the scorer. Coefficient of variation, the coefficient of variation mazes, dispersion in relation to the me. This is a related measure off dispersion, so please remember this. Okay? It's a lady measure off dispassion, for example, Suppose you want to know the related variation off marks for two classes off incidents, class one and class toe. This related, uh, dispersion. Are that this coefficient of variation? Cancer? The purpose. Okay, the coefficient or variation is given by the following formula. Ok, now you can see the formula off coefficient of variation is given by, you know, standard aviation by mean off that particular Siri's multiplied by 100 just to express in person. It's okay. Now we have a soiled example for, you know, coefficient of variation. The following table gives closing prices off Infosys technology and doctor consult DNC services from you know, uh, 29 June 2011 toe on 9 August 2011 in descending order. Okay, either from 90 days to 29th June. So please, But remember that this Andi, to find the coefficient variation you have to find made and the standard deviation off the city's okay. So mean and the standard deviation off BC's onda, you know, this year sent in forces to stop prices argument here. Okay, on applying for Mullah off coefficient of variation, you can see the coefficient of variation for PCs. Stop. Crisis is coming. 4.45 on a for enforces the stock price it discovered four point 98 Okay, so this, uh, the coalition no variation off pieces and enforces so that variation in PC's is lower than the variation in enforces. In other words, fluctuation in the stock prices off in processes I compared toa fluctuation in a stock prices off. This is Okay. So, uh, in this, uh, lecture, I discussed measures of variation on We started with simplest missile or variation. That is rain on. After that, I discussed some other measures of variation, like inter quartile rains mean absolute deviation. A standard deviation on finally coefficient of variation. Okay. Thank you. 16. Measures of Shape: Hello, dear restaurants. Welcome back In this lecture, I will be discussing about measures off say most of the statistical analysis is based on assumption of normal distribution. Because most of the phenomenon occuring in this world can be roughly approximated all represented by a normal good, or were the score goes in distribution The Gaussian distribution in the statistical analysis God normal distribution misery off See tells us whether data said is normally distributed on If the data said is not normally distributed, then, uh, it can leave toe misleading, you know, in Francis. So there are some measures off No medical Miss herself saves Onda. We will be discussing one by one. The first miserable for safe is called skill nous On disk, you miss is a visit off bias in dispersion off data. So please no don't. In other words, it indicates degree off symmetry are you can see awesome it Lee in positively skewed distribution, the mean is toe the right off the pick up the distribution. So please remember that when they die is not normally distribution when it is either positively a skilled distribution or negatively skill distribution than what we'll have So in positively skill distribution. The mean is toe the right off the pick off the distribution as it is fooled by very few high observation in your data set. Similarly, in negatively skewed distribution, the mean is to the left off the pick off the distribution. Okay, on it is for, uh, by, you know, very a small observation in your did. I said the moment off the moment coefficient of skill nous is given bother falling formula . You can see this is the formula off his skill nous Andi m the Value Office Que nous is zero . Then the distribution is symmetry. Oh, normally distribution when it is greater than zero, it indicates that it is positively skewed to the right on when it is less than zero. It indicates it is negatively skewed to the right. Okay. Its meaning is that your data is not normally distributed on accordingly. You have to, you know, exist. Your data are you have to find some more appropriate measures off center and then see like this. Okay, fine. I'm having one solve example off. How to compute isc, Eunice. Okay, on I'm having this data given here so fast, Steve is to find the every stop the X series. Then in second a steep, you find the deviation off X from expert, which is soon in a column to Okay, uh, in Tartus tape. What do you do? You find a squad off. Deviation off. Ekstrom expert we just saw in. Go along. Three. Okay, on. Finally, you find Cuba the deviation off X from expert. OK, on you find the submission off. But this city's okay, then this city's Andi finally applied this formula. When you plug these numbers in this expression, okay, you will get the value off skill nous. Now for this data, the skill nous is coming, you know, 0.1. Okay, this is different from zero. So this indicates that the data is slightly positively skewed to the right. Okay, It's not exactly zero. Okay, this is how it has to be in the now we have another missile off, you know, safe, that is called kudos is while skill nous. So the degree off symmetry in the distribution keratosis. Suze, you know, goodness offer distribution. There are three types of pickled nous in a distribution left. According is that distribution, which is more than a normal distribution. Many hide off. The normal distribution will be more than a normal distribution. Hide up the car flight. According is that distribution whose is a less big than a normal distribution its meaning is it will be, You know, I'm in a hide off. The car will be flatter than in normal ca. Okay, mess, mess. Oh, Kordic resemble a normal distribution. Onda the the kudo sis is given by this formula. Okay, slightly. Let me by Mistake. So Keratosis is given by this formula on when the hello off coefficient off keratosis is three, then the distribution is normal. When it is different from three. It indicates our distribution. Uh, it's not. Not okay. So this is the concept off keratosis on dime, having one sort of example for you where, uh, you have to find out the coefficient off keratosis on. This is the data given. So the first step is, you know, first find every is up. This exit is. Then you find deviation off X from expert and second column. Okay, then you find a Squire off deviation off X from expert, and then you find power to the four day vacation off X from expert, which is soon in last color. Okay, on you find the some off this city's. Okay, Andi. Then you find submission off this also. Okay? And then finally, you apply parabola. Okay, on. Once you plug these figures in this formula, you will get the value off keratosis. Now, in this case, keratosis coefficient off. Keratosis is coming. 0.23 Okay, which is, and sadly different from you know, three on this was that Data is not normally distributed. Okay, fine. So in this lecture, we discussed various made herself see on business off. Sape will tell you whether your data set is normally distributed or not. Because if your data is not normally distributed, then whatever you know, because most of the statistical analysis is based on normal distribution. So if your data seed is not normally distributed, then you know, um, inferences or conclusions drawn from such statistical analysis can be misleading. Okay. Okay. Thank 17. Numerical Summary using MS Excel: Hello, dear. Restaurants are in this lecture. I will demonstrate how to find measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion and measures off safe using formula. Andi, I will also tell you how to find, you know, all these razors using descriptive statistics. So let's say I'm having and will data from 2000 for 2005 to 2014. 2015 on since term our off disease camp on suppose I want to know the every sister our off pieces over, you know, thes sample period. Then I'm interested in basically measures of central tendency, which I can find, you know, like this by using parola. Suppose let's say this is my every what? Equal sign then. Dave, if it is, give bracket and selected it like this. And now So from, uh, this is your every, uh, offs Illston, our over this sample three. Similarly, you can find let's say, media, another misery off central tendency laying this using from will on select the state and then fine, this is your maybe. Okay, Now suppose I'm interested in mortals, So let's say you this firm a lot more Onda, select the data close the practice ended. So you are not getting anywhere for more in this, uh, they does say its meaning is that more is ill defined. In this case, that means this data has no, you know, uh, more. Okay. Now coming to make herself central measures of variation are measures of dispersion. So the most accepted Mesereau dispersion is, you know, a standard aviation. How can I find a standard deviation using, you know, uh, for Mullah? So a standard deviation can be given by this formula You simply equal, and then you type s the D E B S t. Dave, Uh, give bracket, select the data and closed the crack. Now you will end, so standard deviation is coming. 21,840 0.84 So, uh, we have discussed how toe compute, you know, measures of central tendency and then number our measure of variation. Now, suppose you want to know whether data is, you know, uh, normally distributed or not. Then you can also find measures upset. Andi measures off safe. You can find like this. Suppose I'm interested in ISC unis Then you simply type. It's cute. Give bracket selected. Closed the bracket. Enter so your skill nous is not zero. It is coming different from you. And it is, you know, positive. So you can say the data is positively skewed. It's not normally distributed. Now, suppose I want toe know the wickedness of data. Then for that you can find produces on the formula. Is this one? So you select this data, lose the bracket and tender. Now you can see that the value off produces is coming different from Joe. It's not equal toe three. So its meaning is your data is not normally distributed. Okay, So this is how using formula, you can find out measures of central tendency, Mr Self Dispersion and measures off safe in Emma's excel. Okay. Thank you.