Davinci Resolve 15: FAIRLIGHT Sound post-production | Film VFX | Skillshare

Davinci Resolve 15: FAIRLIGHT Sound post-production

Film VFX

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13 Lessons (3h 56m) View My Notes
    • 1. Course introduction - Fairlight in Davinci Resolve 15

      1:03
    • 2. Recommended workflow

      7:17
    • 3. Introduction & tour of the interface

      58:35
    • 4. Where to find a large free Sound Library

      1:51
    • 5. Sound Editing Modes

      1:39
    • 6. Desoise using (1) Noise reduction

      19:23
    • 7. Denoise using (2) Noise Gate

      24:15
    • 8. Compressor

      35:45
    • 9. EQ

      28:23
    • 10. DeEsser

      9:20
    • 11. Normalisation

      14:52
    • 12. Limiter

      14:28
    • 13. The right way to mix Music with Vocals

      19:02
13 students are watching this class

About This Class

Do you know what's the number one factor that differentiates professional production from amateur ones: it's Sound.
It's one of the main reasons why submissions to festivals get rejected.

Set yourself apart from the crowd, and give the right attention Sound. Well, it represents at least 50% of your project and definitely more that 70% of emotions.

You will learn sound post production for your film, documentary, or any audio visual project with Fairlight in Davinci Resolve 15.

I will cover:
- The recommended workflow, step by step
- An thorough walk-through of the interface
- Where to find a large Sound Library for free to enrich your projects
- Sound Editing modes
- Noise Reduction using several techniques
- Compression
- EQ
- DeEsser
- Limiter
- how to mix properly Music with Vocals avoiding amateur music mixing
- and We will also touch on other topics such as panning and reverb.

All of this right inside the free version of Davinci Resolve 15

Let sound be one of your strengths.



Transcripts

1. Course introduction - Fairlight in Davinci Resolve 15: Do you know what's the number one factor that differentiates professional productions from another ones? It sound? It's one of the main reasons why submissions to festivals get rejected. Set yourself apart from the crowd and give the right attention to sound. It represents at least 50% off your project and definitely more than 70% off emotions. You will learn Sound First production for your film documentary or any audio visual project with fair light in DaVinci Resort 15. I will cover the recommended workflow step by step, a thorough walk through off the interface. Where to find a large sound library for free to enrich your project. Sound editing modes, Noise reduction using several techniques. Compression Equalizer di essere limiter on how to mix brought relief and professionally music with vocals. Avoiding ometer music. Mixing Onda. We will also touch on other topics such as Panin and River. All of this right inside the free version off the fringy resort. 15. Let's sound be one off your strengths 2. Recommended workflow: after going through the interface on a few other important things, I would like to go through the workflow with you. The workflow there I recommend for the sound purse production for fair light. Okay, individuals or 15. Now, if you already are a professional working with your own workflow, as in you already have a sequence of events find there are few schools of thoughts. But if you don't have one, then I'm offering you one that always works. Okay, so the absolute first thing to start with is always toe have clean clips, clean sound. So the noise and I will open a bracket here. The noise in happens during filmmaking. When you are filming when you are, um, during production, you are going to need to make sure that your sound is clean. You turn off all the sources off noise that is really noisy, and it doesn't happen in postproduction now. Only when you can not get rid of something that we resort to the first production face off the noisy. All right, so that's why I have here Noise reduction effect on always gauges are to first production techniques for reducing decent ways. You can reduce knows that. So using EQ you it is actually the wonderful possibility Tool with offers you plenty of possibilities. Teoh do plenty of thanks and I'll explain what that is. Equalizer, Thank you for the first. Most important part is to de noise your footage. Why you cannot go to any fancy effects before you do you get your noise out. It needs to be noise because the second recommended step is compression And what this compression do, It brings the noise floor up. So if you have a noisy footage, it is going to make it worse. All right? So don't think off anything before noise. Once it's Dino is we don't move to the next, And I do not want you. Please. When you look at this foreclose on you look at these techniques and you think Okay, yeah, these are nice to have I took utters a few. There's no choice, my dear, In this, what you see from 1 to 5 is the absolute compulsory or obligatory. I don't know what kind of words I need to be using for that. So to communicate that, especially if you're a beginner, few professional already know that these are absolutely necessary. You cannot talk about sound first production. If you do not have at least the five between one and five, you can. If you mess up number seven that clearly it's a It's a beginner's mistake. But between one and five, it's the absolute minimum. Do not talk about some press production. If you don't have 1 to 5, the noise is necessary because, um, okay, if you don't do compression, you going to end up with ugly stuff. That happens sometimes in television, which is large parts are too loud and quite person to quite an end up needing to use a removed every time. That's why televisions expect you to compress your footage. Compressing is no what you would expect from video perspective. York on kind of a filmmaker wants to do your own sound press production. Don't confuse this with compression. Video compression Video compression is bad sound. Compression is good. Okay, so these are two completely different concepts. They don't have anything to do with each other, and then we have the equalizer. E que is most probably my favorite tool in sound in the whole area. Enough sound. It is an absolutely gorgeous. Phenomenal. I don't know what time to describe it. It's amazing. I'm No, I don't mean to seek you that you have in fear light. I mean the ECOWAS a concept. I am a little disappointed with black magic. Given us very little. It's quite limited to seek you in fairness is quite limited. I have to be honest But the seekers a concept and what you have in the track version of e que is amazing. It can do it can do a lot of started change it can in banish your voice It takes away all the rubbish from your voice. It's especially for vocals. It makes it look great. DSR is Well, that's your s u S s r two sharp. It takes away down theater is kind of a distant relative CQ equalizer And then there's the limiter. If you don't know what the limit is, it simply it stops the DB it stops the signal from going beyond a certain let's call his volume for now, OK, DB level Richard. And why? When I talk to you about this something you know this is compulsory. This is a block of bigotry. If it is your own project. Then you better have one that stands out from the crowd because the craft is quite noisy. The difference between a matter on professional projects. Video? Um, yeah, audio visual projects. The difference between the professional, amateur and professional is number one sound. You can work and you do. Actually, everybody does have this tendency to spend 95 99% of the time working on the editing visual image. And then we try to do something some survival kits for sound. And we call that sound post production. Now, this is why when there's a submission to festivals, it gets rejected. This is why when you send it to the television, you look at anything. We can't work with this guy for simple reason that if you're sound does not comply with these five steps as a minimum, the noise compress acuity. Esser limiter limiter is an absolutely essential. Do not even think off sending any project to the television if you don't use the limiter. And if you don't use the compression and you're going to stand out from the crowd if use the eq you properly for vocals, Okay. On the DSR is necessary. So we're talking about all of the most unnecessary number six. Well, you can tell from the way I've written it to normalize or not normalize that. I'm not an advocate of normalizing. I don't want you to feel the need, Okay? I'm not saying I don't wanted to normalize to feel the need to analyze, because if you feel the need to normalize, it means you have missed up somewhere. Durian production. Okay, I'll tell you what kind of mistakes days are. And if you happen to have done one, then you're gonna have to normalize. And I don't want you to reach that level that point off needing to normalize, because normalizing. Okay, some people don't always, but generally professionally, most professionals don't normalize because the York State expecting higher production sound quality, right? They're expecting you not to make that mistake during filming. That's why they're professionals. But if you happen to need it, it's there. I'll show you have to work without I'm number seven is the music. Well, if you think music on dialogue, mixing them is about reducing the level of the music when people are talking and then bringing the volume back again. Forget it. This is absolutely not the way to go about it. There's I wouldn't even call it a trick. There's a proper professional way off mixing dialogue with music, which is dead simple yet very effective. You hear music and you heard dialogue and they both go hand in hand. 3. Introduction & tour of the interface: the interface or fair light Individuals off 15. We have now the final release of the Vinci 15. And we have the tab. Fair light open. Now, this is a tab, but it actually is. A software has been integrated. A sponsor of the venture results. All of these are soft for this fusion is actually a standalone application that used to be owned by Iowan and was bought by Black Magic and integrated in the victories or 15. So I think this level of integration exceeds what we used to have with Adobe Adobe. You've got the dynamic link. You've got a few workflow between Adobe Premiere at Adobe Audition on our the way premiere at Adobe after effects, this is much more integrated. Everything sinks back, Live with the timeline. So you don't have a sink in between. Say, for example, fair light and color correction. But everything thinks back toe one place. This is the reference. Sorry. This is the reference. This is editing. Okay, so the editing top here, let me just move around. You get sometimes this a green screen. OK, so this is your timeline and fair light sinks back to this. They're properly sing. So if you come in here, whatever you do, let's just come over here and change something. I'm going to, um, se reduced this one. Right. Let's bring the play head here when I come back here and school bar, I have used it. Okay, here we go. This is the guy. This is your god. Let me just bring it box where it waas on. If I come back here, the gap is closed. See? So it is always sink life and this is really, really good. So this is going to help us to work in fair light without worrying about anything Issues you may be tempted to do your odio sound. OK, Your sound first production. You may be tempted to do it in the editing top. Yes. Sometimes you get this nasty young green screen. Okay? You may be tempted to do it in the editing top. Let me just select here If you go this route. Unfortunately, you're going to limit yourself because yes, you have this temptation because you have effects library here. You've got audio effects. And you Congrats on drop. Somebody can use them. You have the meters here because you can you can activate the mixer on. You can use the mixer. I strongly recommend you do not do that. Editing tub is for editing. Yes. You have some audio effects on possibilities and tools available to you. Please do not use that possibility because you're going to limit yourself. You're going to stay in your comfort zone and comfort zone is a danger because you never expand. You never grow on. You will be limiting your capabilities in terms of what you can use in professional sound. First production that when we come to fail light, then we maximize our options. Right now you can maximize your options. Yes, I agree. When you open the interface the first time if you have a time line, this is all you see by default. It is quite dry. It's not attractive. It doesn't look like it has a lot to say. You don't you don't You're not convinced that you can do plenty of stuff in here, but actually, it has all to do with the default starting point of the interface. So how about we make it look? Um, a great start import something that looks much more interesting than your timeline. Because when you come here, you think I at least I can see my video on. Do what? I can see my meters. I can see everything. Why don't I just do everything here? I can show you and fair light that you actually can do way more. You can see way more. So let's start. And I'm going to start this. This partner is just about the interface. Okay? But this is not I'm not the cluster on teacher. I'm not gonna take you button by button from left to right. From top to button. Yes, We're going to cover everything in the interface, but the sequence of vans needs to follow proper project the workflow. So I'm not going to tell you. This button does this and we move to the next one. This one does this and this one does this. That's that's That's not the way I'm a filmmaker. I'm not a classroom teacher. So we're going to start where we need to start. What is that? The input? What's the first thing you want to do? You're going to process something. What is not thinking? Members process. You're gonna process your sound. Okay? What is it? It's an input. Let's work with the input first. What can I see? I can see tracks while this is not good enough for me by the way to track Some of them look empty for a simple reason. Duct internal empty. But I can't see the the sound. And this is the main point you should be able to see sound. I'm not talking about just hearing it. I'm talking about seeing it. So the first step is to come and also to see the video that's related to that. So your absolute first step in the interface is not to go left two rights and start media Post is here Timeline, view or Prince, You need to change this so that it makes sense. So click on this one and I'm not gonna go one bite like there's just like in order, we're going to go in the right workflow order. Your project needs to be done in a certain number of steps. We follow these steps. What's the first thing I need to see the video first. Before I can talk about anything, you need to see the video. Now there's an option here which he's, um, an absolute waste of space. I strongly recommend you don't even bother about this one. It's his video track. Now, if you click on it, you know what happens. You just get this blue rectangle. It is nothing but a blue rectangle. Okay, you may be thinking why it's OK, because it's squeezed. What if we expand it? If you try to do that, you don't have an option here to expand it. And if you try to expand Sorry. In terms of off with expand is being expanded. Just a sound, not the video. Okay, so this is for with this is for the length. Okay. Off the timeline. Okay. So this is an absolute waste of time and waste of space actors just taking your Just disable it. Make sure it's not on. I probably head for black magic just to take it away. It's an absolute waste of space. This will come back to this very useful. But let me first see my sound and see my video. This is what you need. Scroll. Er this is really wonderful combat. And what do you get? Yes, yes, yes. Sometimes we have this stuff in here sometimes you just starting the company l and we have here the a green. This this is being in the base public Beta. We were hoping that's gonna go away in the final release, but it's still there. Green doesn't mean it's gonna impact. It's just a viewing book like you get. Hopefully we're gonna take this way. It doesn't Absolutely. It has absolutely nothing to do with your render. When you render, everything is clean. And actually, if you just move it away and then come back in, probably is this gonna be gone? No. Okay, this probably knew reopened the file. Whatever is just a few anything. But what you have here is your frames. The beauty is that you're able to work at a detailed level. These are not your tumble nails like you would find in here. You find something, nails just one first and lost. And then you've got a few in the middle. Now, when you come here to fair light, you've got all your time nails, all of them. We just select somewhere here, Okay? All the time. Nails. Um, I will just have just disable Sam fast. We don't hear that Okay, So you've got all detainees, you are able to move, See when I'm what I'm doing now, I'm just dragging from the video. Just click on the temping on Just drag on the timeline Is moving areas likely? Because I am working on detail. You want to move faster, you just come here and then moved Attempt the the they had Sarto. All right, so the next bit is Well, I still want to see sound. You know, I have my sell drugs here. Fine. I understand. I want to see more. Okay, So how do we do that? The next step is gonna be to come to order. You want an auditor? What are these deep? These two things off a click on the audio one. It has taken the first track on or due to a stake in the second track. But this is another book that used to be in the public. Beta on. We were hoping to see it go on individuals or 15 but it's not going. You notice that for now is gonna take some time, Okay? It has Okay. If you school if you go back in the recording in the video Now, if you go back, like, stop what I'm saying Stop. Now, Go back a few seconds, like, 10. 50 seconds. You're going to notice that we didn't used to have this one. It has taken 10 seconds or 15 seconds to load, which I guess is like, who? This is kind of a box like it just puts you a little bit off. Anyway, it's there. It takes 10 15 seconds to load. But then you have the option to choose which track, then I may. I Now I'm able to see the sound at a very detailed level at a frame level, and it's moving. Okay, this is not exactly frame of anything with this. This is one speed. This is another speed. This is another speed must lower, but you're able to work at this level. If you want to make sure that something happens at some particular time, this is your best way. And, yes, you can select any track you want and have it here. Okay? At the Liberty got this project. We've got plenty of tracks so that we can have got plenty of choices. All right, so this is your starting point. Your input. You want to see your video? You want to see your sound and you want to see the tracks like this? No. Another handy thing is the This one is fixed. Play head. I prefer to have its own all Okay, most of the time. Most of the time, 95% of the time. I wanted to have it. Or have it all. Why? What happens if I am? It is able just to show you what's gonna happen if I click on plane, right or press l That play head is moving. The timeline is fixed. But when you reach a certain point, let's say that we are now expanding. This found only, um, going to move this. Okay, Come over here. Put my play head here. Okay? I'm gonna put my play head here at the end. I'm working somewhere. OK, take some time to load these four Kate video thumbnails. Um, what about my play here? If I click play, it's going to start. Blaine. The problem is, it starts jumping. It jumps. It refreshes the whole time. Aarons jumps. You may not want to have this effect. This effect this distinct going on. So all you need to do is come here and activate this. Where if he makes the play head fix and when you click now, it is the timeline. Okay? It's a timeline. That scrolling behind the play head. It's much, much more practical. Okay? Especially when you're working on detailed level. That's the important part here. So ignore this one completely. Don't use they don't activate it. Absolute waste of space. Make sure you use this one most of the time and always have. Okay, at least one of them. You need to have this one on. You need to have this one. Does this replace our monitor? Is this a What's about the video? Is that Is that all I get? Can I get more? Of course you can get more. There's a proper money for that. We're going to activate right now, But let's just finish this bit. You have here the full way form. Okay, Let's for weight form. If I go to a place where we have here, I just I just click it hopefully is gonna work for way form. I am going to go to a place where I have actually some proper sound Okay, There is this one. Let me just increase the with or because I have reduced the weight significantly. My apologies. Then I bring this one open. See this one? If I have it off or on because it's it's quite the sound is quite quite because it is now coming from the camera. Oh, I'm not suggesting you should use sound from camera, but I'm just using this now because it has seven tracks and it's quite lovely to have many tracks to for demonstration purposes. Right, You are here. This is just full way form. So when you you expand, you just take away this segment here, Your segment, you just take it away. That's what it does. Just expense, the way form. And then you can see your the way for Borders. Right? Okay. This is what I suggest is that you have this one only have at least these two own on this one on. Okay, Because we don't need to Despotic. I mean, it's just doing it's better to have the way form I see moments of the year for, and then you have design process here. 123 407. What are These is just a little bit more like this party where you zoom. And then this is your project. Timelines, zoom in. Timeline. It's in steps presets. So you can 34 for seven. It's really about the detailed level. Then you go back to one which is completely squeezed. You just choose which one you want to use if you want to use it at all. Otherwise you just come back here and then you use your own manual. You select how detailed you want to have your timeline extended. Okay, so now have we've finished. Now we need to see more of the video. So how can I do that? Okay. I want to have a monitor like a proper monitor. Let's come back to the timeline. I want have a monitor Every time you work on video. It's not enough to have the young templates because this time days are meant for something else for something different. Let me just go back here and put it in the right place. Um, yes, but here mass put here some green screen as well. But because of some dialogue here and when I come back, it is sink even the play head is being sync between the and it tab and fair lights software . All right. A. So I said I need to see the monitor. So where do I find that it's a little bit weird place. Okay, It's called meters, but it's like what I know. It's the meters, um, pounds. When you open this, you find the meters. You've got some other things does and whistles here, and you've got you monitor. It's a very small because you should not need to have details for the video, Actually, is just a reference video. So is this enough for you? Maybe not. Okay, just in docket on. You got a bigger one. Okay. You can expand it if you want. That's your choice. And then you could put it on a different monitor. I'll come in to do that. Okay, then you can You can click on very back where it wars, so you may choose to have this one expanded, or you may choose to have it closed. All right. So you may do something like this and then close it again. Close the meters, and then you put this one in different monitor on use your real estate properly. Without the need of having the meters on. You may want to use the meters here. Okay. You are going to need to the meters when you work on the final track track by track. You need to see that the levels meter. Um but this is how you get your monitor. Now, we have talked now about two things. We've talked about the input as old you to be able to see it on input as reference video to be able to see what you're doing. Both in terms of frames for detailed level work on the monitor, the next bit is going to be Do I have still in the input? I'm not gonna take you button by button. The next question. What is it? Everything starts with input with we've covered the first question of input. There. Three questions. Not just 13 The 1st 1 is how can I see my audio and video okay with Crawford to answer this one. The second question What is that? Do I have everything I need? Because when you open when you started your project, you know what you are back here in the media tap when you imported. I'm going way back at the beginning when you brought in your stuff and you wanted to work with the editing tab, Did you bring everything? You may be thinking. What? That's a weird question. Why are you asking? Of course I brought everything. That's a choice. That is a choice. There's no preference here. It's your preference. It's your choice. I wouldn't recommend something, but there is an option that you wait till you reach the point off the post production here that you're going to. Actually, I just realize is some sort of a book here that the play head I haven't moved to play head cause my play had once a year. Yeah, this dimension is always something. Um, So what? They had walls here, if you remember. And then I come back here and I find it sinks. And if it just moved somewhere else and come back a game, okay. For some reason, it has jumped back to the beginning. Not sure why, Everybody, let's go back from the media top you important stuff. But there is an option that when you come here, Okay, this isn't this is it so When you go straight from media dubbed to fear light, it jumps back to the beginning, which is a little bit weird, which means it sinks back. This is a weird buck. Used to be reported the DaVinci. Um, yeah. So if you jump back from media straight to fail light, it takes your head play head way at the beginning of the project. That's about all right. Okay, just if it happens to you in general, what the hell is going on then? It's because it's about the next bit is actually talking about. You were talking about fair light bringing stuff in, as in the second question, Do I have everything? You may have decided to wait till now and then bring your music. It's fine because when I recommend that you work, you don't do anything related to order in any tap. It doesn't mean don't bring anything else older. You bring the funds that you need. You may bring everything you need, but you may have decided that you say, Well, it's another moment in Britain that relates to audio. That is typically uniquely ordeal. Music is just order. Okay. We're gonna bring it later. It's fine. It's up to you, because when you work on audio, you can do it at the beginning. Say, no, no, no. I prefer to have my timeline complete in the beginning. Put everything there and only then come back to the fair for light up. Let's go back and get that. Yes, it's done somewhere. Um, and you may say, OK, I when I come here to fair lines, I need to find everything all defines and work on them because of already done. My It didn't in off the video and audio editing machine effects of editing, like cutting and moving already done it in editing. Fine. That's a choice. If you have decided that you want to wait till now, fine, you can come to the media top and bring in your music, bringing a few things. Now be very careful. There's a huge distinction Now, if I come here and I say had been Nicollet sound, probably it is gonna be like a music bringing the music something I would not bring anything here, but I want you to have a clear distinction because the second question is, do I have everything on the third question is also due. I have everything. But then the two questions are different sound. If you look at this, let's go back to actually just just that editing. Or we can do it in fear lives. But it's the same thing you got, Media Bull and you got sound library. Let's go back here. You've got what? Yeah, this this this is starting to become annoying. Just play it stuff, everything jumping every time. Jake Jumping back to the young to the end is not is not good. All right, so let's keep it here. Um, you have what you have got the media bull and you've got the sound library. We're gonna talk. This is what we're talking about. Now the next bit is media pool is you can actually just get straight from here. You have imported it in your project, but you didn't put it in the timeline. That's what I mean. You might have important it, but not use it in time like now it's time to grab it if you have to, sudden not to do it in the timeline to grab it and put it in the timeline. You can still do that from the sound been If you have created the sound been on, That's your These are your funds Now what is the difference between what you should put in here and this stuff in here That's called Sound Library. The difference is very clear. This is project specific. You know, this goes with that endless. It's about music. Then you know that. Okay, this is the kind of music elector have. Although you are if you have some specific music that is so specific project that goes in here. But if you have another like a huge library of stock music, then it doesn't belong here. You do not import and please listen to this one really carefully. You do not import your sound library in your project because as a dedicated tab for that not just a matter of organizing yourself because if you put it here, it is imported. It is loaded. It is part of your ram. It is in the memory, your loading, thousands of files, tens of thousands of files. That is really not good. You go to the sound library. The difference, as I said, say for example for me just to clarify even more sound. What kind of fast you happen? Not just music, because I don't want you to think it's just music. Why the tracks when you're recording, you know? Okay, you have a war scene, you have a war scene and you're going to have a soldier on top off the tank. And the tank has just stopped, but still running a psych. It's on. Have you got any idea how loud thanks are like army tanks? When their own, You do not want to know how long they are. They're extremely loud. And you would really think if you go in inside one Oh my God, it's for for soldiers. It's really terrifying sound. We're not talking about the war. Sound like explosions and stuff and bullets were just talking about the engine off. Nothing is really, really loud. Now, why am I saying this? Because when you're going to record it and because this is not just like a classroom style thing for fair light. I'm a filmmaker. I'm here to tell you what is going to impact your post production durian filming. So when you're going to fill and you have that bank on and you and you got that. You get that guy who's going to dialogue. There's something he's going to say. Monologue, dialogue, whatever. There's there are vocals involved. That guy's going to speak. There's no we're gonna capture that with the huge, insanely terrible, horrible sound of the tank, right? Especially we're talking about to sell self propelled Thanks if if it's just normal transport sold the transport tank, that is a little bit less noisy. Still very noisy, but you just have the engine. But you've when you've got the self propelled gun that is really heavy stuff. Eso that's very long loud. Have a good how are you going to record up? What this is exactly? The point this folder is meant to is part of the off the continuation of what you've done in production for this specific scene we're talking about. How are you going to deal with it? You're going to record number one record the bloody thing, as is sorry to say the bloody things for a simple reason that it's you know you're gonna get that sound can't be used. That's once recorded, as is the the um, The tank is on and the guys speaking and you do your best is to capture something. Why? As just a reference, it will never be used. But that's one sound that is going to be sent to your camera. Okay, son, send with sound to the camera. Ask the sound mixer. Sanda recordist. Makes her to send the sound to the camera because you needed sink, preferably with the with a camera Sound okay, because the camera could be much further away. And camera sound is not gonna Room is not going to catch. Everything needs to be sent to the camera. The rubbish sound needs to be sent to the comer. That's all reference now. That's one Number two is You're going to switch off that tank and get the guy to speak Quite okay. In a quiet area, everybody's quiet. It is not. Then just all the sounds are dead. Dead? It's a dead area. There's nothing. Then you get just his vocal. You may be thinking, Why don't we just do a D R? Sorry. We're now based in the UK, Europe, mainland, Europe. We don't do a TR 95%. 98% off sound is production sound. The attention is on getting great production sound. Yes, you can get all your actors and dump them in a young sound boot. And they double the price off the hiring them Because you get them for three weeks of filming. Plus more weeks off. 80 are on. That is your choice. What? We don't do that right? Okay, so we need to get great sound, but postproduction sound location sound. So the guy needs to speak exactly where we see him. You be surprised. So many films you look at on when you when you hear the sound, you know, the guys driving a big drug and instead of hearing the environment like normal environment , you know, the guys speaking from a sound booth that's really, really puts off professionals. At least when you when you hear the sound you think so? The whole thing is only son Buchman. Anyway, so let's close this this bracket and go back to our This is all about this folder, By the way. It's so about this folder off sound and the difference between sound library and sound. So your first sound is going to be what is going to be the one that you're going to record the rubbish one. The 2nd 1 is you ask everybody, switch off all the tanks. Everything on Ben does that guy speaking just captured dialogue between those people in the ambient sound off the place. Number three, these guys are going to shut up. And you only recalled a wide track off the environment. Ambient sound, nothing else. Just ambient sound. Nothing. Just so the access Shut up. The the tank is off and you just record the wild track. This kind of stuff you could do later. You could do earlier if you have access to the site. Especially signs were used tanks. They're quite restricted. So you're gonna have to pay a lot to get there. And if you, um you could you could come back later for sound. If you agree, it's not gonna be charged stuff. You could do it later, Fine. But exactly in the same place, right? Number four, this is another file. Is, um, switching on the tank. I'm just having the bank. But then the record is the sound recordist and mixer knows that this is a tank which basically means when it comes to mix in it, it's going just to take a gentle part of It's gonna reduce way down the amplitude off the signal that's coming in so that you get chest What is okay for film and for theatrical release and for TV Because thanks are the sounds off self propelled. Thanks. Self propelled guns tanks are horrible. Terrible. OK, now, um, a long story in an interface section. We're talking about interface on this. Why are we talking about all of this stuff? Because if you get to you her workflow wrong, everything else is gonna go wrong. You have hear your sound. What have we talked about? Four types of files. They all belong here. Okay, they all of them. All of them belong here because this is project specific sound. Wild tracks go here. Um, specific. Okay. All the white tracks go here, and three all throw three of them. You can call them white tracks. Okay, Although the dialogue is not really, really, really, really a white truck. So this is the distinction between sound library and your sound that your sound is your specific sound. Some lavery is a completely different story altogether because this here it's just a few files now is just a few files that so we've got Okay, I know you've got, say, a huge project with television series and you doing episode by episode and you or you go off theatrical release with a feature film off one. You're one year when I were in the house and you'll go into, um, I have a few files, but they are limited in terms of number sound library. We're talking tens of thousands of files. It is insanely big, Especially when you start building this stuff on overtime and what are sound. What's what should go into sidelined some memory. Is this important? This is not important. Why? Because when you come here and you click, you say and library this doesn't say import this media pool, you import stuff. Here you add a new click. It just gives you the link to what you are to. It's just pointing todo hard disk to the PAP in the hard disk off salary. The salary sound library is going to have tens of thousands off files. What are these? Fully If you recorded yourself, you're gonna be putting it actually in your sound library, sort of putting it in the sound project in the perfect sound for simple reason that it's if you have footsteps. If these footsteps are specific, okay, this is another thing. It's the make. Is the key difference specific to the project. If you're working for National Geographics and you've got, say, for example, somebody is going being up? A Ah, a little, a little a mountain. Where does what? They're full. If there is a combination of sounds that belongs to that place that is specific for that place, then it is going to go A. I'm sorry here in your sound file. Yes, you can. You may be able to you reuse it, but it's gonna be limited because it's specific to that place. But when you have just wind or when you have just footsteps or just the sound of car breaks or the sound of a glass that falls on breaks, the sound off door handle opens the sound off door, slamming the sound off. These kind of things actually stuck. Audio. This is what it is. Stock majorities unrelated to the project. You can use it in any product whatsoever. That's why it's still called you because you go and get it anywhere. Okay. Sorry. Anyone could go and get you. That's what I mean. And I'm gonna show you where to find one. Okay? I'll show you where to find a huge library for free. Reasonably professional one. I'll show you where to get one. Okay. So that you can already start. And then you over time you can build your own. You can buy Mawr sound libraries. We can go get more for free. There are available for free on the one of us. Go to show you is openly available for free. Cool. Now the next bit is going to be Now that we have answered the first question The second question The third question about the input for the interface that we're just talking about the interface here. We haven't even touched anything about sound. Just the interface. The first bit was what was I want to see my sound. See myself not just hear it See my sound and see the video video You've got the company's possess. The 2nd 1 was bringing in your specific. If you haven't done it already specific. Bringing into the timeline. They should already be in your media media Paul specific sound that is specific to the Partick. Number three is adding the library. It's because it doesn't impact your memory. It's just pointing. Okay? And then you can search the library here for your files, because haven't you noticed? If you look at the media Boyer, there's no such mark because there's a small thing. You hear that you can activate it. Okay, let's Actually, it's not. It's not by default in there because they're meant to be a few your sound files. Although it reaches 101 150 it is our few. This is very limited. But when you go to sun Library, you notice by default in the interface search is there because there's no way you're gonna you're gonna go and get it yourself. Absolute zero comma. Zero chance that you're gonna go on, grab a find that you already just like that because we're talking tens of thousands of the one that I'm going to show you sees it clearly. 10,000 files in one section. Okay, So you going to such so, for example, to say, doorstep or something like full footsteps Footsteps. Okay, it doesn't show anything. Here. Um, this is his footstep baseball clean? I have an important anything, actually. But when I will do, I'll be able to see them. Okay? Right. And get the results of that. You can play it here on the rear end. Whatever. And then take the segment that you want on the imported. Straight important that then your important. That's the thing that then you are importing that specific when you have chosen. Right? So this is the workflow. Is that this? Is that this is what we start with. Now, let's disable this one and go back to what we had. Next step is going to be what have closed the section off input for interface question of the one of the tune of the three closed. Next it is effects. Now, if I click on effects, then I have the same FX that when you come back to the timeline, you're going to see Oh, now we have the luxury of having both of them green. But the source monitor and the timeline of green never happened before, but squat nicer. That's okay. I was just, uh, smooth. This one of its just moved that the player goes away. This this. This needs to go. I really wished it would have gone by and by now, because this is the final release of the visuals off. Anyway. What was I saying? I was talking about the same. These are the exact same ones that you find in your ethics library in the timeline. But please, again, again repeating it. Please resist the temptation to use and it in sound And the timeline tab. Because this is where it belongs. This is where you need to do it. Okay. If I come here, what are these? These are effects that year. I know. Fine. Well, these are effects that ship with DaVinci resolve. It doesn't mean this is all you have. Yes, this is all you have now, but you can go and get your V ST's for free. You can get via you can buy them, or you can get them for free. Right? You can get more effects. Or just you just search for the S T plug ins free, and then you are going to spend it on or how many hours? Days just lost in. Don't billions off plug, is it? Are there? The idea is that you need to know what you're looking for, right? So I'm gonna show you a sequins for doing proper sound. First production of that several ways of the minutes, Several steps, several ways, several sequences. I'm gonna give you one. 4. Where to find a large free Sound Library: we have agreed that I will show you where to find a sound library. So when you come here and you click on add library, you are pointing to a place in your hard disk. First, you need to go and get it. Okay, Let's go to anywhere in your use any search engine and get adobe audition downloads or your search for Adobe Sound Library. I'm gonna get one of these links and it's gonna be Adobe audition downloads on this is the link for its OK, you don't need to copy this, Nick. Actors just matter off searching for Adobe Audition dollars, and it's going to give you hear sound effects, which basically is. Let's click on this, open in a tab and then click on this one. This is coming soon, so it's not there yet. This is this other sound effects basically doesn't really mean effects like it's not the technical effects term. It's the English affects. Done so because we could you come here. These are the effects. Technically, these are the FX, and the other are more like stock audio. Right? So this is more stock audio. What do you have here? Ambience. You've got crashes have got drones. Have got emergency effects of explosions. Fire fully, like footsteps fully. Footsteps are You got plenty of stuff in here and we're talking about how much? What about 10,000 over 10,000 Highly quality, high quality sound effects. 10,000 files. So there's no way you want to import this. As I said, there's no way one import this here media pool. Don't do that. You need to do it here into sound library. Okay? And you notice. Actually, when you click on media pool on FX library, they share. They share this space. When you click on salary, it takes the whole thing. It doesn't share with anyone for simple reason. We're talking about 10 dozen funds. Okay, so you need to do is download. Okay? Visit down so you can download each one of these old ones they need, and then you place it in your heart. It's Can you point to it using this ad library 5. Sound Editing Modes: editing modes in fair light. You have two of these. You've got the 1st 1 which is the selection, which is, like, very normal. Why? Because when you are selecting you selecting clips. So the absolute main difference between this on this one that is called range selection mode is the word clip. Is it clip or is it not clip? So if it's not clear, what is it? It's a range. If I select here, I'm selecting these clips. So if I press on backspace and by the way, enough injuries or 15 if you're not used to deleting in the Venturi's or 15 then please don't use the delete button. Because if you do that strength that strange things happen. Okay, you use the back space. So if you do that, I have deleted what I've deleted. Eclipse. Let's enter that. And now I moved to the other. Did it emerge? It is a range. The range does not pay any attention whatsoever to the clip. It doesn't look at it for the four for the range selection mode. It doesn't see the clip. It just sees what you have selected. So what do I have selected now? I have this spot from here to here, and it is covering these bars here. Yes, it's part of a clip, but it doesn't care about it. So if I press backspace and get not delete, backspace is going to delete only this part regardless of the whole clips, like Okay, it's part of a clip. It says, I don't care. I'm just taking the range that has been selected that'll. So this is the only difference between this one and that. Is it clip or is it range? 6. Desoise using (1) Noise reduction: removing noise in fair light in DaVinci resolve 15. I have your clip. So this is the video response to this audio clip in here to this audio clips. I have a few tracks, so I have soloed on Lee. The 1st 1 This is a stereo clip. The other one's arm. Oh, no. I want to work on this one. Okay, you can do the same thing for other ones, but I'd like to work on this clip over here. Let's listen to the noise first. This shot does not have dialogue so that this gives us a good opportunity to just listen to noise. Okay, good. So this is due noise on. We're shooting in a in a surgery room on four things to look realistic. Of course, all the machines need to be on the relevant ones need to be on on the machines. Make noise. Okay. So how do you remove this noise? We can don't add our own Indian sound later, but the first step is, of course, to make sure that your sound is clean. There is an effect here in effects library, which is noise reduction. So the simple things not just get rid off this video and are, um or do you Is this one off? I'm going to drag this noise reduction on drop its old here. Let me open the inspector just for the purposes off. Explaining a few things as re explain. Actually, the few things is that please don't work with this one because you have the visual interface here. Like the visual data books here don't work with this stuff. It's a nice gesture from black Magic to put support. Mitt is here, but generally it tends to be much more handier to work with this stuff. Let's close, Inspector, and the more affect you are, you gonna will find them in the inspector, and you can prioritized in terms of which ones comes first. Which ones comes next with these? I was here. Nice. Okay. Your noise. Now, what is this? You have two ways off doing things. Either do it manually and this is everywhere. Like in adobe audition everywhere. Either you let the software do it or you do it yourself. If you let the software do it. There are some things that software is going to look for. It's basically it's going to work on frequencies. Why does it say here is automatic? This is manual if you say automatics. Fine. Okay. I'm not gonna let you use the learns that this is what fair lattice study news. Like, if you want to automatic, then I'm going to do it on my own. That's what fair light is sending you, So I will do it. You. Your interaction with the clip is no longer needed. This is why you don't have this learn activity. Learn is to be able to generate and no sport fire your then asking if you do it manually, you're going to play and click on learn. Okay. If you click on it now, on press play. Okay. On you disable it. Then you have just given you've generated the noise profile and give unfair light. Something telling fair light. Well, this is my noise. No, Removed this from the rest of the game. Okay. Sorry. Now you did this manually by click and activated. Learn. And once you don't just is activated. Now, if you go back, you're gonna help the same thing. So if you you it's already applied. That's what I mean. It's already applied. I tried. To what extent the bar Amita that wanted to worry about is this one. Everything else is, let's say, not necessary. Okay. The threshold attack threshold is a za fourth level. It needs The effect is going to start at that is how fast it's gonna be. One point 1.4 million. Second, um, the racial sensitivity, even the smoothing. I don't want you to worry about any office and guess what I strongly suggest. You don't even touch this one. Okay? If you want to do anything, do it in terms of level, do it outside of this noise dialogue. So you work on your level elsewhere. Not in this one. The only perimeter you want to work with is this. Okay, so it's very I want to simplify your life. If you want to listen to noise, you can click on this one. Only the noise. So three things you have here your choice. You want to do it yourself. Would you want to ask for a lot to do it on your new power? If you ask fair life just any ourselves, learn If you ask Fair light, any clicking water speech mode, then it is going to go back to the clip and look at the frequencies. Simple. It is not magic at his simple mathematics. Very easy. What fair light is doing? Is something dead? Easy. It's just a matter off recognizing. Not the voice, but the frequencies. What do you have? You have, uh, just just quickly. Um Okay, let's quickly open another effect from the mixer to explain. Very briefly. Very briefly. Now, don't get don't get intimidated with equalized, okay? All I need is this line off. That's all I need. Don't look at anything else. If you have never used to Nikolai Zone, you think? Well, what is this? Don't bother. Don't worry. Is just this ex access over here? These are decibels on these. I hurt on these are you Frequencies? Sound post production need to be done with frequencies in mind. This is why even noise is done with frequencies. You know what fair light does? Something quite simple. It knows that a male voice starts at 100 100 hertz. Okay, so I've got here zero on God somewhere. This graphic. So, in 6 16,016 kilohertz, there's some other graph shows in showing 20 killers. Whatever. So it's It's 16 2021 of its the maximum, and then we have zero. So zero to whatever maximum off the graph is this. These are the frequencies. So if you speak, are you here? Are you here? Oh, are you mostly here? Okay. Or are you here? Are you everywhere? Okay, for frequencies for male female. Kind of the same, but the starting point is different. Okay, Okay. I'm not saying kind of the same. Like, the profile is completely different if you're doing any Q completely different, but I'm saying foreign from a noise perspective. That's why it doesn't tell you. Is it middle female? Because from north perspective, there are categorically different noise lives in here. Mostly not. There is noise that goes beyond that. I agree with that. But it does go. It lives mostly in the area. Less than 100. So what does he do? What does fair like do? Because make the base for male voice starts at 100 the base for female voice starts at 125 hertz. Everything that's below 100 everything that's below 154 female his nose simple. So it kills everything there. Okay, It reduces. It kills as in reducing using an amplitude reduced by so much. All right, Good. No, You have noticed that black magic has come up with in the graph with something of mathematically interesting. Like the British way of saying interesting, which is like, you know, you don't necessarily agree with it. That's what it means when a British say is interesting, 125 does not exist, but it's seen here because they've just tried to get on average, a mathematical leverage. Female is 1 15 Mail is 100. So 100 plus 150 divided by two is 1 25 1 25 doesn't exist. Is it a male or female? Whatever. Eso anywhere below 100 you can rest a short can be killed. That is noise. Let's close this big bracket now because I needed to show you the frequencies every time something in sound press production is done most of the time, I'll say it has to do with frequencies. Okay, so you need to, um um stop reasoning in terms off volume, increasing the volume, reducing the four year and thinking more in terms off. Where does it live? You hear a dog barking? Where? Where is that In the frequency? Because you just couldn't go and target the frequency on Bring it down. Okay, so this is number three. So I'm gonna go to the factor, okay? Sharply, bring that frequency down. So if the dog barking is in here is in, say, for example, dog barking is 5 50 Then I come here and my dog barking stuff is completely, almost completely gone. I'm ready for your spot. Minus 20. Can I go coming? Go any lower? What is really disappointing? I can't go lower than that. Yeah. Okay. Whatever. There are few things disappointed from black magic. Actually, the equalizer is a big, big, big, big problem in fair lights. Big problem. Um, anyway, okay, for somebody who used to professional equalizers, this is It's not even baby level, actually, because if I want to reduce it lower than 20 dinner, it's my choice. If the dog is barking and I need to bring it to minus 40 and it should be, I'll be able to do that. Um, OK, but they're limited at minus 20. So it is the most advanced. They call as if they have is minus 20 and the least advance one. Is this one, Inspector, This is the least advance one. Is it limited? Minus 20 anos limits. He is appointed. Anyway, let's close this bracket about the equalizer on Go back to our noise Because equalizer is the best affect Aries. The best tool there is to understand things, to embellish things, to do a lot of stuff. That's why I always go back to the equalizer, to explain a few things that I could as this one and come back to my open my noise first. So this started. Open it with this one of their and then close the inspector and come back here. What have we done? We have given already to the noise reduction Perfect Before the given, the variety generated the noise profile and already given it to it. That's in their demand will. But now for the speech, all is going to do as we have seen in the equalizer demonstration, but that it's only going to go and kill everything below that 100. It is going to work on other frequencies as well, but at a lesser extent. So, um, when you come to the dry wet So this is let him fail. I do it. You do it for you and just doing it yourself. Let's see the difference now. It's not really much of a difference, but it's actually up to you. You notice there's still something. But why did it not really work the way I wanted to work for a simple reason that there's something that ships by default in noise reduction. Defector, you have this only para meter I want you to worry about. Don't even bother about all of these. Just this one. What is dry wet now? If you are a professional, you know what this stuff is. I'm just taking my time to explain it to the bigness. If you're a beginner, don't get put off by the dry wet. Actually, I would rather have the's sound professional people get their demonology right, because okay, dry sound and wet sound is like, Why don't you just say it's because it's making a complicated for you as a big enough? How much of the effect you want applies for? Just click on pushing the left. How much off the effect do you want to apply? How is it? 0% or is it 100%? If it's 100% then it's really is going to remove the sound. Let's listen to this. Sorry for that. Just got into another clip, OK? If you hear any other noise is going to be from the front of my laptop, which is completely outside the project. But this one. So, um, but I think I'm just going to give you the system. Sound off the laptops that you don't hear any. Anything else. Okay, so you hear the movement, their hands are touching, actually, the bed surgery about But that's it. The sound is the noise is gone. For a simple reason that you have actually opted for applying 100% of the ethics. So dry wet is just simply how much are they doing apply? You may decide that you want to go. That's OK. If you want to go with 1% just don't think Yeah, I just by the fourth wish to one of us had to move on. Sometimes you're gonna have Nazi art effects. Let me open another bracket because this is not your traditional classroom teacher on the filmmaker. And I would rather have you get things done right where they need to be done, right? And it's where your during filming. When you're filming, you need to do everything possible and imaginable to kill all the noise. Everything. Don't say yeah, we've got a fancy noise reduction effect in fair light is going to take care of that. No, Everything comes at a price when it comes to noise reduction. Noise reduction comes at a very heavy price. It distorts your vocals. It gives something, really not because it goes and takes away information. It's not only 0 to 100 even if you do it. Automatic. What, did you do it manually? It doesn't only take 0 to 100 frequencies. It needs to go and look for similar, um, noise in other frequencies as well. So it's going to take away from your vocals. Andi, have you ever heard a voice and you start removing some frequencies from the voice? That's how you just thought it Now that's how you embellish it. If you do, if he's very, very carefully sculpted. Using this word from three D Sculpt in. If you sculpt your voice, as in increasing a certain frequency, reducing another one. That's how you embellish it. But if you do it randomly, you can distort it. Okay, Noise reduction is the last thing you want to do in post production, but it's the first thing you want to do. This might seem a bit weird because you want to do it in filament during filming stage. I've shown you now how to use it, but I have to and highlight the fact that switch off your fans switch off the refrigerator . Oh, you know, you know the tip. You did the trick off. Put your car key inside the fridge. You don't forget it. That kind of stuff. Make sure everything. So don't forget Teoh to switch on again. The free agent. And when the location owner comes back after two days off shooting or three days of shooting, the place finds everything the fridge special. If it's our it's a big school, if it's a big restaurant, or especially if it's ah hospital on, you've got plenty off medicine and stuff that it's in the fridge and you don't want don't touch anything. Don't touch anything in a surgery room or in a hospital without the breast nail doing it themselves. Um, even if it sounds OK, that's because the hospital is a completely different beast. It's complete everything all right? So everything is to be done at the film film a level you can live with something. If it's impossible to switch off, you can live with it. And that's where you come here. And you know you have to pay a small price, but you've already don't everything to reduce it. And it's just a stein e little bit that you want to take away. This is what noise reduction is meant for. What you look at now, this fellow here, this one is not meant for reducing for removing noise. This is meant for your think your noise that you could not have avoided during filming. Okay, so again you apply this to the club. You're going to click on learn click play clothes. Of course, learn is the empty area where there's only noise. Don't do that. When there is vocals you need to stop. So this is another thing during filmmaking, and I'm going to open another bracket because it's important. It's not just a matter of pushing buttons on the noise reduction dialog box when you're filming, There are some things that you need to be aware off for noise reduction. You want to leave some space in your recorded. Okay, if you are in control, you're going to want to use the couple bold. All right, okay, if it's a fiction film or if it's and documentary or whatever, you need to use a club, a board that's very important for sinking and forcing for visual information for recognizing the video clip as which taken Which scene and blogger? Okay, after that, you want to be quite. If you are the guy who shouts Action, you want to be quiet for some time because you need this empty space before people start talking. Generally, when you say action actors are stressed or they they know they need to do something. When you say action, they're going to start doing it. They're going to start talking. If you just clapper board in an immediately action, then it's, um, you have given yourself very little information to feed Fairlie to feed the noise profile, which basically means it's not enough to do proper noise reduction. So everything relates back to filming. You need to have a little noise. You need to give space, preferably in the beginning, because I don't know if you're gonna end up doing it in fair, larger or if you want to do it in Adobe Audition or anywhere. It's the same recommendation in the beginning. You may think now we were gonna do it to the end. When you say cut, sometimes you may be thinking, OK, I'm going to let the actors run the scene and one, it's fit. Once it's finished, I'm gonna let a few seconds for a sound for the noise for fire? Um, yes. But it doesn't always work, because if you're gonna use another application Yes, I'm No, I'm talking about fair right now, But if you're gonna use Adobe audition, um, bed lock, it's not gonna work for the automated option. It's not gonna work. So this is why it is my role to tell you how to always get it right. Get your space off noise at the very beginning. Okay? And this is how you remove noise, fair lights, individuals or 15 7. Denoise using (2) Noise Gate: noise reduction in Fair Lloyd in DaVinci Resort, 15 can be done several ways, not only by the effects library effect, which is noise reduction. There's another method. There are several methods actually on. You may want to combine or use individually these techniques. I want you to look at the tools. If you're a beginner. Wants to look at the tools that you have in fair light as a tool box. Like you got your hammer. Got your screwdriver. These are all tools spread around and you want to use them for specific tasks like Ford noise. You can use an expander. A type of expander is called the gate. Where do we find that? Okay, if you come here to the to the new mixer, you have for the truck, okay for the track. This is one of the limitations I need to be harnessed fully transparent with you. Fair light has got a few limitations here because this kind of stuff you'll be able to employ it on track level. Okay, so not on the clip level. Which basically means if you want to have something specific for an actor, then you're going to need to have the actor on a separate track, which is, by the way, the recommended way on this is the professional way. This is like the best practice way off during sound. Post production is tohave one actor track, so if you have the policeman here that we see, he needs to have his own truck. I'm putting this stuff all together, for the purpose is just to go quickly through the demonstration off the technique. But when it comes to put in a project like you want to dissect the proper sound proper professional sound Chris production for your project, you need to have each individual on a separate track, regardless of whether the application or software that you're working with is limited or not limited, or has any any limitations in terms of what you can do it cannot do. This is the recommended way. So have every person on a separate track, please and call the track the name of the person. It could be the name, personal name or the character name. If this guy is called Mark in the Filled and it's gonna be Mark okay, when I say fair light has got a limitation, I'm talking beyond this best practice because you may need to create several tracks for the same person. So Mark in the police in the interrogation room Mark in, um, outside Because the eq you can be slightly different. Okay, the voice profile changes not the votes of the person. The recording of the voice changes based on the interaction of the voice with the environment. All right, so I'm gonna close this bracket here talking about track versus clip. But if you have your sound for the person one person in a separate track in what you can do is come to the mixer, OK on, then, for where the track is, it's going to be named here. You know what? Let's just it up. I don't know. Um, that student No. So it's gonna be a okay. You can rename say, this is Mark. It's not the case, But you can just rename it like this. Okay, I'm just gonna go back to order one and here, you see? Okay. Mark's gonna be a one. A one you can see here. This is our voice. Find I'm gonna go with solo here, And what I have is the dynamics. What plenty of bells and whistles. Yes, you can come here and use fair light noise reduction, which we've just demonstrated. But the next bit is going to be quite interesting. Which is dynamics. No. Dynamics is something that includes a lot of stuff. Okay, it does. It does a lot. It's It's one word for all of this stuff. You've got an expander you've got a compressor on. I've got a limit on. And we were thinking, Why did you skip gate, where Gate is a type of expander? That's why they're so close to each other. It's, um it's one of the sons of the expander. Expander is the father. Gate is the son is one of the sons, and it's the elder son. It's the most renowned one in the village, so gate is the best use. Most use off expander. Okay, the best way to use an expander is by using the gate. What is the gate? One of the very, very, very few exceptions in these sound postproduction world gate. It actually means what it means in English. One of the very few exceptions. It really means what it means in English. It's a gate. It's a door and I want you to think in plain English. Close the door. Opened the door, closed the gate. Open the gate. It is a gate. It's not just a metaphor. It's a It is a gate. OK, that's how it behaves. It's exactly gate. So what does he do? What can you do with it? With a gate? It seems like I've got threshold range ratio. Attack holds release all the time that you were just telling me this stuff was English. And now there's all sorts off attack and hold and release and range. And what is ratio? Where is the treasure or than? All right, let's forget all of that stuff, OK? Forget about all that. Assume these things do not even exist. Number one, they're going to need to activated. Okay. Want to work with something? You activate it. Compressor limiter, whatever you want. But in this case, we're gonna get so into activated once it's activated. You see that? Something it bears here. But this something is based on the default values. I I'm going to talk to you first. About what I get is on. I don't want you to look at those intimidating perimeters. All right, listen to me for a while. You have a gate, say, there's Oh, let's let's go back to some sort of fantasy film under I don't know, Like, um um I'm just thinking of something. Okay, let's not give to that. I don't wanna go to foreign example this Have you have a big castle and you've got a gate. That gate is, um, closed all the time. That's by default. You're not going to have the castle that is your house. The door is closed by default. This is exactly says the beautiful thing about this gate being really explanation in English. You're This gate is always close by default. Your house, the door is always closed. That's by default. You open it when something on event happens. So when do you open it? When we use the gate for noise that it becomes a noise gate. What does that mean? I I'm going to have all the noise outside. It's like you have a very big crowd off people demonstrating outside and shouting and making all sorts of noise. And there is one ambassador coming from somewhere or somebody coming with with a message or something. And he's walking very quite and coming to you on he reaches the gate, you are going to open the gate, let him in and close it again, living away these people demonstrating outside making noise. That's what this game does. So when it comes to, how do you set it? It's basically based on the DB decibels level. And here I need to open a big bracket so that you don't miss up big time, right? You need to know if you thinks when you are filming and every time we're gonna talk about anything in postproduction, I'm going to refer you to film in because this is how not to miss up badly when you're recording vocals. And now we're talking about mostly vocals because the gate is going toe is going to open basically on the level off the decibels and the decibels they live in a certain the lower decibels tend to be noise okay on the higher decibels than to be more like, um, voice and other sounds. OK, so when you are going to record, you need to record your vocals at the right decibel level on the right dissemble level to avoid frustrating you is one number. It is known everywhere on the planet Earth. And even if we go to Mars, I think is gonna be the same. It is minus. I'm not sure I don't know about Mars, actually. Sorry. Um, it's minus 12 db. Okay, it is minus 12 db. So this is This is the level around which your sound recordist is going to make sure that the vocals it's either pick at minus 12 or they play around minus 12. It's OK, but if you if you keep in mind as a reference minus 12 you're good. Having your vocals Blaine up minus 28. Your big in for trouble You are seriously asking for trouble in all measures you go to compressor, you're gonna get hit heart. You go, Teoh um Teoh Normalization. You're gonna get hit hard. You're gonna need to New didn't normalization. Remember? He would talked about them. Just go back to work flows out because this one Yeah, Okay. Remember we talked about this, uh, did normalize here. Normalizing not to normalize. I mean the mistake that you are when you make a mistake, Then you need to normalize. This is a mistake I'm talking about if you're going to record lower levels than you should . By the way, if you look at the screaming, it looks like it's not really white. It's it's orangish is because I am recording that night and I'm applying. I have. This is Windows Machine. I'm using what is called F locks, which is reduced in taking away all the blue lights, which is better for your life if you are going, too, if you're spending a lot of time editing doing stuff that is not related to color. Okay, if you are a one man band, work like filmmaker works late at night. It may help you if you are in them. Um, if you have a markets already in there, it's the night shift. But if you've got Windows, you get the clinics. You better get the influx. It's free off charge. Just look for if looks in the desert for it looks, it's not placating. You can apply, and it just takes away the so I can now record until whatever time. And it does not impact my sleep because the blue light is eliminated. So just close the bracket In case you look at this, You think it's too orange? The columns of destruct are distorted because it's not impacting this course for a simple reason. We talk about sound not about image. Okay, let me close this and go back to our messing with the levels. If you are recording during filming, if you're recording something lower than minus 12 DB If you are playing around minus 30 minus 28 months 24. Man, you are looking for trouble. Seriously, Because you are going if you come here if you're going to. If you come here to the gate, how are you going to ask the gate to do that? Now you have mixed the person who's got you want to let through is too similar to the crowd that's making Louise. How can you recognize the person that's coming in? You won't be able to let him in. Okay? So because it's too close, if you are going to set this Look at this. The threshold is it minus 35 by default. I don't need you to take all the defaults and just keep them the way they are. We gonna change this stuff, okay? I don't think the divorce are good here. Um especially this one. The hold is not is not good. You shouldn't have zero. Anyway, we expect Black Magic to do homework. We should do it ourselves. You can't record on minus 28. You cannot record I minus 45 45 is disaster sport. You cannot. It needs to be on minus 12. So when you do it a minus 12 then if you have some sort of a noise problem, then you can come and ask your gate to take care of it. Now, Gate does not work on its own. It works in combination, other things. So you're going to do noise reduction, which is mostly going to operate frequency level. It's also actually, to be honest. It also does take into it's got some sort of a gating inside it. It's so it does frequency on DB combination. But But if you want to use the gate and you should be able to different, you're going to to. Your voice is leveled at minus 12 db. Therefore, you can kill this the the noises around minus 40. So if you come here and you bring it down and say, OK, I'm gonna bring this one down to look, I didn't explain what this is. The threshold. That's that's the next bit. It closed the bracket with important voice vocals minus 12 db. Clear. Good. Okay, let's move one. No, the threshold. Now this is the door. When does the door open? If you say I'm gonna set it to it was by the fourth largest researcher. Defaults was by default, minus 35. It's not very, very, very bad default, but I'd go for something like minus 40. What is minus 40 is the B. It's minus 40 db. It stays DB here. Okay. One is 40 db. It basically says the door is always closed. The gate is closed. If this signal goes beyond minus 40 which is minus 39 mine's OK with the the values, the coma values in between. But you get the point minus 39 So higher, minus 39 minus 38 months. If you just crosses minus 40 we opened the door. Okay, so we let the signal that is more than minus 40. We let it in A soon as the signal drops below 40 reaches 40 on drops below We close it again. We Onley Let sync sound signal that is higher than minus 40 TV. This is why you need your vocals to be playing at around minus 12 so that it's far away from the gate weaken. Let make sure it's it doesn't get mixed with it. So this is opening. When do you open the door? When you open the gate. This is your threshold on. Then the next bit is going to be. Actually, I'm gonna skip the range. Come back to it. I want I want it to be lost. Let's go to the attack. Attack is how fast do you open the door? How fast do you open the gate you need? If I start talking now, I'm gonna say something. I'm saying something when I say I am. The first part of I'm is a bit quieter than I. Then when you reach the eye for talking milliseconds, here we are talking milliseconds. Why is this important? Because you may be thinking Justice Martin Tiner. Details were talking about me. Seconds is not important. Milliseconds do make a big difference between a human sound that sounds human and something that sounds robotic and cut. Okay, so you need to react fast. So the merman's a signal goes beyond minus 40. You need to be extremely fast in open indicate, because that stuff is good. It needs to get in. You don't. Let's start. You don't let stuff outside. That's good. With the get closed, it needs to get in, so you better get in quickly. Okay? So you need to have a very fast attack time. I do not disagree fundamentally with the default value off 1.4. Okay. You consider one millisecond bubblies. Yeah. 11.4 is fine. You can have it default. It's not very bad. It's a very fast one. Okay, so this is a pack is how fast do you open the door? How fast you open the gate after the distress hold is reached. So when he's reached, how fast you want me to do it? We're talking about one millisecond. Okay, Right. So you need to be very fast. The second bit is the release. Which is how fast do you want me to close it now? Because the signal has dropped below 40. How fast You want me to close the gate. Well, because we want to avoid robotic. Um um And natural feeling vocal If somebody's speaking or actually for any kind of words, even for music. If you want to leave the tail, you know, every voices go tell. You can see it here from the way form. Okay, there's a tail. See that tail over? Look, at some point in time is going to drop below a certain level. What if we got it here? It's gonna sound a natural. This is why we don't to have a higher mawr forgiven kind off medium. Release on. I don't think you want to go with 93. Probably a bit higher. Okay, 100 could be kind of fine, but probably be tire. You can even go with 400. Absolutely. Find 400 million seconds is about Yeah, it's quite It's quite a lot for you. I mean, play anywhere between 102 100 something like that. We're talking about a huge difference between how fast you opened the gate and how fast you close it. This is because we need to get all of the sound. If I'm talking now and you miss and you missed the beginning of what I'm saying. That means you've been to slowing open the gate. That's why you need to be very fast. And if I'm speaking and you don't even let me finish, you won't hear what I'm saying. Last. That's why you need to close very slowly. Okay? Which means we've managed to capture our vocals and the noise has been left out the noise. So we're not going to remove everything. But this is one of the ways to get away the noise If somebody has speaking or I mean also some noise. Sorry. What I mean is all sorts of consistent. Nice. Okay, so if you caught the farm or wind or whatever, So what we have here in between what is hold? It's the right place. It's in between attack and between host. What can it be? Wait, let's imagine there is somebody. This gate is a okay. It's not a person to somebody standing at the gate. It's not used in a remote control or any electronic stuff. It's somebody opening it. That guy is asking you. Okay? You have told me how fast Open it. I'll be that fast. One millisecond. You have told me how to how fast? Don't need to close it. I'm gonna close it with them. Very, very much Lower, Much lower. Not very slowly, but much slower. And but I know this guy is talking to you now, but I know that people talk. Um, when they took there are some millisecond breaks between the words. I want you to go when I say I want you to go. But the difference between I want when I moved to I want there is quite a lot of milliseconds between I and want. Now, this gate is just doing what you said. Don't blame him. You said close. It's going to close. So do you want to close after I still I'm going to say want. So I want the actor is going to say I want Are you gonna close between I and want? That doesn't make sense. Okay, So this is why this zero doesn't make a knee sense whatsoever. As a default, I want you to increase this something like 60 or 50 or just live a few milliseconds difference to wait. It's going to What does it really mean? It means that the signal is gonna drop that we already know. Okay? Because of the difference between I want the signal has dropped between I and want, but the guys telling you Okay, I'm gonna wait, because probably there's another word coming. And it wouldn't be or look or feel or sound natural or realistic to close the gate on reopened it again because I may be cutting from my and I may be cutting from the other one . Or simply breathing, which is part of speech, is gonna be eliminated. And we got some robotic effects or stuff. So hold is simply the guy telling you there are a few words, and I understand that there are some gaps between words. And how about we wait until all the worst, that's all. OK, now, having explained, um, this part, let's go to the range it is. Um, So what do you need? It's It's like Okay, what's above minus 40 we let it in. Now the question about the range, what's below 40? What should I do with it? And this is the part where I'm gonna drop this example off somebody standing at the door for simply telling you that the signal that is less than minus 40 TV. What do you want to do it. Do you want to? Kids like zero zero basically means, like, just dropped through reduced or you want to reduce it by 12. We want to reduce. So this is how you can influence by how much? Oh, sorry. You are going to increase by how much The signal is going to be dropped. Okay, so if you want to kill, it's gonna be increasing. This you see here the gain reduction. So if you do so, you do nothing about it. Basically, here zero is you do have There's nothing about it but you. If you're 18 it's like reducing it by 18 before value was what was 18. So you're going to reduce by 18 which is here. So it's showing you here by how much the crowd, The noisy crowd is gonna be muted, not meters like it reduced. If you want, you can push it up to minus 60 and then because minus 60 seriously, then it z, you've literally killed everything, right? So this is how it works. Range is actually what do you want to do with minus? Would what's lowered the threshold that you have set in here. And this is how you set your you gate. So it's important that you understand that you have a few prince for noise reduction, Not just this effect. Let me just close this one. Yes. You have this effect here that you can apply, but you have a few other options. You have this gate. You also have the possibility actors to do it manually. You know, these effects? They're just a few mathematical operations that happen in the background. You can do that on your own if you want. I'm not gonna go through that because if you are looking at fear lights as a big enough even for on a vast user, you're going to use generally the dynamics and you're going to use the noise, the existing things. You can do it on your own manual it using to eat you. Because if you use a Q and we're going to talk about the EQ you actually, that's what I do. I do it in three waves. Number one, you let the I do it with the noise reduction number two. Then I put in a noise gate. Okay? This is basically making sure that all the noises being killed a number three. Then I do a proper CQ with, um, come in. I'm gonna open the Eker. Harold Lloyd's number Number number. What? Let me go back here. Yeah, OK, slightly go to slideshow. This one, Number three, number three. But I just got a fairly briefly talk about it. Not really explain it is. But to tell you that actually, I also use it for noise. Let's come back here and for the EQ. You open the eager here. This parts He said this would default on this part. If I click on band, see what this is. This is another way offering moving noise because we know if I'm going to talk, I'm gonna be at 100 on Male, so I'm gonna be a 100. So what I can do is this spot is being killed and this is slowly, smooth, smooth. It's like it just fading in. So all of this is gone. So what I do is first this one, then the noise gate, then this one. Then you're absolutely assured. Eyes is gone. What? To be really sure it's during filming. That noise is reduced 8. Compressor: now the next step is going to be the compression. Let's go back to our workflow and look at this. We've done the d noise. Okay? The next step is compression and you're going to look at this and you say, Well, compression e que Well, let's start a week. You probably do it Capricia later. No, the sequence is as you see it, it is no different. You first the noise, then you do compression. Then you do seek you. You do not do the eq you before compression. Why? Because when you equalize, you actually are changing the, um that your sculpt him. You're artistically choosing, which I'm deliberately using the word artistically because it's your choice to increase a certain frequency and then reduce another frequency on. You're really, like, scalloped in the vocal, sculpting the sound you're making it on. You like it? I'll show you what you'll understand when I say sculpting. You understand what it means when it comes to you. When we reached the point of equalizer, if you do that work and he didn't compress, it's like you put a sculpture undone. Yeah, you just put it inside compressing machine and than push it from both sides. You're gonna ruin your work. That, basically is that you've spent so much time making it sound great. And you go into compress. You can't do that. Okay? So first, compressing compressing comes to solve a problem. A que comes to solve another problem by compressing after eq You You actually, and doing the solving off the other problem. Yes, you managed to solve the problem compression, But you have done the solution for another problems. Basically, you have recreated the same problem you had before that make you came to solve. Okay, so we'll understand all of that. But the sequence is extremely important. And why do we move to the Aesir later? Because if you don't understand what a Q does, there's no point moving to the user. Uh, di essere is another week. You It's like one of them. It's that's the is the cousin is a cousin of the EQ. You OK? It's not really their quote very, very strongly related. Actually, e d s A is one part off. Yeah, it's the same logic. So compression is next. That's what I'm trying to tell you. It's you could go with the limiter. Fine Limited could use at any time. But I just choose to put it last because we just don't want to forget any of these four critical ones and in sequence. Let's go back and see what compression is. What is compression When I said it comes to solve a problem, what kind of problem is it? Let me take you back to the scene. I have here a particular scene which is absolutely wonderful as an example for this. What do we have for this? But for something commuted to time line? Okay, I have old Sorry. This media, My apologies for to the timeline. What do I have here? I have a scene where I have I've just taken away the young. Now, that's how we do it. Just taken with this is two screens. One screen. OK, I take it this I've got here. Just if you focus on these two, Okay. These two clips. I've got a woman. There's a policeman in what seems to be an interrogation room. These guys have spent five hours continuous in the interrogation room and the policeman is not able to get any information out of the lady because she has done absolutely nothing matching. There's the guy who has done so from her this morning, my telling you this story because you need to understand why she is shouting consistently and she's not speaking slowly. Not slowly. She's not speaking quietly. You are going to understand the difference for the policeman, who sometimes is shouting, and you can see it here. This is the peak. But he is a policeman. He serves the public, so he needs to remember that as a professional he needs to bring Lucky's needs. To contain his emotions. Can is to regain his poster. Okay, so way. See that he's here again, slowing down like talking very trying to be nice against. Like he has something that needs to get out of her. She's an innocent person, okay, that's why he knows that she's an innocent person, but she knows the person who does it, and she could help them find where he is now. She has been kept here for five hours, and the only thing that she could possibly do is he wants to go back home. She has nothing to do with all that. She's all shouting. What does all of this story have to do it. Compression. Now, I've been just explaining this story and talking about compressions like, Why are you just telling me all of this? Can't you just explained compression? What? I'm telling you in what kind of circumstances you're going to need it. What kind of problem? To your half. In this case, it's not big of a problem, But in this case, you have the policeman shouting. So this is the beak shouting and then speaking quietly. Do you know what this means when you go and watch TV? Um, on or you are in the cinema. And if we don't do compressions, you know what's gonna happen. You're gonna jump from your seat at a certain moment because the signatures to high, he's shouting and you're gonna struggle with here and what he's saying when he's speaking quietly. So the high the shouting is gonna be bod found speaking quietly is gonna be bad. Both are not working for you. Compression comes to solve this problem. It brings the higher down on the lower up to bring them closer together. It does not close the gap. The idea is not and has never meant to be to remove the dramatic depth off the difference between shouting and talking gently, slowly. Sorry quietly. That is not the purpose. The purpose is just to reduce what is called a dynamic range. What is a dynamic range is the difference between your highest peak and your lowest speak. Sorry. Pique your lowest level, you holler. I speak here of the level on the lowest one. So if the lowest is this one on highest, this is a huge dynamic range. The compression comes to reduce the dynamic range so that you, as an audience, have on absolutely wonderful experience off. Just live in the story. You don't need to go back after it's hurting. What did you say? I can't hear what you're saying. The purpose is that you have a professional production. This is why I don't even think of sending something that hasn't been compressed to TV. Forget it. I don't think even even if worse, theatrical release not sound not being compressed. God is a disaster because in cinemas you've got ah, live in TV. You have a remote control in cinema. You got nothin, man. You're just sitting there and by the way it's will not get through. Okay to not be accepted. So sound is not compressed. They send you back with, uh I don't know if it's gonna be a polite remark or something else. Eso this. Which is why we're talking about compulsory things. It's a must do. Let's go back now to Sorry. Go back to the lab for fair Light. Now that we have explained the logic behind compression you need this isn't just within a certain clip, because if he's speaking quietly and she is shouting, I'm gonna need to reduce the dynamic rates between this and this as well. But I need to do it carefully so that I don't ruin the whole field, meaning I'm not gonna dry one compression to the whole track and say yeah of compressed it . But guess what? You may have just increased sound that is unrelated to another too much it. I will draw the work by scene and compressed by seen, probably by location. If there is something going on in restaurant, then you get the restaurant season to compress based on that location or based on that particular scene. Instead of compressing a scene that is army explosions with somebody talking quite in a bathroom or somebody just shot in the bathroom. That's two huge different. It's two different compressions. Okay, You don't do one. That's why you have separate tracks. So every track is gonna deal with, ah, specific specific thing. Okay, so but tracks are meant initially to before people, you could have person location, a but same person location to you're gonna need to use a few tracks. Okay. You're gonna need to use a few tracks and how you will create tracks it just right click and attract, whether it's moral and you choose which one cook. Okay, now that we've talked about compression, let's do it. How do you do that? Compression can be done at track level. Okay. Important to know that it is a track level in fair light. It's a track level. We really hope that at some point in time, in the life time or fair light is gonna come on a group level. But for now, it's a track level, which means you're gonna have to open the mixer and come here. Go to dynamics. Now. When we talked about the gates, of course you have noticed is a compressor here. So let's come to the compressor and activate it. All right, This is how you work with it, and then you have a few barometers here. Now, the promises that you find here are not the normal parameters you would find in a normal compressor. Black magic has has given you everything OK is have. But it's no like Okay, because a compressor is normally five four meters, but not these five. So you have a threshold. You have a ratio, you haven't duck, you have a release and you have the makeup. This belongs here Now, How on earth are you going to? Because if you put it here, I've got a few critics on how black Magic has has done this started in film. If you've got hair, the makeup, you're gonna work with the limiter and say what? I'm gonna playa makeup off their limited. What kind of nonsense is this? Limited's Q is supposed to kill everything beyond a certain level. And if I am going to apply, especially if you do it with normalization again, normalization the source of all problems, Okay, It was there because you need to do it because you have a problem. But if you going to normalize and after neutralization employed limiter. Okay, well, said limited. It's not important when it comes to apply at any time. Uh, but I just like that. And that's number five, whatever. Just for Norma Sequels, if you normalize, which basically means you're going to bring it quite high, it could be at minus six. Fine. If you normalize at minus six and you put the limiter at minus six and then you you make some some compression and you do the makeup. It may go beyond the normalisation you could. It's, I mean, the limiter supposed to stop a minus a certain level of either or what is this minus? We're talking about that later, but when it's 21 is out of the question, you can't have limited minus 21. Okay, the default values here are completely miss. Stop. Need to change that. We'll talk about that in limiting the limiter. So I decided before values injury said, Yeah, stiff or value. You can have this. I would recommend. Black Magic knows this stuff is to know this stuff. They should be doing it themselves like it used to be something like this. Yeah, I know. I should be talking about limited. When I'm talking about compassion. Press over. This is this is, like the default one for TV Or even if you go to a trickle with minus six. That's how it's supposed to be. Anyway, this is This is a nice default. 1/2. I would love to see this, but minus whatever that is. 1 21 What is this anyway? Let's go back to the compressor. Compress it is threshold ratio. I'll explain the maternal other section A threshold ratio, attack and release. Old is kind of redundant here. It's a waste of time. What is a compressor? What does it do? Well, it brings these two things together. Now let's talk. Technically, what does it do? I want to set a level. So when I look at my, um, my way form se I want to cut at I just see representation here, you got You're gonna need to have the meters for this, Okay? Yeah, the meters. Let me for this purpose. Just close this just such off the sound because, actually, you don't even need to hear this this stuff is like you need to hear it. You just need to see it. We don't need to hear sound for this. I'm gonna play this and would see what we get. Okay, so this is reaching. It is quite high. It's really high. So what does that mean? When you look at the meters here, it's That's almost minus three. There, minus two point. Something has reached minus three. What does that mean? Okay, when I look a destino, I say is OK, I would like this close this go back to where Iwas, you know it's here. Fine. Nice. Let's go back to the mix on to decompress the threshold is the level off db as off which the compressor is going to start working now. Now you get in the point. This is something. Since I'm the same thing at the gate, you can activate the gate and a limiter and everything at the same time. Fine. Actually, it's the only option you have because you're gonna need to work with the gate. You're gonna need to work with the compressing. We need to work with the limited. So it's the only place you can find them. They're gonna have to activate. All of you are going to have way. Have explained what we talked about the gator. This is what defines when we open or close the gate. That's exactly the same thing. The moment you see the word threshold, this is when this happens. Compressor is going to start bringing the signal down. Or bring this bringing the single signal up when, um, especially for a forum down window, it reaches minus 15. So if it reaches minus 15 it this makes kind of sense, Okay, Because you may be thinking vocals on minus 12. I don't want to go too far beyond Okay. You need to stop up minus six. This is the absolute most important. Think you want to know? For TV, there's a lot of stuff, but number one you need to stop up minus six. Whatever you do, if you're recording. If your experience, if your background is music, you've been working with the monastery in minus minus zero. Fine. If you come to TV, it's minus six. If you go into cinema, it's minus six. So if I'm gonna play at minus 15 it makes some sense. Why? Because there's the ratio here. What does it say? This is a threshold. As off this threshold, I I'm going and this is a slightly different logic to this. OK, so this is different logic. You know what this ratio is? 2 to 1. What is this? If I increase, it's gonna be that one just doesn't change. Oh, that's nice. They let you go to 20 which is a bit too much. But anyway, it's if you go 20 you're very close to being a limiter. Except this now is almost a limiter. My legs about explained. Have you noticed that it's always compared to one? What is that? So if I bring it, I don't like this seriously. Well, anyway, we should have had 1 to 1, which basically is it's not working toe once one is is for every. Let's assume you have a you're driving in the highway. Let's say it za place where there's a war or something. And then there are some things control points or something has happened in the city, and the police is looking for somebody, and you have this control points where the cars need to stop. What if you are now being told for every car that riches your, um, control point you let one car okay for this is you let one cargo always You let only one, but compared to for how many. So if I go off 22 here, what does it mean for every car? For every two cars that reached the point, you let one go and you push the other one to the site to get to to be searched. Okay? If it's if it's run them. Sorry if it's random search. Sometimes police do some random searches Friday night or any alcohol control. Whatever stuff, they could do it on a random basis. Not really random, but with the rule. Let's say they are using this room. I'm trying to explain the compressor work in this way. So you've got two cars for every two cars you push Wanted you let one go. Sorry. This This is not the car to get searched. This is the card that let that there is. Will it go? Okay. So one of them needs to be parked on. It needs to be searched. Then we move it. And what does it become if it's number three for every three cars. No, it's not. Search one it is. Let one go on Bush to to decide to be searched. Okay, so if we move here to 20 for every 20 cars, you only let one pass. So this is a very, very, very drastic compressor. 20 cause you only one go and all the 19 get pushed to decide. It's a lot. It's very dressing that's almost like a limiter. Limiter is for every 20 cars. You stop all 20 cars. It limits that nothing goes through. But in this case, it's not just like searching lettin go little millimeter doesn't let go. You stop there that's in destination. You don't go any side up. So, um if you have here four I know I've explained it is, but I really need to get this 14 for every four cars. You only let one goal three needs to be pushed to the side. Okay. All right. Now you made question maybe. OK, now I understand these para meters how they work now. But what number should I put there? Because I guess this is your problem. Your problem is not understanding these things because you This is quite simple. What numbers you need to put there? I'm gonna tell you you need to stay a bit away from when it comes to the threshold and I'll talk about attacking release. They are less important in here. But I would say, Yeah, they do matter somewhat, far less important than in the gate. But the gate is extremely important. Attack and release time is extremely important. But for the compressor to this important, that's the same logic. So I hope I don't need to explain this one. So how fast does it start working on when this one is? When it's below this threshold, how will slow or how fast does it release? It does. It does. It has fast. It starts working. How fast does it stop working? Simple. There's nothing on the hold. Just don't bother about this one. The other compresses don't have it. And don't worry about that. Just don't worry about it. There's the makeup that actually should have been here. This one Slovenia. Okay, this is a flux, right? Well, you may have noticed that that dialogue boxes just came in. Here is the influx, which is, as I said, in one of the other receptions. It's in application that removes the blue like this. What? This is why, when you look at this, it's gonna color wise look a little bit different from your interface. If you're working during the day because this is now it has applied an orange didn't removing all the blue. So, yeah, I mean, just if you look at this the color and you think what's going on, right? I have now the makeup. Now, I need to explain the makeup as well. Um, on DWhite figures, because what? Your problem is gonna be the figures. What numbers do I need to put? Yes. So what's the difference between 17 and three? Should I put three? Put 17. And when do I do that? Let me explain this when you do this se minus 15. Okay? I don't like this. I like to keep up the falls because for black magic, most of the time they don't get it right for me, except for this one is particularly actually, um, but for the threshold, I'll say it was not was not bad. I'm just go back. Minus 15 is not bad, actually, because if I'm targeting minus 12 was a peak for dialogue. Then it should be kind off. Okay, Yeah, I live it months 12. Because if I'm targeting from targeting minister for vocals and I'm going to start putting something like vocals I'm gonna go with. So if you have one compresses, it's to think, What value do you need to put here? The question is, I've got multiple answers for the simple reason that the compressor that we have in fair light is not multi band. We I work with multi band compressors and I strongly recommend never to work with, um a single, but not single. Just a simple compressor like this, But because it's the only one we have in fear light, you can still work with it. But the results are different when you have. It's like you have much more choice and control. Okay, You have much more control with a multi band multi month, meaning that you're going to be able to on this could be an invitation. Just you could look at it as an invitation to look for VSD pro gains your compressor. Multiple compressor. VSE plug in for free. Okay. You can buy one on that, you can use it. Actually, VSD works anywhere V C by default. If you've got Adobe audition, you can import it there. If you use it in fair lines, you can work there. It works in any sound postproduction software. This is the beauty. So if you buy something you think I want to have a proper multi band compressor, then it's gonna be there for you. It's not for fair light is for you. Wherever you take, it is gonna be working for you. All right. But because the agreement from the very beginning on the logic for this whole course under all series, of course, is whether for color grading or for editing. Now fulfil lights, also for fusion is to focus on the free version and to focus on the tools that are available in flight. We're going to work with half anywhere, still be able to achieve results. Okay, now there's a difference between it's like with this one, you're gonna achieve 85 90% would compressor you've got 100% control with multi band you 100% control. And this one is giving you, like, 90% control. No, bigger, different become a difference. But it could be big if you have a lot of stuff going on. But if you've already done your homework properly in terms of noise, do you know is in? Then you have less of a problem. You? Yes, I'm taking you back here. Um because now, if you do proper work, Julian filming and you do proper work during Denoix sing for post production. You can so you can live with one simple comm pressure in the compressor. You can you can get away with one compressor instead of having a multi band one. All right. Multiple would mean that for frequencies between zero on 100 We're gonna do compression in the one for 100 to 2000. We're gonna do get hurt. We're going to do compression over two different, same things. Did just different settings. Just you have 12345 Makeup is five. You can have another, um, just five. Generally, five general, five bands, 44 or five months on. Then you've got way more control, which is gonna help you a lot of the group. More noise. So you going to compress the frequency between 0 100 way more than the other ones. You're gonna be really gentle with the ones that are between 2000. 2nd 1000 probably 500. 1000 on 5000 6000. You better be really gentle. This is what takes us to what number should I put in there? What does gentlemen? This ratio is how strong your compression is is very clear. We're gonna push 20 cars from 20. You're gonna push 19 to decide to be searched. That's really drastic. That's if you're gonna let for every two. You gonna let one in minutes? 50% Your 50% tolerant, which is very gentle. Um, what do you have? One compressor? I would say. Let's Troy to four anywhere between two. And four. Okay. Do not listen to, you know, you're not gonna get a lot of results. It started off to you start feeling things that have to on what I say. Feeling things. Why did I switch off? Okay, so let me just check this one. Let's have a look at this. Let's get it to work. I'm gonna press ill. I can show you. OK, so nothing is going on in reduction. See, this is what you need to look at here. Gain reduction. So what is going on? If I push this a lot and I start again, you gonna notice that something is going on here? So there's a lot off much more work being done. This means that this is being, um the gain reduction is happening here. You doing the makeup here? And this is the final output. So this is the work, the result of the work of the compression. You see it here visually. You said, minus front 15. For every six you let one. Which means for every fight of 60 DVs Oh, this is our debates, by the way. So decibels for every six decibels, you let one pass. So if it's minus, if a signal has my less, um minus, uh, nine. OK, minus nine. Dismiss it. Six Davies more so it's gonna let just one pass is gonna be minus 16. Sorry. Minus 14. Okay. So if a sig if a particular signal is minus nine, it will bring it back to minors. 14 because it has killed five and it has left only 12 bus, so it moves from minus 6 15 to minus 14 and everything between minus 14 and minus nine, which is five. They all got killed. All the decibels of got killed. This is compression. So I don't want you to go be the young mind beyond eight when you are working in a single simple compressor. I'm not talking about multi band multi band you. You have way more control. You can be extremely drastic with the 0 to 100 kilohertz. There's 100 hertz on You can be equal equally, but you can be quite drastic with very high frequencies like we're talking about minus 16 kilohertz. Money 16,000. Sorry, not minus its 16,000 kilohertz to $20,000. You want to kill all of these ones? If you want compressed, um, to him, like compressed them too. Moved to minus, I don't know. Minus eight minus cell minus 10 minus 12 1 is whatever you have. Just not minus butts like 12 to 1. 14 to 1. Whatever you want, dependent on the frequency. But if you're talking about where the voice lives, the voice lives in the frequency. On average, 1500 starts at 100 it goes and you can see it mostly in 1500 then it starts becoming less and less as off 6000. But you still have the high frequencies, so you could not They hit everything with the same issue. This is why? Because you're limited. You're gonna have to stay at four. Try with four, and it needs to. Should be okay. Okay. Sophie applied at, um your your just check here. No, it's annoying. Is what We don't have the before and after view, which is which would have helped a lot. It would have helped a lot, but you've got the output anyway. Now, this makeup and I have promised I would talk about the order of Para Meters. Now we have this. So Okay, you know what number to do now? Just a little bit. Way down from the target. You could You could talk at minus 18. That that's fine as well. Minus 18. Just keep in mind your your a levels. It's gonna be about minus 12 for dialogue. Is that bounce minus 24 22. Probably in minus 24 music. Um, I'm not saying this one I'm not talking about the threshold. I'm talking about the target levels. Then your threshold needs to be somewhat lower than your targets. So that you are actually just letting things pass in measured numbers. Um, because you have only one compressor that you it's better to stay with four before is your safest bet for 23 If you have something really bad going on like a huge dynamic range Uh, Denny crab got with high like 56 Just try. Try to go without just just avoid distorting the sound, not distorting. Just avoid. Um, yeah, just just avoid being to a drastic with the whole thing. Uh, but you you can you can go as high as it needs because it is your scene and you know how the levels is going to. If the high dynamic rate is too high, then you know what level to choose the makeup. What is this makeup you are going to make up for the loss? That said, it's no makeup is in. Whatever you may be thinking, it's make up for the lost loss off. What? I thought the compressor came to solve a problem. Yes, but just like all medicine. If you go to the pharmacy and get a medicine, a source of problem and it creates more, that's your compressor. The compressor is like that. It's it solves the problem. It reduces the dynamic range. It picks the highest down the the lower ones up. But it reduces the overall level. The amplitude. Okay, let's call it the volume. The overall sound is a bit quite enough. And how do you know that? Well, you know it, because when you click on, let's let's just come here, we'll just work. We're going to work visually. Let's play this and you're going to see. So by how much have you lost off already and quite and quite grants. This is not gonna need to go back to the year wild one here. You know what I think? Yeah, I think because I'm working on a track. Let's come to the lady was really aggressive. Say, now you have this. You can see here you need You need to make up for this loss, which basically means it is the The idea is not to make the old you quieter. Don't get compression, confuse it with It's too loud Let's reduce it. No, no, no, no, no, no, no. The overall volume needs to stay the same, but it's just bringing the beaks on the low ants closer to each other. Do you know what this means? I'm losing game. I'm losing game here. So when I see her screaming there and yes, I'm acting on that this is a big loss that we're talking about. Minus six now minus eight. There's minus four months. Six months is jumping all over the place, and I'm losing a lot. So I'm losing how much I think it's about minus times go back in minus definitely minus five is gone. Definitely. I could go with minus six is gone. So this means that I need to make up for the difference on bring it up by five by six. Okay, so if I do this, you're going to notice that now, Visually, and it's interesting to work with sound visually, you don't hear anything. I don't hear anything. Is everything is visual. Okay, well, it would be nice, actually, at the end, up to two to listen t you out as a result. Okay. We'll be nice if we don't send it to TV without setting that. Listen to your stuff, but it's really interesting to work visually. So what you've got in here this goes back to you're initial sound. Now don't get me wrong. I'm using now what you call it amusing. The original footage, certainly for the original sound sound, which basically means we're just working on specific effects now if I'm talking, compressing, talking comparison, I'm not talking the final results because they're good. Notice that it's the output is actually reaching the red is the red bad? Well, the red is not bad. What is bad is going to be on one of six. That's what's bad. What's bad is that television station or for theatrical release for cinema. You have been told that this is not the technical delivery requirements, and what's bad is that you don't deliver those requirements on the requirement for TV's one of six. If you don't do that, then that is that. That is your red flag. It's no no. This is like minus five ish. This is not good, but this is not the problem of the compressor. This needs to be dealt with separately. Okay, it's a separate thing. You can a spot of the compressor. Make sure that. Okay, We don't reach that. But I would draw the keep it higher on use a limiter if if I if I have a slight difference . Okay, Because limited cuts, it just cuts across the whole signal, um, are draw the keep it, let it go, and then you use the limited later because they work hand in hand. Okay, so this is what we have. We are going to compensate. This is compensating for the loss we make up for the loss. So really reached a despite a meter was down here because it belongs. If you go to any other compressor in any plug in or any software you're gonna find that they have 12345 on this hold is like, Well, just holding space here anyway, is the same. Logic is like, When? When When should it start releasing by which this starts working again? Sorry. When? How long should it wait before it starts releasing? That's that's the logic behind it on this is your compressor again. It is very important to make sure that your high pigs off your way form are closer. I'm not saying very close a bit closer to your lower ones so that the audience experience is good. 9. EQ: the equalizer. Step number three is to apply on Equalizer. What is an equalizer? Okay, an equalizer is your best friend. It's what takes sounds from good to great. It also works on from bad to good. But it's the one that really will make your stand your sound. Stand out. Okay. What is an equalizer? Very simple. It works on frequencies. You are going to increase the volume off a certain frequency or range of frequencies. Hundreds used the volume off another frequency or range difficult frequencies. Why would you want to do that? Okay, let's go back to the recordings when you are filming or even recording their of the 80 are or recording voiceovers. Whatever your recording sound, whatever efforts you're going to make beyond the normal noise that you can hear yourself, there's another noise that you will only find out when you dig in their frequencies. Now what kind of noises that I'm not talking about your ventilator noise, your refrigerator refrigerator noise If you're filming in restaurant or your air conditioning or what? This is a completely different thing. We've dealt with that. We have talked about that back in film in June, Schellman and whatever is left you couldn't handle in film in you are going to take steps in number one. De noise. Used these ones to take care of them. Okay, that's a difference. Talk of most. What kind of knows am I talking about? No. The noise That is the result off the interaction between sounds. What kind of sounds? No, your microphone has got its own noise, has got its own internal workings. And when that sound is mixed with my voice with the vocals that you're recording Okay, would you focus it? You're recording. Plus, with the environment that generates and you know, is that didn't exist in the first place. There is no is that has been generated that did not exist in the first place. So this is not your family or your ventilator. This is something because it started recording it now exists because it captures the interaction between my voice, the environment, the microphone, everything around me. Okay? And it has sometimes not Sometimes I would say always, you're gonna find some really, really in nasty frequencies. That's how I like to call them Very nasty frequencies. I don't show you with different these frequencies are. But before doing that, let me show you where to find the EQ. You okay? Thank you. Where to find it. That depends on where do you want to apply? Do you want to apply for the clip level for track level for clip level. You come here, select your sleep. Sorry. You go to Inspector, which is like the parameters and then you find your clip. Equalizer. Now I need to talk to you like really, honestly about what you see now, the clip equaliser from Black Magic that you see in flight is very disappointing. But we're going to use it for now to demonstrate a few things and I'll give you another. I'll give you another advice on what to do about that. But I need to say that because honestly, I don't work with stuff like this. This is like this is a tiny, tiny mini mini in the mini but so infinitely small. I can't work without I work with 10 dance, OK, 10 bucks, Adobe audition. It's very small. It's only five events and this one has got to It is what it is. It says it has four, but it's for the purposes off the work that we're gonna do, We need way more bonds. Okay, but this is where you find it. Okay? We'll talk about that later. This is where you find your clip. Equalizer. Okay? And you activate it. What is activated doesn't even start. Where do you find the track mixer? So you find it in the mixer itself. When you activate this, you find your track. He makes Let me just open this one, okay? You only have one. There's only one track here, so this is CQ this week. You hear? You double click and you get a a much richer equalizer. Now, this is the closest you can get. A proper professional equalizer. Okay? It does have of the bells and whistles with £6 you may be thinking it's kind of a starting point. Not really the greatest art input, but it's kind of a starting point. You can definitely work with this. Why is it richer in the equaliser? A track level and very small and tiny in the clip level. There's no logic for that. I think it's kind of a mistake from black Magic. Honestly, I want to call this a mistake. You should not have a small clip. Equalizer. You want to have exactly the same level of control, whether that clip level or trackable, it's not because it's good that I have a tiny one. Okay, so let's let's stop talking about what we think about the Black Magic approach for for equalizers. And let's talk about the equalizer. What does it do now? I have talked about a few noises that you don't normally hear. You need to dig into frequencies to find them. Let's let's listen first to the vocal. Okay? Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Okay, now I did. I should apply here the loop so that we're able to go back every time because you need to have it in Luke. Okay. You need to have the loop equalizer. Always look on for a specific segment off the dialogue. Why? Because i'll tell you why. Okay, Let me bring in, okay. We were talking about this tiny telling me Equalizer. Let's use it. What kind of uses do we have? I would like to call it okay. Yeah, three steps. Let's talk about three steps to simplify. Thinks Let's talk about three steps. Generally too big objectives on three steps. What are the two big objectives? Remove the bed stuff. Embellished the group stuff again. Just two objectives. Bed stuff. We take it. Wait, the good stuff. We make it even better. All right, that's one on. You have some artistic choices in here for improving armed in volition. The voice. So this is the other objectives. Let's come to the translation in two steps. The 1st 1 objective off removing the bed stuff. You have two steps. The first step is removed the edges, and that's the burned one on the last band. Whatever number that is on, whichever one you have, just open the mixer one as well. On Select this. I'm gonna have both the open, so I just I just show you. So let's activate thesis one. So you need to activate by default. I think there always is activated in most in most equalizers because they want to give you , um, it's your choice, actually, whether you want to do it or not. So here, when I say removed the bad stuff noise you need to know that vocals for Male starts at 100 hertz. So weighs 100 hertz some way here. Okay, good. The vocals for female starts at 150 years, which is here. Somebody here. Okay, so what does it mean? Everything that you find here down here is not voice. That is just mumbling rumblings. Just it's just noise. So this is why, by default, the first band is roll enough stuff so you can set it at 100. And by doing so for a male voice. Now we have a female, so we need to go to 150. But I need you to remember that for male voices, it's 100. The bass voice, the the base frequency for a male voices. 100. The base requesting for a female voice is 150. So it's been get up to to own. That's jumps too fast. Ben, get up to 1 50 Okay, this is 1 50 So this is a female. We get 1 15 So what does 1 15 minutes? I have I have just removed everything below 1 50 rolled off everything below 1 50 I don't want that noise. That's not my voice. That's not voice at all. Okay, What I would like to do next is work on the band number six, which is okay. Depends on the note number in your equalizer. Normally would have, like, 10 bands, but on the very last band, most often than not, I'm not saying this is what you always do. But for bank number one is what you always do. I always I recommend that you always go look male. Female. Okay, Male. Put 100 female. Put 1 50 period. Don't we need to kill everything below 100? Kill everything below 1 50 That's dead. Simple. When it comes to the high frequencies, a completely different story. The voice starts at 100 but it doesn't stop. That's a thing. It does not stop. So you're going to find you. If you go to 20 K 20 kilohertz, you're gonna find voice there as well. Some voice, Probably the bad part of the voice. Probably the good part of the voice. We don't know. So the safest route. 90% of the times. If you don't know what you're doing if you've seen that if you see the equalizer for the first time, we're gonna work with us for the first time. Just go with the safest stripped. What? Is that really off. Remove it. So you always better. It's always better to remove things than to Adam when you're working with Equalizer, unless you know exactly what you're doing. So in this case, I would say we can say 12 k OK, I could go with Oh, that's way to number six was mine just jumped number six. I could go with, like, 14. 15. Yeah, it depends on you. Just listen to it and then see what it sounds like because it's all about what it sounds like. 12 could go something expect. Okay, so I'm going to remove everything higher than 12 because high frequencies can be quite distorting and quite unpleasant to listen to. Quite sharpened. And this is the village, the village where s lives? The letter s lives in the band range. I wouldn't say hired them 12 k because you can find it in eight K. Sometimes you find as dependent on the person the s that we talk about here in deep Essar because the SS are quite the SS FC. They're quite nasty. The court, they can be quite sharp. You need to remove them. So they live in the higher frequencies you're gonna find in a senior. Down here, you can't find an s in 500. Only 1000 because 2500 this is the core off your voice. And we look at that. When you talk about the number seven, which is music. The core off your voice is 1500. Keep that in your mind. 1500 male female. We don't care. It's 1500. It doesn't mean the exact frequency. It means If you want to target the voice, place yourself there. Okay, but that's for embellishment. All right, that's what that's for. Embellishment or tweaking, if you think I'll tell you that. So step number one for removing the bad stuff is removing their stuff on removing this stuff. Removing the low frequencies on the high frequencies that is OK. Could go safer for 12 gate and then try tweak for yourself and see Listen to it. Right now, the next bit is going to be so for now. You know what? I'm gonna do something really simple. Disabled this equalizer, please, because I'm not gonna work without on open a bracket here. I know it's maybe a little bit too much information of ones, but the equaliser is your best friend. So I'm gonna need to tell you everything about it because you are going to have when you're filming and you have a narrative fiction story or what? Having a documentary, What have you have? You got people speaking. Every person needs to have a separate track. So I do not have a big, big, big disappointment with black magic because I I actually have a proper kind of a proper equalizer track level. This one is completely rubbish. A clip level, but the one track level my makes kind of sense because this person, I am going to have her on one track. I'm not gonna have the other guy talking to her on the same track. You could not do that. You never do that. You always have a person. A track. So that's the 1 to 1 relationship. Okay, Not exactly. 1 to 1 relationship. That's another story because, um OK, especially for you, She's talking in the restaurant the interaction between her voice, the environments of the restaurant. Now everybody is quite again Just another um uh, opening another note here when your film in you don't Everybody needs to be quite so they pretend they're talking, but everyone needs to be quite. But still, there's an attraction between her voice in the environment. If I take that same lady on, put her outside that interaction between the microphone, her voice on the outside environment is different. So the key is gonna be different. Meaning I'm gonna need to have what different tracks for the same lady. So it's going to give her name is given a name. She is. Let's say Alexandra Alexandra and restaurant Alexandra in, um outside Alexandra in the bathroom because the bathrooms got different workings. Different environment. It sounds different. Alexandra, In this other place, you are gonna have plenty of tracks and this is why it is quite okay to have this kind of rich equalizer attract level because you're going most likely going to work with the equaliser track level. Then I sleep level. But if you have a person, let's say a person is going to show up just once. Just one word. Thank you. Like just a waitress. Thank you or something like that. Would you like to all that? It's just one word in the whole film off one hour and 1/2. Do you need a full track for that person? Probably. Or you may decide to have one track for the people who have only one line. But then you need to have to equalize up a clip because that what would you like to order is just one sentence that needs to be. You need to apply the acute just that girls clip. And then on another clip you have the driver is going to say, OK, we've arrived or something about I'm just coming up with stuff. But it just so if you choose to go with the clip root for those small roles, you can't. You're quite limited. So probably the your safest route is to take one clip. Sorry. One track of person. Okay, now we close this bracket. We have clarified that we have a way out. I'm not saying fair lights. You can't use acute in fair lights on saying you're only proper route is going to the track , which it makes perfect sense, actually, with how views would put your your voices into tracks right now. So the first part, as we said, is removing the bus stop. The second part is removing the bad stuff or what kind of bed? Stop talking now about specific frequencies. And I want you to listen at this beauty on. I wanted to listen to the rubbish. There is rubbish in the recordings and I've been talking about noises. And you don't know what I'm talking about. Probably if you're a beginner. So let's listen to that what you need to do. And this is have you always always, always do it. Take the second front. But a switch off the other. These other ones. Okay, Uh, keep keep those once before. Didn't this right over done this one? So what? You know You know what? You can switch them off. For now. We've already said them. 1 50 on 12 k was switched. The more later switched them off. The best way is to have everything switched off. And only one the 2nd 1 switched on And do this for me. Please go to the game and increase it to the absolute maximum and come here and make this this format, because this is how you're gonna target and come to the Q. The moments you moved to this format, you get the Q factor. Q factor is a fancy word, which is nothing else than wider or narrower. So this is narrow. This is white. This is narrow. This is white. It's quite simple. Don't get intimidated by these cure factors and stuff on. It looks fancy. When you go to every profession, you go to lawyers. They've got their own jargon. You go to surgeons in the surgery room. They've got their jargon. If you everything can be brought back to simple English, it's just the way of excluding the other professions. So Q factor. I don't You don't want to care what it is. It's just wider. Nowhere. You need to focus on the narrow now because we're targeting specific frequencies. So this is the frequency Now, this is what I need you to do. You're going to make sure you have looked on and you start playing from the beginning and you keep the group on, but you don't do it for the whole project it just big a certain but off the person's dialogue. If she's been talking for, say, 56 minutes, you're gonna do it for 56 minutes. Okay. You could but focus on a specific fragment, which is long enough, Like about a few seconds, like 10 seconds. Well, how long is this one other than that? Yeah, this is, like about probably 10 seconds. Um, and you keep looping over it because it's the same person to same environment. We don't care about the words, the dial, the content of the dialogue. We care about the person's voice, right? So it's the same thing. It's gonna be the same result anyway, even if you keep it for 6556 minutes. But it's work with something shorter. 10 seconds, 15 seconds and Louisville for that. And when you do that starts moving this one around. Now you don't care about all the other ones. Just number two. Don't bring it down. Keep it up at the highest game. And because this is the desert, the decibels and is that it hurts. I'm now moving and listening up each frequency. So I'm here where I know frequency 571 You're listening. 571 Okay, but keep make sure you stay at 20 558 now, I'm not gonna go. I don't know which frequency. The beauty of the thing is that I'm going to listen to it, and it is going to tell me what frequency. Now, let's listen to this stuff. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, our long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment, but not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes. Ah, long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains. Okay. Have you noticed when we are here on 815 generally 800 is a good target? That's why you find also Number four is by default on 808 100 is a wonderful starting point . If you don't know where to go, but I don't want you to use the numbers. I want you to listen to it. That's why you find that some frequencies are sinking. Have you have you listen to that? This isn't Listen to it again. Terms Speculations? Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculative. See, the frequency is singing. This stuff exists in your recording, but you don't know it's there until you start looking at it here in the frequency. Now we have isolated a frequency by increasing it by 20 dbs so that we can listen to what exists in that frequency. Rubbish. So what do we do with rubbish? We need to drop it. Okay, so we look here, we bring it down. And it was, what, 800. So let's go to our 800. Well, what? You could do it like step. Just stay where you were. Say it was like here. 800 kind of 800. Let's say it was this one. And you come to the to the game and you bring it way down, so don't move. It down with this one Because you may, you may I'll get the wrong frequency. Okay, so it states entered into and were being get down. We have just killed a frequency. A bad one. So this is the rubbish that you need to remove. And this is why it's not just one frequency, there are plenty of them. Then you come to the next one and you switch it on. How do you do? Exactly the same thing You increase this number three. Are you going to narrow it down? And you start doing exactly same thing and look for nasty frequencies. You found it. Fantastic. Bring it down on same story. You go switch on. The other one is mechanical. What a beautiful. It gives you fantastic results. What is this, a four? Yeah. Sorry. I just need to move the frequency because of already targeted. We have already targeted 800 with number two, So I was gonna move it somewhere else. Here, hand, make it narrow. And also that's my number three. I'm sorry. That's one of the three. So I'm gonna improve increase under like this on same story. You keep looking for your very nasty uh, frequency. You found it. Fantastic. Bring it down. This is how you go about it. Okay? This is the second part off removing the rubbish from the recordings, and you're going to end up with a much, much richer vocal. That's what makes the difference between great sound and good sounds. OK, so, um, unfortunately, we only have one. Uh, yeah, there's only one. You can't have 10 like 1234 These are the only ones you can apply. Let's check this one. Yeah, you can. You can apply. We cannot apply that. Not by this to do what we're doing. You need to have this form this form. Okay, This forum is what allows you actually to focus to zoom on one frequency, and the only ones that can do it is 1234 So this is like a very, very, very beginner level for equalizer. If you're just limited to four bands, this is the best that you could find the fair light. This is why I would like you to consider. Go in and get in a Blufgan VSC plug in an equaliser with 10 Vance. Okay, 10 fancy. It's much richer. because you get to targets more. Um um, frequencies. Why? Because you need step number three on step number one. Was what? Removing the rubbish here on the rubbish here, which is done by these bands. Okay, now we can switch back our stuff. Step number two was targeting rubbish frequencies. Step number three. We said your IQ is your best friend. It needs to embellish the voice. What? We know voices. If you have a voice that's to shop and you want to make it to be deep, ran Get. Give it more presence. You increase the frequency around 1500 or 3000. So what you do is you come to say number five. We are going to assume that we only found Sorry. We only found three bad, nasty frequencies. And the 5th 1 is going to be disband. Number five is going to be used. Embellish. Uh, the voice. It's not the case because you generally find find something like 6789 bad frequencies. And then you have it depends. It depends on the voice. But let's say this one is going to be used now for ambition. The voice. It's a choice. If it's you want to give it more presence of or make it richer, you do the same thing to change the format to this. Okay? Actually, this one you could do it with, Okay? Yeah, This is this. Actually, this is much better. Let's to track. This is much better. So once you've finished is ok. There's this format as well, which is actually pretty cool for number three. Yeah. Sorry. This for number three. You change it to this. This is the former you need to have. Okay, but for embellishing it, you need to use this one for removing. I'm just after, but that's after identifying. Okay. At the very end. Don't forget to change it to this one. This is for for targeting and finding it once you found it. And just change it to this because you need to target that specific frequency. The less frequencies you get, the better. Okay, so this was how to found it. So find it. And this is how to like. This is the settling the last stage as you need to make sure it's shop Good. Is this their case for another four years for number five because I'm going to embellish it . I'm going to first target. So I need to have it in this former, and I'm going to look at number five. Number five. Let's increase. It's a bids. Um, I'm gonna go to around 1500. Okay. 1500 is where the voice is mostly to the middle in here, but I'm going to increase that. But then I'm not gonna be using the Q factor. Like making it. I'm gonna do that. Absolutely. No. Let's listen to this. What I'm gonna do is something different. Distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. So this is a person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations? Yes. A long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Okay, so if you want to give it more presence that you go to around 1500 anywhere between 504,000 and you go into work on a range of frequencies because it's not about the number. It's about where the voice generally lives. It lives around, what, as 500? Okay, I'm saying around, as in an average, it starts at 100. You can find it strongly in five at 500. It's quite in here. You could very easily come here and target 500 Absolutely fine. If you want to bring in the base, especially for females, let's listen to this. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be see. So for a female, if you want to give more presence on a deeper voice, not deeper voice as in closer to make male voice. But it's more like give her more presence. If the role is a bossy role, then you're gonna work. You're gonna want to play with it at around 500 not around 1500 because 500 is more the base. It starts at 150 but you find most of the base around 500. Did you find most of the voice of around 1500 you see that most of it is going to start getting sharper. Otherwise, around 6000 on it starts getting annoying around for 8000 and above. That's where you find your annoying essence. So in this case, I think I would go with 500 just a little bit. We don't talk about two plus 20. We're talking just about a little bit, and it's all a matter off. You listen to it and see how granted little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. Okay, now let's try to listen to it before and after. Okay? Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distract much richer, much richer on this is just working with three bands on 13 about frequencies will just remove three bath frequencies on improved one area of the voice. Normally, we would like remove 67 but frequencies and improved on three others. You need to work with a 10 band equalizer. I want you really to take the equalizer very seriously, and it's some work and you may be thinking, well, this is a lot of work. I'm not supposed to do this all the time. Well, you do it one per person and that's it. Like most Okay, want the best for location? But chances are it's gonna be quite minor tweaks, okay, because it's the same voice. But to be minor tweaks, it's really worth it because it makes the voice much, much richer. 10. DeEsser: Okay, now we move to the D assert, which is another form off equalizer. It's actually a distant relative from the off the equalizer. You need to do that after the equaliser. So once you've finished everything about equals that you work on the D s er now there are two ways of doing it on. I'll show you the quick on dirty way of doing it. Which is using a DEA, sir. Maybe think it Well, that's what it's meant to do. Yes, it is what it's meant to do. So you just apply it and you get this dialog box. So this is Inspector. You get here a deep off twice. Okay, this is your DS. I'm just applied ones. And this is your DSL. If you close again, you can reopen its use in this one. But don't don't use you don't need to use these parameters off. All right? What is a de Esser now? The s the letter it comes from the letter as s is the sharpest letter that is quite annoying and it goes very hard. You find it in the high frequencies. This is why you see here that the frequency by default that starts at seven. K seven killer Gillard's 7000. So when your voice based voices that made start at 100 we're talking about the S is mostly in the 15,000. 10,000. 11,000. 12,000? It depends on the person. It really depends on the person. You have some defaults here, and I really recommend you don't bother using the defaults, not because they're no good, but because the person you are going to work on the person's voice is unique. Yes, there's female. I'm going to say this should apply for females. You can go that route if you want. I would recommend you just do it person by person. You just listen to the to the S go to find the SS on, listen to them and try to find them in the indium, Um, in the in the frequency. So let's get this on. Listen to it. Yes, along. Yes. Okay. Yes. Has the s cool? Yes. So if I come here and actually, um, applying assessed it up about the female s, it is going to take it away. But you know what it's gonna do? It could mess up with the work with Just don't for the eq you because you know what this is doing. It's exactly the same as this. This is the equalizer. Okay, this is the tiny one. But we remember in the track one and the big one. We've been playing with these things. Take them open down. And I'm just going to come here and compromise on the whole work of done. So the best thing to do is to sharpen it like this. You can get wider or sharper if it's just ah, you can choose. But I would go with a sharper one on then select. What Frank would see is the s in. But how do you know? This is why I would recommend the second meant that the first method is to come here, apply one of the defaults or do it yourself by knowing, say, for example, it is an eight game. How do you know the best way to know it is applied The second method, which is like the only method I use by using the equalizer because the equalizer is your best friend. In any case, to understand frequencies, you need to look at the compressor and equalizer to DS You need equaliser to use equalized I need the equalizer Everything happens mostly with the equaliser Even for noise you can remove it with the equalizer So let's go to the equalizer I'm going to remove this TSR for now I'm saying for now because you could very easily Is it equal as a diagnostic just to identify the SS on? Then come back to the D A search Apply it now Let's remove the DSL for now on Goto our track where we're going to apply our s close Inspector Mixer on Goto our pick you now India Que If you remember, we have done this work Now the s is somewhere that say it was gonna be someone here, but we don't know where it is. So how do I know? Very simple. I'm going to use one off these now. Unfortunately, I don't have anyone spare, so I'm gonna have to borrow one. Uh, I'm gonna borrow the 800 because it's quite famous. I can remember It's very easily. I don't remember these frequencies that are specific ones, but 800 is in almost any voice is gonna be nasty so I can remember this one. So I'm going to spur of this one Burrow. It means I'm gonna go back to this phone Number two on this number, Ben Number two was my number two. He is my neighbor. I'm gonna bring up to plus 20 and do exactly the same thing with them for the equaliser. But this time I'm looking for the S. So what I want to do is come to the higher frequencies on that start around here. So you only gonna play here nowhere else. Only here. Okay. And in the meantime, I want to not to destruct. Um, let me just see 46 are standing in the way. So I'm just gonna disable them temporarily because it's standing in the way of diagnostic. I could switch them on again any time I want to switch them on. So switch them off just to look at, um just I'm gonna need to search here. This is the only place I look for s don't bother looking for it here. It doesn't live there. I know exactly the where it lives. It lives in here all the time for everybody. Okay, So 56 hours off. 67 You're gonna find it s there. Now, how do we do that? Simple. Same story. Let's play that. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by little gains in short term speculations. Yes, a long term investment. I'm not the sort of person to be distracted by tell you I'm going to stop this. I'm going to stop this. Go back here. And I only actually want to get the Yes, because that is what I'm looking for. The letter s is being used a lot, but I would like to focus on that one. So what I'm going to do for this purpose is just in a very quiet, quick and dirty Selig. Just Yes. Okay. And then come back to my fe Lloyds and having its Lupin switch on this one. Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, I know it was a bit annoying repeating it all the times like Lupin. But you do this just once, Okay? I've managed to find it. It's about here. Okay? So This is the nastiest s that we could find, So all I need to do. So this is number two. You need to remember This is 7025. 7200 and 50. Okay, 7150. Make note of that. Write it down on a piece of paper and then come back to your 800 frequency because we just borrow this band. Actually, I need to go back to my 800 802 from the line up. Something like that. Okay. And then bring it way down to where it waas and then switch on the band six and four and say thank you to the equalizer. Your best friend. We close it. How we go back for the DEA, sir. You can do it in the equaliser. By the way, you don't DEA sir is just on equalizer. It's just many, many Equalizer for this. This is a de Esser. This is all you have. This is your DS. It's one part like this is the same thing. So you could very easily if you have enough bands, apply a d asahina move on which basically just reduce it to minus 20 and move on. That specific 7000 Children. 50 frequency. Okay, so what you could do now is come to your effects on to reapply to De Esa. Inspector, I have removed it. Okay, let me apply it. Now on. Uh okay, let's let's go get the proper clip. Now. It's just a for clip. Okay? I've just done it now for purposes off. Getting to Yes. Different. All right, now that I have might. Where's my dear? Sir? Here's my DSS. Close this inspector for now. Because this one for now on. Look at this. What was Molly? Frequency 7000 7257 to 5 ish. Okay, 7 to 600 mind. Okay. 725726 This is this was the frequency. And then you can decide by how much do you want to reduce it, DS? By how much? 80%. Something like that. You're not so bad. But you notice that, actually, I'm messing with my frequency. Here you go. Back to my seven, 25 73 now. Okay. Okay. Whatever. Good. It's It's not a very, very sharp number, but because initially you see how many frequencies are being impacted. So now if you listen to it, yes. A long term investment. A much softer unacceptable s. Yeah. Let's listen to it again. Yes, a long term investment. So the S is now are much friendlier. There are much easier on the ear. 11. Normalisation: next we talk about whether to normalize or not to normalize. And actually, if you need to, I'll show you how to do that. Okay, Right. Let's talk about the principles when you are going to be filming. So during production and everything we're going to do, there's something that needs to be done during production to make sure that post production is not a headache. So when we are filming, we need to make sure that our levels when we're recording are high enough so that we can hear the dialogue. For example, can you notice that? Actually, for this I switched off the Solomon Sexual descend, so we're not going to hear it? What? We're gonna do it visually, but I want you to see how incredibly low the level is for this clip. And I have deliberately taken the wrong sound. This is the sound of the camera, the cameras further white. But I had to demonstrate this with something I need to find the I need to find rubbish sound to demonstrate the the mistake that one could make or would make during I am filming . So he basically you need to normalize, which is be which is to increase the level off the overall level off your clip. That's what Normalizing. So you're going to increase the level off the whole clip, the volume level. So amplitude we're going to increase the amplitude. When do you need to do that? Yes. Okay, fine. Now it's a big quiet. Can you just increase it? No, no. Hold on a moment. That is, during production, you should not record at low levels. This is why you haven't on audio mixer and not just an audio mixer. You have the mixer, the guy himself. So whether you go for one person or two people, that is your choice. Sometimes one sound guy is enough. That depends on Europe on your budget. It is the same guy who's using the boom whose makes him There are people like this. OK, and you can get that. And that depends on your budget again for production, you also have on day need to pay themselves. It's their responsibility due to pay attention to are the levels. So before you start and you have noticed, sometimes they need to ask the actor or actress before you start the scene that when they placed the level lovelier mark. Or when they get the position off the boom mic, they need to ask the actor to talk 12345 Or actually say the line. The best practice is to say the line, like do the performance and rehearse it and you're going to rehearse. Okay, so before the real shooting, you're going to hear us. You're going to block the scene, you're going to rehearse and stuff. You don't do that In the absence of the cameraman and the sound guy, Why do you think the sound guy needs to be there? Because he needs to get the right level and for whom? If you've got three people talking, one guy is allowed person deep voice very loud, and a child has got probably is a bit quieter on. They've got another lady who's even quite a that he needs. The sound mixer needs to pay attention to that, and he needs to adjust the levels, which basically means his mix in for each one of those channels. Okay, so this is why sometimes you need to have two people, but what, one or two? That's not our problem. This is a complete. There are other considerations that get into whether you go for one or two people for sound . But the main bit here is that we need to make sure that our levels are recorded properly and what is properly minus 12 db if you don't know what that is. Simple minus 12 db Dialogue minus 12 db Okay, on whatever you're going t record. If it's a different story if you're going to record, um, um, shotguns or explosions like real explosions we had we had we had here somewhere. An explosion. Let me just check. This is this is Yeah. We have an explosion here on. It was quite loud. Now, an explosion. You are going to need to bring the mixer levels way down to make sure that you don't reach the zero. Okay, so it's all about making sure that you get the right. Just check this. Okay. This one. This one has got gunshots. It has gunshots. Like, can I have the, um, yeah, I could get the meters here, probably. And C Yeah. All right. So I'm gonna check here for you to show you that this isn't okay. Here we have. It's gonna be some sun. Some gunshots here. Okay. Gunshots. Thread has reached zero. There are some moments where it needs. We need to hear the background, so it needs to be quite loud, and all of a sudden you're going to need to reduce it significantly for the gunshots. What you hear here? It's not here. What? You see, these are real weapons on, not real. Bullets are blanks, but they really behave like the real ones. And there as loud as the real ones. So and then we get the army that's coming in. Okay, so here we have real good. This is this is just clipping is all the way clipping on what is this? Where this is the camera sound. This is why I wanted to show you the wrong part of the story. But the guy who's Rick was mixing has got quite, er, I mean, you've got your own, um you call that you've got your own approach for that, you're gonna have three files when you're mixing. I know we're talking about normalization. We're talking about this step postproduction, but it's all about what you do to in production. It's all about making sure you don't need to normalize all I'm talking about. I'm making sure that you do not need to normalize. Because if you need to normalize, you've missed up really badly during production. That simple. This simply put, it's a nice way of telling you you've made a big mistake. Now we Let's correct it. I'll show you have corrected. I'm telling you, this is how to avoid it. Now, when you're recording something that is extremely loud compared to what needs to be brought off, say, in here there's nothing actually going on other than the gunshots. So we still need to hear their footsteps. We still need to hear Theo environment. So we wanted to catch that as well. So we okay, we can add the footsteps later and stuff and whatnot for the You can always do that, but we want to capture as much of a possible of the action. So when you do that, you end up with the need off recording Different. Told you tracks on audio clips. So you end up with us. Actually, auto tracks. You end up with one track that is simply what you think is going to work, which never works, and then the second track is what you think is a safety net that you're going to use if it doesn't work, which also is not good. On the third track was you think, Oh, we're gonna set it so low that we don't think we're gonna use it. That's the right when they're going to use, because the gunshots are really, really loud and explosions. But this one's got an explosion. He's got an explosion somewhere. All right, So sorry. Sorry. This is not It's not this scene. It's the same. So it's not this shocked. It's the same. Seaver's got on our explosion somewhere in the back on. Then it was very loud. So this is what you need to do mixing. You need to get the right level for each one of them. Explosion, You stop at minus six. You dialogue, you need to mix it up minus 12. You've got some of the stuff going on. Just make sure doesn't go beyond minus 12 so that it does not compete with its not competed to dialogue. This is how you makes your stuff during production. Now, this is how you make sure when you come here to your steps. You don't need to ask the question whether to normalize or not to normalize. So it's come to fair light again on talk about this. I have gotten here. I've taken a, um, a clip that is an excellent so excellent that you can't you can barely see the way form that there is no way for me. It's so quiet, the guys talking actual. It's just press on this. You were not gonna hear anything but the guys talking. You can see it's talking. You see, the levels are insanely low. It's incredible. We're talking about minus 40 to minus 50. But this isn't what the recordist has. The sound guy didn't record this. I had to come up with the sound from the camera to demonstrate the need. If you made a mistake, I hope you never, ever end up with a situation like this where you have your dialogue at minus 40 this is technically a disaster, right? This is where you need to normalize on normalizing. What is it? Not good? Why do we do it? Only when we have made a mistake? Because it's what's bad about it. It's your going to bring go everything and what does everything mean? Even the noise that you did not hear when you d noise is gonna be Now it's gonna be brought up. Now you're gonna hear a new noise that wasn't there in the first place because you're bringing your if you want to move from minus 40 to minus 12. Do you know what that is? That's a huge difference. Now take any noise and inject minus 28 to it. That is a lot so but I'm gonna demonstrate. Let's say we have had a mistake. All right? Now, if you end up in this situation, what should I do? Normalising. You don't do it on a track. Gonna do it on a clip because it's clearly and I think it makes perfect sense For now, there are a few things that Black Magic has done really, really well. And others, like we talked about Deal Limited. When where the default is completely out of proportion. In this case for normalization, you only find it when you right click on a clip which is going interesting. I really like that. It basically standing. You okay? You have messed up for this shot. So you're gonna It's not a track level. You don't apply to track level. You don't apply to the master level. You may think you want to do it for radio. OK, radio is a completely different days. Think altogether. Even for radio, I would say, Get your levels right. You don't need to normalize for radio. You're going to normalize for ages sometimes. Okay, that's a different story. But when you're talking about a film project, you need to get your levels right because you have different radio. You have one kind of sound. It's one person talking, sometimes an Indian sound and sometimes music. That's it. But we were talking about dialogue. You have different people, and you have. So you need to make sure that for every actor or actress your levels are set properly. So how do you make sure that the lady's voice reaches the minus 12 as well as the loud guy who has? Okay, the guy has got a loud voice also reaches minus 12. You need to tweak in the mixer, right? So how do we do that? You right click a nuclear or normalize order levels. What does normalize mean is basically, as I said, even sorry, that's quite disappointed from Black Magic. I'm not even able to move the date of the box, but actually, that's not really bad. It's not really disappointing because you've got this arrow here, which tells you this is for this cliff. Okay, that's pretty cool. That's fine reference levels. So what's the reference? The default value is zero. It's not very, very, very bad as a It's okay. It's not extremely bad as a default basically means that you cannot go beyond zero. That's what they really mean. But, of course you can't go beyond zero this level. I mean, DaVinci resolve is for films. It's not for music S O I Okay, the default values. OK, it's OK. It's kind of OK, but you don't normalize that zero, okay? You will never normalize it. If you limit that minus six, you can't normalize a zero. You cannot normalize at a level higher than your limit. So always pay attention where you get this number four from, By the way, this number So here default zero. So what number should you put there? The idea is you always look at your technical delivery requirements from the television. Is it minus six? Okay, so that's your limiter. And that's your normal Isar. Probably the case for the normal Isar as well. I'm saying, probably because it's going to depend on your on your, um, audio clip here. Now, what is the difference between gain like increasing the gain? Andi normalisation. When you increase the game, you're going to say add so much. So add 10 dbs to this clip. You're going to increase the over your overall volume with 10 babies, but the number you're gonna put here, this is not the additional. This is the final destination. So you're telling fairy lights make at whatever you need. Okay, add whatever you need to make sure that the highest big on this is the main point you do to be aware off that the highest level that we initially had reaches minus six, for example, when we say normalize when I click a normalize, have you noticed that my click controls it? Remove it? The way form was almost not there. It was so incredibly quiet. And now when I wrote normalize its, which basically means I'm going to ask for the destination This is the destination. The final destination off the levels two B minus six. If I click will normalize, then I now see. Yes, I've got some to some stuff going on now. Do you know what happened? It has increased the the higher one. So what happens in reality is that for normalized levels we caught have already done. It s so I'm not gonna do it again. It's minus six. You know what minus six means What's the highest level that we had in the first place was minus 40. OK, minus 40. What it really does is it takes the highest one off minus 40 and it takes it up to minus six. So that is a difference. Off 34 you are going to inject 34 d bees to the highest peak. That's not the only thing to do. You're going to inject 34 d bees to every single signal, including your noise. So you in this particular one, I have added 30 Whatever noise was there. Like even if there's some noise that C minus 60 minus 65. I have managed now to bring it, huh? To about 30 because he got minus 60. So you're you're about? Yeah. You're just going beyond 30. Something like 26. Something that waas, minus 60 has no become money. 26. That is very loud for a noise. So this is why Be very careful, please. During production, I don't want you to need to normalize. But if you happen to need lets you can You can do it this way. Okay, So this is normalizing and this is how to avoid normalizing. 12. Limiter: Now we're going to talk about the limiter. The next step is the limiter, and we are going to find it in our must have list. Okay, This is not a nice to have less is a must have. Blessed are the limiter. You need to have it, but you can apply it at any time. Although it's mentioned as number five, you can apply it even in the very beginning. Fine, it's your choice. But it is usual. That is the last thing that you do. Very absolute. Last thing that you do is the limiter. Although you may think sometimes that normalizing this if you happen to need to do it can be the last thing to do. But the limiter can be applied at any time now. The main two questions, actually three to the 1st 1 is going to be what is a limiter limiters? Simply you're going to cut all the signal beyond a certain level of Devi. So in terms of volume, if want to think in plain English in terms of volume, it should not go beyond a certain level. On the second question is, what is that level? Okay, The answer for that I am going to give you a universal answer. But I'm expecting you when you have a project for a specific television or a specific distribution channel that you look at your technical delivery requirements and it's this is the name of the document. It's called technical delivery Requirements. So you have a list off a lot of things they need to to complied with, whether for video or for sound. One of the things is is gonna mention a minus number DB Okay, it needs to be at minus something. Debate this month is something DB This is your limiter number. That's what you're applying the limiter. So when you get something, audio needs to be a C minus 60 B. That's the number on the universal number I want to give you, Should you not know what you should use is always minus six is always to be minus six. Now wait, I'm not talking about music here. We're talking about fear, light for filmmaking. So filmmaking is one thing just like for sound when it comes to music versus film. When it comes to the killer hurts, you are going to do for music. 44 UM 44,100. That's for music. For film. You do not work with 44,100. You work with 48 kilohertz. Okay, so 40 44 comma, one killer herds for music and 48 colors for film. So when it comes to limiter for music at a complete different story, it's around minus three. I'm not very familiar with the music stop, but I think it's ministry. You could even go to zero. Um, but I think it's modest rate the I mean the limiter as not not reaching zero. That's what I mean. But for film, it's minus six, and it is all ways minus six You could have. You just need to comply with your technical deliver requirements. And I think that for most television stations everywhere in the world, it's gonna be minus six, so you're safest route is minus six, but you always need to look at your technical delivery requirements. Now, this is answering the second question off. Okay, what's the number? Good. Now the number is minus six. Now, where do we apply it? Let me first show you something. Actually, because I have said OK, we've got the green screen again because I have said that the limiter needs to be applied all the time. I need at least to show you the reason of existence why it exists in the first place. Because let me show you this example. Here I have here a scene where I have to. Actresses are going to do what? This one this actress is going it it she brings down the handles of the bed. These are metallic candles. They are quite loud. And I have taken the sound from the camera to demonstrate the limiter. I'm not using the sound from the court with good sound. I'm using the bad sound to show you what the limiter what kind of problem millimeters comes to solve. So when I play this, you see that it breaches here zero on This is really, really bad. Okay, You never want to read zero. But here in this case, I'm using the camera sound just to demonstrate the point. So the limiter comes to solve a problem. But it's not something that you apply Only when you notice you are clipping. Okay. You don't use it on a need to use basis you always must have it. Whether you feel comfortable. No, no, I'm not reaching even minus six on minus five. We don't care whether you think it's mine. You have rich or not. It's basically simple. You applied the limiter because for simple reason, this is your safety net for yourself. Even if you know, having applied your compression, I've been applied your normalization Say, for example, you do you know your normalization. If you feel the need to do normalization, you do your normalization. Then you come back later and you do some sort of compression on a specific segment which is troubled numeral commander, because normalisation should be the absolute last. Think you want to think off in terms of doing in terms of list the limited you can apply any time. Okay, It's the last thing to use, but normalization could come after that. No problem. Normalising is in terms off sequence, but because we're gonna place this one in a certain place and this one in another place, we're gonna be OK or what? All the time. So if you come back later and to eat things and change things, you may end up with more than what you have initially planned. And you don't know you have because sound is cumulative, if you know what I'm saying is you may end up being careful yourself and say I'm gonna be doing everything around minus six, minus five, and I'll monitor that with my eyes. Now you don't want to start with your eyes. You can look at it just to make sure you get a good feel. When it comes to the final delivery, The limiter must be there. OK, now where do we apply the limit? Now that we know the number, now that we know the reason for existence what it does, it cuts the signal. Where do we apply it? It belongs in a track. We're definitely in a track. We know that because in here it says dynamics. So we could come here and we see the limiter and we click on that and you work. But then hold on a moment before we apply this. Which track? Because for your projects, we're talking about the final delivery. So do you think it makes sense having worked on a full project and it could be a feature film off one in one hour and 1/2 of almost two hours, which has many actors that have speaking roles. And each one of these actresses gonna have his own track. This is the best practice. One actor, one track, period. Okay, so on you've got, like, 16 actors and speaking roles, So that is 16 tracks only for dialogue. We're not even talking about Foley. We're not even talking about the on being sound and then adding music. If you happen to use music for some scenes, then it and so being a lot of tracks and then you lose. Actually, I'm gonna be a blind limiter. Its track. No, you don't do that. You go way a d a. There you go. To the end, to the monster. Look at this. So this is why different by the force? Because when I imported, this has got the maximum off eight here. But you can add as many as you want. You can add the track. Okay. You need to apply it at the master level. So m one, you go here. So I mean, just reset this stuff here on clothes and come back here to the muscle liver, and then I Come on, applied the limit of the master level. All right, So, yes, you're going to have your gate and compressor open, open activated in the track spun the limiter. You always have a distractive ated into tracks and activated in the final master track. That's where you catch the wrong signal. Any signal beyond that may have escaped to your attention. Okay? When you when you're working with so many tracks and so many scenes and so many people shouting sometimes and you got a car crash and I got a few things going on, you want to let the dramatic depth off the story reveal itself through sound Because sound is emotion. But at the same time, you we don't go off board. So your limiter is the last man standing. It needs to be at the last gate, and the last gate is going to be your master track. So here we come here to the master track, and we open it and we see dress. Hold on. I have just mentioned the number and you look at the default value here and you think hold on a moment. Black Magic has written minus 21 four. The default value. Should I take that? Maybe. So you have minus 32 0 No. Zero makes absolutely perfect sense. Minus 30 makes way less sense. And minus 21 is probably the weirdest. The fold value I've ever come across. You should never, ever, ever contemplate. Even it should not even cross your mind that you would limit I minus 21. I do not understand why Black Magic met this huge mistake offsetting this default value at such a level because your dialogue is gonna be at minus 12. So setting a limiter at minus 21 is is out of the question minus 21. Your music is gonna be playing anywhere between minus 24 minus 20 sometimes minus 18. If you really are, you could bring it higher up, but it is going to be the limit is gonna be minus six all the time, most of the time. So you can't. I mean, this is the wrong part off the decimals. Definitely. So you always are going to be way higher here. Minus six. OK. Minus six is for television stations around the world. You could go for ministry for music. What but it's never, ever, ever going to be minus 21. This is one off the most unacceptable default values we could we could think off. So minus 21 is completely out of the question sometimes. And this is why you need to pay close attention when you open some some effects and you look at the default values, you may think, well, these are professional people. They know what they're doing, what we hope they do. But in this particular instance, you see that this makes perfect sense. The attack on the release Now we have talked about attacking release a few times when we talked about the gate noise when we talked about compressor, we should be familiar in our attack and release. When How fast does it? That's the effects work on how fast does it stop working? Kind off. So attack and release. So this is how fast does you d limiter coming to auction when we reached this level and how fast closing the gate closes the gate for everything here. So on how fast does it? Ah reopened again. So in here we have 0.7 71 milliseconds. It makes absolutely perfect sense. It's brilliant because you need to have very, very fast attack time when it comes to going beyond the limit that television set in a TV or festival or four theatrical release cinema or for the they have set technical daily requirements. You need to be fast into applying that. So less than one minute, 2nd 1 millisecond is brilliant. But minus 21 this is from a different galaxy. We can't even think of this. This is not this is completely out of the question. This is out of proportion. This is This doesn't even belong in the world off limiters. It's, um I need you to be aware of this things. So default values for black magic most of the time do not make sense, Miss of the time. I mean, some some of them do like the threshold. Starting point for minus 35 is kind of vocational, though you would want to be between minus 15 minus 40. Okay, kind off. You should be. Stay away from your really signal. Um, if you're sounds are about on an old like planes, you have some sounds of 30. Then being a 35 is quite close is too close is dangerously close. All right, so in here we are talking about a signal minus six. Okay, so we said we apply it at the master level. We come here and activated and you set minus six. All right, if you don't know what to do said minus six all the time because minus six is the safest one for all delivery for all technical deliveries around the world. Now, if you have another number communicated to you, that's what you should use. I would recommend you just keep the default value. One of the exceptions for black Magic software leave. Leave this default value for the attack. It's kind of find it can use. It. Could move up to one family. Second. It just needs to be quite fast. And for this one its final. Don't you notice that it's 93 93 it was 93 here. So the moment you see release for gate release for compressor released for limiter, these things do different things and you still see the same default value. It's a copy paste. Why? To copy based. But I don't disagree fundamentally with that. For a simple reason that the release doesn't need to be as fast as the attack for this, for for the limiter. So it's fine. You can go down to 60 kind of 60 of some lie about. Okay. What? These are these are the the, um, the main barometers. Okay, so for you limiter just to sum up, it comes here to make sure you don't go beyond the center level, and you put it at the very end in terms of sequence, better you do, it's at the very and and you put it at the very last track, the muscle track. And you just make sure you never, ever, ever leave it at a default. Wrong value off minus 21. You need to have minus six. Or actually, you need to have it at your technical delivery requirement number or if you don't know what that is. And if it's your own project, you're not delivering anything to anybody. Say, this is my own for my own portfolio, for sure, ill. But it's money. Six. That's the That's the best is the best practice. OK, 13. The right way to mix Music with Vocals: mixing music with vocals in DaVinci Resort. 15. When you want to mix music, you may be tempted to go the common weight and wrong way off, using your key frames, al increasing and reducing the level and amplitude like the volume of the music based on where they're there are vocals or not. There's dialogue, Arnold. This is really the wrong way to go about it, because you're gonna completely distract your audience and I'll show you how wrong it is. Okay, let's go back now to the timeline. I'm going to take it to the timeline here, and I'll show you the scene. This is a scene. It's a dramatic scene. It's a little girl who has lost her father, the father, and was trying to save his daughter. They were caught in a war zone in the middle off fire exchange. The father goes hit, got hit in the head. Hey dies on her lapse. It is a dramatic scene. The child performance is absolutely astonishing. We are going to bring to that more dramatic depth, but using devastatingly emotional music, the two are going to work together to give us the right amount to deliver the right emotions to the audience. Now, you do not want to mess up and ruined the scene with the wrong mix and technique. Okay, I'll show you the wrong mixing technique because I insist on doing that. That's so that you are able to see the difference. And then I'll show you the right way of doing it using the equalizer. Your best friend. All right, now let's listen. Let what we're gonna do. It is just a very short scene of 30 seconds. We have vocals. We're going to listen to the vocals first. Then we listen to the music alone while keeping the image, but no vocals. Then we're going to the listen. Listen to the music and vocals without mixing. Then I'm gonna show you the wrong way of doing it. What you're gonna find everywhere. Um, and then we do it the right way, and I'll let you decide whether you want to follow the professional way of doing it all. You want to keep with the key frames. All right, so let's do that. I'm gonna go back way, way back here to the beginning on. We've got just 30 seconds. I'm gonna mute the music for now on. Let the vocals run. Okay, so this is the aftermath. Like after this scene happened after another one where they were running away and he was trying to save her. So let's listen to this, - Okay ? Undeniably an astonishing performance from the child actress. Now let's move on. Get only the music. So I'm going solo the music here. Yes, I know. We work into the timeline for now. I'd like you to focus on this. The scene on more than on the music. Okay. - Okay . So this was the music part of it or it. So let's bring these two beautiful things together. That is mixing now. You have brilliant input. Don't mess it up with the cooking. Okay? When you've got ingredients, wonderful ingredients, we're not gonna miss up with the cooking. Okay, so we need to have proper mixing. Let's move now to fair light. All right. We're here in fair lights on. What we're going to do is we are going to mix it the wrong way. Shall we do that? The wrong way is going to be to create what we call key frames. So let me just increase a little bit. I think whether mixer for now and increase the width of this now, I actually was thinking even not to show you how to create key frames because that was my my attempt to make sure you don't use this wrong way. But I have the responsibility to show you how to create a key frame anyway, so let's do that. Created a key frame is quite simple. Just best alter option. If you have Mike open, if you have Windows bolt on the new click. So this is a vocal, okay? They've got a vocal here, and then here you have less of it, and then you've got no vocal vocal. Let's say we're gonna work with these vocal here on this level. I'm gonna create a key frame. And then there's another key frame here on at the end here. I'm gonna have another key frame. I'm just pressing other option and then clicking on K frame. And then I bring slowly a little bit down this if you get too much, you're gonna be like, just reducing the music too much. But you see the impact of what you're doing on the way form, say, on this way for him. If you increase it or decrease yet, you see the impact of it. So if you reduce it a bit, gonna be something like this. All right. You could even increase the with even more to see what you're doing. Okay, right. All right. Let me just bring again my vocals Don't know what I'm doing. And by the way, ready? Black. Choose to see the vocals here as well. This is a vocal. This is music. All right, All right. So this is the wrong way to do it. Please don't go destroyed. But I have the responsibility to show you how bad it sounds. It's do not absolutely terrible. And when you accumulate this over your project, it gives the impression off a very cheap ometer project. You cannot go this route and I will know. Try with other vocals. I'm not going to start putting other key frames. I hope you got the point. Okay. Lets no control said I'm just relive these key frames. Just pressing controls it now. Kill the last K frame. Okay, goodbye to the key frames. We don't need you. We rarely need to keep friends in fair light. Okay, now let's go back to our seen Let's do it the proper way, shall we not? The proper way consists off understanding the vocals. Now the vocals are on. This is extremely important. Now, this is where you really need to know the numbers, right? We talked about this, but I'm gonna talk about it again. Vocals for male Start at 100. The base, the base frequency. Starting frequency for males. 100 hertz. All right, this desire important numbers. Right. So we need to keep that in mind for female. You only have two numbers, so it shouldn't be a challenge. Your females is 150 right? How relevant is it in here in this case? Very 11th. But what we know and the most important part off these numbers is the number 1500. This is the one absolute number you want to keep in mind. 1000 500. You remember it. You're good to go. You don't remember it. You're gonna have to find it yourself. But you need to remember that actually, 1500 is what is the center? The core off the voice. It doesn't mean It's always the case, but you will never go wrong if you step. If you are somewhere in where 4500 it's anywhere between 4000. OK, so how do we? What do we do? Why am I talking about these numbers? I thought we were talking about mixing with vocals. That's exactly the point. What we going to do because we know the vocal is all about between mostly on mostly the core vocal is about 1000 to 3000 mostly playing at 1500. Why don't we create room space inside the music track only for that range of frequencies? So what I'm going to do instead of reducing the volume of the music, I'm going to create room and space for that range of frequency. Let's do that. Where do we find that? Now we're going to use our best friend exactly the equalizer. We come to the mixer here on because music is on a specific track. You're going to do that for the whole track you may be tempted to use. The idea is in the inspector here. You may be tempted to use this clip. Quark ELISA in this very, very specific circumstance. It works because you only need one of these numbers. You only need one. We were complaining that actually, we have too few for the purposes off doing to equalize it equalizes equalizer work. But for music mixing, it could be fine. So you want to go this route? Absolutely fine. Go do it there. You can do it in the clip mixer. No problem. But I'm gonna do it in the truck mixer. OK, let's go to the track mixer and come here and I'm going to my not the vocal. You don't touch the vocal because you've already done great work. You've removed the noise. You have compressed it. You have Don't your EQ You you have the estate you have probably needed to normalize it. You've done great work. Don't touch the vocals. You need to do all of this at the music level. So we come to the music here and we go to a three a three zar music. So we come to a three. Not in a 183 click on dynamics. Let me then close this mixer and get this screen a pair on. Let's get the dynamics. I'm sorry, not dynamics. That was a big mistake. Not the dynamics. I get my eq. You talking about my big friend Might my my best friend, and then I got the dynamics. Okay, My best friend, the equalizer is this. What I needed to do is switch off everything, accept them before maybe thinking, why not before in the beginning and equalizer, you said keep number two. And I was saying, keeping number four because I'm kind of lazy because number four is very close to 1500 either when a push to from here to here. Sorry. It's just started just because we're going to use the middle. Okay, So you said that the vocals live mostly here. OK, some were. This is where the vocals live. Here they start about here. Okay, This is from black magic. Like a mathematical gesture from black Magic saying mail is 100 families. 1 50 Let's go with the average. Guess what? Their average doesn't exist. You'd have a male or a female, but it needs to be 100 or 150. Okay, so this is the basement started frequency for the voice, which basically means there's no voice here. This is most off your voices here. You've got stronger. Based on 500 by the way. A very strong base of 500. Well, this is a female, so I'm gonna go go closer to 1500. 2000 somewhere here with their male or female. As long as you're playing between 3000. You're really good to go in any project, any situation, any person, any whatever. Okay, So you gonna get the one that's closer to this band. Number four on. What do we do? Are we gonna do the same thing off? Getting should need to have this form, by the way, need to have this form. Exactly. And we're going to make sure we are on 1.5 gigahertz. The gain You need to reduce that. Okay, we're going to reduce it. What are we doing now? With work? We're reducing the volume off a specific frequency inside the music track. We're not reducing the volume of the music. We're targeting a specific frequency where the voices, you know I'm doing now. I'm creating space for vocal. This is gonna be the your music And here comes the vocal Strong, beautiful, brilliant, loud, clear And the mix is gonna be fantastic. Now, how How low do you want to bring this? This isn't a matter off equalizing, though. We're not using the equalizer as an equaliser, so we don't as targeting frequencies for removing them. We're not going to go down to minus 20. Absolutely not. It's just a tiny little bit. And when it comes to the cure factor, which is a fancy, fancy way of saying, is it a wider, wide or narrow? So this is narrow. This is wide. It needs to be wide. So because we're not going to this isn't targeting a specific frequency with targets in a range of frequencies. So not to white, because that's a bit too much. Just a little bit like grind off like this. Kind of like this. So what I have I have here 1500 because it's a female, You know what I'm gonna do? This cushion are just push it a little bit towards 2000 just a tiny bit. Okay? Just 5100 difference sometime. I don't know. Something like that. One point something. Look what 55 Okay, 50. That said this. We were mathematically accurate. 50 more. All right, Now this is how much is his minus 8.5 db. I am reducing the volume of the music, but on Lee for that range everything else is remaining the same This way I keep both worlds . I keep the vocals clear, loud, fantastic. And I keep the music fully there. It just the music has been a little bit, um, more tolerance and has left the voice come in only for where the voice lives. The core voice lives in around 1500. Clear. Good. Let's move on now. I have already applied this. Let's remove this click, Click, Click here Because before they applied, it concedes supplied here. Okay, let's now come and look at the difference. Show me. Okay, - way . Okay. Now we may actually reduce it a bit further because I think that music has been mustered. It's quite a high level compared to our vocals because our vocals, if you notice have not been I've been actually fluctuating between minus 20 Onda minus four . Now I just wanted to demonstrate the music bit, which means that I have not worked on the vocals going through all the steps. I just took this clip from a project on. I just wanted to play with it. Like to demonstrate the technique, which means I didn't compress and because I didn't compress, I have a huge dynamic range between minus four on minus 20. That's a lot. So I still have the dynamic range, enormous circumstances You wouldn't need to do that. You would need to compress. So you need to go through this wonderful steps. The noise compress CQ dia's limiter probably normalized. Then you move to the music. I have skipped all of this stuff and came straight to music just to demonstrate this with the scene. So this is why I have between minus 20 and minus for so initially, it shouldn't be minus for at all, because the limiter should stop it at minus six. And I shouldn't have such a huge dynamic range because I should have compressed okay, now, because I'm only working now demonstrating the step number seven, I am going to reduce this further when it comes to the music just a little bit. I see. What I could do is, um Yeah, just just just Tim Anistan on the move. It's a little towards here. Maybe make it slightly wider. Okay, that's it. Good. Okay, so no one can listen to the final results. And as promised, we go in later on to turn off the screen. No images whatsoever on. Just listen to the sound. And you see that emotions live in the sun for now. Let's look at it with the image. - I think this was with image now, as promised. Kill the images. No more images. Um, close your eyes on. Listen to this way . Okay? That was it. How to mix music with vocals and fair lights. Individuals, all 15.