DIY Sketchbook/Journal - Double-Needle Coptic Binding Technique | Chris Carter | Skillshare

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DIY Sketchbook/Journal - Double-Needle Coptic Binding Technique

teacher avatar Chris Carter, artist, illustrator and explorer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (1h 19m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. About Paper

    • 3. Materials for Coptic Binding

    • 4. Tearing Paper

    • 5. Cutting Front and Back Covers

    • 6. Punching Holes in Signatures and Covers

    • 7. Hand-held Hole Punching Technique

    • 8. Needles and Threads

    • 9. Coptic Binding - First Set of Stitches

    • 10. Coptic Binding - Second Set of Stitches

    • 11. Summary and Conclusion

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About This Class

Coptic Binding is a fabulous technique for creating your own sketchbook, journal or storybook. You can use either fine, archival materials or recycled materials such as file folders and corrugated cardboard.  You can create these all on your own or as a fun family project, putting together treasured memories of children’s art and writing.


The double-needle technique that I teach in this class, in my mind, is far easier than the single-needle method.  Once you learn the basic stitch, you can improvise and let your imagination guide you to create fancier versions of the basic coptic stitch.

Not only will you learn the coptic stitch, you'll learn to fold paper with the grain, tear paper for beautiful edges, create signatures, cut covers, wax thread and tap into your creativity to find solutions for errors made along the way.


This is one of the courses in my series of DIY Sketchbooks and Illustrated Journals that teaches you how to create books by folding, stitching, glueing, weaving … or a combination of those techniques.

Meet Your Teacher

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Chris Carter

artist, illustrator and explorer


Welcome to Skillshare. I'm Chris Carter.

I love exploring the world with pen and brush whether it be by land, sea or air! Here on Skillshare, in tiny bites, I present tips and techniques I've learned over a lifetime of sketching, drawing and painting. My classes are designed with two purposes in mind: to present tips and techniques that help you learn new skills and master current skills; and as quick reference for those of you who have attended one of my live workshops.

I create large, abstract watercolors and oil paintings in my studio.  When traveling, which I do for more than half the year, I work realistically, mostly in sketchbooks.  I sketch from reality daily to keep my eye, hand and brain coordination well-honed.See full profile

Related Skills

Fine Art Bookbinding Creative

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1. Introduction: Welcome to another class in the series of making your own sketchbooks and illustrated journals. I'm Chris Carter. In this class, you'll learn the method of double needle Coptic stitching. In addition to learning this method of Coptic stitching, I present another aspect of creativity, which is making the best of a situation when something goes wrong. And for being creative to come up with solutions. When things go wrong. You'll see what I'm talking about corn, you get into the class. I would like to mention that in a previous class on the class of making your own punching cradle and using a punching cradle. I mentioned that I would include that entire class in every class in the series, which involved stitching your own sketchbooks. What I've discovered is it makes the classes for too long. This is the cradle, the portable cradle that I use in this class. And I just wanna let you know that if you're interested in using a cradle and you don't have one, and you wanna make your own cradle. That is a separate class here on Skill Share. So you can take a break now, go make your cradle, and then come back and continue. If you don't have a cradle, don't wish to make a cradle, you can punch the holes by hand. I will include a session in this class on punching holes without a cradle. And that just adds a little bit of extra time to the class. So in this class, you will also learn about paper, about folding paper with the grain and against the grain. You will learn how to tear paper so that you have a nice soft edge instead of a clean cut edge with a paper cutter or a knife or scissors. You will learn about making your book at recycled materials. I'll be using a cover that I created from a shoebox. You will learn how to adapt that when something goes wrong. And you'll learn about different threads for binding, whether they be waxed or unwell, and how to wax your own threads. And then you'll learn how to do the double needle Coptic stitching. So welcome to this great class stitching your own books opens up so many possibilities for you. You can make your own books for sketching, for journaling, for keeping records of things. You can make your own date books, and you can make your own wonderful pop-up books. You can make books with your children. I'll be sharing with you. Two of the children's books that I think are great inspirations. So let's get started and learn a little bit about paper and folding paper. 2. About Paper: A class on binding a book together, on stitching signatures together. Certainly needs a lesson on paper. A signature is made up of pieces of paper that are the exact same size, that are folded in half and nested together like that. Now what kind of paper you're going to use for your book? The options are pretty unlimited. You can use old music. You can cut this up folded and make a fabulous book there that you maybe want to collage or sketch on or whatever you wanna do with it. I end up cutting up my scrap paper and turning them into signatures that I just keep on hand to stitch together. Sometimes the containers for merchandise, whether it be bottles of ale or dresses or shoes, they, they can be cut up and make great covers. So I keep these on hand. This, it was made up lots of different colors. It was made up from samples that I was sent. This is just leftover watercolor paper that I don't really like you can see it's kind of yellowed. So that's ready to be made into a book. File folders are fantastic. File folders are great for ink and they even take watercolor, The Grateful wash. There's a nice surface to them. So I cut up my old file folders and I have all different size Books. And here I have stacks of them ready to be either made into really long narrow. This would be a fun one and waiting for a good cover for this one. Thank. Now about paper. Paper has grain. This is just regular copy paper. You can make a sketchbook out of this two. Grain is the direction that the fibers fall in. And it's easier to fold in one direction than in the other. In other words, I'm folding this can fold that way, or they've controlled this way. Now with a piece of copy paper, it's easy to fold it either direction. I want to show you that it's not so easy with something like card stock. Alright, so if you fold this card stuff, see fence nicely this way. You can feel it so you probably can't see it, but it's a little bit stiffer this way, which means that the grain is flowing this way, not this way. So you'll see what happens. I'm going to fold it with the grain. And here is where I used my bone folder. And a nice old. I've also been mentioning the Sharpie marker. And you maybe can see where all of these kinda marks are. For many years, I didn't have a bone folder. I used a sharpie marker and I just folded it like that. Okay. This side Sharpie marker works great. Right now. So this was with the grain. If you go against the grain, look what happens. I hope that you can see this. And you see that to begin with, it's high, messy. Kind of Brinkley. Hey, that one actually folded pretty well, but there are times when it will crack and it's just unbearable. I will show you what happens when paper will not fold. Okay? This pay for is the richest and paper, which is a student grade watercolor paper that I got a whole ream of it because I thought this is great. I've been making books for my students. And I can make it out of this paper. It will be economical and the great wealth, it doesn't fold well at all. I did manage to fold this, but it was a struggle. So let me show you. Tear this and this will be going with the grain. It's not too bad width the grain. This goes against the grain. And you see what's starting to happen. It just does not want to fold. You can force it. But it really, really, really wreaks havoc with the paper. So you can see the difference in folding with the grain and against the grain. Okay. So the last thing I wanted to mention was just your selection. They this this paper came in a whole big stack at, at a craft store. And it's really a nice size. You can also get it in flight if you want. Let me try and put me in this block may not show. But it's really super folds easily. And it makes a nice tall book. I like, I like this shape. I like them, of course, landscape. But this reminds me of a wonderful book I had that I may even be able to find it. I book I had as a child and illustrated children's book. And I was fascinated with it because of its shape. I had an idea, I could find it. Here is my tall book of fairy tales. It's not in the best shape. But it's a book I'd loved and cherished, especially because it was such an interesting shape. While looking for this one. I also found this one, which was one of my kids favorite books, squirrels tail and this little squirrel slips through these things. I mean, you can make these fun kind of books. You can make up your own story. The squirrel goes in and out through all these things. And we just had a great time. Thank this because it goes up through here, picks up. You can make pop-up books. Kids love. Kids absolutely loved these odd shapes. So do adults. So that is the bit on paper. Oh, the other thing I do want to mention is that I will at times just bring signatures with me when I travel. And then when I come back, I collect them all. These were these were for a class that I was teaching on a, you take 20 steps and then you do another drawing, you take 20 steps more, so you never get to pick where you are. Your pace of 20 or 30 steps, as long as you're not in the middle of a road, determines where, where you stand or sit to sketch something. So these get bound together eventually into a book. Now you see you can make your book at of any kind of paper, or you can cut up grocery bags, news papers, wrapping paper, whatever you want, and put them into signatures. And then we'll stitch them all together. 3. Materials for Coptic Binding: These are the materials that you'll need for this class. You will need signatures of paper. And a signature of paper consists of paper cut to the same size, folded in half, and pile together. So in my signatures, I have four sheets of ribs be FK paper. It's folded. And here's one signature. I will be using 12345 signatures from my book. You will need a cover for your book. I will be using this shoebox and I'll cut it down. I've made the pages the right size. So this will be my cover. This will be the back. You'll need a piece of graph paper or scrap paper to indicate where you want to punch the holes. You'll need a hole punch. You'll need a pencil to mark where the holes are going to be on the graph paper. You'll need to use either the handheld punch method or you can use a bookbinding punching cradle. There are directions in this class, shows you how to construct your cradle. You will need a straight edge. You will need a ruler to measure your paper, to measure your cover, to measure the distance between your holes. Or you can just guess at all of that. You don't have to use a ruler to measure, but it's handy. You'll also need a metal straight edge. And that will be to cut your cardboard and possibly got your pages. In the next lesson, I will be showing you how I fold my paper to get signatures and tariff because I really like the soft edge rather than a sharp edge that is cut by either a paper cutter or scissors or Razor. You'll need razor to cut your cover. Now for this stitching, you'll need some thread. My favorite is the waxed linen thread. The waxed thread is really essential because it grips and holds the knots in any kind of binding. I mean, I, I can't recommend strongly enough to use waxed threat. You can also watch your own thread. You can get a piece of bees wax. This is also linen thread for bookbinding. And you just run the thread many, many, many times over the bee's wax and it becomes waxed. You can also use embroidery floss. And with that too, I will wax the embroidery floss. I plan on using embroidery floss for this book. I made another book. This is all from the same shoebox. This is a Coptic bound book. And here I use the purple waxed thread, this thread. But for this one, I'm going to use the Borg reflux. This is also, this is hemp natural Polish temp. This makes a really, really nice thread to bind with. An of course you want to wax this also. And I like to use curved needles. I find it much easier to do the Coptic binding with curved needles. And you use two for the method that I'm going to be showing you. These needles are the pollsters needles curved extra light round. And it's number 501 x and a pair of scissors to cut your thread. And that's it. So let me now show you how I tear paper. 4. Tearing Paper : The paper that I'm going to tear is a sheet, a full sheet of briefs be FK printmaking paper. The dimensions of the paper are 22 inches by 30 inches. I make sure that my hands are very clean so that I don't get oils. I try not to touch the paper anymore than necessary. I folded corner to corner of the short side. And then gently I will press down to the metal and press out going in either direction from the center. Then I take my bone folder. You can also use the end of a sharpie marker. And I like crease the paper. I turn it over to try to stay right on the edge so that I'm not hurting the fibers of the paper anymore than just at the edge. And I opened it up and fold it in the opposite direction. Depending on the paper you're using, you may be forced to fold it in only one direction. Depending on how the fibers run, you'll find that if you fold it the other way it could crack and it really depends on the paper you're using. I do the same thing on this. I increased it on both sides and then I could tear it now, but I do like to make one more crease. I'll go back. I've already created this way, but I just find that it helps to keep it from tearing by mistake. Now, if you have a very, very stiff paper, you may want to just dampen this with a very damp sponge. Just dampen along the crease where you're going to tear it. I usually don't have to do that. I just want to let you know because that is a great technique if you're having trouble. I definitely if I'm tearing handmade paper for the covers or for anything, I will dampen the crease before I tear it. Now, I use a heavy metal T square for this because it's it, it just gives better results. I've placed it along the crease. I hold it down. I grabbed the corner out here. I don't grab it here. I grab the corner and I pull it up. I'm pulling up and toward the center. And then if you can move your hand down. And there you go. Okay, beautifully torn paper. Now you have to decide whether you want to have your book open up like this. Or if you want your book to open up a landscape like this. Now these are the exact same size. One opens up this way and the other one opens up this way. So that's going to determine where you make your next fold. If you're making it this size, you want it to be landscape like this. And the next step. And be a little bit like this. Because we're gonna tear it here and then you fold the signature and have that way. I'll do that. On one side. And on the other side. We put overflow, but here the direction and press it on both sides. Now this one, I'll read without doing the repeat crease on the fold. All right, so now for this in half, and now I have two pieces of my signature. Okay? Now you'll notice this is twice the size at that. So if we were making this size book, you would tear this again along this fold. And then you would fold it and you would end up with this size book. But you can also see that that would definitely be if you'd already cut these, that would definitely be a vertical book rather than a horizontal book because you would have to fold it that way. So just takes a little bit of planning ahead one last time and now I will have finished this signature. So I like to use the bone folder for these graces to know so that as I'm making it, will lie much flags. Oh, now I have my four page, really eight pages, but it's four pieces folded in half. And here's one signature for this thickness. I put eight signatures together. I like that thickness not for traveling because it puts too many sketches at risk. But were home. It's a comfortable size for me. In the next video, we'll decide where the holes are going to be and punch the holes in our pages. 5. Cutting Front and Back Covers: The first thing we'll do is to cut the front cover and the back cover from the shoebox. And because the cover is bigger than the bottom, we'll start by cutting the bottom so that we get the dimensions correct. When we cut the top. Now, I am going to use the square, the middle square. You want to make sure that you get your corners square 90 degree angles. So you'll either want to use a square, you can use a regular metal straight edge to cut. You'll need your utility knife and a pencil. If you don't have either a metal square or a square like this, then you can use the back of a pad. You can use a piece of paper to line it up. And I'll show you that when I get ready to cut this. You'll also want to have a cutting surface. I use a cutting board but you'll walk cardboard or something to protect the table that you're cutting on. With a cutting board, you can line your cardboard up right on the grid to make it square. But I'm not going to do that. I will take Boggs apart. And when I cut, I don't press real hard. I'd rather take two swipes then press hard and have something go is skewed, right? What do you do is you can either line, line it up and use a pencil to draw the line. You can also take the backup a pad and these are cut square and line it up that way. So there are a lot of ways that you can make sure this is square. You can line it up with that. I'm just going to go ahead. And I lined it up with my hand to feel that the edges are straight. And this can be another cover. What a nice cover that will be. I'll save that. This two. Great. Do the same thing. I'm just lining it up with my hand. These are really worth investing in. There's my back cover. I'm gonna test my paper out to make sure that it fits. And I know because I based this size on a front cover. So what will I do about that? I know what I'll do. I haven't done this before, but I'll do it this time. I really want to make it out of this. So I am going to make a double cover on the back. Or I'll just simply cut this and use a different piece of cardboard for the back. And I can use this for something outside. Mistakes happen. All kinds of things are happening to me on this. I just have to go with the flow. Not the best cardboard in the world. Alright, let's check this out. Okay. That's good. Usually I have it a little bit bigger than that, but this will, this will work. I think that I'm going to try something fancier. So I've marked this where I want to cut it. This will be for my front cover. I've never made a cover like this before. And I'm going to put ribbon around here to make this edge nicer. Alright, I'm going to use this as a template for my back cover. This sits inside a little bit more than this one, but that's fine. And why am I okay with going with the flow? Because I have all of these great silk ribbons from my handmade note card making days. So I look for every opportunity possible to use these and other things I do. And this covered gives me the opportunity to do that. We're going to use double-sided tape on the front of this and then I'll wrap it around. Alright, that's what I'll do. I'll be back after I've covered all of these with the ribbons. I finished wrapping the cardboard for the covers. This is the front and this is the back. The reason that I went ahead and did this is because I really wanted to illustrate how, how many times you are working on a project and it doesn't necessarily go the way that you expect it to. So you become inventive, that's what creativity is about. You create ways to get around the mistakes you made. And that's what these covers are. And quite frankly, I I like these cover's better than if I had just used the cardboard. And now my paper will fit. What I could also do is I could take some string, some died string that's kind of thick and dip it in glue and then run it along here, almost like a beaded work. And I'll do that after I stitch because I don't want it to get in the way. I will be stitching along this side. So now we have we have our front cover, we have our back cover, and we have our signatures. The next step is to punch the holes in our signatures. And then in our covers. For that, I will be using the punching cradle. 6. Punching Holes in Signatures and Covers: In this lesson, we'll be punching the holes in our signatures. I like to use graph paper, just makes it easier. Even though I loved math and I love measuring things. I find that I like to be able to figure out how to do things without needing a ruler, because ruler's not something that I packing my suitcase when I travel. I easily could. I just don't. So I come up with other ways to do things. I will fold the graph paper over so that I have a slightly thicker ed to put up against my crate off. I'm going to do two sets of stitches. I'd like to start the stitches API around there. And I I'll go for so that's 1231231234. So those this is my template for the holes. And I will mark my top. Now I will mark top of each of my signatures. Have 1-2-3-4-5 signatures, and each one a mark with the top. Then I fold it in the opposite direction so that I can actually see my markings. Here's my cradle and here's my piercing tour. This is the cradle I made at a board and duct tape. Will take the first signature. The top is here, this is going to be my top. I open it up. I push this against the end board. I take my template. I put this also against my board. And with my punching tool. And we'll hold the paper. And I punch all the way through my markings. And this is why it's important to have the gap between these two pieces of the book board. Because the hole punch goes right through that gap. Usually do this left-handed, but I don't want to be in the way of the camera. Come on left-hand. Okay. There are the holes in my first signature. I will take this off and lay it down with the top facing up. My second signature. Top against the edge. Template. Top against the edge. Take my template off, close this up, top, goes on to top. I do this for every single signature. I now have all five of my signatures punched. I hope you can see that they're all punched in relatively the same position. Because I tear my paper, it's not totally flush against the edges in the same way, but you'll see that it will work out just fine. The next step is to punch the holes in my cover. If I'd made my covers out of book board, I would use either the Dremel or I would use a drill press to make my holes so that there are nice and clean because the book board is so thick and dense, it's much easier and cleaner to do it with the Dremel or the drill press that because it is Cardboard and because I'm using this sort of fragile silk ribbon on the end, I am going to use my piercing punching tool. Normally, I go in about a quarter of an inch from the end. So I will be punching right against the edge of this card port. If you're using a dremel or a drill press, you would put your two covers together, clamp them, and drill them at the same time. Because I'm dealing with this silk. I'm going to do these one at a time and I will do the top first and then use the top is the template for the bottom. This is my top. This is my top. I'm marking it with a pencil. And I'll use this piece of scrap book board to punch against. So I don't go through this. Cardboard. Corrugated cardboard is very easy to puncture. And gently I'll go through the back because I don't want to rip up the ribbon. Using the top is a template I'll go through again. I'm not gonna punish or all the way through. I just wanted to go through enough to mark the back cover. Then I'll go back just through the back cover and punch the hole. And you can see, remember this was smaller, which was the whole problem to begin with. The reason that I made a double cover. That's why these holes are not right against the edge. Now we have the holes punched in R covers the frontend bag, and we have the holes punched in our five signatures. We're now ready to prepare the thread. And needles. 7. Hand-held Hole Punching Technique: Now there are several different tools for punching. These two are called All. I've often used an ice pick two, sometimes a kebab skewer. Ok. Now these two our specificly for punching holes for bookbindings, these will make thicker, wider holes and sometimes if I'm binding with leather all you want to use that. However, if I'm traveling on a plane, you can't very easily take these because they're, they're looked at as weapons. And we'll use a normal embroidery needle. Now, I'm making a template out of the top, the top folder that I just mark. And I want to make sure that I indicate that this is the top of the rest of this signature because I'm going to be moving this template through all of the signatures. So at the top and the top, I'll put this in the center. And even though it may seem like it would be easier to use something like a piece of cardboard and punch it down when you using an embroidery needle, it really is not. It's easier to hold it. This wonderful line that has to be folded the opposite way so that I can see the lines and take your time. It's not really an easy task with file folders. It's kinda thick. It's easier if you do two or three at a time. But because I'm making a thicker book, I'm using a thicker signature. Okay. There's the first so this is my first signature. I'm going to put it over here with the T on the top. Now I'll move on to my next signature. Makes sure that the T is on the top. The t is on the top. Put it in the middle. Sure that it's squared up. So you can see that this can be kind of tedious, but it can be done. And if you're sitting on an airplane, you can do it while you're watching a movie. And before you know it, you have a book ready to stitch. Okay, now I want to show you the difference between punching out with the embroidery needle and with a regular piercing needle. And there's my second signature. There's my top, there's my talk. By top. My top. Alright, here's irregular piercing needle and this goes through easily. It's much easier to grip. And it goes through the file folders. Much greater ease than inboard renew. And the further you push it, the bigger the hole gets. Ok. You can also get these in different thicknesses. Notice that this nerve, you can see it. This one is thinner than this one. And look at the difference there. These are the two methods. You can do it by hand or you can do it with the bookbinding cradle. 8. Needles and Threads: Still a little discussion about the thread. I will be using the waxed linen thread. And as I mentioned earlier, some thread comes not waxed. And this though it looks very similar, and it's from a book binding supplier. This came on waxed. It also is only two ply and this is four pi. So this is thinner and an waxed. I thought I was getting a great deal because of the price on a whole selection of these beautiful colors. So I, I didn't read the description carefully enough. And I ended up with a thinner on waxed threat, which is fine. I use it, I doubled it up most of the time. But the way that you wax, and I'll show you how you would do it with this too. I'll show you what the embroidery floss, because I'll be using this embroidery floss on another sketchbook that, that I'm making. All you do and I work when it's long piece like this. I will just work section at a time. This is bee's wax, a clump of bees wax, and I just run it along like that. You do it over and over again until it feels kind of sticky, starting to feel sticky now. And you would just go all along the threat that feels great, nice and sticky. So then with this, I'm doing it in third and you just would keep doing that all the way down. Before you can wax it. You need to know how long to make the threat. This is the distance between the two holes. Take the distance between the two holes, ie, I go a little extra. And then you multiply that times the number of signatures. So this is 12345. And then you double that. So I take this amount and I double it. And then what I do is I take two strides that go a little bit longer and I always have more than enough. I really like to just give myself some extra. That is the length I need for one set of stitches. Now, I do need to sort of cut another piece that same length. I'm sure that there are other ways to determine the length of the string. I find this the easiest. And I will be using curved needles. So I will thread my needles. And in the next lesson, we will begin stitching. 9. Coptic Binding - First Set of Stitches: I've threaded my needles, one piece of wax thread with a curved needle on each end. You wanna make sure that your tails are the same length. Take your first signature, open it up and you'll go through the holes. One of the stitches line up your needles and pull so that this stitch is the center of your thread. Now this is the first signature. So Lay your cover on top. Flip it over. And you will go through from the front to the back. Keep this thread over to the right. All the way through. I don't pull it tight quite yet. And you want to be on the inside of the thread. Throughout the Coptic binding, you need to be consistent about that. I go to the inside of the threat, pull your signature up, and then this step is not always necessary. That I believe the way that I was taught, there was not a stitch right here. But I like to put a stitch at this 0.2. So I will take my thread, leave it over there. Put my needle through. You see i'm going under the stitch that came from my book. And over the top. This part. If you pull your stitches to tightly, then your book is going to want to stay open all the time. I go under the outer stitch and over the top of the inside stitch. So now you take your second signature, makes sure that your top Is the top, top, top. Flip it around. And now this thread will go through this hole and this thread will go through that full. Makes sure you don't scratch your paper with your needles. Pull these threads firmly but not too tightly. Now we're going to double back. This needle will go through this hole and this needle will go through that whole so will be like that. And I don't pull any of those tightly until I have the needles through both holes called this one. That one. Skip the last signature. Go into this space on the inside. And then this loop. You go to the inside. Again. Don't worry, I'll be showing you this several times next to the cover, uh, through that loop. And in this one, you go into the center. And already you can start to see the shape, the beautiful shape of the Coptic stitching. Alright? So now you have two signatures on. We take the third signature and you wanna make sure that the top is on the top. And we do the same thing. It is a little easier when you're just doing this on your own. I'm doing it and explaining it, so I'm having to hold these up. It's not quite as awkward as it appears, right? When you see a little bit of a gap and you gently tug the opposite one, and that pulls it together. We skip one. And we go into the metal from the outside into the metal. And in this loop we go into the metal. Now we have two beautiful stitches. Skip a signature into the metal. Here's our loop, into the middle. And there we have two more beautiful stitches. Now we have three signatures on it. Take the fourth signature, the top to the top. Top to top. We're working on the bottoms. Detroit. Now, this thread goes into this world. This thread goes into this. Skip a signature oh, under all the stitches into the center. And with this loop, go in and toward the center. Skip a signature under all the stitches into the center, down and into the center. The last signature, top to top, bottom to bottom. Skip a signature under all the stitches from the outside going into the center. Here's the loop. Go down through the loop. An outbox, skip a signature, down through all the stitches. Toward the center. Here's the loop, go down into the hole and pull it gently. Alright, now we put the back cover on. So we're going to go through the holes from the top. And here too. You want to go to the inside. Alright, so this is between these two threads. So I'll put it like that. And I'm gonna go through these two need to be on the inside of this ditch. See? These are on the outside, these are on the inside. Skip a signature. Go underneath all the stitches, come up in the center and go down through your whole skip a signature. Go into the center. Up, down through your whole okay. Now we need to tie this off. And to do that we're going to go into our last signature, right? So the threads are on the inside. I need to go back into my last signature though, into the top hole. Right there. On the top. Here, I'll go and the outside this back through the hole. I like to go underneath these to tie it off. And I do a square and a square naught. This thread is under, ne. Remember, this thread was underneath. So I'm gonna go underneath again with that. That's how you do a square not instead of a granny knot. And you trim it. You have one set of stitches done. Pretty nice. Opens up flat, everything opens up flat. Right? Now. We'll do the second row. I'll go slowly for the two covers and then I'll speed it up for the inside. 10. Coptic Binding - Second Set of Stitches: Now we're ready to stitch the second row. Top, bottom. We stitched the bottom row. Alright, I've threaded my needle, it's halfway, right? My tails are the same length, pretty close to the same length. Halfway. So the first thing we do is we open it up. The first signature, we go through the holes, already punched just through the first signature. Remember we go through the outside first sip, bring your threads around, around the front, bottom to the bottom. Into the center, not the outside but into the center. The center, meaning between the two holes around the outside. Through the whole thing would go. Then we're going to go in between is dead and the inside of this ditch. This is where I like to do my extra step. I go through the outside, just the one just through the outside, into the center. And then I go to the second, through the holes of the second signature. See how this is a little bit of a gap. You want to gently pull the opposite, fun. Now we go back to our regular stitching. Through the outsides HIPAA signature under the stitches and down through the hole under this ditch. We've skipped the signature into the center and then down through the hole. And then into our third signature. You'll find your own pace and your own way of holding the book that's most comfortable for you. I squish it together a little bit, not too much because they don't want it to be too tight. I found that artists do have a tendency to make it either way too loose or way too types, kinda like with knitting. And you'll get a feel for what it will take with the paper that you're using to get just the right tension. Skip one under, to the center, and down through this hole. One thing you do want to do is you wanna make sure that you don't go through the thread. Makes sure that you clear the thread because otherwise you'll end up with a bit of a not and won't be able to pull it tightly if you've gone through the other thread, under and through the whole under and through the hole. Now here's the back cover. Remember, you want to go through the two threads. We've come up, skip into the center, down, and then just straight back and we're gonna go back into that under through the home. This way you have to worry about making an extra stitch. And we'll go back into the top and bottom. I like to loop around the threads that are already there. And time I square not. And they are, is your Coptic bound sketchbook. And it opens flat, which is so great. I will often tape an envelope into the front cover or the back cover. And this way, I can slip my color wheel, I can slip my grayscale. I can slip all kinds of things into that envelope to carry with me. I can just go ahead and put on the elastic around, keep it closed. 11. Summary and Conclusion: This brings us to the end of the class on doubled needle Coptic stitching. I hadn't intended to do the entire class showing you how to turn a corrugated shoebox and recycled file folders into a fabulous Coptic pound book. And I began that way, except that I did switch out file folders for Reeves be FK printmaking paper. But as you know, I gauge the size of the paper according to the front of the box and stare at the back of the box as well. I'd like to share with you the way that it has evolved after I finished filming the original lessons in the class. So this is the book and I have some slides to show you that I stitched around the outside. I also went ahead and I put some handmade paper on the inside. And I also made this handmade envelope to put things into. So I used handmade no paper, I tour it and the method that I showed you, I also did wet the edges of this because the paper is more fragile. And I taped all of those things together onto the corrugated cardboard. So it's really a much more elegant sketchbook than I had intended. But you can do fo, you can either make a gorgeous book or you can make really fun also gorgeous book out of recycled materials. Perhaps in a future class, I will show you how to make some beautiful covers using handmade paper and gluing them onto the dense book board. And that's really a more traditional way to make, to make a fine sketch book. But I just want to get you going where you can just use stuff around the house and play with it and make a lot of mistakes and then just get as fancy as you want. In this class, you learn numerous skills. You learned about paper and how to fold paper with the grain and against the grain. You learned about tearing paper to give it a soft edge. You learned about cutting your book covers. You learned about creative ways to solve problems when you make mistakes. You learned about folding signatures and punching holes in your signatures. You also learn how to wax your own thread. And you learned how to do double needle Coptic stitch binding. And hopefully you've done this and you've ended up with a fabulous new book that you made all by yourself. These remember to check out some of my other skill share classes. I have them on watercolor techniques. Pulling the puddle is a real favorite. Flex Agon. Hands toys, bolding toys that you can make, that you can illustrate with beautiful patterns and designs that are quite magical. And also the color wheel Mandela's, there are more to come and please be in touch with me if there's something special that you would like for me to teach, I'll put it on the list. Don't forget to post your project and project area. I'm Chris Carter. Thanks for joining me.