Creating a Modern, Cinematic Documentary with Soul | Dandan Liu | Skillshare

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Dandan Liu, Documentary Filmmaker | Cinematographer

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52 Lessons (1h 49m)
    • 1. Course Intro

    • 2. Intro to Preproduction

    • 3. What Makes a Good Subject?

    • 4. PreInterview

    • 5. Preobservations

    • 6. Interview Questions

    • 7. Location Scouting

    • 8. Shot List

    • 9. Scheduling

    • 10. Preproduction Recap

    • 11. Intro to Production

    • 12. Intro to Audio

    • 13. Audio Equipment

    • 14. Recording Space

    • 15. Essential Audio Tricks

    • 16. Interview Ground Rules

    • 17. Interview Tips

    • 18. Intro to Cinematography

    • 19. Using Natural Light

    • 20. Tripod

    • 21. Composition

    • 22. Intro to Exposure

    • 23. Exposure 5 step method

    • 24. Aputure

    • 25. ISO

    • 26. ND Filters

    • 27. Exposure Recap

    • 28. Shooting

    • 29. Production Recap

    • 30. Intro to Editing

    • 31. Transferring Files

    • 32. Writing a Transcript

    • 33. Paper Edit

    • 34. Editing Case Study

    • 35. The Premiere Pro Interface

    • 36. Importing Footage

    • 37. Setting Up A Sequence

    • 38. Placing Clips on Timeline

    • 39. Syncing Audio with Video

    • 40. Making Cuts

    • 41. Adding B Roll

    • 42. Adding Music Magic to Video

    • 43. Cutting Music

    • 44. Adding Transitions

    • 45. Leveling Your Audio

    • 46. Export!

    • 47. Bonus: Ken Burns Effect

    • 48. Bonus: Adding Titles

    • 49. Bonus: Warp Stabilizer

    • 50. "Monburan Micki" Final Version

    • 51. Course Conclusion

    • 52. Exciting Updates

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About This Class

It's time documentaries get a fresh lift. Typically, they are taught with outdated methods which stem from the 90's, with boring talking heads and bad imagery. This class, instead, teaches you how to make modern, cinematic, and story-driven character docs that engage viewers both visually and emotionally.

This class will cover the whole doc making lifecycle, covering how to plan, how to shoot, and how to edit. Part travelogue, part course, all of these lessons are designed to be applicable and get straight-to-the-point. Showing behind-the-scenes footage, they bring you along Dandan's journey of making her beautiful short doc in Tokyo about a female boxer for Omeleto, one of the leading online showcasing platforms for films. 

By the end of this course, you will have all the knowledge and a complete roadmap needed to make your first documentary short. 


1. Course Intro: Hi, everyone. My name is Dan Dan, and I am a documentary filmmaker whose work emphasizes cinematography and deep storytelling . I just came back from an O Miletto assignment in Tokyo, where I shot a short documentary on an up and coming female boxer named Mickey. I'm so excited to bring you along this journey to teach you all you need to know how to make a modern cinematic and story driven short documentary yourself. This is not a course that will teach you how to make a traditional documentary with boring talking heads and bad imagery, but is instead, of course, they will teach you how to make a fresh character doc that engage viewers both visually and emotionally. So, in this course will look at the whole documentary life cycle, which can be broken down into three faces. Preproduction or the planning phase production or the shooting phase and post production or the editing face. Through all of these steps, I will show you behind the scenes footage of my documentary making process in Japan so you can see how the lessons I teach you can be applied in the real world. All of these lessons come from my years of working as a professional in the industry and are designed to be applicable and get straight to the point. By the end of this course, you will have all the knowledge and a complete roadmap needed to make your first short documentary Let's get started. 2. Intro to Preproduction: Theo. Biggest mistake I've seen in beginner filmmakers is not dedicating enough time for planning . This planning phase, also known as pre production, is often seen as boring and nebulous, but is actually the most crucial part of the whole filmmaking process. It sets the foundation for how deep and well crafted your story it will be. But how do you concrete Lee plan for something if you're not even sure what's exactly going to happen? This section will show you how guiding you step by step in the whole planning phase, from having that little idea spark in your head to having all of you shoot scheduled and ready to go. 3. What Makes a Good Subject?: one common thing I noticed in beginner filmmakers is that they typically assume that whatever subject pulls thumb will make for a good, strong subject on film. However, this is frequently not the case, and I encourage you to take a step back and critically think about whether your subject will make for a good, strong documentary. With that being said, What makes a good subject for Doc? Well, think about all of your favorite characters, fiction or riel. What do they have in common for my experience? I think that the subjects that make for a good documentary are those that have these qualities in common. Number one. Those with a story that features a main conflict and something at stake if your story does not have a main conflict will likely feel descriptive, informational and static without something at stake. It will be hard for your viewers to root for your main character from the beginning to the end of your film number to someone who is passionate about what they dio pretty self explanatory. And number three someone you have developed report with and have unique access to documentary filmmaking can be an intimate process, and you want to make sure that your subject feels comfortable letting you into their worlds . When I make my documentary, I'm usually very up front with my subject about the time and effort it will take on both sides. To make this documentary, try to let them see this as a collaborative effort and make sure you give them a heads up as to what this project will entail. 4. PreInterview: after finding the right subject, it's time to do some research. Even the documentary film making is a process of discovery. The more you know about your subject beforehand, the more you'll be able to know what questions to ask and how to approach filming their story. Besides the traditional avenues of research like reading articles and searching the Internet, there are two other ways I like to look into my subject. First, let's address the preinterview note that a pre interview is not a rehearsal for the actual interview, but it's actually a casual conversation where you meet with your subject to break the ice here. You sure topics you hope to explore in your film allow them to get to know you better and ask them what they think would be important points address. To convey who they are. Try to refrain from asking actual interview questions, especially if your interview will be conducted at a close date, because this can take away from the spontaneity of your subject responses during the Riel interview. So so for Mickey Stock. The day after I landed in Tokyo, I met with her at a Starbucks in her neighborhood and asked her about her life. What important events were coming up? Where? When and how did she train? I also got important details about her final boxing match, including how it was going to be set up. What was gonna happen before during it afterwards and location it was in. 5. Preobservations: next, let's talk about pre observations. This is when you step into the life of your subject for an afternoon or a day or an event and just observe. Doing this will not only help you understand what you could focus on story wise, but also what you can focus on visually. So for Mickey Stock, I showed up one afternoon at her training gym to watch her train. Doing this allowed me to get a sense of three things. Number one, a sense of the space and lighting available so I could sense how to position my camera on what time of day would be best to shoot to. It revealed certain things I needed to film. For example, I learned that the boxers in her gym time there trainings with the clock that marked every three minute interval. So I noted down that it would be a good idea to film this clock counting down Third, it allowed me to see Mickey's rhythm and processes, so I had a sense of how I could move my camera, what angles to set out that and how to not get in the way when filming 6. Interview Questions: Now that you know more about your subject story and their world, it's time to write down your interview questions. Since the interview forms the spine of your documentary, it's really important to spend some time here. So when you're sitting down, the more you can narrow down the collective focus of your interview questions, the more your questions can build together. And Elissa a complete story. You want to ask questions that are number one open ended and story based instead of asking , How did you meet? Instead, ask, Tell me about the day you two met and the moments you remember most vividly. Instead of asking, How did you start your organization? Ask, tell me about the day where you had the idea to start your organization. What happened? Keep in mind that the reason why interview responses are lackluster is typically because the interview questions were not story based to understand more about what I mean by story based. Pixar really embraces the story based approach, and they have a formula for telling their amazing stories, which I find useful for crafting your own questions. It looks like this once upon a time, blank every day, blank but one day blank because of that blank. Because of that, blink until finally blank. If you feel like there's something missing in your subject response, perhaps it's because they're missing a because of that part. So frame your follow up questions accordingly so that they can elicit more story based responses. Number to avoid yes or no questions. And don't settle for generalizations. If they say that was the best time of their life, dig deeper and ask Why. Don't be afraid to go in circles with your questions. Revisiting previously asked questions towards the end. To get a more intense and story based answer. Number three. Always at the end, Ask your subject if there's anything they would like to say that you have not mentioned before. 7. Location Scouting: if you have special location needs for your film, going there and visiting them beforehand is extremely valuable because it will help you come up with a game plan for the actual shoot day. By doing this on the actual shoot day, you won't need to take time to figure out where to place things and where to set up your shots. Bring a camera to take photos during your location scouting so that you can remember the key details when you come home. For example, From my doc, I envisioned an opening scene where Mickey would be dressed as a geisha in a traditional Japanese room, where she would suddenly reveal her boxing gloves to symbolize how she's breaking cultural expectations for females by pursuing her passion to find this traditional Japanese room took a lot of searching and asking and after many unsuccessful searches. Eventually I was directed to this website that had photos of a room in a traditional tea house that was available to rent. It looked promising, so I went to the site and asked to see the actual room. Here are the things that I noticed space. Is it big enough for the sliding shot I want to do. Is there space to set up my main light and put up my equipment? Light available? What is the natural light level without any light turned on? Does this light look good? Where are the main sources of light? Are there windows? Are there artificial lights? What color is this artificial light? Are there electrical outlets? Do I need to bring an extension cord for my light? Another thing I noticed was a sound. Is there any noise coming from a C? Clocks, visitors? Streetcars? I also took note of any special features. Is there anything in the space that could potentially interfere with my shot or give me a cool angle to shoot from? This room had old tatami floors made of delicate woven bamboo. So I noted to pack some socks on my tripod legs so they wouldn't scratch the floor. When you visit your site, chances are that you'll have new ideas for your shot list, so be sure to update that as well. After your location scouting 8. Shot List: Now they have done your pre interview and observations. You should have a better sense of your subjects, environment and processes. It's at this point that I like to come up with a preliminary shot list where you start anticipating what shots you'll need for your story. In the filmmaking world, we call this mentality shooting for the edit. Shooting for the edit does not mean showing up and filming everything. Instead, that means, than when you are shooting. You have in mind how shots can connect together to build a complete story. If you have this mindset, you'll not only make your edit a lot smoother and more compelling, but it will also make sure that you're not missing any crucial shots that you need to tell the story. So ask yourself what types of things do I need to show to enhance the storytelling? Was shots are worth 1000 words and convey key information. Typically, these shots are helpful. Number one establishing shots, the's air, the shots that help orient your viewer and give them a sense of time and location to opening shots that served to introduce her seen smoothly so their entrance don't seem jarring to the story. Third cutaway shots. Not only do these make your film look more cinematic, but they also give continuity to a scene so you can cover a jump from one shot to another without perceived gap. They also are valuable opportunities to provide key information and create a sense of intimacy, like you're right there with the character. I find these shots so helpful that I aim to make 50% of my shots cutaways and finally closing shots. Closing shots give a sense of closure so it doesn't seem like you're seeing just ends abruptly after meeting Mickey. And during my pre observation, this is what my preliminary shot list look like. 9. Scheduling: Okay, now it's time to put everything in place with scheduling. I recommend meeting with your subject and asking them what times would be good to film the important moments in their lives. So for Mickey's doc, I met up with her again in Tokyo to talk about her schedule and write down shoot dates on the calendar. Because the shoot was over a four week period. I would meet with Mickey during the Sunday of every week and update the schedule as sometimes important events would come up the day before every shoot. I would remind Mickey over a message just to make sure that we were aligned on her time and date. On the actual shoot day, I recommend arriving at least one hour beforehand to set up release forms. This is a step most filmmakers forget, but it's really important if you intend to show you work on a network release. Forms are basically consent forms signed by your subject, saying that they gave you permission to filmdom for a simple release form that I use. Check out my projects page for the attachment 10. Preproduction Recap: to recap, you finish preproduction by picking out a good subject during research, conducting pre interviews and observations, writing down your interview questions, coming up with a shot list location, scouting, scheduling your chutes and signing your release form. Congratulations. You've now set everything in motion for your shoot. As important as it is to prepare, as you did in this phase, keep in mind that documentary filmmaking is also a wonderful dance between planning and going with the flow. So don't be afraid to change anything if something arises. 11. Intro to Production: way. Welcome to the production phase. This is a phase where you'll be using your camera and audio equipment to get the building blocks of your film. I've broken down this section into three parts. First, we will learn how to use equipment to get a good audio recording for an interview and how to enhance our audio recording environment. Second, we will learn a few key tips on conducting powerful interviews. Third, we will learn how to shoot footage with our cameras. 12. Intro to Audio: so to record a great interview will need good sound. So first I want to teach you how to use your mikes to record great sounding audio. Then I'll teach you how to enhance your audio recording space and finally, al sure to essential tricks. You'll need to smooth out your audio in the edit. Let's start with audio equipment in this equipment section. I will teach you how to use three main pieces of audio gear. First Elavil Year Mike, which goes directly on your subject and records their interviews. Second, an external recorder, which stores what is being said into your laugh Mike and sets the loudness levels. And third, a Shock and Mike, which records the sounds of what's going on in front of your camera like actions and ambience. It's also great backup for your laugh Mike During the interview, signals from the Shock and Mike are directly recorded into your camera. 13. Audio Equipment: to use the last mike. It's simple. Clip it around their sternum 6 to 8 inches below the mouth and point the mic up. Be careful not to have any cloth, jewelry or hair around there. Mike, because thes can bump against the mic and muffled the sound to record what is being said from your laughed Mike, you will need an external recorder to use external recorder. First, make sure you have a memory card inside. Then insert your Love Mike and set the recording format to waive 48 kilohertz 16 bit, which is a higher quality file than the MP three. Next, notice your audio meter. This records a decibel range or loudness of what is being picked up by your mike. You want your audio levels to bounce between negative six and negative 12 decibels to set your audio levels to a test with your subject beforehand, tell them you're going to check the audio levels. Ask them about how their day went and pressed the up and down input level buttons on side of your recorder until the audio levels bounce between negative 12 and negative. Six. When in doubt, it's safer to keep your audio on the lower decibel range, since it's almost impossible to fix sounds that are too loud. If you're sounds or too low, however, you will hear static to use a shotgun, mike and simple. Just hook the mic into camera and turn it on. If you're shooting outside on a windy day, make sure to cover the mic with a wind buffer, which looks like a cat tale. You can adjust the audio level of your shotgun sound and camera. Just make sure it's not hitting the red marks in your in camera audio meter. 14. Recording Space: So for your audio recording environment, you ideally want to choose a quiet place. And before you start your interview, listen for competing sounds. You want to make sure that they're no noises coming from windows. You want to close doors, turn off electrical appliances. Turn off your cell phones to not the fridge clocks and the A C whatever that will leave a subtle hum in your audio. Another thing to watch out for is echo. Echo comes from sound bouncing around on hard surfaces when traveling from your subject to the microphone. It sounds like this. In the beginning, I think it's helpful to have an overview of the whole video production process. As you can see, it waters down your sound, so recording in a carpeted room with soft surfaces is a great idea because of soft surfaces will absorb the echo. If that's not possible, you can try to cover the hard surfaces such as tables and floors with rugs, pillows and thick fabric. 15. Essential Audio Tricks: but, you know, number did you have? You know that now we will learn to a central tricks in audio recording to make your edits a lot smoother. Down the road number one room tone is an empty room, completely silent. If you're by yourself, close your eyes and listen. Even if the room sounds quiet, you'll hear that there's still a distinctive sound to that room or filming space. Although the sound is low, this sound or what we call room tone will come in handy when you want to smooth out cuts in the editing room. For example, when you want to take out a few words in an interview, you want to underlay the deletions with room tone to make it sound natural, so key. Take away. Make sure you record 30 seconds of room tone before you start your interview or seen and right after your scene ends because room tone can change with time number two. Clap in the beginning of your scene so you know those iconic Hollywood slates. Well, you might know that they marked the take in the scene, which helps film editors keep track of everything. But these slates also served another crucial function, creating allowed mark so editors can easily sync audio with video in post so key. Take away clap in the beginning of your scene for easy audio sinking later on. 16. Interview Ground Rules: first, let's talk about energy, as I think this is the most important element that influences Hellewell. An interview will go. You want to make sure that your interviewee is relaxed and comfortable, like they're having a casual conversation over a cup of coffee. If you yourself arrive stressed and are constantly thinking about what to ask next, chances are that your subject will feel that, and it will make them not. Open up a smudge and feel nervous themselves. So do what you can to arrive, calm, present and relaxed. Second, before you start your interview, I think it's important to say a few things to set the ground rules that will help your subject know what to expect and ease their nerves. I find it helpful to say this isn't an interview so much as it's going to be a casual conversation. Explain that you'll edit in the end, so answers don't have to be perfect. And third, ask them to repeat the question in their answer so viewers can contextualized their response. Give them an example. If I ask you where you live, don't just say Tokyo, but instead say I live in Tokyo. This is easy to forget, so try it out a few times before and gently remind them if they forget during the interview . 17. Interview Tips: Now that you've set the tone for your interview, here are eight tips I find very helpful in making sure that your interview runs smoothly. Number one. Make sure to record 30 seconds of room tone in the beginning and end of your interview. Tell your subjects I'm now going to record 30 seconds of room tone, so just relax and we will begin shortly. Number two. Clap in the beginning, so it'll be easier to sink automatically your audio and video later. This is one of the main reasons why slates are used in Hollywood productions. Number three. Start with your easy questions to warm them up. Number four. Hold your arms or yes, otherwise there will be recorded and stay engaged instead with your eyes and smile while they're talking. Really show your curiosity to know more. Number five. Don't be afraid to embrace the silent pauses. Sometimes when you wait, the interviewees might want to fill the silence with something that's notable. So I like to wait a few seconds before moving on to the next question. Number six. Don't be afraid to follow your gut and go in another direction that you didn't plan with your original questions. Number seven. Don't be afraid to go in circles with your questions. If you feel like there's more to the story or they have more to share, reframe the question and revisit it towards the end. Number eight. Keep in mind your subjects can get tired. So be aware of how much time has passed. Typically, I don't like to spend more than one hour doing the interview. Now you're all good to go to record your interview. Here is what Mickey's interview look like. All right. Yes. And what is your name? Sounds great. Oh, okay. Let's see. And these were just practice questions so I can listen to how you speak in the audio levels . Okay? Nothing to be nervous. Okay. What did you yesterday and what has been your favorite part about filming so far? Ready my knowledge. Uh, you did Okay. Okay. I think. Yeah. Are you levels and eso Mark, we're going to start, so try not to make any noises or anything. Okay, So before we start and we always get 30 seconds of the sound of So basically for 30 seconds , we'll just be quiet so I can record the sound of the room. Does that sound okay? Okay. So ready. Ah, this is Nikki's interview. Okay. All righty. So, um, when she answers the question, if because the audience they will not hear me asking the question if she could incorporate the question in her answer, For example, if I say what is your name? And instead of just saying Mickey, they my name is Mickey. - So she needs chiazi incentives. Yeah, that would be great. Eso we can practice, like, how old are you? I was like this. Exactly. Okay, um, feel free to stop me if you need anything. You comfortable? Okay. So, Mickey, what is your name and how old are you? Great. Um, what is your real name? And what does it mean? So they had a kid. You know, I have to be messed up. And why did you choose that ring name? You go. So in bucks, a lot like 18. Intro to Cinematography: Now that we have to interview all recorded and ready to go, it's time to shoot some footage. So let's talk about cinematography to teach you about cinematography. We will talk about developing a good eye for lighting and composition. Then we will talk about the mechanics of using your camera, where I lay out a simple five step method you can use to shoot beautiful images. A good starting point toe learn about lighting and composition is to look at the top three things that make images look bad. Here are the top three things that are common when you are starting out number one over exposure. This means that your images to bright so that many tones in your image loose color and look white. Shaky footage. While some handshake can lend itself to a certain look in storytelling when it's not intentional, it can make a film look amateur number three bad composition or when you're not aware of what's in your frame and how things are laid out inside of it. So let's address each of these issues and learn about their solutions 19. Using Natural Light: Let's begin with over exposure over exposure is a sign that someone does not understand lighting and for documentary filmmaking. Learning how to use and control natural light is more important first when you're starting out, then learning how to use artificial light. So let's look into lighting. So I like to break this section down into two parts. Natural lighting for indoor shooting and natural lighting for outdoor shooting. So if you're filming a shot that occurs indoors, first look at the level of light in the room. This is called ambient. Lighting is a too dark or too bright. Then see whether this light looks good or bad to you. Does it illuminate the subject's face? Swell if it does not look at where your light is coming from. Windows are the most obvious indoor light source. If it's too dark, move your subject closer to the window. If it's too light, moved them away from the window. If they're artificial light, sources can close thumb or open them. Keep playing with the positioning of your subject in the room until you get a good, natural light level that's not too bright or too dark, so it's hard to see. For example, when I walked into Mickey's Jim, I first noticed how the light dispersed in the room. Where was it the most bright and where was it the most dark? Where did you look? Good on her face. Then I chose to position her by the window to film her training because the light from the window illuminated one side of her face beautifully while keeping the other side more in shadow. If you're shooting outdoors, whether and time of day affect the lighting that you will have. I'd like to check the forecast a few days before my shoot to prepare. If it's a sunny day, I would avoid filming during noon to the early afternoon because when the sun is right above you, it casts hard, unpleasant shadows on the face and over exposes a lot of areas. If you have to shoot during this time, I would move to a shaded location or reserved this time for indoor shoots. However, during these sunny days, I love filming during magic hour time shortly after sunrise or right before sunset. During this time, the light is diffuse, nothing is really blown out and the color's intensify beautifully. Keep in mind. Magic hour is very short, so come prepared with your equipment and choice of location. If it's a cloudy day, don't fret. Clouds actually can act as your best friend by softening the sunlight so that it falls nice and even on your subject. In contrast with a sunny day, you would get good light throughout the day, as long as it's not too dark in the early morning or late afternoon. 20. Tripod: Now let's address the second big problem with filming shaky footage. To solve this problem, simply place your camera on a tripod with the's steps. Place camera on tripod plate with the coin. Place tripod plate on tripod. Adjust height of legs so that your tripod this level. You can check to see whether tripod is level by looking at the bubble. If it's inside the circle, it's level. Tripods will also have knobs to adjust. The tilt and pen tilt is when you move your camera up and down pan is when you move your camera from side to side. 21. Composition: Even if you set your camera on a tripod and there's nice light, your image will likely not look good if there is bad composition. Composition is how things in your frame are placed throughout the space, and bad composition comes from when you're not aware what's in your frame and what you're trying to communicate in your scene. So here are three tips. When you feel drawn to record what you are seeing, ask yourself what exactly in the scene pulls me to record it? Is it this person's expression? Is that the color of the spices in the market stall? Is it the shape of the bamboo boats? Once you've identified what's pulling you so much, choose your camera positioning to maximize the focus of the primary element and remove anything unnecessary that can distract from this focus to be aware of the background. Once you've positioned your frame, notice if there's anything cut off awkwardly in your frame, or if there are any distractions that take the viewer away from what you want to show, either moved the destructions away or move your camera for a better frame. Third, don't cut at joints, otherwise your frame will look like the awkward family photos your parents used to take while on vacation. One last composition tip known as the rule of Thirds. While most people tend to put the most important subject in the middle of their frame, it looks more balanced when you put the most important subject at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal thirds. 22. Intro to Exposure: now that we've have dressed composition, lighting and chemist ability, let's dive right into the mechanics of camera operation. Were first went to learn how to set the basic settings for your camera manually. And then I will introduce a simple five step method you can use to make sure you're getting proper exposure for your shots. Let's first take care of the camera basics. First, insert a memory card. I recommend at least a 36 gigabyte memory card. Second, set your camera to manual movie mode. Third, go through camera menu and set your file type two dot m o v. Size 1920 by 10 80 fourth set your frame rate 23.97 or 24 frames per second. Now, with these basic set, let's go through my simple four step method to shooting with it manually set white balance set shutter speed to 1 48th or 1/50 of a second set aperture, and it just I S O 23. Exposure 5 step method: thank the first is white balance and on your camera you should find a little button that says WB on it. Colors look different, depending on the environment. For example, the color white will look more bluish if you're shooting on a cloudy day, whereas it will look more orange if you're shooting by a candle. When you said the white balance your properly calibrating your camera to set the proper colors by telling it what shooting environment you are filming in you Camera should have presets based on a few circumstances, like whether you're shooting on a sunny day. Cloudy day in the shade or indoors to set you white balance. Simply select the shooting setting that matches yours. Now let's talk about the last three steps. As you can see, all of these stubs form a group called the Exposure Triangle. They determine how much light is let into camera and therefore, how bright your images. Let's talk about the most straightforward exposure setting shutter speed when you take a photo, there is a shudder in front of your camera sensor, which opens and closes to let light into the sensor. One filming. You want to set a constant shutter speed, which is set as a standard in cinema at twice your frame rate. So because you set your frame rate to 24 frames per second, as we mentioned in our previous lesson, you want to set your shutter speed to 1 48th or 1/50 of a second. 24. Aputure: with shutter speed in check. Let's talk about the next two components, aperture and I s O. While the previous settings we talked about state constant, you will have to continually adjust aperture and ISO while filming Let's dive into aperture , the second component of exposure. Your lens has a hole in the middle, which lets light in aperture is how bid this hole is, and the size of this whole is known as your F stop. If you scroll through the aperture wheel on your camera, you'll see numbers or sizes ranging from F 1.42 F 16 the smaller your F stop number. The larger this hole is, the brighter your image becomes and the more blurry the background will appear. So besides determining how much light goes into your camera, aperture also determines how much of your image is in focus. Also called the depth of field. If you want everything in your frame to be in focus, I recommend an aperture of F eight or higher. If you want your subject to being focused with a blurred background, what we call a shallow depth of field, I recommend getting closer to your subject and setting an aperture of F four or lower. It's important that you get closer to your subject for a shallot up the field, as if you're too far, you'll still see the background and focus. In other words, the more distance between your subject and the background, the more the background will appear out of focus. Setting the F stop will also depend on help. Bright Your image will be, for example, if I want to shall look up the field and set it to F four. But it is still too dark. I would reduce my F stopped to an F 2.8, which would let more light in and make my image biter. But still give me that shallow depth of field on the other side if I meant an F eight, which makes everything in my frame in focus, but I see that my images too bright. I might raise my aperture to an F 11 which still would show everything and focus, but let less lighten and make my image darker. So when you see a shot, you want a film, play with your aperture until you get the right depth of field and your image isn't too bright or too dark. Sometimes adjusting your image brightness while keeping your desired depth of field is difficult. For example, if it's a sunny day and I want a blurry background raising, my initial aperture of F four to F 16 will dark in my image. But make me lose the blurry background. If it seems to be a struggle, now is the time to adjust your eyes so which we will talk about in the next lesson. 25. ISO: The last setting in this exposure group is I s O. I so determines how sensitive your camera sensor is too light. If you scroll through the ISA will in your camera, you'll see that it has numbers ranging typically from 200 to 3200 the higher the iess. So the more sensitive your camera sensor is too light and the brighter your image becomes. So if you set your aperture the way you like it, it has a right amount of blurriness, but the image is not bright or dark enough. You can raise or lower your eyes. So, for example, if you set your image of an F four, it has the right up to feel that you're looking for. But it's too dark. I would then raise my eyes so hired to let more lighten. However, there is a catch. Typically, when you raise your eyes so above 1600 the camera creates more noise in your image. So if you've reached the lowest appetite, a camera can go and raised your eyes so to the highest, but you see some noise, then choose a brighter location to film or a brighter time of day 26. ND Filters: when you were starting out, I recommend setting your eyes so to 400 as a baseline, then making adjustments depending on the light of your setting. There's another catch with isso, which pertains to when you're shooting on a bright, sunny day, sometimes on a bright sunny day when you want to keep a shelter up the field, even if you lower your eyes so and therefore lowering your camera sensitivity to light, your image is still too bright. When that happens, use an ND filter, which are dark and transparent surfaces. You screw onto your lens to let less light in. This way, you can keep a shallot up the field on a bright day without needing to increase your F stop . 27. Exposure Recap: here is a pneumonic device to help you memorize thes five steps, friendly walruses, sea all ignorance. So that was a lot to take in. And to make it easier for you, I've created a simple streamline checklist you can use on your chutes to make sure that you're not forgetting anything. 28. Shooting: Now it's time to shoot the shots on your shot list. To record the audio, simply hook a shock and Mike to your camera. Try to arrive at least 30 minutes beforehand to set up. 29. Production Recap: actually, Mickey. Try that again in this production section, we've looked at how to record great sounding audio for our interview tips on how to conduct a smooth and effective interview and how to shoot with our cameras. Now I'm going to take you behind the scenes and show you one of my shoots where I feel Mickey training in her gym. You'll see that I use slightly more advanced equipment, but the principles are exactly the same once you it's that what you do this 30. Intro to Editing: So now we're going to dive into Theo editing process. And for this you'll need to download an Adobe premiere pro free trial, which last with 30 days on their website. And I'll be guiding you step by step through this process with a video I made about a tofu maker. Let's dive right in. 31. Transferring Files: All right. So this is how I like to organize all of my files that I received from shooting. And I'll typically start by creating a main folder with the project name. So here I have it labeled Mickey Film, and I'll have three main folders in here audio, video and assets, which I will talk about later. So in the audio folder, I like to label it by the date and the event. So, as you can see here, I have the interview recording, and I like to create two other folders for the edit. So here I have music, which is where I will download all of the music I choose for the film. And here I have one called sound effects. If you choose to add those as well later down the road, done in the video folder. I like to label the sub folders by the date and the event. So as you can see here, I have you know, May 26 I shop Mickey it in the geisha scene, and on May 28th I shot her match and in this folder called Assets Go all of the other stuff that doesn't fit in the video or the audio folders to just photos and behind the scenes footage. So go ahead and transfer all of your files into this organized system, so it's already for the edit. 32. Writing a Transcript: So after I've transferred and organized my footage files, I like to write a transcript for the interview so I can visually see what Mickey has said and start arranging them to form the story spine. I like to do this on Google docks because it automatically saves. And as you can see here, I have a time code for the interview, and I like to break it down for every 30 seconds or so, So go ahead and write a transcript for your interview so you can start building your story . 33. Paper Edit: after you've written the paper transcript, now is the time to start building your stories buying by arranging the talking points into a story. So in this stage, I like to create another Google dog entitled Paper at It. So, as you can see here, I have Act One, which is how I think I will begin the story. Alternatively, I'll have another version of Act one if I feel there is another way to start the scene. This is the stage where I'm just laying out all of the ideas to hash out in the editing phase. So go ahead and start building the spine of your film by rearranging the interview so that it forms a coherent story. 34. Editing Case Study: Now I'm editing a video for a small tofu company based in Maine for their crowdfunding campaign. When filming, I got two types of footage a role, which is the talking head footage of the company's founder, Jeff, and B Roll, which are shots other than his interview that support this story. To prepare for the edit stage, I've written a transcript of Jeffs interview and created a paper edit, which is a story structure based on his talking points that I will use as a guide in the Edit suite. I will be using this editing project as the example for the course. 35. The Premiere Pro Interface: When you open up the premiere pro interface, it should look something like this. This is your workspace, and it is comprised of four main areas. The first is a window where you can preview all of your video and audio files before deciding to drag them into your timeline. The second is the timeline, and it is the place of action. Here is where you'll be placing your clips, making cuts and dragging them back and forth. The third place is your monitor, which plays back all of your sequences in the timeline. Then you have your project been, which holds all of your project files. Then you have your toolbar, which contains all the tools you'll need to cut your clips and order them on the timeline. And finally, you have the audio meter to your right, and this will tell you the decibel levels of your audio 36. Importing Footage: Now that we know how the editing interface works, let's dive right in and import our footage. So to do this, open up your app and create a new project, then titled The Project. So now I will do. Hey, watch tofu Kickstarter, correct and press. OK, now it will bring you to the project interface, which should look familiar to you and notice the project. Been here. You want to start creating the folders? Four year imports, just like you created the folders for our transfer earlier on. So I will name one folder video. Then I'll create one for audio. Then I'll create a folder for assets, and I will create a new folder called Slugs. And these are basically the labels you will add to your clips. Just so you know what they are in the timeline. But we'll get into that later. So within these folders, then I'll create the sub folders just like you did before. So for video, great one for interviews and now create one for the role for audio. I will create one for the interview and I will create 14 b roll and one for music and for assets all create one for photos and titles. Next, I will then start importing my footage and they'll do the step by step per category. So first I'll do the video and we have interview. So click that. And once I'm in the interview folder, then I will import my footage. So look, import. And sometimes when you import your files, you'll get this box that says file import failure. Just click, OK, and don't worry about it, because it will actually be able to upload all of your files. So now we have uploaded our interview footage and you could see it in this Been. Now I will upload the audio recorded during his interview that was recorded on an extraordinary recorder connected to his last Mike. So to do this, you do the same thing you go to import, then you find the file wherever he chose to save it. And tha you have all of the audio files in this been. So go ahead and import all of your footage from your shoots into their respective folders here, and I will meet you in the next lesson. 37. Setting Up A Sequence: So now that we have imported our footage, it's time to drag. Are a roll onto the timeline toe Actually begin the edit. I am so excited for you to discover the stage. First, you'll need to create a new sequence. So Goto file and then click new sequence and title it rough cut for the settings. Just check that they match your shooting settings in terms of the frame re. So here we have 23.976 from per second and the frame size, which should be 1920 by 10 80 for most of you all. You can also drag one clip recorded on your camera directly onto the sequence, and the sequence will automatically match your camera settings. Then click OK and notice how it puts a new timeline with a time code and channels for video and audio. 38. Placing Clips on Timeline: so the first step is to cut together. You're a role or your interview based on your paper at it. So let's go to our interview footage in the project. Been and click and drag all of the files onto your timeline just like this. So now if you scroll through this bar, you'll see that you'll have all of your footage located on your timeline. If you want to preview each clip, feel free to click on one and you'll see that it will pop up on your preview window. You can use this little blue knob to scroll through the whole clip. And if you just want to take one section of the clip, you can press these brackets, one that will mark the beginning point of the clip and one that will mark the end point of the clip. If you just click here, you'll drag both video and audio. If you just want a drag video, you click this scroll and it'll just drag the video on Lee So you see how there's no audio underneath. But if you just want to drag the audio, then you click this little funny shape here and you drag it onto your timeline. So now that we have the main interview on our timeline, let's also drag our audio footage. If you recorded audio separately during your interview like I did, where I recorded his interview on an external recorder connected to love. Mike, go to interview audiophile in your bid and drag it onto the timeline as well. Like this, you will see that I can only drag the audio files on toothy audio channels marked by an A, and I cannot drag them onto the video channels because they're different. In the next lesson, we will learn how to sink your audio with your video and make cuts. 39. Syncing Audio with Video: if you recorded your audio externally outside of the camera, like on an external recorder, then you'll want to sink your camera with your audio. So to do this place both clips on your timeline. So here I have my camera footage, and here I have my audio recording. Then it's simple drag and select all of the clips right. Click on and hit. Synchronize. You want to click audio and track channel click mixed down and press OK, Then it will do some processing, and, uh, your clip will be synchronized with your video. If you want, you can delete the audio that was recorded in your camera and a moved the higher audiophile underneath. So now it should be very well sink because it's automatic. Sync sometimes isn't exactly precise. Magnify your timeline as far as it'll go by President, plus key on your keyboard or dragging the bottom scroll bar so you zoom out. If you feel like something is off, feel free to move the audio clip forward or backward one or two milliseconds until you feel like it's an exact match. Do this for all of your clips and you'll be ready to make some cuts. Happy sinking 40. Making Cuts: So by now you should have a role or all of your interview files all sink and on the main sequence in the timeline called a role like this so you can see I have my whole interview years. That's all sick. Now it's time to make the rough draft of your video by picking out the talking points according to your paper at it and cutting them out onto a new sequence. So let me go to my paper at it. So I see that the first talking point night have besides the hook, is his personal introduction when he says, my name is Jeff Wall of its and my title like, Hey, Watt is a supreme ruler of the tofu universe pun intended and the tofu maker. So my time code that happens at 21 seconds. So what I will do is I will go back to my a role and find that talking point so it's not here. My name is Jeff full of it. ISS so now wants to identify the starting point of your clip, click on your razor tool and make the cut just by pressing along the blue line here. Then I will find the ends of the clip maker Peritus and I will do the same thing. I will mark the end point of that clip by cutting it out. And there we go. So now you can separate this clip apart from the main sequence and we're going to put it on a new sequence. So to do that, we're gonna go to file new sequence and call this the rough cut. It should show up on your timeline like best. And now we're going to copy and paste this clip onto the new sequence like this, that so now you see it full of it. Now we're going to create a slug or basically a label for this clip just so we know what this clip is talking about when we are looking at the timeline. So to do that, go back to your bin and click on your slug folder. Done, Go to file new title. Or you can also get this by pressing command t and label the clip. So here he's talking. He's given his personal control and click OK, Then you'll see this window pop up, but just ignore it for now and you'll see that there is a black screen with the label personal intro. Click on it and drag it over your clip so that when we look at the timeline, we see that this clip is labeled personal intro. So go back and forth between your paper edit and your aerial sequence and find and cut out the main talking points. Then copy and paste them into the rough cut labeled him with a slug, and I'll meet you in the next lesson after you have done this for all of your talking points. 41. Adding B Roll: I hope you're having a lot of fun with this process and that you feel like your video is literally forming before your eyes. Now that you have all of your a role cut together to show you how to add B roll, I've taken a part of my A roll cut together that covers the introduction of Jeff Story. As you can see here, I broken apart the sections just to give room for the B roll. So let's go through a few clips and see where we could add B roll to enhance the story and to really make it visually engaging. Let's play My name is Jeff full of its. My title at Haleiwa is the supreme ruler of the TUF universe and the tofu maker. Okay, I think I will leave his introduction, as is because I like the idea that when he introduces himself to the audience, the audience members can see his face. Let's go on. Hey, what Tofu is based in Rockport, Maine. We use main grown organic soybeans, Make tofu Hey, want means peace and Japanese. Okay, I think it's a great opportunity to show viewers what the soybeans look like. Just so it would enhance the connection they have with their company's product and to their identity. So I'm gonna go into my B roll and find the clip of the soybeans. Let's look at it. And our preview window, as you can see, it, is right here if you scroll through right here. So I will pick the parts I like, which I've done already by pressing the in and the out keys. And I will just drag the video over the part where he mentions the sweepings. Hey, watch. Tofu is based in Rockport, Maine. We use main grown organic soybeans. Make tofu. Hey, want means peace and Japanese. Fantastic. So now let's keep going and see where we could add value to our story with more people. We first formed the company. We came up with this idea that a local plant based diet is a way to a more peaceful planet . Okay, I like the idea of just leaving, as is where you can see him telling you about these core values. But I think I would like to show a little bit of how he puts these valleys into practice in the real world. So after he says that I think I'm going to add a little segment of B roll to show him at the farmer's market, where he's interacting with community members and providing this local sustainable food. So I'm gonna go back to my B roll and open the farmer's market folder. So now I say have an establishing shot off the farmers market just to let viewers know where they are. So I will choose a section which I've done already here by pressing the in and the out brackets. And I want both video and audio this time so I will click on the actual preview screen itself and drag it onto my timeline like this. Then I see that there's a shot of them working at the booth where you're closer to the action. And so I again I will mark my in and I will mark my outpoints by easing the brackets or pressing I and O on the keyboard. And I will drag both that I see I have some close ups of the actual produce found at the market, which I think will really enhance the feel of local sustainability, which is the value and the feeling we want to convey, as we decided in our concept. So I will drag a few of those as well, like there. Now it. Now I'd like to show their actual products as part of the sequins of sustainable ingredients. So I'm also gonna mark in it out and drag it onto the timeline. So now we have something that looks like this way to a more peaceful planet. Great. And this is a great time to introduce this new tool, which is the track select forward tool, which you can get by pressing A. This will move the clip that you click on, including all of the ones that come after it forward together. So you don't need to move them individually one by one. And what I'm adding these B roll clips. I'm also keeping in mind that there will be music playing underneath, so the music will give a nice rhythm and bind all of the's bugle clips together. For now, I'm just going to pick the bugle clips that I like and refined them later on if necessary. So I'm gonna go ahead and keep adding B roll to my entire a roll sequence, and I want you to do this as well. When adding B roll, first listen through your a role couple times and think about places where the story would really come alive with additional images. Also, don't be afraid to add a sequence of B roll to just add a breath or a pause to all of the interview talking, and I will meet you at the next lesson. 42. Adding Music Magic to Video: when it comes to looking for music, I think they're two important things. The first is the emotion the music evokes, and second, the rhythm as well. I really like to match my rhythms with the pace of the video. If I'm showing a frenetic process that's about creative spontaneity, for example, I'll look for something fast pace. But if I'm looking for a piece of music to go along with reflection, then I will choose a slower rhythm. One of the biggest mistakes I've seen in Crowdfunding videos is people putting just one track but throughout the whole piece, and I feel like this really drowns out the story. Instead, you want to be very selective and only put music where it enhances the melody and the flow of the story. Don't worry. You do know actually have to compose your song. There are many music banks online, but I will show you a few of my favorites. So the 1st 1 is called Audio Network, and this is the one I use the most because I think it gives great value for the price of the music. So you'll see that when you open up the page, you can browse by all of these categories musical styles. Then you can also browse by mood and emotion. I typically filter by this one the most, and for a lot of Kickstarter videos, I like ambient sounds that are not so overwhelming, but just give a nice background feel. I'm now looking for a piece of music for my hook, where I'm imagining a series of beautiful macro shots of the tofu making process that'll pull U. N by the poetry. I wanted to sound a little bit mysterious, a little bit whimsical and a little bit Japanese to go with the company's name and their product, Japanese and beards, Japanese ambient bells. And you have all of these. Come on, I'll look at Ray Keys and meditation press play on Theo on the place. You can also see that there is the way form of the audio on the bottom, and this will give you a sense of the paste and intensity of the music before you even place of the whole thing. So here the way forms are not as spiky, so I know the sounds. Orbit rounded and not as intense, but a little bit too strong. for what I'm looking for him. So let's look at the swan eyes in the sky because I see that it says gently pulsing harp and Japanese kowtow with light bells and wistful string bass. Just by hearing the 1st 10 seconds of the song, I can already imagine my footage, so I know it will be a good match. What I love about Audio Network is that the music has different mixes of the same song. So, for example, if I didn't want the string bass, then there is a version without a string bass. So I will start this to keep it in mind, and I will continue looking until I have a short list of a few songs. One thing you want to keep in mind is the You want to make sure you buy the right licence for your songs, so every music bank will have a few, and they will have different conditions for each. For example, the Creator license only allows you to use of music for your own personal needs, like a family video 43. Cutting Music: Now that we're back in our editing home, I'm going to add the song I just found in the Music bank to my B roll, which forms the hook of my video. So as you can see here on my timeline, I created a new sequence for my hook and without any music, it looks like this. It starts with an opening shot of the factory at sunrise. Really? Enjoy that rhythm of it. At times it becomes like a dance just moving around the shop. And then it goes into a series of close up shots of the tofu making process in the factory . Let's put in our music in the second audio track and just listen to the music to see whether it complements our B roll. Okay, so I think the spirit of the music really matches a spirit of the B roll. But we're gonna have to do some work in terms of cutting the B roll so that it matches the music even more. I want to buy, have to make sure your cuts flow smoothly in your Adam is to match the cuts of your clips to the beat of the music. So for example with this song E see that there is an entrance of a bell which marks a new beads. I think this would be a great time to transition. The people from the outside shot to an inside shot of the factory. I will find that bell again and mark where the bell enters, okay? Just right there. So what I'll do is I will shorten the clip of the establishing shot and move the shot of the bowl, which takes you right inside at that bell. So it looks like this. Okay, now, I'm gonna listen to the next Q. And it seems like there is an entrance of a long withdrawn cello. So I'm going to stop at the cello entrance and add another clip E the okay, just about there. So I will add my next clip and review it. Okay, Fantastic. And I will move his talking point because I find that it's placed over the cello point. It really drowns out what he's saying, So I will put it in the beginning where there are lighter plucks, really enjoy that rhythm. At times it becomes like a dance. And with this last bell, I really like using that as another cue to put in just personal introduction. So it's like the bell comes and then you see Jeff. 44. Adding Transitions: At this point, your video may seem a little bit choppy, so let's smooth it out by adding a few video and audio transitions. To do that, open up the effects panel by going to window and clicking effects. Then you should have something like this. Pop up and you'll notice that you have audio transitions and video transitions. So all first do the video transitions. If you open it up, you'll find that you have all of these transitions available. My favorite ones are in the dissolve main folder. I like these because I find they are more subtle, and I especially use the cross dissolve and the dip to black function. So when I'm looking to my clips, I see that I have an establishing shot, and I think I would like it to fade in just to give a sense of a beginning to my video. So to do that, I will add the cross dissolve and you add on effects by clicking on it and dragging it to your clip. And if you zoom in, you'll see that you'll have a bar that says crosses off, and you can affect the length of it by dragging it back and forth. So I think I want this. Have a longer process solve and if you could play it, I really enjoyed that. You'll see that it slowly emerges on the screen. The next part I would like to soften is the entrance of Jeff when he's introducing himself . So right now it looks like this where goes from the macro shop and just jumps into his interview. But let's add a little bit of magic by adding in a dip to black effect to the beginning of the interview. And as you can see here, you can see the bar and you can adjust it back and forth. Now look at that. Now I will look at the audio transitions, and here there are three. There's constant gain, constant power and exponential fade. The ones that I use the most are the constant power and the exponential fade. So let's start with the exponential fade. I typically like to use this to fade my music in and out. So, for example, as a interview will begin, I will also fade the music out so I will apply an exponential fade here and lengthen it. My name is Jeff full of its title. It's beautiful now. We'll look at constant power, so I use this to smooth out talking points. If I had cut something out of the interview and joined two parts together, I will also use them to smooth out the music if I had cut out a section of the music and joined two segments to make it shorter. So, for example, I go to just interview. You can see here that while he was talking, I also cut something out in the middle. So I have two segments me and I find in those places. It's also really helpful to add a constant power. So you cover the audio jumps, growing organic. Play around with these transitions, add them to smooth out your video, and I will meet you in the next lesson. 45. Leveling Your Audio: Ladies and gentlemen, there's just one last essential thing you will have to dio before exporting your video. And that is tweaking your audio levels so that they remain consistent and within the right range. Throughout your video. Audio engineering is one complex field. But for the purposes of this video, I want you to keep one thing in mind, and that is to keep your audio levels bouncing between negative 12 and negative success, a bles on your audio meter to the right. If your audio meter is too small to see, you can adjust the size of the area, including all the other areas of your editing interface, by going to the edge of the section and dragging it to make it bigger or smaller like this . So this is my rough cuts so far, and I've started to level the audio, so I actually duplicated the interview audio just to make it stronger. But I will zoom in on one by dragging down the audio track, and now you can see your way forms more clearly. You'll notice that it has his bar and you could move it up and down to adjust the levels. So I will move it up until I see that his talking is bouncing between negative 12 and negative six decibels. My name is Jeff full of its. My title at Haleiwa is the supreme ruler of the TUF universe. You know what? Hey, what is the supreme ruler of the TUF universe? Next you may be wondering what to dio when you have music and talking playing at the same time and you want to stick to the basic rule of thumb, which is to keep the overall audio levels between negative 12 and negative success a bles. So here I have a section where music is playing while Jeff is talking, and now it sounds like this is based. As you can hear, the music is overpowering. Just interview a little bit. So what I will do is I will open up my music track and I will drag the audio barred down until until Jeff's voice stands out and the overall levels bounce between negative 12 and negative six. Think it can go down a little bit more? Hey, Tofu is based in Rockport, Maine. Way Use main grown organic soybeans. Okay, Great. One last thing. I want to show if you want to have more control over your audio levels, is a new tool called the pen tool, which you can get by pressing peak. This allows you to add specific points toothy audio like this so that you can control individual sections just like this. If you want the music to start off more loudly, but then decreases volume when the interview comes in, then you can use a pen tool to decrease the volume gradually like that. Go ahead and level your audio and I will see you in the next lesson for export. 46. Export!: Congratulations. I'm so proud of you for making it this far, and I hope you're proud of yourself as well. Now it's time to set your video free by exporting it. To do it. First, move your play head to the beginning of your video and press I to mark the beginning of your video and then move your play head to the end of your video and mark O to tell where you want the export to stop. Then goto file export media. And if you're just posting this online, I recommend keeping the format to H 0.264 and changing the preset to YouTube 10 80 p HD. Then for the output name, write the name of your video so I will write Hey, walk into go go video and choose a places like to save it and click save. Make sure that export video and export audio are both checked and then scroll down and check. Use maximum render quality, then click export and watch the magic happen as an exports into a quick time file. Grab a bowl of popcorn and share with your friends and family to celebrate the hard work and the artistry that you put into this video 47. Bonus: Ken Burns Effect: If you want to add photos to your video, I'm now going to show you a neat little trick that will bring them to life. So here in my timeline, I added a few photos that look like this. We started off as a row market member to conceal his first photo was dynamic because it has a little movement inside. So this is named the Ken Burns Effect, and I find the subtle movement really helps transform the photo into film. So to do that, I'm going to delete this photo and start from scratch. I'm gonna open my been with my photos, and I'm going to open the photo up like this. Then I'm going to drag and shorten it, so it'll fit right into my timeline. So now it will look like this. When you place your photos into your timeline, you'll find that it'll look in large. So to make a smaller goto, effect controls and look at scale, make sure your clippers highlighted and reduce the size of it, so it fits nicely within the frame like this. To animate it, you can add subtle movement by either changing the position of the photo like making it move from left to right, or you can make it increase or decrease in size. The important thing to keep in mind is that it has to be subtle. Otherwise it will look very cheesy. So I want to animate this photo by moving the position of it from left to right. To do that, I'm going to scroll to the beginning of the photo, and I am going to add some key frames just to mark the position of where it is now. Then I am going to scroll through to the end of the video, and I'm going to add different key frames this time by clicking this add or remove key frame button. And I think I wanted to expand a little bit and move to the right. So to do that, I'm going to change the scale to 47. We'll see what that looks like, and I want to choose a new horizontal position for its ending point. So I'm gonna move it a little bit here. So now it'll look like this. We started off as a row market magic. Thank you. Ken Burns 48. Bonus: Adding Titles: This is how you add text or subtitles to your video. Go to a title and click new title and name it. So I will name a Jeffs intro and it'll probable window with the current shot of your video based on where you're placeholder is. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to create this type tool, and I am going to click and drag and right Jeffs name Jeff while Lovett's founder. No, Jeff, all of its king of the tofu numbers. Then you can choose your funds here, and I'm a big fan of San Serif fonts. But just choose the one that you like the most. You can adjust the with here, and you can adjust the size off the text here, for example, and then place it where you think it looks good. And then, if you exit it out, this is a great time to save it into your Assets folder, where you have a special folder for titles. So all of the titles will be there and then drag your and drag the title over the part where you would like it. So now you have a title. I actually don't really like the way that looks. I'm gonna play around with the fonts and the format, but just noticed that the title card becomes like a new video clip. And so if you wanted to add credits, you would just write your text on a new title card and then place them as if it was a clip in the beginning or the end of your timeline. 49. Bonus: Warp Stabilizer: if you find that your footage turned out a little shaky, have no fear, because there is a cool tool that will help smooth out the shake. For example, where I took a shot at the Farmer's market, it was handheld, and it turned out a little shaky, like this plant based diet is so to smooth out the shake, there is a cool effect in Premiere Pro called Warp Distort, which you can access by going to window and clicking effects. A new window should pop up, and you might find this actually nestled within your been section. Then go to video fax and you'll have a list of all of these cool effects. Go to distort, and if you school down, you'll find something called warp stabilizer. If you click on it and drag it onto the clip that needs a little help, it'll start analyzing and figuring out best ways to smooth out the shake. If you go to your affect controls panel here, you'll find that the effect is recorded here, and sometimes you'll have to click the analyze button to initiate the fixing process. But when I play back, you can see that it's a lot more smooth. Now. This won't work for all of the clips, but give it a try and see what it will do. 50. "Monburan Micki" Final Version: that further do Here is my documentary Short portrait on Mickey You who up to she books on another school, Mavis. Then show this camp. They because a good kind of shit. Call it, State it. Okay, so we know that way. Works in the other. I was how Money market. That's a creo that door books out of state have taken. I got more hotel somewhat. What? This thing was here. I need to take it anymore. Listen, I'm not gonna everybody Tokyo talking like on this, okay? What? That professional shag husband Michael Ashamed. Find it that day. Months? What? They won't do my day months. So you don't want to sell more. You taken, did they? What you get? 51. Course Conclusion: congratulations on finishing this course. I hope that by now you feel excited and you feel like you have all the knowledge and a clear roadmap needed to go out there and make your documentary short portrait. If you have any remaining questions, please send them my way as I'm here to support you. And if you want to further your filmmaking and editing, please check out my other courses on my teacher profile page. Like my popular Art of Revision Course, which shares six essential principles, you'll need to craft powerful, resonant stories that engage viewers from beginning to end. When you're finished making your film feel free to share a link with us on the Class Projects page, it's that we can see the amazing story told through your lens and give you feedback. Thank you so much for taking your time with me. And I wish you all the best for a documentary journey by 52. Exciting Updates: Hi, everyone. I have two exciting updates. The first is that I have created a course map that links all of my film-making and editing courses in sequence, so you can confidently advanced as a filmmaker. The second update is that I've started a one-minute newsletter which is Curated Inspiration and High Value Insights on Film-making, Creativity, and the Art of Authentic Living. Checkout both of these on my course instructor page.