Creating a Modern, Cinematic Documentary Film with Soul | Dandan Liu | Skillshare

Creating a Modern, Cinematic Documentary Film with Soul

Dandan Liu, Documentary Filmmaker | Cinematographer

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52 Lessons (1h 49m)
    • 1. Course Intro

      1:51
    • 2. Intro to Preproduction

      0:51
    • 3. What Makes a Good Subject?

      1:57
    • 4. PreInterview

      1:46
    • 5. Preobservations

      1:16
    • 6. Interview Questions

      2:34
    • 7. Location Scouting

      2:33
    • 8. Shot List

      2:30
    • 9. Scheduling

      1:19
    • 10. Preproduction Recap

      0:48
    • 11. Intro to Production

      0:44
    • 12. Intro to Audio

      1:11
    • 13. Audio Equipment

      2:06
    • 14. Recording Space

      1:19
    • 15. Essential Audio Tricks

      1:39
    • 16. Interview Ground Rules

      1:32
    • 17. Interview Tips

      5:38
    • 18. Intro to Cinematography

      1:27
    • 19. Using Natural Light

      3:09
    • 20. Tripod

      0:53
    • 21. Composition

      1:54
    • 22. Intro to Exposure

      1:15
    • 23. Exposure 5 step method

      1:50
    • 24. Aputure

      2:58
    • 25. ISO

      1:13
    • 26. ND Filters

      0:52
    • 27. Exposure Recap

      0:29
    • 28. Shooting

      0:22
    • 29. Production Recap

      4:16
    • 30. Intro to Editing

      0:24
    • 31. Transferring Files

      1:44
    • 32. Writing a Transcript

      0:41
    • 33. Paper Edit

      0:55
    • 34. Editing Case Study

      0:44
    • 35. The Premiere Pro Interface

      1:09
    • 36. Importing Footage

      3:21
    • 37. Setting Up A Sequence

      1:02
    • 38. Placing Clips on Timeline

      2:07
    • 39. Syncing Audio with Video

      1:42
    • 40. Making Cuts

      3:31
    • 41. Adding B Roll

      6:08
    • 42. Adding Music Magic to Video

      4:19
    • 43. Cutting Music

      3:54
    • 44. Adding Transitions

      4:19
    • 45. Leveling Your Audio

      4:07
    • 46. Export!

      1:49
    • 47. Bonus: Ken Burns Effect

      2:49
    • 48. Bonus: Adding Titles

      2:17
    • 49. Bonus: Warp Stabilizer

      1:43
    • 50. "Monburan Micki" Final Version

      6:22
    • 51. Course Conclusion

      1:08
    • 52. Exciting Updates

      0:34
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About This Class

It's time documentaries get a fresh lift. Typically, they are taught with outdated methods which stem from the 90's, with boring talking heads and bad imagery. This class, instead, teaches you how to make modern, cinematic, and story-driven character docs that engage viewers both visually and emotionally.

This class will cover the whole doc making lifecycle, covering how to plan, how to shoot, and how to edit. Part travelogue, part course, all of these lessons are designed to be applicable and get straight-to-the-point. Showing behind-the-scenes footage, they bring you along Dandan's journey of making her beautiful short doc in Tokyo about a female boxer for Omeleto, one of the leading online showcasing platforms for films. 

By the end of this course, you will have all the knowledge and a complete roadmap needed to make your first documentary short. 

Transcripts

1. Course Intro: Hi everyone. My name is Dandan and I am a documentary filmmaker whose work emphasizes cinematography and tip storytelling. I just came back from an Omeleto assignment in Tokyo where I shot a short documentary on an up-and-coming female boxer named Mickey. I'm so excited to bring you along this journey, to teach you all you need to know how to make a modern, cinematic and story-driven short documentary yourself. This is not a course that will teach you how to make a traditional documentary with boring talking heads and bad imagery. But is instead, a course that'll teach you how to make a fresh character doc that engage viewers both visually and emotionally. In this course, we'll look at the whole documentary lifecycle, which can be broken down into three phases, pre-production or the planning phase, production or the shooting phase, and post-production or the editing phase. Throughout all of these steps, I will show you behind the scenes footage of my documentary making process in Japan so you can see how the lessons I teach you can be applied in the real-world. All of these lessons come from my years of working as a professional in the industry and are designed to be applicable and get straight to the point. By the end of this course, you will have all the knowledge and a complete roadmap needed to make your first short documentary. Let's get started. 2. Intro to Preproduction: The biggest mistake I've seen in beginner filmmakers is not dedicating enough time for planning. This planning phase, also known as pre-production, is often seen as boring and nebulous, but is actually the most crucial part of the whole film-making process. It sets the foundation for how deep and well-crafted your story will be. But how do you concretely plan for something if you're not even sure what's exactly going to happen? This section will show you how, guiding you step-by-step in the whole planning phase, from having that little idea spark in your head to having all of your shoots scheduled and ready to go. 3. What Makes a Good Subject?: One common thing I notice in beginner film makers, is that they typically assume that whatever subject pulls them, or make for a good strong subject on film. However, this is frequently not the case, and I encourage you to take a step back, and critically think about whether your subject will make for a good, strong documentary. With that being said, what makes a good subject for doc? Think about all of your favorite characters; fiction or real. What do they have in common? From my experience, I think that the subjects that make for a good documentary, are those that have these qualities in common: Number one, those with a story that features a main conflict and something at stake. If your story does not have a main conflict, it will likely feel descriptive, informational, and static. Without something at stake, it will be hard for your viewers to root for your main character, from the beginning to the end of your film. Number two, someone who is passionate about what they do. Pretty self-explanatory. Number three, someone you have developed rapport with and have unique access to. Documentary film-making can be an intimate process, and you want to make sure that your subject feels comfortable letting you into their worlds. When I make my documentary, I'm usually very upfront with my subject, about the time and effort it will take on both sides to make this documentary. Try to let them see this as a collaborative effort, and make sure you give them a heads up as to what this project will entail. 4. PreInterview: After finding the right subject, it's time to do some research. Even though documentary film-making is a process of discovery, the more you know about your subject beforehand, the more you'll be able to know what questions to ask and how to approach filming their story. Besides the traditional avenues of research like reading articles and searching the internet, there are two other ways I like to look into my subject. First, let's address the pre-interview. Note that a pre-interview is not a rehearsal for the actual interview, but it's actually a casual conversation where you meet with your subject to break the ice. Here you shoot topics you hope to explore in your film, allow them to get to know you better and ask them what they think would be important points to address to convey who they are. Try to refrain from asking actual interview questions, especially if your interview will be conducted at a close date because this can take away from the spontaneity of your subject responses during the real interview. For Micki Stock, the day after I landed in Tokyo, I met with her at a Starbucks in her neighborhood and asked her about her life. What important events were coming up? Where, when, and how did she train? I also got an important details about her final boxing match including how it was going to be set up, what was going to happen before, during, afterwards, and location it was in. 5. Preobservations: Next, let's talk about pre observations. This is when you step into the life of your subject for an afternoon, or a day, or an event, and just observe. Doing this will not only help you understand what you could focus on story wise, but also what you can focus on visually. For Mickey Stock, I showed up one afternoon at her training gym to watch her train. Doing this allowed me to get a sense of three things. Number one, a sense of the space and lighting available, so I could sense how to position my camera and what time of day would be best to shoot. Two, it reveals certain things I needed to film. For example, I learned that the boxers in her gym, time there trainings with the clock, they're marked every three minute interval. I noted down that it would be good idea to film this clock counting down. Third, it allowed me to see Mickey's rhythm in processes. I had a sense of how I can move my camera, what angles to setup bat and how to not get in the way when filming. 6. Interview Questions: Now that you know more about your subjects story and their world, it's time to write down your interview questions. Since the interview forms a spine of your documentary, it's really important to spend some time here. When you're sitting down, the more you can narrow down the collective focus of your interview questions, the more your questions can build together and elicit a complete story. You want to ask questions that are, Number 1, open ended and story-based. Instead of asking, "How did you meet?" Instead, ask, "Tell me about the day you two met and the moments you remember most vividly?" Instead of asking, "How did you start your organization?" Ask, "Tell me about the day where you had that idea to start your organization." What happened? Keep in mind that the reason why interview responses are lackluster is typically because the interview questions were not story-based. To understand more about what I mean by story-based, Pixar really embraces the story-based approach, and they have a formula for telling their amazing stories, which I find useful for crafting your own questions. It looks like this. Once upon a time, blank, every day, blank, but one day, blank, because of that, blank, because of that, blank, until finally, blank. If you feel like there's something missing in your subject response, perhaps it's because they're missing a, because of that part. Frame your follow-up questions accordingly so that they can elicit more story-based responses. Number 2, avoid yes or no questions, and don't settle for generalizations. If they say that was the best time of their life, dig deeper and ask, why. Don't be afraid to go in circles with your questions. Revisiting previously asked questions towards the end to get a more intense and story-based answer. Number 3, always at the end, ask your subject if there's anything they would like to say that you have not mentioned before. 7. Location Scouting: If you have special location needs for your film, going there and visiting them beforehand is extremely valuable because it will help you come up with a game plan for the actual shoot day. By doing this on the actual shoot day, you won't need to take time to figure out where to place things and where to set up your shots. Bring a camera to take photos during your location scouting, so that you can remember the key details when you come home. For example, for my talk, I envision an opening scene when Miki would be dressed as a geisha in a traditional Japanese room, where she would suddenly reveal her boxing gloves to symbolize how she's breaking cultural expectations for females by pursuing her passion. To find this traditional Japanese room, took a lot of searching and asking. After many unsuccessful searches, eventually, I was directed to this website that had photos of a room in a traditional tea house that was available to rent. It looked promising. I went to the site and asked to see the actual room. Here are the things that I noticed, space, is it big enough for the sliding shot I want to do? Is there space to set up my main light and put up my equipment? Light available, what is the natural light level without any light turned on? Does this light look good? Where are the main sources of light? Are there windows? Are there artificial lights? What color is this artificial light? Are there electrical outlets? Do I need to bring an extension cord for my light? Another thing I noticed was the sound. Is there any noise coming from AC, clocks, visitors, or street cars? I also took note of any special features. Is there anything in this space that could potentially interfere with my shot or give me a cool angle to shoot from? This room had old tatami floors made of delicate woven bamboo. I noted to pack some socks for my tripod legs, so they wouldn't scratch the floor. When you visit your site, chances are, that you'll have new ideas for your shot list, so be sure to update that as well after your location scouting. 8. Shot List: Now that you have done your pre-interview and observations, you should have a better sense of your subject's environment and processes. It's at this point that I like to come up with a preliminary shot list. Where you start anticipating what shots you'll need for your story. In the filmmaking world, we call this mentality shooting for the edit. Shooting for the edit does not mean showing up and filming everything. Instead, it means that when you are shooting, you have in mind how your shots can connect together to build a complete story. If you have this mindset, you'll not only make your edit a lot smoother and more compelling, but will also make sure that you're not missing any crucial shots that you need to tell the story. Ask yourself, what types of things do I need to show to enhance the storytelling? What shots are worth 1000 words and convey key information? Typically, these shots are helpful. Number 1, establishing shots. These are the shots that help orient your viewer and give them a sense of time and location. Two, opening shots, that serve to introduce your scene smoothly so their entrance don't seem jarring to the story. Third, cutaway shots. Not only do these make your film look more cinematic, but they also give continuity to a scene, so you can cover a jump from one shot to another without a perceived gap. They also are valuable opportunities to provide key information and create a sense of intimacy, like you're right there with the character. I find these shots so helpful that I aim to make 50 percent of my shots cutaways. Finally, closing shots. Closing shots give a sense of closure. It doesn't seem like you're seeing just ends abruptly. After meeting Mickey, and during my pre-observation, this is what my preliminary shot list look like. 9. Scheduling: Now it's time to put everything in place with scheduling. I recommend meeting with your subject and asking them what times would be good to film the important moments in their lives. For [inaudible] , I met up with her again in Tokyo to talk about her schedule and write down shoot dates on the calendar. Because the shoot was over a four week period, I would meet with [inaudible] during the Sunday of every week and update the schedule, as sometimes important events would come up. The day before every shoot, I would remind [inaudible] over a message just to make sure that we were aligned on our time and date. On the actual shoot day, I recommend arriving at least one hour beforehand to set up. Release forms. This is step most filmmakers forget, but it's really important if you intend to show your work on a network. Release forms are basically consent form signed by your subject saying that they gave you permission to film them. For a simple release form that I use, checkout my projects page for the attachment. 10. Preproduction Recap: To recap, you finish pre-production by picking out a good subject. During research, conducting pre interviews and observations, writing down your interview questions, coming up with a shot list, location, scouting, scheduling your shoots, and signing your release form. Congratulations. You've now set everything in motion for your shoot. As important as it is to prepare as you did in this phase, keep in mind that documentary film making is also a wonderful dance between planning and going with the flow. Don't be afraid to change anything. If something arises. 11. Intro to Production: Welcome to the production phase. This is a phase where you'll be using your camera and audio equipment to get the building blocks of your film. I've broken down this section into three parts. First, we will learn how to use equipment to get a good audio recording for an interview and how to enhance our audio recording environment. Second, we will learn a few key tips on conducting powerful interviews. Third, we will learn how to shoot footage with our cameras. 12. Intro to Audio: To record a great interview, we'll need good sound. First, I'm going to teach you how to use your mics to record great sounding audio. Then I'll teach you how to enhance your audio recording space, and finally, I'll share two essential tricks you'll need to smooth out your audio in the edit. Lets start with audio equipment. In this equipment section, I will teach you how to use three main pieces of audio gear. First, a lavalier mic, which goes directly on your subject and records their interviews. Second, an external recorder, which stores what is being said into your lav mic and sets the loudness levels. Third, a shotgun mic, which records the sounds of what's going on in front of your camera, like actions and ambiance. It's also a great backup for your lav mic during the interview. Signals from the shotgun mic are directly recorded into your camera. 13. Audio Equipment: To use the lavalier mic, it's simple. Clip it around their sternum six to eight inches below the mouth and point the mic up. Be careful not to have any cloth, jewelry, or hair around the mic, because these can bump against the mic and muffle the sound. To record what is being said from your lavalier mic, you will need an external recorder. To use the external recorder, first make sure you have a memory card inside. Then insert you lavalier mic and set the recording format to WAV 48 kilohertz to 16-bit, which is a higher quality file, than the MP3. Next, notice your audiometer. This records the decibel range or loudness of what is being picked up by your mic. You want your audio levels to bounce between negative six and negative 12 decibels. To set your audio levels, do a test with your subject beforehand. Tell them you're going to check the audio levels. Ask them about how their day went, and press the up and down input level buttons on the side of your recorder until the audio levels bounce between negative 12 and negative six. When in doubt, it's safer to keep your audio on the lower decibel range, since it's almost impossible to fix sounds that are too loud. If your sounds are too low, however, you will hear static. To use a shotgun mic, it's simple. Just hook them mic into your camera and turn it on. If you're shooting outside on a windy day, make sure to cover the mic with a wind buffer, which looks like a cat tail. You can adjust the audio level of your shotgun sound in camera. Just make sure it's not hitting the red marks in your in-camera audiometer. 14. Recording Space: For your audio recording environment, you ideally want to choose a quiet place. Before you start your interview, listen for competing sounds. Here you want to make sure that there are no noises coming from windows. You want to close doors, turn off electrical appliances, turn off your cell phones, turn off the fridge, clocks, and the AC. Whatever, that will leave a subtle harm in your audio. Another thing to watch out for is echo. Echo comes from sound bouncing around on hard surfaces when traveling from your subject to the microphone. It sounds like this. In the beginning, I think it's helpful to have an overview of the whole video production process. As you can see, it waters down your sound. Recording in a carpeted room with soft surfaces is a great idea. Because the soft surfaces will absorb the echo. If that's not possible, you can try to cover the hard surfaces such as tables and floors with rugs, pillows, and thick fabric. 15. Essential Audio Tricks: Now, we will learn two essential tricks in audio recording to make your edits a lot smoother down the road. Number one: Room tone. Is an empty room completely silent? If you're by yourself, close your eyes and listen. Even if the room sounds quiet, you'll hear that there's still a distinctive sound to that room or filming space. Although the sound is low, the sound, or what we call room tone, will come in handy when you want to smooth out cuts in the editing room. For example, when you want to take out a few words in an interview, you want to underlay the deletions with room tone to make it sound natural. Key takeaway: Make sure you record 30 seconds of room tone, before you start your interview or scene, and right after your scene ends because room tone can change with time. Number two: Clap in the beginning of your scene. You know those iconic Hollywood slates? Well, you might know that they mark the taken the scene, which helps film editors keep track of everything, but these slates also serve another crucial function; creating allowed mark, so editors can easily sync audio with video and post. Key takeaway: Clap in the beginning of your scene for easy audio syncing later on. 16. Interview Ground Rules: First, let's talk about energy as I think this is the most important element that influences how well an interview it will go. You want to make sure that your interviewee is relaxed and comfortable, like they're having a casual conversation over a cup of coffee. If you yourself arrive stressed and are constantly thinking about what to ask next, chances are that your subject will feel that and it'll make them not open up as much and feel nervous themselves. Do what you can to arrive calm, present, and relaxed. Second, before you start your interview, I think it's important to say a few things to set the ground rules that will help your subject know what to expect and ease their nerves. I find it helpful to say this isn't an interview so much as it's going to be a casual conversation. Explain that you'll edit in the end so answers don't have to be perfect. Third, ask them to repeat the question in their answer, so viewers can contextualize their response. Give them an example. If I ask you where you live, don't just say Tokyo, but instead say, "I live in Tokyo." This is easy to forget, so try it out a few times before, and gently remind them if they forget during the interview. 17. Interview Tips: Now, that you've set the tone for your interview, here are eight tips I find very helpful in making sure that your interview runs smoothly. Number 1, make sure to record 30 seconds of room tone in the beginning and end of your interview. Tell your subjects, I'm now going to record 30 seconds of room tone. Just relax and we will begin shortly. Number 2, clap in the beginning so it'll be easier to sinc automatically your audio and video later. This is one of the main reasons why slates are used in Hollywood productions. Number 3, start with your easy questions to warm them up. Number 4, hold your arms or ears otherwise there will be recorded and stay engaged instead with your eyes and smile while they're talking. Really show your curiosity to know more. Number 5, don't be afraid to embrace the silent pauses. Sometimes when you wait, the interviewees might want to fill the silence with something that's notable. I like to wait a few seconds before moving onto the next question. Number 6, don't be afraid to follow your gut and go in another direction that you didn't plan with your original questions. Number 7, don't be afraid to go in circles with your questions. If you feel like there's more to the story or they have more to share, re-frame the question, and revisit it towards the end. Number 8, keep in mind your subjects can get tired, so be aware of how much time has passed. Typically, I don't like to spend more than one hour doing the interview. Now, you're all good to go to record your interview. Here is what Micki's interview look like. What is your name? Tereka Micki. Sounds great. [LAUGHTER] These are just practice questions so I can listen to how you speak and the audio levels. Nothing to be nervous. Okay. [LAUGHTER] What did you do yesterday? [FOREIGN] What has been your favorite part about filming so far? [FOREIGN] [FOREIGN] Okay. I think, yeah, I got the audio records. So Mark, we're going to start. Try not to make any noises or anything. Before we start and we always get 30 seconds of the sound of the room. Basically for 30 seconds, we'll just be quiet so I can record the sound of the room. Does that sound okay? [FOREIGN] Okay. Ready? This is Mickey's interview. When she answers the question, and if because the audience, they will not hear me asking the question, if she could incorporate the question in her answer. For example, if I say, what is your name? Instead of just saying Micki, say my name is Micki. [FOREIGN]. [FOREIGN]. So she needs to answer in sentence? Yeah. That be Would be great. So we can practice, how old are you? [FOREIGN] Exactly. Feel free to stop me if you guys need anything. Are you comfortable? Okay. Micki, What is your name and how old are you? [FOREIGN] Great. What is your real name? What does it mean? [FOREIGN] Why did you choose that rename? [FOREIGN] 18. Intro to Cinematography: Now that we have the interview all recorded and ready to go, it's time to shoot some footage. Let's talk about cinematography. To teach you about cinematography, we'll talk about developing a good eye for lighting and composition. Then we will talk about the mechanics of using your camera while I lay out a simple five-step method you can use to shoot beautiful images. A good starting point to learn about lighting and composition is to look at the top three things that make images look bad. Here are the top three things that are common when you are starting out. Number one, over exposure. This means that your image is too bright so that many tones in your image, loose color and look white. Shaky footage. While some handshake can lend itself to a certain look in storytelling, when it's not intentional, it can make a film look amateur. Number three, bad composition. When you are not aware of what's in your frame and how things are laid out inside of it. Let's address each of these issues and learn about their solutions. 19. Using Natural Light: Let's begin with overexposure. Overexposure is a sign that someone does not understand lighting. For documentary film making, learning how to use and control natural light is more important. First when you're starting out, then learning how to use artificial light. Let's look into lighting. I like to break this section down into two parts. Natural lighting for indoor shooting, and natural lighting for outdoor shooting. If you're filming a shot that occurs indoors, first look at the level of light in the room. This is called ambient lighting. Is it too dark or too bright? Then see whether this light looks good or bad to you. Does it illuminate the subject's face well? If it does not, look at where your light is coming from, windows are the most obvious indoor light source. If it's too dark, move your subject closer to the window. If it's too light, move them away from the window. If they're artificial light sources, can close them or open them. Keep playing with the positioning of your subject in the room until you get a good natural light level that's not too bright or too dark, so it's hard to see. For example, when I walked into Mickey's gym, I first noticed how the light is dispersed in the room. Where it was at the most bright, and where it was at the most dark, where does it look good on her face. Then I chose to position her by the window to film her training because the light from the window illuminated one side of her face beautifully while keeping the other side more in shadow. If you're shooting outdoors, weather and time of day affect the lighting that you will have. I like to check the forecast a few days before my sheet to prepare. If it's a sunny day, I would avoid filming during noon to the early afternoon because when the sun is right above you. It casts hard, unpleasant shadows on the face and over exposes a lot of areas. If you have to shoot during this time, I would move to a shaded location or reserve this time for indoor shoots. However, during the sunny days, I love filming during magic hour, the time shortly after sunrise or right before sunset. During this time, the light is diffuse. Nothing is really blown out and the colors intensify beautifully. Keep in mind, magic hour is very short, so come prepared with your equipment, and choice of location. If it's a cloudy day, don't fret. Clouds actually can act as your best friend by softening the sunlight so that if falls nice and even on your subject. In contrast with a sunny day, would get good light throughout the day as long as it's not too dark in the early morning or late afternoon. 20. Tripod: Now, let's address the second big problem with filming, shaky footage. To solve this problem, simply place your camera on a tripod with these steps. Place camera on tripod plate with the coin, place tripod plate on tripod. Adjust height of legs so that your tripod is level. You can check to see whether a tripod is level by looking at the bubble. If it's inside the circle, it's level. Tripods will also have knobs to adjust the tilt and pan. Tilt is when you move your camera up and down. Pan is when you move your camera from side to side. 21. Composition: Even if you set your camera on a tripod and there's nice light, your image will likely not look good if there is bad composition. Composition is how things in your frame are placed throughout the space, and bad composition comes from when you're not aware what's in your frame and what you're trying to communicate in your scene. Here are three tips. When you feel drawn to record what you are seeing, ask yourself, what exactly in the scene pulls me to record it? Is it this person's expression? Is it the color of the spices in the market stall? Is it the shape of the bamboo boats? Once you've identified what's pulling you so much, choose your camera positioning to maximize the focus of the primary element, and remove anything unnecessary that can distract from this focus. Two, be aware of the background. Once you've position your frame, notice if there's anything cutoff awkwardly in your frame, or if there are any distractions that take the viewer away from what you want to show. Either move the distractions away or move your camera for a better frame. Third, don't cut at joints, otherwise, your frame will look like the awkward family photos your parents used to take while on vacation. One last composition tip, known as the rule of thirds. While most people tend to put the most important subject in the middle of the frame it looks more balanced when you put the most important subject at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal thirds. 22. Intro to Exposure: Now that we've addressed composition, lighting, and camera stability, let's dive right into the mechanics of camera operation. We're first going to learn how to set the basic settings for your camera manually, and then I will introduce a simple five-step method you can use to make sure you're getting proper exposure for your shots. Let's first take care of the camera basics. First, insert a memory card. I recommend at least a 36 gigabyte memory card. Second, set your camera to manual movie mode. Third, go through camera menu and set your file type two dot MOV, size 1920 by 1080. Fourth, set your frame rate to 23.97 or 24 frames per second. Now with these basics set, let's go to my simple four-step method to shooting with it manually. Set white balance, set shutter speed to 148th or 150th of a second. Set aperture, and adjust ISO. 23. Exposure 5 step method: The first is white balance. On your camera, you should find a little button that says WB on it. Colors look different depending on the environment. For example, the color white will look more bluish if you are shooting on a cloudy day, whereas it will look more orange if you are shooting by a candle. When you set the white balance, you are properly calibrating your camera to set the proper colors, by telling it what shooting environment you are filming in. Your camera should have presets based on a few circumstances, like whether you are shooting on a sunny day, a cloudy day, in the shade, or indoors. To set your white balance, simply select the shooting setting that matches yours. Now, let's talk about the last three steps. As you can see, all of these steps form a group called the exposure triangle. They determine how much light is let into your camera and therefore how bright your image is. Let's talk about the most straightforward exposure setting; shutter speed. When you take a photo, there is a shutter in front of your camera sensor, which opens and closes to let light into the sensor. When filming, you want to set a constant shutter speed, which is set as a standard in cinema at twice your frame rate. Because you have set your frame rate to 24 frames per second, as we mentioned in our previous lesson, you want to set your shutter speed to 1/48th or 1/50th of a second. 24. Aputure: With shutter speed in check, let's talk about the next two components, aperture and ISO. While the previous settings we talked about stay constant, you will have to continually adjust aperture and ISO while filming. Let's dive into aperture. The second component of exposure. Your lens has a hole in the middle, which lets light in. Aperture is how big this hole is, and the size of this hole is known as your f-stop. If you scroll through the aperture wheel on your camera, you'll see numbers or sizes ranging from f/1.4-f/16. The smaller your f-stop number, the larger this hole is, the brighter your image becomes, and the more blurry the background will appear. So besides determining how much light goes into your camera, aperture also determines how much of your image is in focus, also called the depth of field. If you want everything in your frame to be in-focus, I recommend an aperture of f/8 or higher. If you want your subject to be in focus with a blurred background, what we call a shallow depth of field, I recommend getting closer to your subject and setting an aperture of f/4 or lower. It's important that you get closer to your subject for a shallow depth of field. As if you're too far, you'll still see the background in focus. In other words, the more distance between your subject and the background, the more the background will appear out of focus. Setting the f-stop will also depend on how bright your image will be. For example, if I want a shallow depth of field and set it to f/4, but it is still too dark, I would reduce my f-stop to an f/2.8, which would let more light in and make my image brighter, but still give me that shallow depth of field. On the other side, if I'm in an f/8, which makes everything in my frame in focus, but I see that my image is too bright, I might raise my aperture to an f/11, which still would show everything in focus, but let less light in and make my image darker. So when you see a shot you want to film, play with your aperture until you get the right depth of field and your image isn't too bright or too dark. Sometimes adjusting your image brightness while keeping your desired depth of field is difficult. For example, if it's a sunny day and I want a blurry background, raising my initial aperture of f/4 to f/16, will darken my image, but make me lose the blurry background. If it seems to be a struggle, now is the time to adjust your ISO, which we will talk about in the next lesson. 25. ISO: The last setting in this exposure group is ISO. ISO determines how sensitive your camera sensor is to light. If you scroll through the ISO wheel in your camera, you'll see that it has numbers ranging typically from 200 to 3200. The higher the ISO, the more sensitive your camera sensor is to light, and the brighter your image becomes. If you set your aperture the way you like it, it has a right amount of blurriness, but the image is not bright or dark enough, you can raise or lower your ISO. For example, if you set your image at f/4, it has the right depth of field that you're looking for, but it's too dark. I would then raise my ISO higher to let more light in. However, there is a catch. Typically, when you raise your ISO above 1600, the camera creates more noise in your image. If you've reached the lowest aperture your camera can go and raised your ISO to the highest, but you see some noise then choose a brighter location to film or a brighter time of day. 26. ND Filters: When you're starting out, I recommend setting your ISO to 400 as a baseline, then making adjustments depending on the light of your setting. There's another catch with ISO, which pertains to when you're shooting on a bright sunny day. Sometimes on a bright sunny day, when you want to keep a shallow depth of field, even if you lower your ISO and therefore lowering your camera sensitivity to light, your image is still too bright. When that happens use an ND filter, which are darkened transparent surfaces you screw onto your lens to let less light in. This way you can keep a shallow depth of field on a bright day without needing to increase your F-stop. 27. Exposure Recap: Here is a mnemonic device to help you memorize these five steps. Friendly, Walruses, See, All, Ignorance. That was a lot to take in and to make it easier for you, I've created a simple streamline checklist. You can use on your shoots to make sure that you're not forgetting anything. 28. Shooting: Now, it's time to shoot the shots on your shot list. To record the audio, simply hook a shock in mic to your camera. Try to arrive at least 30 minutes before hand to setup. 29. Production Recap: In this production section, we've looked at how to record great sounding audio for our interview, tips on how to conduct a smooth and effective interview, and how to shoot with our cameras. Now, I'm going to take you behind the scenes and show you one of my shoots where I filmed Mickey training in her gym. You'll see that I use slightly more advanced equipment, but the principles are exactly the same. 30. Intro to Editing: Now we are going to dive into the editing process. For this, you will need to download an Adobe Premiere Pro free trial, which last for 30 days on the website. I'll be guiding you step-by-step through this process with a video I made about a tofu maker. Let's dive right in! 31. Transferring Files: This is how I like to organize all of my files that I received from shooting. I'll typically start by creating a main folder with the project name. Here I have it labeled Micki film. I'll have three main folders in here, audio, video, and assets, which I will talk about later. In the audio folder, I like to label it by the date and the event. As you can see here, I have the interview recording, and I'd like to create two other folders for the edit. Here I have music, which is where I will download all of the music I choose for the film, and here I have one called sound effects. If you choose to add those as well later down the road. Then, in the video folder, I like to label the subfolders by the dates and the events. As you can see here, I have made 26. I shot Micki in the Geisha scene, and on May 28th, I shot her match. In this folder called assets, got all of the other stuff that doesn't fit in the video or the audio folders, such as photos and behind the scenes footage. Go ahead and transfer all of your files into this organized system, so it's all ready for the edit. 32. Writing a Transcript: After I've transferred and organized my footage files, I like to write a transcript for the interview, so I can visually see what Mickey has said and start arranging them to form the story's spine. I like to do this on Google Docs because it automatically saves and as you can see here, I have a time code for the interview, and I like to break it down for every 30 seconds or so. Go ahead and write a transcript for your interview so you can start building your story. 33. Paper Edit: After you've written the paper transcript, now is the time to start building your story spine by arranging the talking points into a story. In this stage, I'll like to create another Google Doc entitled Paper Edit. As you can see here, I have Act 1, which is how I think I will begin the story. Alternatively, I'll have another version of Act 1 if I feel there is another way to start the scene. This is the stage where I'm just laying out all of the ideas to hash out in the editing phase. Go ahead and start building the spine of your film by rearranging the interview so that it forms a coherent story. 34. Editing Case Study: Now I'm editing a video for small tofu company based in Maine for the crowdfunding campaign. When filming, I got two types of footage. A roll, which is the talking head footage of the company's founder Jeff, and B roll, which are shots other than his interview that support the story. To prepare for the edit stage, I've written a transcript of Jeff's interview and created a paper edit, which is a story structure based on his talking points that I will use as a guide in the edit suite. I will be using this editing project as the example for the course. 35. The Premiere Pro Interface: When you open up the Premiere Pro interface, it should look something like this. This is your workspace, and it is comprised of four main areas. The first, is a window where you can preview all of your video and audio files before deciding to drag them into your timeline. The second, is the timeline and it is the place of action. Here is where you'll be placing your clips, making cuts and dragging them back and forth. The third place is your monitor, which plays back all of your sequences in the timeline. Then you have your project bin, which holds all of your project files. Then you have your toolbar, which contains all the tools you'll need to cut your clips and ordered them on the timeline. Finally, you have the audio meter to your right, and this will tell you the decibel levels of your audio. 36. Importing Footage: Now that we know how the editing interface works, let's dive right in and import our footage. To do this, open up your app and create a new project. Then title the project.. Now I will do Heiwa Tofu Kickstarter project and press Okay. Now it will bring you to the project interface, which should look familiar to you. Notice the project bin. Here you want to start creating the folders for your imports, just like you created the folders for our transfer earlier on. I will name one folder Video, then I'll create one for Audio. Then I'll create a folder for Assets and I will create a new folder called Slugs. These are basically the labels you will add to your clips just so you know what they are in the timeline, but we'll get into that later. Within these folders, then I'll create the sub folders just like you did before. For video, I'll create one for Interviews, and I'll create one for B roll. For audio, I will create one for the Interview, and I'll create one for B roll and one for Music. For assets, I'll create one for Photos and Titles. Next, I will then start importing my footage and I'll do the step-by-step per category. First I'll do the video and we have interview. Click that, and once I'm in the interview folder, then I will import my footage. I'll click import. Sometimes when you import your files, you'll get this box that says file import failure. Just click Okay and don't worry about it because it will actually be able to upload all of your files. Now we have uploaded our interview footage and you can see it in this bin. Now I will upload the audio recorded during his interview that was recorded on an external recorder connected to his lab mic. To do this, you do the same thing, you go to Import. Then you find the file wherever you chose to save it. You have all of the audio files in this bin. Go ahead and import all of your footage from your shoots into the respective folders here and I will meet you in the next lesson. 37. Setting Up A Sequence: Now that we have imported our footage, it's time to drag our [inaudible] onto the timeline, to actually begin the edit. I'm so excited for you to discover the stage. First, you'll need a create a new sequence. Go to "File", and then click new "Sequence", and title it Rough cut. For the settings just check that they match your shooting settings in terms of the frame rate. Here we have 23.976 frames per second and the frame size, which should be 1,920 by 1,080 for most of you-all. You can also drag one clip recorded on your camera directly onto the sequence and the sequence will automatically match your camera settings. Then click "Okay". Notice how it puts new timeline with a time code and channels for video and audio. 38. Placing Clips on Timeline: So the first step is to cut together your A role or your interview based on your paper edit. So let's go to our interview footage in the project bin and click and drag all of the files onto your timeline just like this. So now if you scroll through this bar, you'll see that you'll have all of your footage located on your timeline. If you want to preview each clip, feel free to click on one and you'll see that it'll pop up on your preview window. You can use this little blue knob to scroll through the whole clip and if you just want to take one section of the clip, you can press these brackets. One that'll mark the beginning point of the clip, and one that will mark the end point of the clip. If you just click here, you'll drag both video and audio. If you just wanted to drag video, you click this scroll and it'll just drag the video on lanes so you see how there's no audio underneath. But if you just want to drag the audio, then you click this little funny shape here and you drag it onto your timeline. So now that we have the main interview on our timeline, let's also drag our audio footage. If you recorded audio separately during your interview like I did where I recorded his interview on an external recorder connected to lav mic go Interview audio file in your bin and drag it onto the timeline as well. Like this. You'll see that I can only drag the audio files onto the audio channels marked by an A and I cannot drag them onto the video channels because they're different. In the next lesson, we will learn how to sync your audio with your video and make cuts. 39. Syncing Audio with Video: If you record your audio externally outside of the camera like on an external recorder, then you'll want to sync your camera with your audio. To do this, press both clips on your timeline. Here I have my camera footage and here I have my audio recording. Then, it's simple. Drag and select all of the clips, right-click and hit "Synchronize". You want to click "Audio" and "Track Channel", click "Mix Down" and press "Okay". Then it will do some processing and your clip will be synchronized with your video. If you want, you can delete the audio that was recorded in your camera and move the higher audio file underneath. Now it should be very well synced. Because this automatic sync sometimes isn't exactly precise. Magnify your timeline as far as it'll go by pressing the "Plus" key on your keyboard or dragging the bottom scroll bar so you zoom out. If you feel like something is off, feel free to move the audio clip forward or backward, one or two milliseconds until you feel like it's an exact match. Do this for all of your clips and you'll be ready to make some cuts. Happy syncing. 40. Making Cuts: So by now you should have your A roll or all of your interview files, all synced and on the main sequence and the timeline called A roll like this. So you can see I have my whole interview here. That's all synced. Now, it's time to make the rough draft of your video by picking up the talking points according to your paper edit and cutting them out onto a new sequence. So let me go to my paper edit. So I see that the first talking point I have besides the hook is his personal introduction where he says, "my name is Jeff Wallabits and my title at Hawaii is a supreme ruler of the tofu universe, pun intended and the tofu maker." So my time code that happens at 21 seconds. So what I will do is I will go back to my A roll and find that talking point. There it is. So now, once you identify the starting point of your clip, click on your razor tool and make the cut just by pressing along the blue line here. Then I will find the end of the clip. There it is, and I will do the same thing. I will mark the end point of that clip by cutting it out, and there we go. So now you can separate this clip apart from the main sequence, and we're going to put it on a new sequence. So to do that, we're going to go to File New Sequence and call this the rough cut. It should show up on your timeline like this, and now we're going to copy and paste this clip onto the new sequence like this. So now you see it. Now we are going to create a slug or basically a label for this clip, just so we know what this clip is talking about when we are looking at the timeline. So to do that, go back to your bin and click on your slug folder. Then go to File New Title or you can also get this by pressing Command-T and label the clip. So here, he's giving his personal introduction, then click Okay. Then you'll see this window pop up, but just ignore it for now, and you'll see that there is a black screen with the label personal intro. Click on it and drag it over your clip so that when we look at the timeline, we see that this clip is labeled personal intro. So go back and forth between your paper edit and your a role sequence and find and cut out the main talking points, then copy and paste them into the rough cut, label them with a slug. I'll meet you in the next lesson after you have done this for all of your talking points. 41. Adding B Roll: I hope you're having a lot of fun with this process, and that you feel like your video is literally forming before your eyes, now that you have all of your A roll cut together. To show you how to add B roll, I've taken a part of my A roll, cut together, that covers the introduction of Jeff's story, as you can see here. I've a broken apart the sections just to give room for the B roll. Let's go through a few clips and see where we could add B roll to enhance the story and to really make it visually engaging. Let's play. My name is Jeff Wolovitz. My title Heiwa is the supreme ruler of the tofu universe and the tofu maker. I think I will leave his introduction as is because I like the idea that when he introduces himself to the audience, the audience members can see his face. Let's go on. Heiwa Tofu is based in Rockport, Maine. We use Maine-grown organic soybeans to make our tofu. Heiwa means peace in Japanese. I think it's a great opportunity to show viewers what these soybeans look like, just so it would enhance the connection they have with their company's product and to their identity. I'm going to go to my B roll, and find the clip of the soybeans. Let's look at it in our preview window. As you can see it is right here if you scroll through, right here. I will pick the parts I like, which I've done already by pressing the in and the out keys, and I will just drag the video over the part where he mentions the soy beans. Heiwa Tofu is based in Rockport, Maine. We use is Maine-grown organic soybeans to make our tofu. Heiwa means peace in Japanese. Fantastic. Now let's keep going and see where we could add value to our story with more B roll. We first formed the company, we came up with this idea that a local plant-based diet is the way to a more peaceful planet. I like the idea of just leaving as is where you can see him telling you about these core values, but I think I would like to show a little bit of how he puts these values into practice in the real world. After he says that, I think I'm going to add a little segment of B roll to show him at the farmers market where he's interacting with community members and providing this local sustainable food. I'm going to go back to my B roll and open the farmers market folder. Now I see I have an establishing shot of the farmers market, just to let viewers know where they are. I will choose a section, which I've done already here, by pressing the in and the out brackets, and I want both video and audio this time. I will click on the actual preview screen itself and drag it onto my timeline like this. Then I see that there's a shot of them working at the booth where you are closer to the action, and so I again, I will mark my in, and I will mark my out points by using the brackets or pressing I and O on the keyboard, and I will drag both. Then I see I have some close-ups of the actual produce found at the market, which I think will really enhance the feel of local sustainability, which is the value and the feeling we want to convey, as we've decided in our concept. I will drag a few of those as well. Like there. Now, I'd like to show their actual products as part of the sequence of sustainable ingredients, so I'm also going to mark in it out and drag it onto the timeline. Now we have something that looks like this. The way to a more peaceful planet. Great, and this is a great time to introduce this new tool, which is the Track Select Forward Tool, which you can get by pressing A. This will move the clip that you click on, including all of the ones that come after it, forward together, so you don't need to move them individually one by one. When I'm adding these B roll clips, I'm also keeping in mind that there will be music playing underneath. The music will give a nice rhythm and bind all of these B roll clips together. For now, I'm just going to pick the B Roll clips that I like and refine them later on, if necessary. I'm going to go ahead and keep adding B roll to my entire A roll sequence, and I want you to do this as well. When adding B roll, first listen through your A roll a couple of times and think about places where the story would really come alive with additional images. Also, don't be afraid to add a sequence of B roll to just add a breath or a pause to all of the interview talking. I will meet you at the next lesson. 42. Adding Music Magic to Video: When it comes to looking for music, I think there are two important things. The first is the emotion the music evokes, and second, the rhythm as well. I really like to match my rhythms with the pace of the video. If I'm showing a frenetic process, that's about creative spontaneity, for example, I'll look for something fast paced, but if I'm looking for a piece of music to go along with reflection, then I will choose a slower rhythm. One of the biggest mistakes I've seen in crowdfunding videos is people putting just one track throughout the whole piece. I feel like this really drowns out the story. Instead, you want to be very selective and only put music where it enhances the melody and the flow of the story. Don't worry, you do not actually have to compose your song. There are many music banks online, but I will show you a few of my favorites. The first one is called the Audio Network, and this is the one I use the most because I think it gives great value for the price of the music. You'll see that when you open up the page, you can browse by all of these categories, musical styles. Then you can also browse by mood and emotion. I typically filter by this one the most. For a lot of Kickstarter videos, I like ambient sounds that are not so overwhelming, but just give a nice background feel. I'm now looking for a piece of music for my hook, where I'm imagining a series of beautiful macro shots of the tofu making process that'll pull you in by the poetry. I want it to sound a little bit mysterious, a little bit whimsical, and a little bit Japanese to go with the company's name and their product. Japanese, ambient, bells. You have all of these come on. I'll look at Reiki Zen Meditation, and press play. While it plays, you can also see that there is a waveform of the audio on the bottom, and this will give you a sense of the pace and the intensity of the music before you even play through the whole thing. Here, the waveforms are not as spiky. I know that sound is a bit rounded and not as intense. It's a little bit too strong for what I'm looking for. Let's look at this one, Eyes In The Sky, because I see that it says "Gently pulsing harp and Japanese koto with light bells and wistful string bass." Just by hearing the first 10 seconds of the song, I can already imagine my footage, so I know it'll be a good match. What I love about Audio Network is that the music has different mixes of the same song. For example, if I didn't want the string bass, then there is a version without a string bass. I will start this to keep it in mind, and I will continue looking until I have a short list of a few songs. One thing you want to keep in mind is that you want to make sure you buy the right license for your songs. Every music bank will have a few, and they'll have different conditions for each. For example, the creator license only allows you to use some music for your own personal needs, like a family video. 43. Cutting Music: Now that we're back in our editing home, I am going to add the song I just found in the Music Bank to my B roll, which forms the hook of my video. As you can see here on my timeline, I created a new sequence for my hook and without any music, It looks like this. It starts with an opening shot of the factory at sunrise. Really enjoy that rhythm on Vega times. It becomes like a dance just moving around the shop. Then it goes into a series of close-up shots of the tofu making process in the factory. Let's put in our music in the second audio track and just listen to the music to see whether it complements our B-roll. I think the spirit of the music really matches the spirit of the B-roll, but we're going to have to do some work in terms of cutting the B-roll so that it matches the music even more. Launch it by half to make sure your cuts flow smoothly in your edit is to match the cuts of your clips to the beat of the music. So for example, with this song, I see that there is an entrance of a bell which marks a new you beat. I think this would be a great time to transition the B-roll from this outside shot to an inside shot of the factory. I will find that bell again and mark where the bell enters. Just right there. What I'll do is I will shorten the clip of the establishing shot and move the shot of the bowl, which takes you right inside so it looks like this. Okay, now I'm going to listen to the next cue and it seems like there is an entrance of a long withdrawn cello. So I'm going to stop at the cello's entrance and add another clip. Okay, just about there. I will add my next clip and review it. Okay, fantastic. I will move his talking point because I find that it's placed over the cello point. It really drowns out what he's saying. So I will put it in the beginning where there are lighter plucks. Really enjoy that rhythm on Vega times. It becomes like a dance just moving around the shop. With this last bell, I really like using that as another cue to put in just personal introduction. So it's like the bell comes and then you see Jeff. 44. Adding Transitions: At this point, your video may seem a little bit choppy so let's smooth it out by adding a few video and audio transitions. To do that, open up the effects panel by going to window and clicking effects. Then you should have something like this pop up. You'll notice that you have audio transitions and video transitions. I'll first do the video transitions. If you open it up, you'll find that you have all of these transitions available. My favorite ones are in the dissolve main folder. I like these because I find they are more subtle. I especially use the cross dissolve and the dip to black function. When I'm looking through my clips, I see that I have an establishing shot. I think I would like it to fade in just to give a sense of a beginning to my video. To do that, I will add the cross dissolve. You add an effect by clicking on it and dragging it to your clip. If you zoom in, you'll see that you'll have a bar that says crosses off. You can affect the length of it by dragging it back and forth. I think I want this to have a longer cross dissolve. If you play it, you'll see that it slowly emerges on the screen. The next part I would like to soften is the entrance of Jeff when he's introducing himself. Right now it looks like this where it goes from the macro shop and just jumps into his interview. But let's add a little bit of magic by adding in a dip to black effect to the beginning of the interview. As you can see here, you can see the bar and you can adjust it back and forth. Now looks like that. Now I will look at the audio transitions, and here there are three. There's constant gain, constant power, and exponential fade. The ones that I use the most are the constant power and the exponential fade. Let's start with the exponential fade. I typically like to use this to fade my music in and out. For example, as the interview will begin, I will also fade the music out. I will apply an exponential fade here and lengthen it. Beautiful. Now we'll look at constant power. I use this to smooth out talking points If I had cut something out of the interview and joint two parts together, I will also use them to smooth out the music. If I had cut out a section of the music and joined two segments to make it shorter. For example, when I go to Jeff's interview. You can see here that while he was talking, I also cut something out in the middle so I have two segments. I find in those places it's also really helpful to add a constant power so you cover the audio jumps. Play around with these transitions, add them to smooth out your video and I will meet you in the next lesson. 45. Leveling Your Audio: Ladies and gentlemen, there's just one last essential thing you will have to do before exporting your video. That is tweaking your audio levels so that they remain consistent and within the right range throughout your video. Audio engineering is one complex field. But for the purposes of this video, I want you to keep one thing in mind, and that is to keep your audio levels bouncing between negative 12 and negative six decibels on your audio meter to the right. If your audio meter is too small to see, you can adjust the size of the area, including all the other areas of your editing interface, by going to the edge of the section and dragging it to make it bigger or smaller like this. This is my rough cut so far and I've started to level the audio. I actually duplicated the interview audio just to make it stronger. But I will zoom in on one by dragging down the audio track. Now you can see a wave forms more clearly. You'll notice that it has this bar and you can move it up and down to adjust the levels. I will move it up until I see that his talking is bouncing between negative 12 and negative six decibels. My name is just Jeff [inaudible]. My title at Helwa is the supreme ruler of the Tofu Universe. Next, you may be wondering what to do when you have music and talking playing at the same time. You want to stick to the basic rule of thumb, which is to keep the overall audio levels between negative 12 and negative six decibels. Here I have a section where music is playing while Jeff is talking. Now it sounds like this. Helwa Tofu is based in [inaudible]. As you can hear, the music is overpowering Jeff's interview a little bit. What I will do is I will open up my music track and I will drag the audio bar down until Jeff's voice stands out and the overall levels bounce between negative 12 and negative six. Helwa Tofu is based in [inaudible]. I think it can go down a little bit more. [inaudible] Helwa Tofu is based in Rappaport mane. Mean grown organic seedlings to make a living. Great. One last thing I want to show, if you want to have more control over your audio levels, is a new tool called the pen tool. Which you can get by pressing p. This allows you to add specific points to the audio like this, so that you can control individual sections. Just like this. If you want the music to start off more loudly, but then decrease its volume when the interview comes in, then you can use a pen tool to decrease the volume gradually like that. Go ahead and level your audio. I will see you in the next lesson for export. 46. Export!: Congratulations. I'm so proud of you for making it this far. I hope you're proud of yourself as well. Now, it's time to set your video free by exporting it. To do it, first move your play-head to the beginning of your video and press 'I', to mark the beginning of your video. Then, move your play-head to the end of your video and mark 'O', to tell where you want the export to stop. Then go to 'File', 'Export Media'. If you're just posting this online, I recommend keeping the format to H.264 and changing the preset to YouTube 1080p HD. Then for the 'Output Name', write the name of your video. So I will write, 'Heiwa Indiegogo Video' and choose a place you'd like to save it, and click 'save'. Make sure that 'Export Video' and 'Export Audio' are both checked. Then scroll down and check, 'Use Maximum Render Quality'. Then click Export, and watch the magic happen as it exports into a quick time file. Grab a bowl of popcorn and share with your friends and family to celebrate the hard work and the artistry that you put into this video. 47. Bonus: Ken Burns Effect: If you want to add photos to your video, I'm now going to show you a neat little trick that will bring them to life. Here in my timeline, I've added a few photos that look like this. We started off as a role market member. You can see how this first photo was dynamic because it has a little movement inside. This is named the Ken Burns effect and I find the subtle movement really helps transform the photo into film. To do that, I'm going to delete this photo and start from scratch. I'm going to open my bin with my photos, and I'm going to open the photo app like this. Then I'm going to drag it and shorten it so it'll fit right into my timeline. So now it will look like this. When you place your photos into your timeline, you'll find that it will look enlarged so to make it smaller, go to Effect Controls and look at scale. Make sure your clip is highlighted and reduce the size of it so it fits nicely within the frame like this. To animate it, you can add subtle movement by either changing the position of the photo, like making it move from left to right, or you can make it increase or decrease in size. The important thing to keep in mind is that it has to be subtle, otherwise it will look very cheesy. I'm going to animate this photo by moving the position of it from left to right. To do that, I'm going to scroll to the beginning of the photo and I am going to add some key frames just to mark the position of where it is now. Then I am going to scroll through to the end of the video and I'm going to add different keyframes this time by clicking this add or remove keyframe button. I think I want it to expand a little bit and move to the right. To do that, I'm going to change the scale to 47. We'll see what that looks like. I want to choose a new horizontal position for its ending points so I'm going to move it a little bit here. Now it'll look like this. We started off as a role market. Magic. Thank you, Ken Burns. 48. Bonus: Adding Titles: This is how you add text or subtitles to your video. Go to "Title" and click "New Title" and name it. I will name it 'Jeff's intro.' It'll pop up a Window with the current shot of your video based on where your placeholder is. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to create this "Type Tool" and I am going to click and drag and write Jeff's name, 'Jeff Wolovitz, King of Tofuniverse.' Then you can choose your fonts here. I'm a big fan of San Serif fonts, but just choose the one that you like the most. You can adjust the width here and you can adjust the size of the text here, for example. Then place it where you think it looks good. Then if you exit it out, this is a great time to save it into your assets folder, where you have a special folder for titles. All of the titles will be there. Then drag the title over the part where you would like it. Now you have a title. I actually don't really like the way that looks. I'm going to play around with the fonts and the format. But just notice that the title card becomes like a new video clip. If you wanted to add credits, you would just write your text on a new title card and then place them as if it was a clip in the beginning or the end of your timeline. 49. Bonus: Warp Stabilizer: If you find that your footage turned out a little shaky, have no fear because there is a cool tool that will help smooth out the shake. For example, when I took a shot at the farmers market, it was handheld and it turned out a little shaky, like this. [inaudible]. To smooth out the shake, there is a cool effect in Premier Pro called warp distort. Which you can access by going to window, and clicking effects. A new window should pop up, and you might find this actually nestled within your bin section. Then go to Video Effects, and you'll have a list of all of these cool effects. Go to distort, if you scroll down, you'll find something called warp stabilizer. If you click on it, and drag it onto the clip that needs a little help, it'll start analyzing and figuring out best ways to smooth out the shake. If you go to your Effect Controls panel here, you'll find that the effect is recorded here. Sometimes you'll have to click the analyze button to initiate the fixing process. But when I play it back. [inaudible]. You can see that it's a lot more smooth. [inaudible]. Now this won't work for all of the clips, but give it a try and see what it will do. 50. "Monburan Micki" Final Version: that further do Here is my documentary Short portrait on Mickey You who up to she books on another school, Mavis. Then show this camp. They because a good kind of shit. Call it, State it. Okay, so we know that way. Works in the other. I was how Money market. That's a creo that door books out of state have taken. I got more hotel somewhat. What? This thing was here. I need to take it anymore. Listen, I'm not gonna everybody Tokyo talking like on this, okay? What? That professional shag husband Michael Ashamed. Find it that day. Months? What? They won't do my day months. So you don't want to sell more. You taken, did they? What you get? 51. Course Conclusion: Congratulations on finishing this course. I hope that by now you feel excited, and you feel like you have all the knowledge, and a clear road map needed to go out there, and make your documentary short portrait. If you have any remaining questions, please send them my way as I'm here to support you. If you want to further your film-making and editing, please check out my other courses on my teacher profile page. Like my popular art of revision course, which shares six essential principles you'll need to craft a powerful resonance stories that'll engage viewers from beginning to end. When you're finished making your film, feel free to share a link with us on the class project's page, so that we can see the amazing story told through your lens and give you feedback. Thank you so much for taking your time with me and I wish you all the best for your documentary journey. Bye. 52. Exciting Updates: Hi, everyone. I have two exciting updates. The first is that I have created a course map that links all of my film-making and editing courses in sequence, so you can confidently advanced as a filmmaker. The second update is that I've started a one-minute newsletter which is Curated Inspiration and High Value Insights on Film-making, Creativity, and the Art of Authentic Living. Checkout both of these on my course instructor page.