Create a Custom Sketchbook with Ordinary Craft Supplies | Eugenia Sudargo | Skillshare

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Create a Custom Sketchbook with Ordinary Craft Supplies

teacher avatar Eugenia Sudargo, Watercolorist and Graphic Designer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

18 Lessons (1h 37m)
    • 1. OPENING

















    • 18. CLOSING

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About This Class

In this class I will be teaching you a method of book binding with a kettle stitch using ordinary craft supplies. No need for expensive professional tools that will break a budget. Because of this, some parts do become tricky, but I will be there guiding you along the way with tips and tricks that I learnt from my own experience.

Book binding can be a tedious task, and it takes a bit of patience, so please spare a day where you’re free, so you can complete the project in your own time. I’ve divided the methods into smaller lessons, and you can pause or take a break in between whenever you need to. I personally like to divide the tasks over a few days, so it doesn’t get overwhelming.

If this is your first-time book binding, please take your time and maybe watch the class first to get an over view of the project before starting it straight away. Having an overall idea of the project will help you visualize how project will go.

In my class, I will be making 2 sketchbooks. One will be a watercolor sketchbook using 200gsm and 300gsm watercolor paper, and the other one will be a multipurpose sketchbook which I have combined a few different types of paper so I can alternate between mediums. All the tools and measurements will be available in the downloadable section but I will also be showing them in the lessons so you can also take a screenshot of it.


  1. Introduction
  2. Tools and Materials (including options)
  3. Introduction to signatures and organizing your paper
  4. Measuring the paper accurately
  5. Cutting and folding the paper
  6. Optional: How to bend and curve a needle
  7. Puncturing Holes into signatures
  8. Threading the needle
  9. Stitching signatures together
  10. Tips for using a straight needle
  11. Gluing the signatures
  12. Attaching end pages
  13. Leveling
  14. Adding ribbon and spine support
  15. Cover materials
  16. Cover: Using faux leather cover
  17. Cover: Using a plush liner under cotton fabric
  18. Closing and class project

If this is something that you’ll be interested in, come join me, and let's begin!


*For more works by me

Youtube: Nianiani

IG: @ig_nianiani


** Music by Aakash Gandhi, Shattered Path

Meet Your Teacher

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Eugenia Sudargo

Watercolorist and Graphic Designer


Hi, my name is Eugenia, and I go by Nia. I'm a graphic design graduate from Curtin University, Western Australia, who loves to paint with watercolours. In my final year, my teachers back in university noticed that most of my design works incorporate watercolours. So I guess I picked up the medium by accident, but now I'm totally in love with them. They're so versatile, flexible and wild at the same time. There are times you need to tame and control them, but there are also times you let the watercolour do its thing!

Mid 2017 I started a watercolor YouTube channel, nianiani and I was quite amazed at the response, I also realised how much I loved uploading videos and sharing tutorials. I started teaching art and watercolour end of last year to children and adults, as a part time jo... See full profile

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1. OPENING: apple binding can be very intimidating. What sort of paper do I use? How do we connect the pages to the cover And what sort of finding or a sketchbook s best suited for my needs? Where I'm from, our supplies are quite limited. And a lot of times when I'm looking for sketchbooks there, they don't have the right size that I want or the paper isn't something that I'm comfortable working with. This is how I start minding my own books so I can customize every single bit about it, including the science type or types of paper I would like to include. And also the cover. Hi, my name is Mia, and today I will be showing you how I create my own sketchbooks, including the type of stitch that I use on the different types of paper I'd like to include . There are a lot of different types off bookbinding and in different types of stitches. But today I'm be sure you have to make the kettle stitch because I find that it suits me the most and give such a nice, clean finish. The best thing about this class is that I will be sure you have to book bind, using ordinary crafts supplies without any professional tools so you won't break a budget. I will also be showing you different options and different stages off the book binding so you can slowly find out what it's best suited for you with the supplies that you have available at home. I will also be showing you paper options, including what to do with your signatures if the paper you want to include is a bit too thick, just to be honest with you guys but finding ISS very time consuming and it does take a lot of effort and patients to complete. So just be very mindful of that. In my class, I will be showing you the process step by step. But there are times where the process gets too repetitive, so I will either skin or advance to the next stage and get the class going when I buy my books. I'd like to distribute the process over a few days so the toss becomes something more relaxing. Been a stressful one, So please just pause in between and take breaks whenever you need to. You don't need to complete something in one day with all that said, If that is something that you're interested in, you strike me in this class, and by the end of this, hopefully you'll be able to make your very own multi purpose sketchbook. 2. TOOLS AND MATERIALS: in this lesson, I will go over the tools and materials for this class. Here are the materials for the sketchbook. First of all is the paper that you want to include in your sketchbook. You can just use one type or you can have multiple types off paper. I will be making two sketchbooks in this class. One will be a watercolor sketch book and the other one will be a multipurpose sketchbook with mixed mediums. So I'm going to combine different types off paper for that one. The paper that I will be using for this class is cancelled. Lundvall 200 CSM cancelled Excel 300 GSM Kansas sketch 120 Jess M and 100. Yes. Um Croft or brown paper. You will also need additional paper on top off the signatures for the UNP ages. I will be using 200 years and paper and for the spine support, you can use ordinary print paper or for more strength and flexibility. You can use a thin liner fabric for the spine off the cover. I will be using a scrap 300 years and paper as you only need a small amount off paper for this. For the hardcover, I will be using a cardboard, but you can also use the back off a sketchbook because it's a good thickness to lie. And the cover you can use many different types off fabric I have here full other Denham Ken Vis and cotton fabric. I find that canvas or Denham is the easiest compared to the other types I've listed. So if your new I would recommend either of the two in this class, I will be showing you how to use the full leather, which uses the same method and techniques as canvas and the other materials. But it's a bit more tricky toe work with. And for the second sketchbook, I will be making something fun by combining a plush fabric liner with this but it cotton fabric. To stick everything together, you will need white PV glue, and as additional feature, I will be adding a ribbon to the sketchbook. But it's up to you whether you want to include that or not. Next, here are the tools that I will be using throughout the class. Firstly, I'm going to be using Station Aires, so pencil, eraser marker or pen I will be using a metal ruler, scissors and also heavy duty utility knife. You'll also need a scrap flat brush for glue application Ah Bone folder to flatten the fold off the paper. But you can also substitute this with either a small ruler or a spoon to cut the paper. I will be using a map to ensure the surface off my desk won't be damaged, and I will also be using a felt matt to puncture holes for the paper. If you don't have a felt Matt, you can substitute this with anything soft, like a foam mat or even a towel to make the holes in the paper. I will be using a needle tool. If you have an owl, that would be great. If not, you can use a sewing needle. And for better grip. You can attach it with the pencil or pen, using masking tape to secure it in place. But make sure you hold it where you stick it down so the needle does not slip. I'm going to be using a lot of binder clips in place off a book press. I will be using two types, and that's the 15 millimeters and the 40 millimeters binder clips to level the text block. I'm going to use a medium sandpaper. Please don't use on fine grit. That's what I had available, and it took me a very long time to level the paper. Because of that, a medium to a fine grit sandpaper would work really well for lovely. I will be using a curve needle and a sewing thread to join the signatures together. And I will also be showing you how I made my own curve needle because I can't seem to find at the shops where he lived. If you also want to make your own tools, he will need for this are two players a candle lighter sewing needle and a wet wipe. This is an optional lesson, but I assure you that this is going to save you a lot of time. In the long run for bookbinding, here is a rundown off the materials and tools. You can either take a snapshot of this or downloaded in the downloadable section off the costs, so those air the list off materials. Let's move on to the next listen 3. INTRODUCTION TO SIGNATURES: you will hear me use the term signatures quite a lot. And in bookbinding signatures are basically groups off paper, which usually comes in multiples off four sheets of paper. Just to show you some examples, here are some signatures. So here's my bullet journal and this has signatures and groups. All four. I'm going to try to pick out a signature to show you, and I'm going to flick to four pages, and you will see that after the fourth page there will be a threat in the middle off the page. Which brings us to the middle off the signature. Now let's compare this to my mosque in watercolor sketch book, which has thicker paper than the bullet journal. Depending on the thickness off paper, you can have different amounts of paper within a signature for my watercolor sketch book that I'm going to be making Later on. The paper will be 200 GSM or grams per square meter and up, and because these are fairly thick paper compared to, say, a print paper, which is usually around 9200 yes, I'm thickness. Instead, off groups of four, I will use two sheets off paper per signature just like this mosque in sketchbook. This is so the pages will close easier when we're stitching them together later on. Here is an example of a sketchbook, which uses four pages per signature with 200 jazz on paper. And as you can see, the pages are more prone to opening, so you can technically still do this. But I find that it's been more challenging and tricky, especially without book press. You can do a different custom size than mine, but I like my sketchbook to be quite small. I'm going to be making a watercolor sketch book and also a multipurpose sketchbook. So for my watercolor sketch book I want to use for my food illustrations, and a lot of times I prefer, like almost the square format for those pieces. Why do we need to know this before we even cut the paper? This is so we know how many shades of paper we will need, approximately to measure and cut to prepare for the signatures before we cut the paper, you have to know what size paper you would like toa work with in the sketchbook, and if it will be formatted as portrait or landscape, and I decided to divide on a three page into three sections, which then will be folded into Hoffs to create the square format. So with that in mind, I will don't sketch out to plan my sketchbooks. As I mentioned, I want to make a watercolor sketch book and a multipurpose one for the multipurpose sketchbook. I want to combine different types off paper, which I will cover later on in this lesson, because it's a little bit more complicated. If you're just going to use one time off paper, just watch what I do with my watercolor sketch book because it's much simpler for my usual sketchbooks. I tend to make around eight or nine signatures, which will give a thickness around 1.5 centimeter without cover and around two centimeters with cover. But I usually mix my paper and use different amounts within the signature, so I'm going to use the total off eight signatures as an approximation to begin with. But I'm going to add more later on if I feel the need to at the end and for the eight signatures I want the six signatures to be made out of 200. Yes, on paper and the to signatures with 300 years up. Because the papers think instead of making the usual four per signature, I will change it to two sheets off paper birth signature for the 200 GSM and single sheets for the 300 years on paper. This will probably make the overall sketchbook thinner. So I will most probably be adding more and yet so make sure you still have extra watercolor paper, just in case you also want to add on. If you feel that the sketchbook isn't thinking of free, this means that I will be dividing a three pages and to three per sheet of paper, which means that I would need four pages off a three paper for the 200 Yes on signature and one sheet of paper for the 300 GSM. If you would like to use all 300 yes, on paper for your watercolor sketch book that is also very doable, and you can either make one sheet per signature or two sheets per signature. I will be showing you both. So with the sketchbook, I will use what she for the signature. But for the multipurpose sketchbook. I will be using two sheets off the 300. Yes, and for the signature So you can see the final outcome. And if that is what you feel like is preferable to you, you can go ahead and do that moving on to the multipurpose sketchbook. I'm calling this multi purpose because I'm going to combine a few different, um, types of paper that I can use with different mediums. And I also decided that I want to turn this into an a five sketchbook, which means if the size off paper that I have is a four, I can divide that into two. Or if I haven't a three piece of paper, I can divide that into four. I'm going to be using four different types of paper. And like the previous sketchbook, I'm going to create eight signatures to begin with. Some just going toe work with that in the beginning. So the first paper that I will be using, which is my main paper, is going to be the 200 years and watercolor paper, which is the same as the watercolor sketch book. I'm going to make five signatures with that. I'm also going to be using the 300 years on watercolor paper, and I'm going to create one signature. But this time for the one signature, I'm going to use two sheets off paper instead of just one. Next is the craft paper. And for this I'm going to make one signature which will have two sheets off paper. And then I'm also going to be using some sketch paper, which is a bit thinner. So for that one, I'm going toe have four sheets in one signature. Again like the previous sketchbook, this is Justin approximation and a good place to start. So you don't get overwhelmed with the amount off different apron things like that. So I like to sketch out this size off the paper and how I'm going to divide them to make the single sheets on. Make the signatures. This will give me a rough estimation off. How many sheets of paper I need depending on how big the paper I'm cutting from. This is just to show you how I like to approach, breaking things down and planning before making my sketchbook. So you can also do the same If you want to create your own custom sized. Here is the summary off my final sketchbooks. So for the watercolor sketch book, I end up making 11 signatures. And for the multiple sketchbook, I end up making 10 signatures. But of course, you can plan your very own custom sketchbook using the method that I just showed you. 4. MEASURING PAPER: here is the 200. Yes, some water toilet paper. The brand that I'm using here is cancelled. Mont Ball. Whatever. I'm cutting the paper. I'd like to check the measurement off the paper first, just to make sure. Even though it says a four or a three. Sometimes the measurement could be a little bit off, not often, but when I buy locally, sometimes the accuracy isn't always perfect. So I just like to double check because sometimes even a few millimeters might disrupt the measurement off the signature. So this is an A three paper and the with should be 42 cents meters and the height 29.7 centimeters. The size seems really good for this, and it's very accurate, some great to continue on with measuring the squares for the watercolor sketch book, I will be measuring from the with, which is 42 cents meters, and I'm going to divide this into three parts and 42 centimeters, divided by three as 14 centimeters. Now I'm going to measure out 14 centimeters and mark out the section from each side to make sure that the lines I'm making are even all throughout. Once I'm done, I'm going to get my long ruler. I'm going to connect the marks that I made to make the straight line. Next. I'm also going to measure out the middle off this so it can help guide me when they score the paper to fold it leader run and 29.7 divided by two as 14.85 So I'm going to measure that out from both sides and also one off the lines because my longest ruler can't reach the other side off the page. You may skip this step, though, if you want to fold it straight away. But scoring can help needs in the fold, especially for thicker paper like the 300 Jasmine. Now that I have all of the marks down, I'm just going to connect all of them to create a straight line. What's your done? Go ahead and do the same for the rest off the 200 years and paper. By the way, I'm using gloves because I had just put some ointment to medicate my fingers, and the slightest bit off ointment on paper could separate the watercolor. When you tried to paint it laid Iran and I've had a fair share of this. I'm just being very cautious. But of course, you wouldn't need to wear gloves if your hands and fingers are clean, the next paper I'm great to measure out is the Gunson X l 300. Yes, M. This paper is a three and size, but because off the perforation along the top it becomes smaller than a three size, which works out well because I only want to sheets from this paper. Now I'm going to measure out 14 cents meters from the clean side without the perforation, just like before. And when you measure out the other side, make sure you are also measuring from the same clean side, or else you'll create a diagonal line instead. When you were joining them together, then like before, go ahead and join the dots that you've made. If you're only making square watercolors sketchbook, he can go ahead and move to the next lesson. But now I'm just going to measure out really quickly, the other one, which I want to be in a five size. And for this I divided the 42 with into 21 centimeters and the height off 29.7 centimeters into 14.85 Now I'm going to mark them and create the lines. After that, I'm also going to measure out the midsection so I know where to score again. And I'm going to repeat the step for all of the A three sheets that I need to cut for the multipurpose sketchbook. I'm going to also use craft or brown paper for a couple off signatures, and this craft paper that I have comes in a four sheets. So I'm going to first measure out the A four size. And as you can see, this one is slightly off. So I'm just going to trim this before measuring any further for this paper. Because it's a four. I only need to divide this into two sections, and because I'm going to make two signatures with this paper, I'm going to measure to pieces off paper, and the marks that I will be making along the with is 14.85 cents meters and 10.5 for the height. Now that you get the basic idea off how I measure my paper, I'm going to show you the details off the measurements and types of paper that I will be using for both off the sketchbooks, and you can either pick one or the other or even make your own custom size and feel free to take a screenshot off this for reference later on. 5. CUTTING AND FOLDING PAPER: in this lesson, I will show you how I caught my paper. Hopefully by now, if you're following along, you've already half your paper. Old is your top and organized, so we can just cut one after the other without any interruption. This makes the process so much faster rather than measuring and cutting each piece one by one. So to cut all the pieces of paper, I make sure I use a sharp utility knife and also a metal ruler. Ah, metal ruler is recommended because I've had my fair shares off actually cutting through plastic rulers with a sharp utility knife when using a knife or any other tools for this project. Please be careful because I really don't want anyone getting injured, and I recommend to do this when you're wide awake and you have full concentration. Please don't do this when you're tired, because that's when accidents will happen. As a reminder, though this may seem obvious is to remember which lines are made for the cuts and which ones are for the folds, so you don't have any mistakes with the size. Once I'm done cutting the paper for both of my sketchbooks, I run a bone folder, or you can even use a ruler or a nonworking pen to score the area, which you're going to fold. I have to say that using a small ruler is really effective for this, so you really don't need to buy expensive tools. The points off the scoring is to make a cleaner fold, especially on think papers like 300 yes M. Usually 200 Yes, M or lower. You can still get away without scoring, but anything thicker than that, I would definitely recommend for you to score the paper so you won't have any jagged lines when you're folding the paper later, run after scoring and folding. It is also good to run the boat folder or your ruler alone. Fooled Teun eaten it further after you folded and scored all of the paper for the sketchbook. He can erase any folding marks that you've made with pencil if they're still visible after scoring. I made mine quite lightly so and some of the pages I didn't raise, but not all. And once you're done, you can group off the pages into the signatures that you planned in the previous lesson and then compile them in order that you would like them to be as a sketchbook. All the signature should be able to lay flat. So when you were stitching it later, it will be much easier. 6. OPTION: DIY CURVED NEEDLE: using a curve needle will make the binding process much easier. And it's not something that is easily available where I'm from. So I'm just going to D i y my own needle. This as an optional step. But for me, it's really worth doing and will make the process off binding so much easier and foster. The tools that you will need for this are two players, a regular needle, a candle and a lighter later on. We're also going to clean the needle, and I'm going to use tissue are what wiped for that. So let's begin by lighting up your candle first and make sure that your table is clear of anything flammable and is empty because safety is always a priority and I really don't want anyone getting injured or hurt while doing this project. You'll notice that I have two players here, and I'm using both of them to hold the needle on top off the fire. This is so I can heat up the middle off the needle, and as the fire touches it, the metal will soften, and, as it's often, you should use your pliers to gently bend. You will be able to feel the metal off the needle, softening by putting a little bit of pressure on the players as it heats up. And as it starts to bend, I'm going to move the players nearer to the edge off both sides off the needle. Or else it might become a wavy shape instead, off just the curve eagle. I am also moving the needle from side to side, so I also heat up the parts closed of edges. You don't need the curve to be so drastic. So hopefully this video will give you an approximate off the curvature I made for my needle . So this is my curve needle. As you can see, some parts off the metal which had contact with the fire turned black, but we can actually clean this out. I would recommend for you to do this thoroughly so you don't get any black residue later on your schedule paper to clean out the black residue. I start easing to shoot and be careful because the needle might still be hot. So I was holding it with players at the beginning. I then switch to what wipe to clean it because I feel that the moisture will help. Or you can also use what tissue with a bit off water and help clean out the burnt metal. For those of you who want to skip this step, I will also be shown you how I use the street needle to stitch some parts of the sketchbook . So it's still very much doable to stitch your signatures with a straight needle, but it will take a little bit of extra effort and a bit more time. Here is a comparison off the Kirk Needle and the Straight Needle. Hopefully, this will give you a good approximation off the curvature. 7. PUNCTURING: now that you have all of your signatures organizes time to put the holes to some signatures together to measure out the holes. I want to first find the midpoint off the signature. So as an example here, my paper height is 14 centimeters and 14 divided by two is seven. So I'm just going to mark out seven right there. Then I'm going to make more marks with two centimeters per space at the top and the bottom . Then I'm going to try to align signatures as best as I can and then secure it with large binder clips from all of the sides, except for the spine so it doesn't slide as you try to mark the measurements. Each time I plays down the binder clips, I make sure that the pages or the signatures doesn't move. So before putting more on, I tried to put them back in place. But it's OK if it's not perfectly aligned, because we're going to trim it after we glue everything together. Now I'm going to draw lines following the measurements that I placed down earlier. You can use a ruler for this, but I find it a bit difficult to find the right position to do that without missing some of the pages that might not retreat as much. So I'm just going to roughly estimate to make on straight lines as I can Freehand and try to get through all of the signatures as best as I can, including the signatures that might be hiding a little bit behind a tip for this is trying to squeeze all of the signatures as close as possible, so the lines that you're drying out will be more visible. Team after I've marked out all of the lines, keep the signatures and the same order than number them. So when you're sewing them together later on, you won't lose track. And even though the lines that you drew out might not look perfect if they're sewn and order, this will also help you realize where the signatures will be facing. So you don't mix it up and create zigzags when you sew them later on. Now that you have all of the signatures prepared, we're going to create the holes, and for this I'm using this felt in Matt to place under my signatures, but he can also substitute this using anything soft like towels, foams or cushions and things like that to help the needle go through the paper for the needle. You can use your sewing needle to puncture the holes, but it does get a bit years because the needle might slip because it's so short. So sometimes, when that's the case for extra grip, I like stick it on Teoh pencil or anything long with a better grip with some masking tape to hold the needle in place. If you're using a regular sewing needle, it's better to use larger wants so it doesn't take extra effort to create larger holes. If not, while you puncture the paper, you can rotate your wrist on the needle to create larger holes so the thread won't tangle s much. As you saw the signatures together, the best option would be to use an owl, but here I have a good size needle. This is actually a facial needle that I don't use, and I also find that the needle is quite sharp on. It's the perfect size for binding if you find it difficult to keep all of the sheets of paper together as the signature, especially if you're making a bundle off. Four. You can use binder clips toe aligned six years together. As you puncture the paper to lessen any accidents. Those are basically the steps to puncturing. Please do this thoroughly for all of your signatures and make sure that all of the sheets off paper is punctured within the signature, including the last page to reduce any stress when you saw them together later on. Because, as you so the needle might not go through some of the pages of they're not cultured properly. After this, we're going to. So the signatures together still, before we move on, make sure that all of your signatures are well organized and prepared here. I'm repeating the same steps for the multipurpose sketchbook. So you may skip to the next lesson if you understand the steps already where you can head to the end of this lesson to see what the end results off, the step looks like before we move on. Here is what your sketchbook should look like. At this point, the holes should be aligned well and ready to be stitched together 8. THREADING THE NEEDLE: Before we stitch all of the signatures together, I'm going to show you how I thread my needle here. I'm using a regular sewing cotton thread. I'm using a lighter page color or white so the thread won't look distracting on your sketchbook. But if you want threads to Ashley, stand out. You can also use other colors because the thread is quite then I'm going to double thread my needle for extra strength. So I like to estimate to about one meter long or double off four arm length. Anything longer than that. My tangle. And it's easier to keep re threading your needle to continue on stitching rather than de tangling every single stitch that you make. Two. Double thread your needle. I'm going to put the thread through the whole first, and I'm going to move it close to the middle so the thread won't slip out. And then I'm going to find both ends off the thread, and I'm going to tie and not three times sofa, not as a bit larger, and won't go through the holes we created for this features. Please make sure that the knot is tied on top off another or pylons of another to create, um larger, not instead off creating three separate ties that will still go through the holes of your signatures, pulling the not to make sure it's well secure. And make sure that your thread is de tangled and ready for stitching. 9. USING THE KETTLE STITCH: to stitch the signatures. He wants to make sure that all of the signatures are in order. It doesn't matter if you do it back to front or front back as long as they are in order in terms of the number on the holes are lined than the stitching should also be aligned. We're going to stitch from the bottom up, and I want to keep the number one signature at the talk. So I'm going toe work from the first signature facing down, and the rest will follow to make the stitching process easier. I'd like to secure the pages within the signature, so I'm going to use a small binder clip to secure the position. So when you try to put the needle through, it should passed easily. I'm going to start stitching now, and I want to first put the needle through either the top or the bottom of the holes, and I'm going through from the outside off the signature in. So the not will be on the outer part off the signature toe. Hold the stitches in place. Once the not a secure now I'm going toe weave through the thread. So now that the threat is inside of the signature, I'm going to put it through to the next hole, to the outside of the signature and then back in. And so one, I'd like to help the threat untangle by trying to hold them with my fingers as I'm weaving through. This might take a while to get used to, so work slowly until you understand the stitching pattern and the tightness off the thread is something that you figure out after a while. I personally want mine to be fairly tight, so when you see the lines off thread and the signature, it doesn't move. If the stitching is a bit too loose, the paper might wobble. Plus, I find that threat doesn't look as neat, but also don't pull too much on the threat as it will damage the paper. I'm still following the weaving pattern on, and at this point I want to do the same until I reached the other side of the paper. Now that you've reached the end of the page, I'm going to go back to the other direction and do the same weaving process. This will fill in the thread line from the outside and the inside off the signature. So here, as you can see, there are spaces in between the loan line. So I'm going to go back in with my needle through the threaded hole, and we've back up from time to time. If I see that their areas with loose thread, I'm going to tighten them again by pulling the thread one by one. Just like if you were to tighten a shoe lace at the very last hole, it might be difficult to fit the needle through as there's a knocked. But just try to move the not around to give it a little bit of space, and it'll fit just fine. At this point, your needle will be inside off your signature and all of the lines will be threaded through . Now I'm going to secure the first signature in place by creating a not on the top off the signature. To do this, I'm going to put through the needle through the top. We've then tie a knot around it, then slowly pulled towards the top so the not will be at the end off the first hole. Pull it tightly, then put the needle back out off the whole again and pull as tightly as he can until the not goes through the whole on the outside, off the signature. So at this point, both off the knots should be outside off your signature. Now I'm going to get the second signature, and that's number two. I'm going to put a face down again, just like the 1st 1 with your threat outside off the first signature. Now I'm going to put it through the first hole off the second signature, then back out the next hole, and I'm going to take a bundler clip to hold the position and place so the signatures doesn't move as he trying to threaten together. Once it's secure, you're going to create a loop around the first and the second thread line on the outside off the first signature and then put the needle back in the same hole. This Lou is what attach is the first and second signature. Together, I'm going to repeat the step again for the next hole, so I'm going to put the needle through and create a loop by combining third and the second thread line this time and then bringing back the needle into the same hole and again for the next one going to put the needle through. And then I'm going to create a loop by combining the thread lines that we previously made on the first signature. And then I'm going to loop in and put the needle through the same hole again. That's basically the stitch that we're going to use to combine all of the signatures together. This creates such a nice and neat sketchbook. So I'm going to repeat this until we get the last hole for the second signature. Then I let you know how to combine the next signature after this one. - Now that I've reached the last hole, I'm going to repeat the steps, so I'm going to still make the loop this time. But instead of putting it through the same hole, we're going to attach this to the next signature. So I'm taking third signature and I'm placing it down the same way as the previous two signatures, and I'm going to put the needle through the last hole off the signature was the third signature is touched by the thread. I'm going to use a binder clip against security back up and then I'm going to repeat the exact scene threading method as before by creating the loop. But this time, instead of going from the top to the bottom now I'm going to go through the bottom to the top. And now that the needle is back out again, I'm going to create the loop. But this time I'm going to attach the loop from thread connecting from the first signature to the second signature and then secured in place. I'm just going to pull it on, put the needle back through the same hole because my thread is fairly short. Now I'm going to re thread my needle again to lock this teachings that we've created in place. I'm going to create a not as we did for the first signature. So I'm going to put the needle through the previous thread line. Then I'm going to tell you not then bring it back out the same hole here. I'm going to create a couple of knots just so it's large enough to cover the whole, then pulling it really tightly until the not is outside off the signature. You don't have to do this part, but I like to secure the Not again. So I'm going to create another. Not, But this time I'm going to attach it to where the signatures joined together here. Now that I'm done, I'm going to take my scissors and cut the extra thread to free my needle. And I'm going to re thread my needle back up again so I can continue on with the stitching . Once you've threaded the needle with the not at the end, I'm going to put the needle through the same hole from the outside off the signature in So all of the not should be on the outside. Then I'm going to continue threading normally by bringing the needles through the next hole and creating a loop again from the thread connecting the first and the second signature together. And then continue this until you reach the top for the top hole. Do the same thing again by creating a loop. But instead of putting the needle through the same hole, you insert the needle into the next signature. Repeat these steps until you've reached the final signature. You will probably need to re thread your needle a few times to complete sketchbook, depending on the size off your sketchbook. When you do this, always remember to keep the not outside off the signatures. I'm going to speed through a couple off signatures just because sometimes it's easier for you to see when it sped up, too, so you can see the overall process. I'm onto the last signature now, so to look all the citizens in place I'm going to tie, and not the same way as we finished off a short Fred. After you've made the last loop, put it through the same hole again and put your needle through the thread line and create a tight knot near the whole. I'm going to tie them a couple of times to make sure that the knot is large enough to keep it secure. Then I'm going to take the not back out of the same hole, pull it tightly until the not goes through the whole. So now is outside signature than tie another knot from the previous connecting signature below, and then to finish it off, just cut the excess off. So this is how the finished signature should look after you've completed the stitch ings. If you have access threads from the knots. He can cut them shorter if it bothers you, but I'm fine with length on mine because we're going to glue them. Lead Ron. If you're using a curve needle for this, then you can skip the next lesson. But if you're going to be stitching with a straight needle and you want to see a small bit off the process with some tips, you can join me on the next short lesson on stitching. 10. TIPS FOR USING A STRAIGHT NEEDLE (OPTIONAL): welcome to this optional lesson. This lesson as not for the stitching method rather to share with you a couple of tricks When using a street needle, I have to be honest. This will take a bit more effort to do. But don't worry, because it's still very much doable. I used to also bind with straight needles two. And it's no problem, so I'm going to go to the third signature straight away. As the first and second signature is fairly straightforward, the problem will usually arise when you need to put the needle through the connection from the first and second signature. When you start to create the loops for the third signature, having a curve needle really help out because you can fit the needles in the type, threads, spaces and guide the threat out. That is, the only difference for this one way is to squeeze the paper so you're needle doesn't travel anywhere else, but straight across. But when the needle is straight across, sometimes getting the needle out might be difficult because it's not curved. So I like to actually put the needle through a little bit diagonally, so it's a bit easier for your fingers to pull the needle through another way. That is easier is to open up the signatures and create a loop by getting the straight needle in between the signatures, then opening up the signatures push the needle back out on the other side to create the loop. This means that your stitches might be a bit loose, so you would have to pull the thread one by one at times to tighten it back up. Let's try to repeat this again. So once you're needle ISS outside off the signature, go back to the connection in between the previous two signatures by opening it up, then push the needle back out on the other side to create the loop. Then bring the needle back through the same hole, tightening the thread as much as you can every single time. You pull it and repeat this process, so those are my two tips. If you were to use a straight needle instead of a curve needle, but in terms off the method of stitching, please follow the previous lesson 11. GLUING THE SIGNATURES: Now that all your signatures are Stich stop and well prepared, we're going to glue them all together, so there will be no gaps when we open the sketchbook and between two signatures to glue the signatures, I will be using PV a glue. This is the glue that I have available where I'm from, and it's quite thick, so I like to loosen it up with some water. I put a bit at a time with a dropper than mix it up until I get a nice consistency to spread the glue on the signatures. However, if you're glue is already at a spread herbal consistency than you can skip, diluting the glute before we stick the signatures together, I want to make sure that they're roughly aligned. Then I'm going to secure them with Binder clips on the sides closest to the signatures. If you have a book press, now is a good time to use it. But since I don't buying books too often, I find that using binder clips are still doable. It just takes a few tricks to get it just right. One you're using binder clips. The tip off the binder clips are actually stronger rather than if you push all of the paper all the way to the back off the clip. So when I clip the signatures together, I'd like to use just the very tip. Then I'm going toe. Also, apply some clips where the stitches are and glue them a section at a time. It does take a bit longer this way because you're not spreading on the full surface straightaway, but this will give you such a tight at needs buying later on. I want to make sure I apply the glue neatly so it doesn't stick anywhere else, but despite and I'm just doing thin coats at the moment because we're going to do layers off this to build the strength off the spine. I'm going to repeat this on the other side of the spine just so I can cover more surface area in a shorter amount off time. As you can see, my signatures might not be greatly aligned on the side, but that's OK because we're going to trim them later on. At this point, the important alignment is where the spine is. If you see any loose threads as you're gluing the spine, I like to actually glue them to make sure that the surface is as flat as I can make it. I'm going to also add some glue in between the binder clips to to make sure I cover us much surface area as I can as you're gluing them together, tried to check on the other side to see if the glue has slightly dried off or not. If it has, then can add another layer on top. And I'm going to put a slightly thicker layer as the previous light lier has sealed up, most off the signatures. After that, I'm going to leave the glue to dry. And when you feel that the goo is no longer tacky but has more of a plastic feel, you can try taking off the binder clips. It's a good sign if he can see that the signatures where you have good together is nicely sealed shut, and the middle part where you have added much blue would most likely bulge out a bit. What I'm going to do now is move the binder clips slowly to the middle and add more glue in areas that hasn't been include yet. You can really work this in different methods. But my trick is just to ease the binder clips too tightly sealed all of the signatures together. As you can see, I'm applying the glue lightly to an area which still bulges out of it. But before it drives, I closed the gaps by putting the binder clips back on again to make sure that the glue I applied uses ever so slightly and six to the other signatures. Once you're done with a thick layer off the first coat, I'm going to leave it to dry and apply another coat of glue. And this time I'm going to use a thicker coat for the second layer. I usually leave out my first layer to air dry, and I usually leave it over night with the binder clips on. But after you're done with the first layer, when I want to dry the glue. But Foster, I use hair dryer because the first layer is the most important at keeping the signatures together. And then after that, for the finally or I'm going to leave it to air dry again, and this time I'm going to apply for binder clips for the size so there are no gaps, and that's basically it. I usually do between 3 to 4 coats of glue for this because I want to make it nice and strong. And then I just repeated the same steps on my other sketchbook. 12. ATTACHING END PAGES: in this lesson, we are going to be gluing the end pages. But before that I want to just erase any off the number rings and each off the signatures to make the end pages. I'm going to use the exact same size paper as the sketchbook, and that includes the double side, just like the paper we cut. In the beginning, you can use any type of paper, even colored paper. But I find that in terms off thickness 200 yes, and for me is perfect for this. It's not too thin that you're in pages look fragile, but it's not to think that the materials using your cover is going to be hard to stick on here. I'm going to use Mycroft paper that I've cut out according to the size. And then I folded in half, so it fits the sketchbook. You're going to need to off thes one for the front and one for the back. The end pages are what connects the text block with the cover. And to stick this on, I'm going to use the same PVA glue, and I'm applying it with a flat brush, just like before. But this time I'm going to apply the glue on the first page near the spine, approximately five millimeters or 1/4 often inch in. Then I'm going to smooth everything out. I'm not going to put too much, or else the excess will end up squeezing out through the sides. Once you're done, you can put the first and page and then just put a little bit of pressure with your finger along where you put the glue and then we can move on to the other side. I'm going to repeat the same thing again on the other side, so I'm going to apply the glue around five millimeters to 1/4 of an inch from the spine needs in the glue to get rid of the excess. Then I'm going to place the second and page as neatly as I can before applying pressure. And once I'm done with both off the end pages, I'm going to secure them with binder clips all along the glued side until the glue has completely dried out. Once you're done, you can move along to the next lesson, but I'm going to also show you the spend a version off my other sketchbook 13. LEVELLING THE TEXT BLOCK: this doesn't I'm going to show you how to level off the pages. Honestly, I don't usually do this part because it does take a lot of time and patients you dio, especially if your sketchbook is as thick as mind. First off, I want to make sure that my utility knife is and it's best condition, so I'm just going to snap off the top with players to get a sharper blade, then discard the blade safely by wrapping it and tissue first. For this, I'm going to use a metal ruler like anything else that requires you to cut anything with a utility knife. You can take a larger area off to make it a bit easier around 3 to 5 millimeters off. Then I'm going to continue to cut the sides with my knife. When you're doing this, make sure that you're holding the ruler firmly. But don't put much pressure on the utility knife. Instead, try to cut it repeatedly to reduce the chances off your hands, slipping whenever you're handling a utility knife. Please be careful as I mentioned. This does take quite a bit of time, and it's a bit two years, so make sure you're doing this safely. As you can probably tell. I've already stuck on the piece of paper and ribbon on the spine, but I suggest that you do that later on because there have been end up getting in the way, So I would definitely recommend for you to level off the pages if you want to. After you've glued this fine together and stuck the end PGE's I'm going to show you what my old sketchbooks look like without me leveling the sides. As you can see, it's just a little bit uneven, but it still functions well as a sketchbook. And here's a comparison off the sketchbook that I made the left, one being this sculpture project and the right one being my old sketchbook that I didn't level off. I prefer to not to this part, because it's only for personal use anyway. But if you're planning to make this as a gift or to sell, then you would probably want a cleaner finish, and I just thought I would show you the method. You're basically going to do this for all of the sides, and, as you probably can tell the top and the bottom does take a bit more effort to do because off the thickly attaching the spine together. So it does take a bit more patients because sometimes it's harder to cut near the spine. I like to sometimes flip the book to when it starts to be a bit difficult to cut from the front. If you're need to bookbinding and you want to do the step, I would recommend for you to maybe create a thinner textbook. So it's a bit easier to level off the paper because you won't have so many. To cut through. This part may be a bit dangerous, but near the spine when I find that there too much sticking out, I also like to go in with my knife like I'm peeling an apple. But to do this, make sure you have binder clips to keep the pages together or hold it tightly. But please do this at your own risk when your first cutting it. It doesn't matter if the sides are a bit messy, because that's almost unavoidable if you're doing this manually, but that's OK because we're going to send it down later on and create a neat finish. But why don't we just use sandpaper? From the beginning? I've actually tried this on ended up damaging the paper instead because after you stitch the signatures together, the middle off the paper tend to stick out a bit more, which gives you sort of like a zigzag text block. So there are gaps in between those pieces sticking out. There isn't much, but there isn't much grip for those paper that sticks out, whereas if you try to cut it with a knife, even if it's not straight, the unfinished text book will still be bunched together in a way that doesn't have any long piece of sticking out, which then makes the sending much easier while standing. I used mine eclipse so my hands doesn't get too tired gripping the pages tightly. You will come across areas which are protruding out quite a bit or parts that are a bit sunken when you see those parts work to need in those parcels because they will take quite a while to level off. I used 180 grit sandpaper, which categorise as just in the group of fine sandpaper, but that's just because that's what I had at that time. and it worked fine. But it took quite a while for me to level off the jacket areas because the sandwich was a bit too smooth. So I would recommend for you to use a rougher medium sandpaper when you start maybe around 100 or 150. Grip, then switched to the 180 to smooth out the sides. Once I'm done scraping the sides, you will see that some of the edges off the paper will be a little bit afraid, especially for the M pages. So to clean it up, I'm just going to use the sandpaper again to scrape up and against the areas you want to clean off. And it should come off quite easily. If you're making two sketchbooks like me that you can apply those exact same steps to the other sketchbook. But I'm going to show you the finish sketchbook. Now, After this step, it really depends on you. How need you want the sides to look. I just love how the signatures came to get it 14. ADDITIONAL RIBBON AND SPINE SUPPORT: in this lesson, I will be adding a piece of ribbon for my sketchbook and also adding additional paper or fabric for this fine for extra support when you're opening the finish book later on, so the glue doesn't split. But first, let's start with the ribbon. I'm using a six millimeters thick ribbon, but you can customize your own. So, firstly, I'm going to cut it diagonally across, and that's going to be the bottom off the ribbon later, after I cut it. Then I'm going to take my lighter to milk the edge to seal the ribbon so it doesn't fray. I'm using a satin ribbon, which is fine with fire, but make sure you check the fabric off your ribbon if it's safe to seal with heat before you do it. If not, you can just use your PVA glue, and it will also help you to seal it. I'm just eyeballing the measurements not being to exact, so I just put the ribbon against the sketchbook to imagine how long I want the ribbon to go over the sketchbook than at around four centimetres. Extras to that to stick to the spine. Then, after I cut the end piece. I'm also going to steal that with fire before sticking your not to stick it on. I'm going to use the same PV glue, and I'm going to apply it to the top part off the sketchbook. Please make sure that your sketchbook is facing the right way up before you apply the glue and stick. Norman, when the ribbon is on, takes some time to hold it down to make sure that the ribbon is adhered to the spine off the text block. I am going to do this again with my other sketchbook, but I'm just going to speed it up so we can move along next. I'm going to add some structure and support for the spine when we open and close schedule Glade runs, so it's not only supported with the PVC glue. This will also add extra strength to the ribbons so it stays in place. For this, you can either use a piece of paper or fabric. I'm going to demonstrate using both here. I have a liner fabric, and it's very thin, and I'm going to cut a size slightly smaller than text luck, so it just fits as an example, the height off my textbook here is 14 centimeters. So I'm just going to cut the fabric 2 to 4 centimetres smaller than the size off the sketchbook, so it fits the height. As for the with, I'm just estimating so the fabric can comfortably wrapped around the spine off the text block. So, as an example, with my spine being 1.5 centimeters, I'm going to add somewhere between three centimeters on both sides to stick the fabric on. I'm just going to apply some PV glue on the spine, including on top off the ribbon so it stays in place. Then I'm going to fit the fabric gruffly centered and apply some pressure to the fabric, so it adheres to the spine. After that, I'm going to slather on more PV glue on both sides off the text blocks, so the fabric is nice and secure. I'm not being need at all for this because he won't be able to see this part off the text block. When we put the cover leader on after most off the glue has dried off, I'm going to add more PV glue along the cuts off the fabric to make sure that the sides are also adhered to the text block and the spine so it doesn't free as it ages. Next, I'm going to do the exact same steps, except for the last step, because the paper won't be afraid. I'm using normal print paper, and so far I haven't had any problems. But I would say that having a liner fabric would give a better support as the fabric itself a sturdier and more flexible than a piece of paper. So here are the finished text blocks. In the next few lessons, we are going to be tackling the fun part, which is the cover, and then applying it to the next block. 15. DIFFERENT COVER MATERIALS: for the cover. You can either use the cardboard from an old sketchbook backing like this one, which is from the cats and excel. Or you can also use a loose cardboard like what I have here. They're basically the same thickness on would work well as hardcovers. So for the cover, you will need to measure out a size that is a bit larger than size off your sketchbook. I'm going to add around 2 to 3 millimeters from three off the sides, the top, the bottom and one off the sides, either the left or the right. This is because one of the side that is closest to the spine later on will be stuck right at the edge. So you only want one side that goes over the textbook. You will need to cut two off thes for the front and the back cover for your sketchbook. You can use a variety of materials for your cover, but what I find works best and is the easiest to handle our canvas or dental covers. They're fairly sturdy, And yet, because of the fibers off the fabric at sticks, well to the cardboard, this is one of the sketchbooks that I made. I used this printed canvas fabric as the cover, and it was really easy to stick on without having to clip every single side and as really forgiving for beginners because he can get rid off the wrinkles fairly easily. Here is another fabric. This is cotton, this fabric, as he can tell sticks very well because it's then compared to the canvas. But I had spent quite a bit of time getting rid off the wrinkles and making sure that there are no air bubbles when I was sticking it onto the cardboard. But it's still fairly easy to work with. I'm just going to show you a few different options that you can work with. This is Denham feeling by the texture and the thickness. It's fairly similar to the canvas and I think would work well for beginners. I also have this full leather, which is a bit tricky to work with, but when done correctly, you can create a really clean finish. So I will be using this as an example for the next lesson, along with the method that I use for the cover artistic really well to the cardboard, the other material that I have here is a cotton fabric with a Batic print, which, as a native form off art from Indonesia, and I will be combining those later with a plush fabric liner that will give a squishy feel to the cover. There are so many other types of materials that can work with. I've seen books with free covers or really creative papers that things like that. The cover is where you can really personalize and customize your sketchbook and make it go very old. 16. USING FAUX LEATHER FOR COVER: in this lesson, I will be showing you how I make the leather cover. If you're using any other fabric, please follow this lesson because the method is basically the same. But because off the stiffness off the faux leather, it's just going to be a bit more tricky to stick on first name going to cut the fabric, so it's a comfortable size to work with. Then I'm going to measure out the spine off the text block for the spying off the cover. My spine on my text block is around 1.3 centimeters and with and as for the high, I'm going to take the hide off the text block for the spine off the cover. I'm only going to use paper. I'm using a scrap 300 years and paper. I'm not going to use the cardboard because I want the spine to be fairly flexible so it doesn't damage the M pages when we open and close the sketchbook lead rock. Now I'm going to measure out the size than cut the spine so I can try to stick it on to the full leather along with the cardboard covers. Once you have all the materials that you're going to stick on the cover, you can go ahead and stick it on. I'm going toe work on one of the covers first, so I get a sense on how much extra length I get from the fabric, because we will be folding that later on. In the lesson. I'm applying the glue using white PV glue and a brush, and I want to make sure that I have really good coverage on the cardboard. Once I finish gluing the whole area off the cardboard, I'm then going to flip it and adjust the positioning so it's level and not lopsided. I don't really measure how much extra fabric I should have at this point, as long as it's not too short. The fold should secure the fabric nicely. It's always better to have extra fabric to trim down than not having enough fabric to stake on, because it might come off after a while. The next thing I'm going to work on is the spine. For this, I'm going to apply glue again. You can either apply the glue to the piece of paper or the fabric. It's really up to you for the positioning off the spine. I want to create a bit of space on both sides off the spine so that it has a bit off extra fabric for the spine to be but more flexible to open and close the sketchbook, I estimate to around 2 to 3 millimeters on each side, off the spine. As for the height, I just tried to place it roughly at the center. Then I'm going to repeat that for the second cover, placing it around three millimeters apart from the spine. Once I have all of the cardboard and spine attached to the material. Now I'm going to measure out two cents meters around the whole area so I can trim down the full leather and give it a neater edge. If you have an easy fabric to cut, like a canvas or a denim fabric, it's better to stick the covers on before you trim rather than trimming thumb, sticking down pieces accurately, way stick down the sides at the state. There will be too much overlapping at every corner. Traduced this. I'm going to cut some angles off around every corner. I'm just eyeballing this, but I want the angle cut towards the inside off every edge, so I'm going to draw it out for the lines to be a bit more visible for you. Then I'm going to cut it off. But when you do, please don't cut it, too near to the corners off the cardboard. Or else the corners might sometimes be a little bit bear or uncovered by the fabric. When we're folding at leader on as the glue on the cardboard dries, it will most likely curve as it dries. So before we stick the sides, I'm going to check the corners on the sides to make sure that the full leather is still stuck down to the cardboard. If I find any loose sides, I'm going to glue it back up again and apply a bit of pressure so the material sticks well . This is something that I will be going back and forth to do because the material is not fibers enough to stick easily. Then I'm going to apply glue to one of the sides and work slowly to create the folds that will stick to the cardboard. I applied the grew generously and to help create the fold, I'm going to use my bone folder. Or you can use a ruler along the side to help push it down. And when you are going to run a bit of pressure on top, try changing to a spoon or something with a smoother surface, oils and my damage. The cover keeps moving it out. Whenever you see air bubbles start to form. This might take a while to do so. Just be patient. But when those air bubbles start to form a bit slower after a while because the glue is drying slightly, you can then apply binder clips so the sides are nice and secure and the glue dries in place. I'm going to check the corners again after every step, and as you can see, the sides are coming off again. So I'm just going to re apply the glue on some off the sides to stick it back on. I'd like to also check around the sides before I stick down the flaps again and re stick some corners to make sure that every surface area is glued down here. I'm going to show you how to create the edges with a ruler, but as I mentioned before, please use this only for the sides. But for the flappy. Can either use your fingers or a spoon of your hands are bit sore after continues theater. Applying pressure from times time. I'd like to flip the covers over to see if I need to smooth out certain areas. I also like to check the sides again. If you see that the glue is still a bit what that means. You don't need to apply more. Just flip your book over and try to run your boat folder or your fingers over the corners off the cardboard. You will need to keep doing this if you want a clean finish. However, if you used like a canvas material, there will be less going back and forth and continuously smoothing out certain edges. Because off the fibrous nature off the material, this is what makes using full leather a bit tricky. But if you bear with it, you can create something really sleek. Next I will be gluing. The other side's thes are but more tricky to do because they're longer so it does require more patients. I'm basically using the same method, and when I stick it down, I make sure I stick them along the sides and just too, including near the spine. Remember to make good use off your binder clips, too, because it will really help out a lot to hold down the stubborn flaps hair. I'm using three binder clips to hold down the corners and also the spine, because they're the most important parts in the section. But you can also add more binder clips if the glue takes quite a while to try not going to do the last side, and I'm going to use the same method. But this time I'm going to speed it up so you can see how much I use the boat folders. This without all the surface area, including the nooks and crannies off the cover after I've waited out of bed so the glue starts try. I'm going to still lead. Take the binder clips off one side at a time, or whichever side you feel is already dry, so the material is stuck quite well, and then he will probably notice some marks from the binder clips after you've taken it off . This won't happen when you're using a canvas or thick fabric, or even of a dust is very minor. If you're using full leather like me, don't worry about this because we can still smooth it out. So again, with my boat folder, I'm going to keep rubbing it with a good amount of pressure. You might want to use the spoon for this. If you don't have a bone folder the motion off, applying pressure and running at sort of redistributes the material again, and then the mark will slowly disappear. This is the final step, though, so please make sure that all of the material is stuck down properly. Before you do this part or else, you'll have to reuse the binder clips again and reduce step. The final step before we glue it down is to create rip markings for the spine. This will loosen the paper and give the spine a bit more flexibility so you can curve the spine nicely when you open the center off the book. But I will go into more detail about this later on, so to do this, I'm just going to use my bowl folder. Or you can use a ruler or a dried up end to score lines as closely as he can on the paper off the spine, and after that you are ready to go down the text block. I am going to apply a generous amount off glue on the end page, making sure that every surface area is covered. Then, as you're going to stick it down to the cover, make sure that the text block is well aligned with the edge off the cardboard near the spine, and you will also have a nice overlap off the other side's off the cover. Then, to secure everything in place, I'm going to smooth out the end page against the cover and make sure it's stuck down properly before moving on to the other side for the other side. I'm going to do the exact same thing, and I'm going to speed it up again until completed. Then I'm going to go over the importance off loosening this booth after the covers will attached to your textbook. I'm just going to clean out any excess glue on the cover to make sure that everything is clean. The first thing that I do after completing the sketchbook is to check what would happen if I opened the book at the center because that's where the book will be most stretched. And if the measurements or the spine is stiff, that's when you might tear some off. The in page is attached to the cover. I'm just going to move it around, sort of folding the spine at the center to make sure that the spine can curve. When I opened the book, I'm going to show you an example off my old sketchbook. I made the spine using a cardboard, which makes it unable to move around. So when I opened the center, the backing will start to come off. Luckily, I had some space in between the spine to loosen it up a tad, so it doesn't completely rebuff. Now let's compare this to the sketchbook that we just finished, As you can see when I come to the center of the sketchbook and I open it because of the flexibility off the spine, the spine will come to a curve, giving enough space for the spine off the text block to open 17. USING A PLUSH LINER UNDER COTTON FABRIC: for the next book cover. I'm going to show you something a bit different. This is somewhat of a fun experiment for me to do, but I thought I would share it with you. When I was searching for fabrics for the book cover, I found this despotic fabric, and I also came across a liner fabric that's a bit plush or for me. And I thought that it would be fun to include that in the cover and see what kind of texture it'll give to the cover when I combine the two. I hope that you've watched the previous lesson because that's the basic method off how I create my covers, including all the finishing up, because I will be using a similar method with the spine and everything else. The only difference is the liner fabric that I'm going to include. If you're new to bookbinding, I would highly recommend to use a simpler fabric and full of the previous lesson. But that said, I'm going to continue with this. I have all of the backings ready my two covers on the spine for the spine. I use the same 300 years on paper, so to do this. Instead of sticking a street to the fabric, I'm going to stick it to the liner. First. I figured out that it will be hard to trim down after sticking the cardboard. So to get cleaner edges, I'm going to stick the spine first as measurement, and I'm going to put the cardboard on the fabric alongside of the spine with around three millimeters apart from either side of the spine. After this, I'm going to take my marker, and I'm going to mark the covers off the cardboard to give indications off where to cut once I've please down all of the marks. Then I'm going to connect the markings with a ruler and draw a line around it as a guideline to cut the fabric liner. - Once you've cut it down, I'm going to align the cardboard with the markings that I previously made. Then I'm going to apply a good amount off glue to the cardboard and make sure that all of the surface is covered. And then I'm going to stick it on to Theis Science Spaces. I'm going to repeat the step again with the other cardboard, so I'm going to apply glue all over the surface area, and then I'm going to align it to the other side. I'd like to check times time if all of the surface area is covered or stuck down to the material or not. So if you find any loose sides, I'm going to glue it down again and then stick it on. So it's nice and secure. Once you've placed down both of the card boards, I'm going to create the ribbon markings on this fine again by scoring small lines closely on the paper spine. To do this, you can either use a ruler or a pen that is no longer working something with quite a sharp edge that can make markings on the paper. I'm not applying as much pressure as I did for the rib markings for the leather cover because the material that we're using now as much thinner and more flexible, so I'm just going to just accordingly. I'm going to help it a bit, and I'm going to fold it over, decreed a straight fold right at the center to help guide the spine when we're opening and closing sketchbook. If they're similar sides or patterns on both sides, off the fabric like this one. Make sure that you figure out which side you want to be as the front cover, so be mindful and analyzed as you go, make sure that the pattern you want to show is facing down and you're sticking the foundation off the cover at the backside off of fabric. Now that the foundation off the cover is done, I'm going to cut a good amount off the piece of fabric that I'm going to use. Then I used to cover that I previously made as a template and like the previous cover in the last lesson, I'm going to add two centimeters all around the side of the template, and I'm going to mark this with a white colored pencil so I can cut the fabric according to what I've marked down. And while the template is on, I'm also going to mark the area in which I need stick down the cover liner so I know where to place it later on, with the fabric cut as neatly as I can, I haven't ironed out any wrinkles that might look really out of place before sticking the cardboard to the liner fabric to stick them on. I'm going to apply a small amount off glue all around the sides off the phone liner. And then I added a tiny amount off glue around the middle area. I don't want too much glue because the full might become hard as the glue dries, so I'm using it very sparingly. It doesn't take too much glue adult for these materials to stick together. Yeah, make sure that the fabric has stuck down well with the rest off the cover. And for this, I like to run my hands back and forth, and I'm also going to use my bone folder or a ruler and apply a bit of pressure. And once it's stuck down, then I'm going to take my scissors and cut the corners off the materials so it can full nicely into the cardboard backing. If you don't feel safe cutting at FREEHAND, you can also marked the areas with pencil or marker before cutting. Just like what I did in the previous lesson to go down the flaps, I'm going to apply the PVA glue lightly on the cardboard because the material is fairly thin. I won't need much glue at all, but I do want surface area to still be covered well, so there won't be any air pockets. Do the same for all the sights and smooth it out with a bold folder or a ruler, So the flaps adheres well to the cardboard. You won't need binder clips for this because they stick down really quickly. And because off the nature of the finfabrik, you'd have to pull out the flaps as evenly as possible. Or else some part will become tighter than others. But it won't be too visible is just if you're a perfectionist, but you would have to work more accurately, add a bit quicker aren't like the full leather that we worked on in the previous lesson because, like I said before, the material sticks really quickly. I'm also going to add some PV glue for the sides off the fabric, just so the fabric doesn't free overtime. In the end, my edges wasn't perfect, either. There were corners that were uncovered feli, but for those corners, I just pulled on a bit off the fabric, then glue it on top, and then I used a small binder clip to hold it in place. for a minute or two, not too long, because I didn't want the liner to be flat around the corner, or you can even just hold it down with your fingers. But I was running out of daylight to film, so I wanted to work on other things while the binder clip held it down. So once you finish the covers, all that's left is to stick the text block on the cover the same way that I did in the previous listen. But before that, let me to show you a comparison off. Using less paper within the signature have look at how tied the pages off. The sketchbook are compared to a signature that is made out of four sheets off paper that is a bit thick. Of course, this is just out of preference, but I really enjoy the clean look. Now it's time. Stick down the text block again. I make sure that all of the surface area is well covered with the glue, and I carefully aligned spine so the edge off the textbook will adhere to the edge off the cardboard for both of the sides. Before I finished everything off, I'm going to check on the flexibility off the spine again by opening the sketchbook at the center to loosen it up and the second sketchbook is completed. 18. CLOSING: welcome to the last video. First of all, I'd like to thank and congratulate you for coming this far and completing the class for the class project. I would love for you if you create your own sketchbooks either using the measurements that I handed out during the class. Or you can maybe create your own sketchbook that is customized to your own personal needs. If you decide to give this project ago, I would love to see your work in the project section so you can also share it with other students before I go, I'd like to mention that if you're new here, I actually do watercolor art on. I have load off watercolor classes. If that's something bad you'd like to check out. I also have an INSTAGRAM account at Gender Skorney, Ignani and also a two channel Janjalani, where I do watercolor art and a lot of small watercolor tutorials. Thank you so much for watching to the end. I hope this class was informational enough for you guys to follow along. Best of luck for your projects. And I'll see you at the next one. I