Creative Cinematography 2 - Getting the Right Exposure | Phil Ebiner | Skillshare

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Creative Cinematography 2 - Getting the Right Exposure

teacher avatar Phil Ebiner, Video | Photo | Design

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (35m)
    • 1. Intro to Course

    • 2. How does Exposure Work?

    • 3. How Does Frame Rate Affect Exposure?

    • 4. What is ISO?

    • 5. What is Shutter Speed?

    • 6. What is Aperture (aka F-Stop)?

    • 7. Using Neutral Density (ND) Filters to Cut Down Light

    • 8. Reading Exposure with Your Camera: Understanding the Histogram and Light Meters

    • 9. Putting It All Together: How to Exposure Properly

    • 10. Shooting with Color Profiles and LUTs

    • 11. Shooting in RAW Mode for Best Color Correction

    • 12. The Course Project

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About This Class

This online Cinematography Course will teach you how to shoot beautiful videos with any camera.

Enroll in all the modules:

  1. Camera Basics
  2. Getting the Right Exposure
  3. Composing Better Images
  4. Adding Movement to Your Shots
  5. Lighting Your Videos
  6. Making Money as a Cinematographer

This course is designed to teach you the ins and outs of professional cinematography - the art of making motion pictures. While there are plenty of video courses, it's hard to find a comprehensive course that teaches you everything you'd want to know about shooting video.

This is the second course in the Creative Cinematography series. Please check out the rest of the courses in the Creative Cinematography series to continue your cinematography education.

In this course, you'll learn:

  • How¬†exposure works
  • How frame rate affects exposure
  • What is ISO?
  • What is shutter speed?
  • What is aperture?
  • How to use Neutral Density Filters
  • Reading exposure with your camera histogram and light meters
  • Shooting with color profiles and LUTS
  • Shooting in RAW mode

This is the course for you, taught by a professional Hollywood cinematographer, Will Carnahan.

Regardless of the type of camera you are using - DSLR, Professional Cinema Camera, GoPro, iPhone, or Film - you can shoot beautiful video. Learn professional techniques that Hollywood filmmakers are using to capture powerful images.

If you want to learn how to shoot great videos and making money doing what you love, this is the course for you.

Start shooting better videos today!

Enroll today, and we'll see you in the course.

Meet Your Teacher

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Phil Ebiner

Video | Photo | Design


Can I help you learn a new skill?

Since 2012 have been teaching people like you everything I know. I create courses that teach you how to creatively share your story through photography, video, design, and marketing.

I pride myself on creating high quality courses from real world experience.


I've always tried to live life presently and to the fullest. Some of the things I love to do in my spare time include mountain biking, nerding out on personal finance, traveling to new places, watching sports (huge baseball fan here!), and sharing meals with friends and family. Most days you can find me spending quality time with my lovely wife, twin boys and a baby girl, and dog Ashby.

In 2011, I graduated with my Bachelor of Arts in Film and Tele... See full profile

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1. Intro to Course: Hey, everyone, Welcome to this new section on exposure. Exposure is one of the most important concepts for cinematographers photographers. And if you are a photographer coming from that world, you might already understand a little bit about exposure. But for those of you who don't know what I s o shutter speed F stop aperture Iris, what All those things are Well, this is a really important section for you to pay attention to, by the way, Iris aperture f stop. Those are three things that refer to the same process of adjusting for exposure. And there's a lot more that goes into how we expose to whatever we're seeing, whatever our camera is looking at, including how much light we're using now on Lee, how do we adjust in their camera? But how do we adjust the lights to make sure that our exposure is done properly? So this is a great section. Get excited again, and I'll pass it over to well, 2. How does Exposure Work?: so welcome to this new section on exposing this is pretty important. So I wanted to spend a little bit of time to go over each one each variable specifically. But let's talk about what exposure is to start with what is exposure. Exposure is how much light and how you expose your chip, your digital chip to the light. So basically, we want to make sure whether the exposure is right on or too hot or too dark, so over stops or under exposed, over exposed exposed is just a nice, clean image where you can see everything and everything is in detail. It really has to do with the amount of light that's coming in and what you can see and what you can't see. The big thing here we need to talk about I s so we can talk about shudder when you talk about frame rate, we talk about f Stop. We talked about light. There's a lot that goes into exposure, and it's one of the big and most important things that you can really do to make your image look the best it can look 3. How Does Frame Rate Affect Exposure?: So let's really quick talk about frame right before we get into I eso and what not. The thing about frame rate is that you really want to set that first. That's really the first thing you want to set, mostly because it depends on the project you're shooting if you're shooting 24 frames per second or if you're shooting 60 favorite second or 30 frames per second. We had talked about frame right before. The big thing is, though, when you're shooting a higher frame rate, more frames, air really passing in front of your lens, right, which means there in front of your lens for less amount of time. Which means they're going to get light much less right. So back in the days of film, moving through 24 frames per 2nd 24 frames per second, let's up the frame rate to 60 frames per second, right? It's moving faster, which means there's less time for light to hit the frame, which means you need more light. So as you adjust the frame rate on your digital camera, you're gonna lose light. The higher the frame rate goes up. 24 23 98 year. Fine. As you start to move up to 60 frames per 2nd 1 20 frames per second on some cameras will shoot 300 frames per second. You're going to start to lose a thana light. So if you start to shoot higher frame rates, remember, you're going too fast. Lands probably a camera with a high rise. So and you're gonna need to pump in a ton more light. 4. What is ISO?: So the first thing we want to talk about is I s O After you've picked your frame rate your frames per second, we want to talk about the sensitivity of your chip or of your film The I s so actually derives from film or from A s A I s O and really stands for the international sensitivity of what? Your film in motion Waas. So some film was more sensitive to light Other film was less sensitive and that really determine how much light you should or shouldn't let in to touch your film. Now translating that to digital digital chips are treated the same way. Remember I said that we're going to refer to things back from film language and really this is more digital now. So digital I eso is how sensitive or not sensitive your chip is too light. So that means will it react and bring in and record brighter light or less light? So with I s so there's numbers, right, so ranging generally from about 100 to 200 is your low isso lower number, lower sensitivity as opposed to your higher ISOS which will go up to 1632 100. I've seen cameras go up to almost 50,000 on some of the mirror mere list cameras. But for right now, our range is gonna be low. I so 102 100 up to about 1600 or 3200 eyes. So now I have here a generally exposed cup that we're recording on right now, I'm at I s 06 40 and in my f stop 56 So, you know, the F stop will talk more about that later. Theis owes at 6 40 for the cannon C 100 which is kind of a suggested I eso it ranges. Everyone has arguments on what I a soda shootout on what camera? But for now, we're just talking about what I eso is. So at 6 40 I'm gonna change it and go lower on my eyes. So that's a 500 eyes so you can see how we lost a little bit of light because the sensitivity is not as sensitive to light. So it's not picking up a much of the photons, so let's move down. This is 400 ISO again. It's getting darker, right? We're losing light because our chip is not as sensitive as it is before. Let's go down to 3 20 which is as far as the C 100 will let us go down to 3 20 It's a pretty low I s O and we see were very dark. We've lost a lot of light even though we're pumping in a decent amount of light on both the cup, the backer and in the shadows. And you can see that we're losing detail in the blacks in the shadows because there s so just isn't bright enough. So if we're shooting a really dark scene which were not, we would want to move our eyes so up. So just for example, let me show you what happens when we move back up. 400. I s 0 500 eyes. So 6 40 is where I started at 6 45 6 which I think is a nicely exposed image for this cut. Now let's move past that. We're moving up numbers, which means we're hiring the sensitivity of the chip that we have. So let's move up 6 48 100 eyes. So it got brighter, right? The light is affecting the sensitivity of the chip. Let's move up more. 12 1050 1600 eyes. So now see how bright it is now? The chip is so sensitive to that light coming in. Now we've told it that it can accept brighter light and you can see the whites have become super white. You can see that we've gained more detail in the in the shadows there. Now, here's something to keep in mind as we up the number of the isso and it becomes more sensitive. You're adding in more digital kind of numbers is the way I think about it, and it starts to become Granier. Now, back in film days, they would put more chemicals in and higher sensitivity chemicals, which would cause grain. Now, with digital, they're asking for more. Your pixels are asking for more information, and so that's gonna create more digital numbers and noise. So as you raise up that I s o number, you're going to start to see some digital noise based on what camera you're using. Some cameras can handle that better than others. So you just got to keep in mind what camera you're doing, the C 100 is okay. And we have a nicely lit scene, so you can't really tell, but let's see, as we move up, we're a 255,200. That's pretty bright. You can kind of see a little bit of noise on your image. 3200 is like a decent place for the C 100 it can handle a little bit of a high rise. So if I was at 3200 on like an old Nikon d 90 we'd start to see tons of noise. So I think the thing to do is just to show you we're gonna move all the way up to 8000. This is 10,000 eyes. So on a C 100 it has blown the crap out because it is so bright. It is so sensitive, and you can kind of see a little bit of noise. Now, a fun thing to do for you so you can see what the noise looks like is I'm gonna turn off the lights and we'll leave it at the high. I associate can actually see the noise that I'm talking about. So I turned down my lights so you can't see me as well. But I wanted to show you. Here's the cup were still a 10,000 eyes. So now I'm gonna pump up. We're all we're moving all the way up to 20,000 which is the highest. You can go on the C 100. Now. You can really start to see the little dancing digital noise There. You could move the camera on a little bit and you can kind of see I can pan left. And right here you can see a little bit of noise, but you can see I have no lights on. I have one light on over here and I have a couple of house sites on back there and we're still able to get a nice image. It's not. It's clean looking, as we had before. So we're at the highest sensitivity 20,000 eso and we're still out of 56 So we haven't adjust the aperture to arrange that. So let's move back down to a lower sensitivity or lower is so remember my base was at 6 40 Here's 6 40 That's 6 40 i e. Isso. With no lights. You can see the chip is not sensitive whatsoever, really toe without having these lights on and you can see that it is a cleaner image. There's less noise and now you can barely see the cup. And if we move all the way back down to 3 20 you can hardly see the cup and there's no real noise, but you can't see anything. So the best thing to do with eso is to kind of pick the standard or the native I. So if you're into that and you know exactly what cinema native my eso is your camera and stick with that, I'm going to stick with 6 40 because that's kind of a good general place for this project for this, and then we'll make adjustments based on other things like F stop and light and all that, and we'll see where we go from there. So the thing to take away from my eso is that lower number is less sensitive. Higher number is more sensitive in the dark, but remember more noise. So the thing to do is to try and pick and eso and try to stick to that. Generally you want to stick toe one. I s O. Because that's gonna be the native for your chip and where you might get the best result as faras latitude up and down different ships and different cameras will give you better latitude based on your sensitivity or I s o really depends on what camera you have. So you should really research that and figure that out before picking. And I eso Typically I will pick one eso and I will stick to it the entire project and I will just around That s Oh, so that's the best thing I think that you should be doing pick and I so stick to it. Adjust everything else around that I eso and around your frame for a second. 5. What is Shutter Speed?: So let's talk about the shutter speed. There's a lot that goes into shutter speed, and it gets a little convoluted because it's digital and there isn't actually a shutter. But let me explain. First of all, what shutter is now if we go back to film like motion cinema film back in the days there'd be a film strip running through your camera just like that, up and down, up and down, up and down. Now, if we were just to expose straight light to that, it would end up just being a blur of light. So in order to capture those images, we need to have something that blocks it every so often to create that separation and frames, right? So they created a shutter basically in a film camera. It was imagine a pizza and some slices taken out of it, typically 180 degrees, so about half of it would spin just like that as the film went by behind it, and that would create different frames on every piece of film instead of having one streak of light. We have images. We have those 24 images now that shudder would speed and allowed 24 frames to come in a second and would also create a black and then white, black and white, black exposed black expose black exposed to create that separation and frames, so that affects your image greatly. Now, if you're a pizza is only half, you're creating those frames. Imagine eating more of that pizza and having Mawr light coming through that shutter. There's gonna be more of a blur, right? So that won't be as Chris. So imagine a 45 degree shutter. There's more light coming in as it spins. Your image is gonna be a little blurrier and not as clean cut. Now, go the other way. Add more pizza to your shutter so there's only a 45 degree left. You're gonna miss different movements, right? So if I'm moving my hand, you might miss this movement when my hands moving up and down. You might miss this right, because there's less light coming through your shutter. So that's the way shutters originally worked. I know that's a lot to handle right now. When we move into the digital age, there's nothing doing that because they're doing it digitally now. DEA solares The shutters typically that single lens reflex right up and down, up and down, so it opens up, lets light and closes it with 24 frames per second. A typical good shutter is 180 degrees, which is from film age or in shutter speak a 1/50 or a 1/48. So those air really where you want to be, landing your shutter at 24 frames per second digitally. It's a little hard to explain, because its numbers and zeroes and all that stuff. It's not an actual shutter going. But they've landed at that calculation within the computer and the processor to be almost double whatever your frame rate is, your frame rates 24. A good shutter for you to shoot at that will look normal will be a 1 48th or a 1/50. Also on some cameras on the C 100. I can look at it as a 1 48th or I can look at it as a degree, which is 180 degrees, which is a kickback to the way film shutters used to be. So just keep in mind that's the standard. Now, if you're going to shoot at 30 frames per second or you're going to shoot. Ah, higher 60 frames per second. You need to make sure that your shudder is gonna match that. Otherwise, it's gonna look strange if that film is moving faster and your shutter is different, right? So you always, as a rule of thumb, double your frame rate to get your shutter. That you should be at your shutter should be at 1 20 over are under one if you're shooting at 60 frames per second or in that range percent. Another thing to do is shutters is if you are having a close shudder or a higher shutter, you will get more detail. So typically a lot of green screen things that I shoot. When I shoot a higher frame rate, I'll tend to shoot it a higher shutter so they get that more crisp detail so the post effects guys can go in and really find how to track and change the green and stuff. The big thing you got to remember and we'll show you right now. Let me roll here on this camera. Right now, we're at 1 48 because we're shooting 24 frames per second. Um, and we're in the fraction mode When I change the shutter and I go higher up on my shudder, there's less light coming in, right? So this is at 1 1/100 less light coming in again. That affects your exposure, which is why we're talking about this. So if you do shoot at 60 frames per second, you're gonna have to raise your shutter. You're gonna lose light, so you've got to remember you're gonna have to build in more light or change your eyes. So at that point, to get a higher sensitivity, I tend to want to build in more light because you want to stick with your eyes. So but remember, your shutters gonna greatly affect how much light is coming in and coming out. Typically, if you're just shooting normally 24 frames per second, a normal project, leave it at 1 48th or 1/50 and do not touch it, and it will be fine. It will look great. At the end of the day, you really only have to worry about changing a shutter if you want that effect or if you want to shoot it ah, higher frame rate, but you really should research what is best for the frame rate that you're shooting at and the camera that you're using. When you pick up a DSLR, I know people tend to look and try and add, like if they think it's too dark or their lens isn't fast enough, they may start to look at the shutter and start lowering it or raising it, depending on if they have too much light or very little light. Not a good idea. I do not say just doing that because it will affect the way your image looks. It will affect the way it handles refresh rate almost but a lucky, the more crisp or less crisp. And you really want it to be a standard way of shooting things. If you start a razor shutter like I said, detail will start to come in. Sure, you'll have less later, more light, and it'll change one way or the other, depending on if you're shooting up or down. The thing to do is to leave your shutter where it's at and really mess more with the I s so and find a place where you feel comfortable with the noise level or use your f stop. Really? Your f stop in the amount of light they have come in is really where you should be looking at and typically, uh, adding lighting is gonna be the best bet that you can do it. I know not all situations are privy to that. We'll talk about F stops in the next lesson, and we'll also talk about light a little bit later on. The best thing to do is to leave your shutter where it's at and use the other variables to affect your exposure. 6. What is Aperture (aka F-Stop)?: So let's talk about F. Stop. This is one of my favorite things, mostly because it's just so easy to adjust. F Stop is the aperture or the aperture ring that's inside your lens, and basically it's the hole that lets the amount of light in for exposure. Now it's a little odd because the numbers are backwards, but the higher the number like a 22 or a 16. The smaller the whole, the less light is able to come in so adversely, the lower the number. 2.81 point 456 The bigger the hole, the more light that comes in. So, really, that effects, how much lights coming in and how much you're allowing coming in and out and and how you want to really let the amount of light and coming in based on everything else that we've talked about based on your eyes. So based on your frame right based on your shutter now, how much light should you let come in? Probably the more amount of light you want coming in, but there's other effects that the F stop takes, but let's first talk about exposure with it, so let's hear Let's take a look. I have our Starbucks Cup were still back at our same ratio. Were at a 56 where I s 06 40 and we're at a 1 48th shutter. Now I'm gonna just the f stop so you can see we're on a canon 24 to 70 which is a 2.8 lens . And let's just move. Let's just close down quite a bit. So we're at 56 Here's a 63 because it moves in those fractions. Here's a 71 Here's an eight, which is a standard F stop will move up to the next standard, which is 11. Here's an 11 f stop you can see as I'm closing the whole we're letting less lighting. So as we move up to a 16 which is the next standard you can see there's even less light and moving up to a 22 even less like so. Typically, you probably wouldn't be shooting at a 22 or 16 unless you forgot Andy filters and you needed to let more light in. So let's go the other way. Let's start a 22. Here's our 16 that we saw Here's our 11. Here's our eight. Here's us back at 56 which I think is a nicely exposed image. Now let's open up more and let's see what the effect is. You can see when we goto afore we have more light. You can start to see into the shadows a little more. The whites are really becoming more white, and you can see now that we move to a 28 which is the next standard again, more bright. That's about as wide open as this lens gets. Tons of light coming in. You can see that That's the backgrounds, just white. We can see detail in the shadow. Really. The take away here is that the smaller the number, the bigger the hole in the F stop range. The more light comes in, the higher the number, the smaller the whole, the less light that comes in. You want to adjust those accordingly to get exposure. The other thing with F stops, ends and apertures is that it affects your focus. This is a little strange and a little hard, conceptually, sometimes, but typically when you have a bigger hole, the more shallow depth of field you'll have. If you have a smaller hole, Um, and the more closed down aperture you have, the more things will be in focus. The reason why we talk about that is because you want to achieve that sort of look right when we talked about lots of things out of focus and very things little and focus. That's that movie aesthetic, and that will be achieved with a wider open hole. So the reason why if you think about a painting, I'm always using this as a as ah example. But if you think about a bigger hole or a big giant brush, you can see everything is just smushed around and there's big. It's hard to see detailed things there kind of watching out of focus. Another way to think about. If you close down to get a 22 you get a more fine point brush. There's more detail, more things in focus. That's the best way to think about it. So if you're trying to achieve that, look, shoot wide open shooter to wait. Remember, when you look at lenses, it's harder to get that bigger hole in the filament, so faster lens is a two way a 14 A 18 I've seen a T 11 time. They're just wide open. Holes are gonna be way more expensive than those other ones. 7. Using Neutral Density (ND) Filters to Cut Down Light: So let's talk a little bit more about bright, bright light. Typically, I like to shoot between a 2.8 a four, depending on what lenses I'm shooting, mostly because I get that really cool, narrative shallow depth of field. Now, sometimes I'm outdoors shooting an event, shooting a dock where I'm in a situation where between the iso's really low the shutters were I needed to be. The frame rates fine, and I want to shoot it a 28 or four. And there's just too much light, which means everything overexposed you out in bright sunlight, and you just can't achieve that. Look now, instead of taking my F stop and shooting it up to like a 16 or 22 which will make things and more focus, I want to maintain that look. I'll add a filter in front of it. It's called a nd filter or a neutral density filters. And what that filter does, is it just overall cuts down all the light coming in and passing through the lens? The big thing that you use that for is you use that in order to maintain my two point A or my four F stop so I can keep that look right. So the big thing that nd filters is that there's several different ones. There's there's Typically it's an Indy three of six and a nine or 2.36 and nine and a 1.2 or a 12. And so the cool thing about those is that some cameras have them internally. Other cameras, you have to put it. You have to actually get something will screw onto the lens, or you have to put something that's in front of them through a matchbox. Um, I'm gonna demo right here if we roll on R C 100. The cool thing about the C one hundreds is that they already have them built in. I'm actually going to go over to I s O and I'm gonna pump up the eso till about 3200. Now that's 3200. Let's go a little further. 4000. I would never shoot a 4000 But just for purposes of this, we're pretending that there's a thana light coming in. Now you can see our cup is just totally blown out. The whites white. I can't even see any detail on the left side of the cut. So let's throw in a filter. I'm gonna do it really slow here so you can actually see it happen. Here is our first nd. Now that's an nd one that's taking down two stops. You can see that it's got a little bit more detail so we can go from an anyone to know in D . C. How bright it is. Do it slow again. Is internal inside the camera Still a little too bright for me. So we're gonna go up one more. Here's their second nd, which is taking down four stops, which is actually closer to an nd nine in real life. But that's really achieving what I wanted to do. You can see there's super a lot of light. I'm at a to eight. It's a nice, exposed image. Now if I go up when I think they have one more Indian here, here's their nd three, and that's really taking down six stops so you can see it's just cutting down all that light. But I'm still maintaining my 2.8 look, and you can see how there's still a lot of range and focus. I can rack back and forth, and we can't see it now. Alternatively, let's go back so I can show you what it looks like if we went to a 22. So here's no filters, its brightest heck. And if we stop down all the way down to A, it looks like we need to be at a 16 to achieve that same look. If we focus here, you can see there's more things that focus you to see less of Iraq. And this is where you see where things are more in focus. Now. It just really depends on what your situation is, what you're doing. If you're on like a Steadicam, where you can't pull focus and you want things more in focus, sometimes I'll stop down. So I know that everything's in focus. But typically, I really do like shooting at a to wait so that you get that look and then I'll add that Andy back in so you can really see that's a little too dark. You can really see that. There's a lot of really fun ways to play with Focus and you get that movie ascetic. You get it looking high production value. Get it looking awesome 8. Reading Exposure with Your Camera: Understanding the Histogram and Light Meters: Okay, so not I've talked all the details on what you want to use to expose your film. How do you tell if it's actually exposed? There's several ways to do this. Also. It depends on what? Camera using. I'm going to go over the C 100 really quick so we can talk about the way form and just your eye on. And then we'll talk more about DSLR is and bigger cameras. So here you can see we have our exposed. We have our cup here, and when I pulled up right here is a way for him. It's not my favorite meter, but it's all that this camera has for now. And basically, this is telling you what's clipping or what would clip at what's called 90 clipping, Um, or what it would be shadows under zero. The thing is, you can see right here if I put my hand in front of it. See that green thing? It changes. Now if I'm here zero you can see it's all the way down to zero, and that's what we're gonna lose information now. Alternatively, if it's too bright, you can see the green will go all the way up really high. The point of a way form or a hist a gram is to get the fattest signal in the most center point that you can. You don't want to be clipping your whites or you don't wanna be losing any detail. No whites, and you don't want to be losing any detail in the blacks. Now you can see as I shift the F stop here, you can see that whole thing shifts down towards black as I stop up and I go towards a 22. That's too dark. You can see it's pretty low, and you can see that it's too low on the meter. It's also too low on your eyes. Now, with the C 100 I would trust the monitor for exposure maybe not for color, but for exposure. You just want to be cautious of the shadows and the Peking, which is the highlights. Those are the two things that are going to lose the fastest Now, alternatively, if I open white up, you can see how that shoots right up above 90. You can see 90 right here on that very top line. So I want to shoot just below 90 so that I know we're getting a nicely exposed image. Now, I expose this earlier without the way form just by eye. And we're here at a five. And we're pretty close to what I thought by and I thought it was actually gonna be a 56 were out of five here. If we go up to a 56 you can see probably even more detail, which is nice, because I know that when we have a fat image or a fat signal on a meter that we can actually tend to, um, fill that out in post. Now, every cameras different, every camera's gonna expose differently. The other way to do it is with DSLR. Now it's hard with DSLR is because you don't always want to trust the little monitor, and there's no actual live hissed a gram on most DSL ours. This is a way for him, a history times a little different you may have seen in some of the classes where it's more of just ah, graph meter and it shows you which level your lights are going to you towards shadows or towards highlights again. Same thing with the way form. You want a fat signal in the middle. So that's really where your mid tones are. Where you know you're going to pull up and pull down from either end of the spectrum. The big thing is on DSL ours. If you have a history Graham on your DSLR, some of them are starting to have them to check that. Check your eye on the monitor. Make sure you're not clipping you. Concerns zebras on and set Where you're clipping is sometimes alternate zebras on and set him at 80 clipping as opposed to 90. So I know that we're getting close by zebras. I mean, these little zebra lines. You can see how the white is clipping through here on this camera. They're set to 90 I believe. So you can see that we're starting to clip here on these little zebra lines. Now watches. I have I stopped down or stop up and we're opening up. You can see that those evil lines air covering this entire spot right here. As I change and I get a higher on, I open up to like a to eight. You see that? We're even starting to clip zero. We're gonna lose detail wherever is inside the zebra line. So all this is gonna not be able to be shown up later. You can see, As I closed down, closed down, it gets less and less now. We got detailed back on the table. We're getting detail. Back in the cup, we got it back. And now there's just that one spot where my light is shifting. Now, if I put my hand over it, you can see the zebras go away because my hand is obviously not lit and it's exposed in front of the camera. So it really just depends on how you're clipping and how you wanna handle your exposure. Zebras, air a really good way. And there, on most cameras to build, tell where you're losing your highlights. There really won't help you with with low light. Some cameras, like a red camera, and Ari can handle into that zone. Others can't. So it really depends on the camera using what tools you have at your disposal. And if you trust this sense or not, I still think the biggest thing to Dio is to get out there, test your shooting conditions, come back to your computer. Put him in your computer. Play with them out. Put him run through the entire system so that you understand how yours particular camera is able to expose. 9. Putting It All Together: How to Exposure Properly: So what's my process? And it really depends on what I'm shooting. I'm gonna first talk about narrative, and then I'll talk about docker events with narrative pieces. I tend to go in knowing what camera I'm shooting, how it handles exposure. I know what lenses I'm using and what f stop those lenses air are looking nice at, Um and I know how much light I'm really gonna have, So there's a lot of variables beforehand that I'm able to rely on. So the big thing with narrative is I'll end up picking an f stop. So I want to shoot it a two way or a four, typically around a four. I would say more closely than others. And on a big set, I'll talk to my gaffer and tell him, Look, we're shooting at a four. Um, if we're shooting on the red, I'm gonna shoot I s 0 800 or 6 40 I've been doing 800. That's a whole other discussion. I've been doing 800 so we already know we can set our light meters to 800. I'm aiming for a four, and basically we can then use our light meters and go around and be able to tell where the lights coming from. And if we're hitting a four or not, well, then adjust the lighting because we have time. We have lights to get that exposure. So basically I'm fixed. I s o I'm fixed f stop. Typically, I know my frame rate already, so everything's fixed, and I'm really just adjusting the lighting. And that's usually how narratives go now. That being said, sometimes you don't have time to do all those things or we need to run on the fly. Chances are I'll add more light in or I'll have a G any team where I'm able to pull things in or get different lights, get bigger lights. If you don't have a budget for that, you're just gonna have to figure it out. By changing your F stop, chances are, or you're gonna have to try and change your I s. So if your camera could do that again, depends on what camera shooting. Now, if we go into dock and events, it's a little bit more tricky because you have to show up and deal with what's there. Typically, when I'm shooting a dock or an event, I will tend to set the I S O and the frame rate based on the camera that I'm using. Now, if I was gonna go out with a C 100 I would probably take a 6 40 I s o and start There is my base. I was on a wedding one time where I had to bump it up even higher up 1216 100 just so I could get some more information in there. But I will stick with my I s o. Then I will select my, uh, my f stop because I'll have already figured out my frames per second, mostly because generally, if I'm just covering coverage, it just seems to be 24. And from there, all play with my f stop and play with the eso if I have to. But the big thing is to figure out what your variables are, what you're able to change and what you're not able to change. A lot of run and gun stuff is gonna involve Andes and changing your eyes. So ah, lot of narrative stuff is going to be more changing your F stop and adding more light in 10. Shooting with Color Profiles and LUTs: so I don't want to go too deep into ah thes other ways of telling exposure. But when you start to move up to bigger cameras like the Ari Alexa Ari, many also the red camera and the bigger kind of big boy cinnamon cameras. They actually have their own ways of telling color and exposure. The red uses something called false color. Our uses something similar with that, along with Ari color, and basically, it's just color coded ways of being able to tell exposure and where your latitude is. If you find yourself on set with one of those, you really should research and figure out exactly where the different colors air meaning exposure. You can use that on their monitors to test your exposure for what you're looking at. Ah, lot of times I use that on red camera. I tend to shoot on the epic and the dragon a lot. Where will tell me Purple is under exposed and pink and yellows will be in the higher higher zones, and that's kind of really cool because it's another tool that you can use for exposure again. It's not on any of the smaller cameras that I know of it may be starting to come out in the canon sees Mark to Siri's. But as as you go further and start to get bigger and bigger cameras, it's just another tool in your toolbox to know about and be aware of. 11. Shooting in RAW Mode for Best Color Correction: Another thing that mentioned is raw. Depending on what camera you're shooting, it will be able to shoot a raw image versus a color corrected image. Now there's different looks called Lutz and also called different things that cameras will build in something called Rex 709 is kind of the standard look on most cameras. Canon has its own look. Sony has its own look called S Log, so all these different cameras will have their own looks. But some cameras will shoot straight raw. Or you could get a raw recorder, depending on the camera system that you have the thing about raw. If you accomplish exposure correctly, Rob will let you take it into post, and you can mess with the maximum amount of latitude and longitude as faras shadows and highlights. Go now remember, you have to figure out if your camera shoots raw and then if your editor in your post can handle that as far as it goes, Sometimes that tends to be a much higher bit rate and also will allow you to take up more space on your cards and stuff. It's great if you can shoot it and you can handle it. I always and highly suggest that you shoot raw because it will get you the most amount of color, the most amount of ranges faras doing it in post and really add your image in immense amount. Again, it's more in the higher level camera cameras, most DSL ours won't I know the smallest mere lis camera That probably does. It would be probably a black magic pocket or something similar to that. 12. The Course Project: everyone. Welcome to another challenge for the cinema Tarpey class. You've learned all about exposure now, and hopefully you understand with your camera how you will expose manually because automatic exposure while gray, it helps you to get a well exposed image. It doesn't allow you to adjust properly for the correct I s o the cracks shutter speed or the correct aperture that you might want for your cinnamon. A cinematic look. And so, for this challenge, we asked you to shoot two videos, one inside interior shot and one exterior shot outside. And the reason we want you to shoot both of those is because the lighting set up is going to be a lot different. Now you can use lights in your house or wherever you're shooting inside to help you expose properly. And then outside, you can shoot wherever you want. We just want a well exposed image, something that's not too dark, not too bright, where the highlights aren't overly exposed and the darks aren't too crushed to black. Basically. And so the challenge is to do those two shots to shoot an interior and exterior and make sure that they are exposed properly now Wherever you're watching this, you can always share your work with us. You can post it online and share it with us at video school, online dot com, or you can send us a message through the course page. We would love to see your work, but really, this challenge is meant to be for you. So there's no need and posting online if you don't want to. But if you can, I would love to see your work. Thanks so much for watching and we'll see you in the next section.