DSLR Cameras Made Simple - Take Pictures With Confidence | Andrew Hind | Skillshare

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DSLR Cameras Made Simple - Take Pictures With Confidence

teacher avatar Andrew Hind, Professional photographer and teacher

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (59m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. How a Pinhole Camera Works

    • 3. Inside the Black Box

    • 4. Inside your Camera - Shutterspeed

    • 5. Inside your Camera - Aperture

    • 6. Shutterspeed and Aperture Recap

    • 7. Exposure - How Shutterspeed and Aperture Combine

    • 8. Modes on your DSLR

    • 9. Set up your DSLR for Success!

    • 10. Get Creative with Shutterspeed

    • 11. Shutterspeed Practice Hints and Tips

    • 12. Get Creative with Aperture

    • 13. Putting it all Together

    • 14. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

If you have a DSLR you probably also have a large, fat and often confusing manual to go with it! You're probably full of creative ideas but frustrated at how complicated it all seems to take a picture on your DSLR and overwhelmed by menu choices and buttons.

This course will show you how simple the basics of your DSLR really are and teach you how your camera really works. We'll learn about basic settings and use your new technical understanding to take creative and artistic photographs. By the end of the course you will be able to control the camera rather than the camera controlling you!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Andrew Hind

Professional photographer and teacher


I have been a photographer since I was 16 starting with film cameras, processing and printing my own films as a teenager and then becoming a professional photographer in 2003. I have wide experience of shooting weddings, portraits and commercial photography at a professional level both using film and digital equipment and I enjoy shooting street photography on my Iphone in my spare time as well!

I also have a professional teaching qualification from Cambridge University and I have taught photography alongside my other work in schools to a wide age range of children as well as at A level to more mature students.

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1. Introduction: although under welcome to DSLR cameras made simple. I wrote a really interesting article a few days ago about microwave ovens, saying that they were well known for being one of the most complicated to use household appliances. I don't know if you've ever had the experience of going round to a friend's house and wanting to microwave something Onda having to ask how the microwave works. All you really want to know is what's the power setting and how do I change it and how do I change the time? But it often means that you have to go through a number of difficult menus and LCD displays and push buttons and things like that to actually achieve those two very simple goals years ago. When microwaves first came out in the late sixties, early seventies, they were they were provided with analog controls. There was just too controls. The power control push button generally Onda rotating timer. Life was much simpler and it was very easy to understand what was happening, and those two controls were made very, very obvious to the user. I think digital cameras have gone in really, in many ways the same sort of direction. Really, There are only two or three vital controls on a digital camera, but they're hidden. They really are hidden in this sort of black magic box of dials and knobs and displays and complicated user manuals. I've been a photographer all my adult life on I've been a professional photographer since 2003 on my early photography experiences, and we're on essentially manual cameras or film cameras, very basic cameras, which which now I think myself as being lucky. That's actually I. I grew up learning about photography at that time. It was much simpler in many ways and was a sort of grass roots learning curve where right where I really did learn how the actual camera functions for me, I've bean over to transfer that over to the digital camera, captured really easily, And for me, it's quite easy to understand how additional camera works. But for somebody coming into digital straight away, it's much more difficult. It's a bit like being sort of confronted with the multi function microwave with 49 channels on its an LCD displays and things and all you actually really want to know is what Paris setting do. I need on How long do I need to cook? My meal for this course is designed. Teoh. Cut away all of that mystique and cut away all of the peripheral information that you actually don't really need to know. For a start, as a beginner photographer, we're going to cover the basic operations of a camera that have Bean actually used on cameras right the way since the very beginning. Photography itself on really constitute that sort of 80 or 90% of all you need to understand about a camera in order to control it and take great pictures because is suitable for absolute beginners. I'm really, really clear that I wanted to be a simple honors ondas easy to understand as possible and for you to gain an understanding of how your camera works and for you to gain confidence in that by the end of the course. The cause might also be suitable for a slightly more experienced photographer who has some inkling of how the settings on their camera works but just can't really sort of tie it down and get a complete overall picture and understanding. So if you feel like you need a sort of grass roots, sort of back to basics, nuts and bolts explanation of what's going on in your camera. This course may well be for you. We're going to start off by looking at very simple basic cameras. We're going to look at pinhole cameras in facts, which are light years away from the technological wizardry of the digital SLR. But if you can understand how one of those really basic cameras works, maybe even explore on and take a picture and paint, take pictures with it. At some point, you really are massive way along the road to understanding how you're much more complicated . Digital camera works In the first section of the course. We will look at how the pinhole camera works will look at how light works will look at what happens inside a camera. I'll show you some practical examples with a pinhole camera. That I have a swell is looking at that in a slightly more theoretical way, within diagrams and talking you through how that actually works in the main second section of the course. We'll look at how you can apply that knowledge to your DSLR. My intention here is for you not to be concerned with things that the camera can actually pretty well look after it for afford by by itself, but to concentrate on the basic elements that will really, really make you a better photographer. So we'll set up the camera in this sort of win win situation for you. I'll talk you through that in terms of letting the camera so automatically take care of less important things and making sure that you understand and control really important creative elements of the camera settings and relate that to your pictures. There's also going to be some sections where this in practical tasks for you to do some suggestions of photographs to take on. Also, that's a couple of take away sheets as well that you can refer to while you're actually out your camera taking photographs. I really hope that you enjoy taking this course on that. It's the start of ah, big understanding of how photography works and that it really is the sort of thing that opens the floodgates to your creativity. I think hopefully by the end of the course, there will be several light, bold moments where you go. This is really not as complicated. As I thought on my goodness. This is You know, I now get it. The light bulbs will go on, hopefully on. It will be exciting. And that technical understanding really is the key to sparking your creativity on Did you being able to really express yourself a lot more creatively with a lot more control in actual photographs yourself? I can't wait to get started, so I'll see you in the next video. 2. How a Pinhole Camera Works: Hello. The problem with these big digital SLR cameras, I think, is that you can't see inside them. It's a sort of closed black box of magic tricks, isn't it? And it's very, very difficult to physically understand how it works. I think if you can understand how it physically works inside what mechanically it's sort of going on inside of the camera, then is much, much easier to unpick all of the dials and then knobs and the terminology and all of this sort of thing to gain a real understanding of how the camera works on also to take better pictures. The key to this is not to start with this camera for a start in terms of explaining it, I'm going to go right the way back. Almost this sort of the beginnings off photography Look at a very different sort of camera with you. I got one here. What I've actually made out of a bin is actually a pinhole camera, because it's got a tiny little pinhole in the front, and you can make pinhole cameras out of basically anything that's like proof this happens to be a light proof containers. That's have been you could make it out of her like proof. Biscuit. 10. Shoebox. I've seen the made out of fridges. ITT's amazing. You can almost make a pinhole camera out of anything that's able to have a hole in it on to become a light proof container. I took this photograph off my house using this been. It's a very simple process which, if you can understand and relate it to your DSLR, you really are sort of 80 or 90% of the way to to having a complete control of your photography and knowing what's going on se to take a photograph with the been camera, then the first thing to notice then that this is like proof. It's completely like proof. I put some tape around the top to make it like roof so that no light and leak in in a dark room inside, you need a little bit of preparation. You need to put in the photographic paper. Ah, blank. Massive photographic paper goes inside the bin. It's blue tacked in opposite the whole here, so that when the light comes in through the hole to take the photograph, it hits the paper still in the dark the lid goes on, so it's It's like proof inside. And most importantly, your finger goes over the end here, so that when you take us outside to take the photograph, no light gets into the bin until you're absolutely ready. So out you go into the sunshine, probably where it's nice and bright to take your photograph. Put the bin down, pointed out whatever you want to take your photograph off on to start taking the photograph , take your finger off the whole. Now this been or this pinhole cameras quite large, and it actually took three minutes to take the photograph. But I showed you down there, and during those three minutes, the light comes in through the whole floods. The inside of the been with light. It hits the paper on the back here, the papers incredibly light sensitive, and there's a sort of chemical reaction between the light that's coming in through the bit through the been on the pinhole here on the paper at the back here, the light almost sort of burden burns the paper and in prince an image on the photographic or photo center to light sensitive paper here. After the three minutes or so is up to stop taking the photograph. Finger goes back over the Ben Hole here, the pinhole rather here on. Then you need to take the pinhole camera back into the dark room. The paper comes out, it goes through, a couple of chemical processes is washed in its dried on. You end up with a picture that looks something like this. Now, this really is the key to understanding how the big digital SLR SLR works. If you can understand how this pinhole camera works, then you really do get a total understanding of how your DSLR works. In the next video, I'm going to stick with the pinhole camera for another few minutes and just show you in sort of practical terms with pictures a little bit more how it works. So you can understand how the light goes in in case it was difficult to understand with the Ben will then go on and have a look at how that actually relates to a really camera on how it relates to all the knobs and the dials and the apertures and the F stops and all the sort of words that you've probably come across in URA in your digital SLR digital s that DSLR manual that Sarah confusing on slightly stressful to look at and read. 3. Inside the Black Box: pinhole cameras can be made out of anything is you can sort of see him from the picture here. Anything that some can be made into a light of container. We've got biscuit tins and containers and all sorts of things here, all the taped up so that they're not leaking light. This probably makes it a little bit clearer. You've got your light proof container here. You got your pinhole at the front here, and you've got the image coming through the pinhole, the light flooding through and hitting the back of the container. Here in the Ben camera, I had a big piece of light sensitive paper. Here. You can put film on all sorts of things in here to collect the image you clearly got to controls here. To take the picture you need to open and close the whole. When you open the whole by taking a finger off, then obviously the light comes then ons for the amount of time that the hole is open, it essentially bends the image onto the paper here, close the hole and it stops taking the photograph. You can also control the amount of light that goes into the box by. By changing the size of the pinhole, a bigger pinhole would allow more like to go in on a smaller pinhole would allow less light to go in. So you've got to controls you got you got the size of the pinhole, and you've got the amount of time that the pinhole is open and in the next couple of videos will have a look at how that relates to a much more modern sort of camera. Pinhole images tend to be a little bit like this. They have. They tend to be sort of really wide in focus, from front to back, a little bit surreal looking. I've done a number of pinhole projects with school Children they absolutely love. Doing this sort of thing is a great former photography to get into, and it really, really does help you understand how photography works. There's a there's a there's a huge number of resource is on the Internet on our lads, um, into the course as well. So get you started on this. If it's something that you want to be interested in, 4. Inside your Camera - Shutterspeed : Hi, there we go to continue by having a look at this film camera, which is actually very special camera. To me, it was one of the first cameras, the tire she owned. My parents gave it to me. A za birthday present, I think, when I was 16 so quite a long time ago. It's essentially exactly the same as the modern DSLR. Apart from the fact it's obviously not digital, but the basic controls are exactly the same on much more straightforward Teoh. Understand? I think now just thinking back to our understanding of the pinhole camera. There are essentially two things that we needed to know about that the 1st 1 was a light, light proof container, and this is exactly the same here if you take the back off it. If you can see that this this is a very small, light proof container. Rather than putting photo sensitive paper as we did in the pinhole camera in here, this takes film. That's the photo sensitive medium. In the case of a digital camera, there's a photo like sensitive electronic sensor in the back here, but in essence there is actually the same. It's the light proof box with something that is light sensitive to collect the image information inside it. In the pinhole camera, there was a hole at the front, a pinhole on every other camera, be it a film camera, DSLR or any other sort of camera. There is a lens, and that's the whole weather. Light goes in now. In order to take the photograph on the pinhole camera, you needed to let the light go in for a pre ordained amount of time. It was three minutes on. The gigantic been camera on a modern camera is going to be a fraction of a second. And of course, you don't open and close it like that like we did on the bit. On the being camera, it has a shutter, and you'll be very familiar with the idea of pressing the shutter down to take a photograph . What that actually does is moves a little curtain in here. This is the shot up. You'll be able to see this opening and closing. Hopefully now, as I press the shutter button down, but I'm down, it literally opens and closes the hole. Now that's very slow. This is about half a second at the moment and on every camera you can change the shutter speed, as it's called. This camera here goes from one second right the way to 1/1000 of a second. I'm going to put it on the 15th of a second. Now you see, it's a little bit quicker opening and closing that's working in exactly the same way as the pinhole camera it is. It's opening and closing this for 1/15 of a second. The light goes in. It hits the film. It creates an image. Now in the next video, we'll continue with this camera on. We'll have a look at the other sort of variable factor, and it's the only other real variable factor involved in all of this, which is the size of the hole that the light goes in. See you in the next film. 5. Inside your Camera - Aperture: so staying with the little film camera that we have here, I'm talking about the two variable factors really that affect the amount of light that goes in to the film or to whatever it is that's collecting the information inside the black container. Here we talked about the shutter speed, so they liked opening and closing or the lens opening and closing with the shutter here in the last video. And you'll remember what that looked like and sounded like also on the pinhole camera that equates very clearly toe opening and closing the whole. Obviously, the longer that you have the whole open for, and the more light goes in on the shorter amount of time you have closed, the whole open for the less light goes in now. You can also affect the amount or the quantity of light that goes into the camera in another way as well. Fairly, obviously, really, if you relate it back again to the pinhole camera, and that's by changing the actual size of the pinhole, clearly a larger pinhole will allow mawr light to go in on. A smaller pinhole will let less like to go in Now This happens on modern cameras as well. And you can very, very infrequently sort of see how this works, which is why I bought this camera here. I've just taken the lens off, and this has got on adjuster on it that allows you, Teoh, change the size of the hole and you can see that's wide open. This is small on the camera technology camera terminology for this is Apertura, so we're going to use the word aperture. This is a wide aperture or big Apertura. This is a small aperture or narrow aperture. Um, that's it. This to does the two controls on any camera shutter speed and aperture, the amount of time that the hole is open for and the size of the hole. Both of those in combination affect the amount of light that goes in to hit the film or to hit the sensor in a digital camera on beyond allowing the right amount of light in. They also allow a certain amount of creative control in the look of the pictures as well, which is what we're going to go on to in future sessions. 6. Shutterspeed and Aperture Recap: So here we have the inside of a camera in a very sort of simple line drawing from the side of you on. This is the line of the light that's going through here. This is the lens. So we've got the little glass of the lens here. The aperture that we talked about So the whole that the light goes through, remember that we can change this. Like I showed you on the camera with the Apertura rings that could be smaller. It could be large, so we got control of that on here. We've got the shutter, which opens and closes, essentially goes from side to side for a amount of time that you can set also, that allows the light to go through to In this case, we've got to censor here. So this is a digital camera or on the camera I was showing you there was light sensitive film here. So when the photograph was taken, the light go through the lens. It goes through the hole and you go straight through the shutter here and it's recorded on the sensor here. Now this is a bit more complicated. You'll notice in the line, doesn't go in a straight line here so that you can see through the lens before you take a photograph and you can compose the shot. The new species that mirrors in here, we can't obviously see through the sensor all through the film or through a closed shutter here so you can't see straight through the back of a, um, a DSLR camera. So, in its sort of resting state or normal status, it says here the light actually goes in. It hits the mirror Here it's bounced up to another mirror and out of the viewfinder here, so it sort of takes a wiggle around the sense that it looks exactly the same. And you're looking through the lens when the photographs taken. Once when the shutter opens, this mirror bounces up here, I'm out of the way. Then the light goes straight through to the center. The mirror thing isn't that vital to understanding how it works. It just shows you how it's possible to see through the lens when the shutter is closed. In essence, what's really important is the you relate this back to you were looking at the camera in the last couple of videos on Also back to the pinhole camera on. We've basically got a pinhole here the size that which we can change the aperture. We've got a shot here here that we can open and close for whatever time we decide. 7. Exposure - How Shutterspeed and Aperture Combine: in this video, we're going to talk about exposure with a little bit of help from my prickly friend here. I've just taken a photograph of him on my desk, and it's correctly exposed. It's not too light and it's not too dark. This version, as you can see, is too dark, and it's actually what's called under. Exposed on this version here is too light and it's over exposed. It's really important that your photographs are correctly exposed when a photograph is correctly exposed. All has the right exposure. It means that the right quantity of light hit the center, or the sensor was exposed to the right amount of light to create a picture that wasn't too light or too dark. Now you already know that you can control the amount of light that goes to the sensor via the aperture. So how big or small the whole ISS on also via the shutter speed, how long or short of time the shutter is open for? Luckily for us, the camera will, if you wanted to decide on how long or how short the shortest route speed should be in combination with the size of the aperture and it will actually calculate the exposure. For us, this is really, really helpful. It means that in most cases we can leave the camera to actually make that and do the calculations and decisions. But it's often not a good idea to allow it total control, and that's what we're going to have a look out and explore in the next few sessions. 8. Modes on your DSLR: So in the last few videos, you've looked theoretically at how the camera works. You've understood that it's a light proof box. It has something that's light sensitive, like the sensor at the back. The amount of light that is controlled into the boxes is controlled by the aperture the size of the hole here on also by the shutter speed, the amount of time that the shutter is opening and closing. When you press the shutter button down, you also know what correct exposure is. You understand that the quantity of light that goes in here that hits the sensor has to be right in on all occasions. If it's not right, your picture comes out too light or too dark. The great thing is that cameras will decide for you. They will decide by taking what's called a meter reading or exposure reading. As you press the shutter down, it will. It will decide what aperture on what shutter speed will work best to like. Let the correct quantity of light come in to create it correctly exposed photograph. Now, to make that happen, we're going to look at some of the controls that you will find on most digital cameras on the top. Here, you'll see that there's a dial and a majority of DSLR cameras will have these. This is a nick on camera and the things that we're interested in RP, which is what this is on at the moment s and also a in P or program mode. Then you are allowing the camera to decide what the shutter speed on the Apertura is to create the correct exposure. If I put the camera into, for example, s mode, it's shutter priority mode. We are now taking control of the shutter speed so we can set the shutter speed and there are various advantages to doing that which will come Teoh if we put the camera into a, it means is aperture priority mode, and it means that we are choosing the aperture. We're choosing the size of the hole, and there are great creative advantages to doing that as well. It's also possible to for us to have control over both the shutter speed on the aperture by putting it into em mode here. But we're not going to do that now because it's just making it more complicated than needs being now If you can't find on your camera program mode aperture mode on shutter speed priority mode, you may need to look in the manual on a canon camera for, for example, these a called different things. I think you do have P for program, but aperture priority mode is a V mode on shutter speed. Priority mode is TV mode on a on a canon camera. When you put your camera into, for example, shutter priority mode, it gives you control of the shutter speeds. No for us to change the shutter speed. Remember, we still need to have the right quantity of light going onto the centre at the back here. So if we choose a long or slow shutter speed, it will letme or light in. It may let in too much light. And to compensate for that, the camera might decide to use a smaller aperture so that the actual final result of the quantity of light that goes onto the centre is cracked. If we were in aperture priority mode, for example, then if we had say, for example, a very wide aperture, So a large hole on a lot of light coming in through the aperture. The camera would take control over the shutter speed on to keep the correct quantity of light going into the sensor. It might decide this. It needs a very fast shutter speed, only a really quick sort of open and close to allow the correct quantity of lights to go through. So the camera will decide on or will make sure that the right quantity of light goes to the sensor. We can take control off either the shutter in shutter priority mode or the aperture in appetite. A priority mode on the camera will look after the rest. If that makes sense and compensate for the decisions that we're making on, make sure that the right amount of light hits the sensor. 9. Set up your DSLR for Success!: okay. And finally, really, before we actually start getting together and doing some shooting and working out how you can creatively use aperture and shutter speeds. Three. Fairly simple things that I just like to have a go its setting on your camera just to make sure that you're getting the best out of what we're doing. You should already worked out from the previous video How to change from Program Mode, where you're allowing the camera to basically decide on the aperture and shutter speed for you. Teoh Aperture Priority Mode, where you can decide what the Apertura is on. Also changed. Teoh shut a priority mode as well, where you can decide what the shutter speed is and have control of that. So work out where those are on your particular camera. If you haven't done already, you might need to look in the manual, but it's hardly likely, cause I think it will be on a dial on the top. Also again, you may need to look this up, and it's the only three things that you will really need to check. Can you make sure your camera is on auto focus? Eso you don't want to some manual focus. For the moment, let it auto focus. It may have different settings of auto focus. Have it on single or terrific auto focus. Single. It's likely that that will be controlled by a little lever down by the size of the lens. Again, you'll need to look in your manual or online just to check that on your particular model of camera. You don't need to know what the next one means. Auto Y eso You can see here this one you will need to look in and met in the menu for probably it's unlikely to have any control on the top of the camera, though it just does vary from camera to camera. Your camera will more than likely haven't auto I s O setting on it. So if you could put it into auto, I s O. It's not something that you need to concern yourself with wars, the moment is a little more advanced. We're just going to concentrate on the two main controls of just the speed and aperture, as you know, auto white balance again, this is something is useful to know about. At some point, it's really not that important at the moment, let's leave it to the camera again. It's probably going to be in a menu, depending on what camera, Your Honor and the shooting menu as well. Auto, I s so actually that will probably be in the shooting menu. It may be changeable by a combination of buttons on the top of your camera. You again, you will need to just look that up, have a look in your in your manual or check online to you. We'll get there. Has done so. Three things. They're auto focus single. Get it on auto eso auto, white balance. So that's really got us to the point where we've got everything set up for you to start exploring these two main photographic controls shutter speed and aperture. You have a theoretical understanding of how those two things work. We've also now got the camera set up to basically look after everything else ons. You've also got a good understanding hopefully, of why we need to get correct exposure and what exposure is. So for the next two lessons, we're going to look in detail at what you can actually creatively do by changing the shutter speed on what you can creatively do by changing the aperture. See you in the next video 10. Get Creative with Shutterspeed: changing the amount of time that the shutter is open on the camera. Obviously, X effects the exposure, but also it could be used to great creative effects. So you can see here. This is where things start to get a little bit more interesting and you can see the creative possibilities of changing the shutter. Speed was a funny little swimming little model thing here, and you can see this. You get a very different type of photograph, depending on what sort of speed the shutter is set to. Now on all cameras, the shutter speed will be in fractions of a second, generally speaking, so it's sort of a normal. A normal photograph with a sort of average speed is something like 250th of a second, that that's what the camera will sort of set to default a lot of the time, that sort of area anyway. If the shutters open for one second, for example, that's extremely slow. In photographic terms, anything above 1/60 of a second or thereabouts is a little bit more normal. You can see here, though, the effect of a fairly fast moving this the little swimmers arms were flailing around. You can see the effects of a fairly fast moving object with the different shutter speeds says here. So hundreds of a second, this is flailing around and it's sort of not quite but frozen. They're frozen, the motion. The legs are fairly static. Thea Arms. You still see a little bit of blur as we get slower. So 1/60 of a second Here we get more blur that the legs are still quite sharp. On the 30th of a second, the arms are blurring further Here, the legs still okay, 15th of a second there and it all goes all over the place. You can see the arms are starting to go. You've almost got some sort of almost a full circle here on. Do you got the legs starting to blur? Similar yet in eighth. And as we get right the way down here as well, it goes further and further. Doesn't you can see how the length of the exposure affects the movement. Really, really clearly same sort of thing here as well with it, with a coin that's been spun on a table to 11 2/100 of a second. This is spinning furiously round. It's actually frozen, the frozen, the movement. It's captured that fraction of a second the same. Here it 1/50 of a second. You could see it almost a shadow of the coin. There. Here is it's just a spun round that's a 25th of a second, which is getting quite considerably slower. You can see the movement starting to come in and similarly similarly, it an eighth of a second here. You can see it's really starting to blow on your sort of getting a very clear shadow effect . So slow shutter speeds can be used. T represent movement here, the tide coming in the sea moving This was probably taken it, you know, maybe maybe 1/15 of a second and eighth of a second. Something like that to really get the ever and flow and movement of the ties. This photograph here. Similarly, it would have been OK photograph if it was if it was static. But the movement that you get by using a slow shutter speed really, really makes the picture come alive. But the other end of the spectrum, then so, using a really fast justice Peter freeze action so we're looking at maybe 1000 for 2/1000 of a second here, Um, the surfboard, Robert C in midair. But just look at the look at the individual water droplets here. Absolutely frozen in time. This will be a very different photograph, 1/60 of a second, for example. This is moving very, very quickly, but 1/1000 or 2/1000 of a second. The shutter is open for such a short amount of time that it really, really just freezes the action. Same thing happening here as well. This the rabbit here, presumably sprinting for his life on a slow a shutter speed his his or her legs would be would be a blur but has been caught in mid air here, absolutely frozen as a fraction in time. Here again, 1/1000 of a second or something similar now on the old traditional SLR similar to the ones I showed you earlier on in the course, changing the ship's speed is really straightforward. And it makes a certain amount of sense that there's a dialogue on the top. And it goes from these 1/1000 of a second. I'm so you got 1/1000 of a second here. 502 150th 125th 60th down here to 1/4 of a second, half a second and one second here. Some cameras have different things on here. It may go down to half a second. It make a day, so it may get down to two seconds or three seconds. The B setting here is called Bulb. Most cameras have this on. It means that the shut it just remains open at all times. It just stays open until you press the shutter down again. Often there's ah ah, speed round about this area here. 6300 and 25th of a second. It's in a different color, not a great importance at the moment, but it it's usually to do with synchronizing a flash with the shutter on. That's the flash synchronisation speed on this camera. It's not an important thing at the moment, but it's just useful to know are interesting to know why these are in different cars. This is straight forward and easy to understand. Everything from one second quarter of a 2nd 30th of a second right away to 1/1000 of a second, it gets a bit more confusing when you see it on a DSLR, though. Unfortunately, this is my camera here. It's in shutter priority mode. I can see that because I got s on here. Your camera, maybe similar or different on my camera, have to press the mode button and move the dial here. You may have a different way of doing that on your camera. You will need to see, um on it displays the shutter speed here on the display. Now, you will always get this most, most digital SLR sick and have some sort of display up here. This is fairly constant. It may look different if it's a different type of camera, different brand of camera, but you will have to shutter speed on the aperture here. These are the two main controls, the two important creative things that they affect exposure. And they change this one creative way that you can use the camera and the two things that we concerning ourselves with. So the shutter speed will more than likely be here. The aperture over here, the other things down here we've got We talked about these previously, but you've got what you your white balance setting here and pretty much let the camera just do that. For the moment. All of this will look after itself for the moment. If you just said to use the settings, the basic settings that we looked at previously, we really concerning ourselves with these two here on what they dio now on this camera to change the shutter speed rather than twiddling the dials around, which is lovely and simple on a traditional camera, Um, you move, there's a There's a wheel at the front here. The shutter speed will go up and down on the traditional, the sort of camera it goes up in. Well, you can see we go in fairly logical increments here, doubling each time 15 to 30 to 6825th to 50th to make life complicated on a DSLR the fractions by which it goes that maybe, maybe smaller, that is, it does make life a bit more confusing. See, we're here to 25th of a second now, as you changed it. Shutter speed. Here. Using the dial here, you'll find that the aperture here changes automatically as well. It consummate it is compensates for the different shutter speed to keep the amount of light that's going to the sensor down here and to keep the exposure cracked for the moment, we're not going to worry about what the relationship between these two years just let the just let this move as the as you take control of the shutter speed here, you might find that this either flashes at some point or stay static at some point. If it does, you might. It might mean that the camera is going to over expose or under exposed. This is usually at the extremes of the shutter speed here. So if you're Europe something like 2/1000 of a second on this is not, you know this is saying hi or it's saying or it's flashing. It means that the the aptitude can't can't compensate for the shutter speed, and it can't actually keep the exposure cracked. So you will need to just change us and come back down again until it does similar at the other end of the scale. If you put in, say, two seconds worth of the shutter being open for us, a lot of light coming in here, the aperture will need to compensate for that. It may not have the means to do so in the lighting conditions that you're working in on it , maybe flashing. Or it may be saying low, in which case you will need to modify this slightly setting. You got maybe a second or you've got half a second or something similar of of your shutter opening here. 11. Shutterspeed Practice Hints and Tips: So it's now time to start putting all of that together. Teoh, get out with your government. Start taking some photographs. You should have your camera then set up with the the auto help things that we talked about previously. So you've got it on auto white balance. You've also got it on a single auto exposure as well. On we can start off a shot of speed, obviously, so it may not be the same on yours, but make sure that you have got is the mode programmed into s for shutter speed priority mode. Now, as you saw in the previous video, that should give you control by placing or turning around one of the dials here on the shutter speed on the camera on the aperture. Well, basically, look after itself to make sure that you get the correct exposure in the right amount of light is hitting the sensor. Russell's Heim's. No, What you need to do then, is to start off, I think, probably with something like we saw in the previous video of something that's moving at a constant speed. So, for example, the little swimmer or the coin that was going round or maybe some running water. Maybe find some cars going onto a motorway bridge or something similar where you've got a stream of cars, set up the camera and start off. It's something like 1/30 or 15th of a second. So the shutters opening relatively slowly take a picture to 30 thoughts that maybe 1/15 of a second and you should find probably that the some motion blur in there. Then speed up, go up to something like 125th of a second or 250th of a second, take exactly the same picture again, then maybe go to 500 of a second. Take exactly the same picture again on 1/1000 of a second. So you maybe got four pictures at different shutter. It's just the speed starting from slow to fast or faster, slow, whichever you prefer, just like you saw in the previous video. And you can actually try this for yourself and see how changing this just a speed affects the final image. When you're looking on the back of your camera screen, pressing Plato, have a look. Sometimes you don't appreciate how much blur or motion blur that they're actually years. The fit. The image here is actually quite small. Andi. It's sometimes not until you actually get it transferred onto your computer onto a larger screen that you realize, Oh, actually, there is some quite interesting, quite nice blur there when you're using low shutter speeds, particularly, is very, very important that you hold the camera completely. Still, there's a number of ways of doing this. When you press the shutter down, it's important the camera doesn't jiggle. You need to hold the camera on as if your hand is sort of a tripod like this. The worst place, the worst way holding it is like this said, with your arms sort of jiggling around all over the place day. Some of the left hand of seeming you're that you're right handed needs to point in the direction of the photograph or down the lens, more or less, and you're taking the weight of the camera in this shape here in your arm, and you're keeping this arm quite close to your body and you're looking through the camera like this Now you can then hold the camera very, very still, and particularly if you're using a slow shutter speed. Squeeze the shutter button very gently and slowly and keep the camera absolutely still. You might find it useful to lean on a wall. Sometimes you can rest a camera on something while you're taking a slow shutter speed picture to keep it still, keeping it's as solid as possible will help. Now I'm going to suggest for a start that you do that and keep the camera absolutely still in photographed moving objects moving across the camera lands. And I also suggest in the in the sheet that follows that you then start actually panning. So you moving the camera following a moving object and pressing the button at the same time . So manufacture doing this, you can hear where the click is. You follow. Click and follow through on. You will find if you do that with different shutter speeds as well that you get a sense of sort of movement in the whatever. Whatever is moving should be sharp in the middle of the frame on, the background will be blurred. That works really well, a sort of medium to low shutter speed sort of 32 per second or there or there abouts in the next lesson, I'm going to provide a really little quick help sheet. I will put on a very simple shutter dial so you get some sort of orientation as to where you are and also some suggestions of things that you can photograph to try this out as well . The only problem that you might have is if you try to use the extremes off the shutter speed range. So if you go down to it, maybe a second or below, or you go up to maybe 1000 for 2/1000 of a second and the automatic exposure the automatic exposure that the camera is trying to do by compensating for the speed of the shutter speed with the aptitude, it might just be the outside of its range on either the camera won't take the picture. As I said in the previous video, you'll see the aperture flashing here or saying an error. Or it may just take the picture and it may be come out too light and too dark. For the moment, this doesn't really matter. The most important thing is that you're learning and realizing what the effects on the picture using a different shutter speed is 12. Get Creative with Aperture: Okay, Well, hopefully you've had a go at using different shutter speeds and they got some really good idea of how that works creatively and how you can use movement in your photography. We're going to change over or sort of switch modes now, over. Teoh Aperture Priority mode. So the other major control in any camera? Um So if you remember back Teoh how this works on the pinhole camera, it was changing the size of the hole. Teoh, change the amount of lights that came in on. I showed you lens entire light like this. You'll probably remember in one of the previous lessons whether you can make the hole bigger and you could make it smaller, making more or less light, go, go, go into the lens and is literally inside a lens that sort of wings like this that open and close f stops or are or the aperture is measured, if you like in in F stops F 1.8 being really, really wide open 2.8 a little bit smaller, right? The way up to have 22 which you can see, is really, really a tiny, tiny little hole here on a traditional lens. There's what's called an aperture ring. Here. You may have one on your digital SLR lens or you may not on what you did was you literally turn this dial round and you can see the F stops here, and you can see how they correlate to the size of the opening Here. The numbers don't matter too much for the moment that they're not that important, but again, rather confusingly on your digital camera rather than just having these these eight F stops , which is a fairly standard. And to be honest, all you really need, you might find on your DSLR that you have an awful lot mawr mindset to have nine here, for example. Now this is the previous picture where we were in shutter priority mode. But you need to change the aperture priority mode now on my camera. That's by pressing mode on by twiddling the dials here. It may be different on yours and you will get an A here or in a similar place. This will look the same. You'll still have the shutter speed on the aperture here, the aperture being measured in F stops. This will be different in aperture priority mode in that you will be able to control the aperture by probably moving one of the dials here again, you will just need to check in your user manual. So this is exactly the same has turned quisling the much, much clearer and simpler app assuring on a lens here on the digital camera, though it's Elektronik, rather confusingly on the numbers come up here you'll find again, just like we did with the shutter speed that you don't get a nice, simple sort of eight set of eight numbers like this rather than having just eight because it's Elektronik and it's supposedly better. It'll it'll do a number of different numbers here if you sum up and down with the dial here that you will find that these numbers occur. And I would just actually just stick with those. You don't need to be doing the numbers in between really, to a certain extent now, we're just going to use the extremes, Really, For the moment, I'm going to ask you to photograph your widest aperture, which will be your smallest number, which probably on your probably on your lens will be a 5.6, maybe Air Force Something like that. I'm going to ask you also to have a go practicing on your smallest temperature. So your largest number, you can see what the difference is in the pictures here. It controls basically what's in focus. You'll need to be fairly close to your subject. To do this. The positive plants. Here, you can see your in focus F 5.6 it feroz The background out of focus needs a beautiful sort of blurry sort of backgrounds. Here, the small of the whole goes. So where was the F 22 here? The more you get in focus, the background here is much, much sharper. So both the subject on the background are really, really clear now. Confusingly thes small hole is a big number. Let's go over here. The small hole is a big number. On the large hole is a small number. So F four F 2.8 you get a blurry background. I'm not F 16 of 22 where the hole is really small. You get a sharper background. Let's just go back to the previous picture so that you can see and hear, hear exists. Look So you got your blurry background that the wide apertures here and you've got your nice, sharp background that your smaller apertures you do to make. To practice this, you need an object like there's something quite close to the camera that you just focus on , and it will then throw the up the background in and out of focus. This could be used to look beautiful. Creative effect. This is lovely photograph. You've got the foreground in focus here, and it gradually goes out and out of focus towards background. This was shot on a wide aperture, says something like F four F 2.8. Maybe something like that. That's something like that. Similarly, here the spiders in focus the backgrounds way out of focus again shot at a wide aperture big hole. Lots of light gains the camera, so we're F four or something or F 2.8, a small number complete opposite. Here F 11 F 16 maybe probably F 22 tiny hole, tiny aperture. Everything from the front to the back of the picture is absolutely sharp and in focus similarly here, the same extreme. This is something like F 16 or F 22. Everything from the very front of the picture, right? The way through to the background in the clouds is in focus. So we've got two extremes there. Um, you got everything being out of focus. Apart from what you're focused on, when you've got the captured wide open on when the aptitude is really, really small like this, everything from front to back in the picture becomes in focus. Now, this depth of focus, if you like, is called depth of field. When you have a large aperture, the depth of field is said to be very narrow. That means that the distance from the front to the back of the photograph that's in focus is very small. And if you look here, it's literally just the plant. If you're going from the front to the back, maybe from here to here is in focus. That's got a narrow depth of field. This photograph here of 22 has got a wide depth of field. Everything from the front to the very back is in focus. Looking at these pictures here with the wide aperture, this has got a narrow depth of field only Well, maybe this area here is in focus. If we going from front to back, everything else is out of focus. While Sisley, similarly there as well narrow depth of field, the spider is in focus. Everything else behind it is out of focus. These have a very, very wise depth of field F 22 a small hole, everything right from the very front to the very back of the picture. That huge distance there is nice and sharp and in focus. It has a wide debt to the field, as does this here now on your camera. And when you're practicing this now, I want you to have a quick coat that doing something like this, choosing an object, that stationary object, shooting it wide and shooting it with a wide a wide depth of field here on Why don't put the F 22 are as f 2.8 or F for whatever the smallest number your lens goes to and also going to the other extreme and shooting with the smallest apple it to you can say you may well be able to get up to after 11 F 16 or F 22 so that you can see the difference. Remember, as the whole is changing size here, it's letting in different quantities of light. And this time the camera will decide on the shutter speed to compensate for the amount of light that's going into the into the camera so that the exposure or the overall quantity of light that's hitting the sensor is exactly the same each time. Well, look at that in the next in the next s its session or the next set of lessons because it's really important to understand the correlation between the two and that really is the sort of final key in the jigsaw. The next lesson is going to be a sheet that some suggestions on their of things to photograph in things to try. I will also put this photograph on there as well, so that you can have that static, and you can sort of use that as your reference point 13. Putting it all Together: So if you've got this far, then you really do know 80 to 90% of everything that you need to know about Harold. Any camera works really particularly a digital SLR. Hopefully we've come some way to de mystifying what's inside the secret black butcher. But black box of magic. Remember, we started right the way back with it with the old pinhole camera here on our two variable factors to get correct exposure here so we could change the size of the hole on. We could change the amount of time that the whole was open or closed for Remember then that we looked through aperture how that was what it looks like in a real camera, changing the size of the hole and changing the shutter speed, changing the amount of time that holds open a swell here. This is what it's sort of all boils down to to a certain extent. And this is this is the place where many other courses sort of start, which I think is a really big high expectation from from a complete beginner. Um, you'll remember that we said that the camera decided on correct exposure is it knows whether what? What, you know how much light is coming through the lens, and and what combination is just the speed and aperture will allow the right amount of light in to make it correct to exposure. That's different, according to whether it's a bright seen that the photographs did the photographs awful. Whether it's dark and ever, every picture would be completely different with your camera in program mode, the camera makes all the decisions are going to take a few examples here, your camera in program. Most might decide that the correct exposure is F eight. So that's my asshole Onda, and this is going to be a shutter speed for 60th of a second. Now that's absolutely fine. There's no problem with that, but it's likely to choose from this area here, and it's likely to come up with a fairly un interesting photograph. You might be photographing a portrait, for example, and you want to throw the background out of focus. So rather than choosing FAA, which is relatively, well, sort of in the middle on, wouldn't throw the background that out of focus, you would come somewhere down here on open your aperture Mawr. Now, obviously this is going to let in much mawr light. Therefore, to compensate for that, the camera is going to have to use a faster shutter speed. So you here are actually making the decision about the aperture the camera world rather than keeping this on the 60th of a second. If it was the f a A is gonna have to go down here, and it's going to have to change the shutter speed to compensate for the bigger hole. So the bigger hole on its got a faster shutter speed going back to the middle here. So the camera in program mode, you decided on their fate. LF 60th if you, for example, wanted to have something where you're going to blur the motion and you wanted to go from much, much slower shutter speed, save an eighth of a second. You can't have an eighth of a second at F eight because it would just let too much light in . You know, this is a This is opening the whole for far too long. So the camera would automatically take this down a couple of clicks to have 22 here, and that would be the correct exposure now this is really, really important, understanding that the that the same amount of light is going in and hitting the sensor each time. It doesn't matter to a certain extent what the shutter speed or the Apertura is. As long as the correlation between the two keeps the actual quantity of the same. This could be quite difficult to understand. But hopefully, having gone through the really sort of step by step things that we've done previously, and and really getting a hands on sort of understanding of how this works, you will. You will really be able to sort of think about how this is happening. Andrea Lee understand what's going on For the moment. It's not unnecessary, sort of know how many you need to go this way and how many this way and what literally links up. You just need to sort of understand the principle 14. Final Thoughts: So you've made it to the end. Well done on. You really do now know 80 90% of what it is to understand the camera on to really take control of your photography. It is a simple is understanding how this type of camera works in terms of just understanding the whole the aperture on understanding the amount of time it's open the shutter and how those two things combined to create correct exposure. It's exactly the same as, you know, on the digital SLR. This was heavier. It's a big heavy box of computer wizardry. And of course, there are other things on this than on our cameras that that is useful to know about. For the moment, we've let the camera take control and care of auto exposure and autofocus and things, and that, and that's fine there peripheral details and peripheral scales. If you understand or coming towards an understanding of exposure on aperture and shutter speed, you really, really do know the basic nuts and bolts of what it is to make a great photograph in to become a good photographer. All of the other whiz bang gizmos that come on modern cameras really are peripheral. It's like the washing machine way. You've got 45 wash cycles and you just want to called Washington Hot Washing. You just use those two cycles all the time. To a certain extent, you don't really need them. I think manufacturers put them on there to make it took his life theoretically, easier than Mawr, sort of more sort of details and features a camera has, the better it's supposed to be. But it also hides the sort of fundamental mechanics of how the camera works and really makes it very difficult to understand fully what's going on. I had this course is being really, really useful to you. You can obviously go on and look at more detail, but but it hopefully giving you the confidence to sort of really sort of grasped the beginnings of DSLR photography for yourself to be confident that actually you do have some understanding and then to maybe explore things a little bit further in the future