Create a Cityscape with Cinema 4D + Photoshop | Pete Maric | Skillshare

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Create a Cityscape with Cinema 4D + Photoshop

teacher avatar Pete Maric, Designer | Cinema 4D Expert | Founder, Triplet 3D

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

23 Lessons (2h 53m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:15
    • 2. Inspiration

      4:41
    • 3. 3D Modeling

      11:53
    • 4. Modeling Continued

      11:57
    • 5. Building Variations

      8:56
    • 6. Round Building Modeling

      11:50
    • 7. Deformers

      12:59
    • 8. MoGraph

      4:17
    • 9. City Blocks

      12:01
    • 10. Optimization Tip

      1:57
    • 11. Street Texture

      11:40
    • 12. Street Texture Continued

      7:29
    • 13. Dividers

      7:00
    • 14. Cameras

      5:07
    • 15. Landscapes

      4:20
    • 16. Entourage

      8:05
    • 17. Lighting Option 01: HDRI

      7:35
    • 18. Lighting Option 02: Physical Sky

      3:27
    • 19. Lighting Option 03: Nighttime

      8:20
    • 20. Render Optimization

      4:05
    • 21. Rendering

      2:47
    • 22. Post Production Daytime

      13:29
    • 23. 22 Post Production Nighttime

      8:05
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About This Class

Welcome to this course on Creating a Cityscape Using Cinema 4D + Photoshop.

In this series of lessons we will cover a lot of topics to give you a solid understanding of the entire architectural visualization workflow including:

01. The creative and technical steps involved with 3D modeling the architecture.

  • Polygon modeling and the make editable function
  • Creating extrusions for the window frames and glass
  • Store selections 
  • Texturing
  • Duplicating geometry using the MoGraph cloner and array object
  • Deformers

02. Creating the city blocks

  • Render instances and tips for improving CPU performance
  • Adding entourage to populate the scene.
  • The differences between a 3D tree and a cutout
  • Locating free content within the asset browser 
  • Links to external free 3D model resources
  • Camera views and compositional techniques

03. Texturing the street with Adobe Photoshop

  • Painting Techniques
  • Layer Masks
  • File Organization
  • Importing custom brushes 
  • File preparation

04. Explore 3 different light set-ups

  • HDRI image with infinite light and fill light
  • Physical Sky
  • Nighttime scene including use of atmospheric fog effects

05. Rendering and optimization for faster render times. 

  • Render Optimization
  • Render Settings
  • Object Buffers

06. Post-Production Techniques in Adobe Photoshop 

  • File Organization
  • Channels and Selections
  • Masking
  • Adjustment Layers
  • Glows, Sharpening, Depth of Field
  • Final Output

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Pete Maric

Designer | Cinema 4D Expert | Founder, Triplet 3D

Teacher

Pete Maric founded Triplet 3D in Cleveland, Ohio in 2013, with the goal of creating a 3D studio that can bring together a wide range of skill sets and experience to deliver inventive, high quality work to clients.

He graduated from The Cleveland Institute of Art before working for three of the top 50 retail design firms in the US. In 2001, he began working independently in the architectural industry and worked with brands such as Adidas, Nintendo, and Everlast. His work has been featured in the Adobe Illustrator WOW! books, Photoshop User Magazine, Architecture in Perspective, Cleveland Magazine and House Trends.

Since 2008, he's been developing his CGI expertise, and teaches modeling and 3D animation at The Cleveland Institute of Art and Tri-C Community College.

Ch... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Welcome to this course on creating a cityscape using Cinema 4D and Photoshop. If you've ever wanted to learn the fundamentals of architectural visualization. This course will guide you through the entire production workflow. From concept to final render. You will gain the skills necessary to create realistic images. This is a beginner to intermediate course and a basic understanding of Cinema 4D is user interface is recommended. And this series of lessons, we will cover a lot of topics to give you a solid understanding of the entire process, including the creative and technical steps involved with 3D modeling the architecture, creating variations using deformers and the MoGraph Cloner to change the shape of each. Creating City box, adding entourage and tips for improving CPU performance, texturing the street with Adobe Photoshop using painting techniques and custom brushes, creating three different light setups using HDRI images, physical skies and nighttime renders including atmospheric fog affects rendering and optimization for faster render times. Post-production techniques in Adobe Photoshop, ready to learn the entire architectural visualization process while creating a cityscape rendered and revolted and Skillshare. 2. Inspiration: Okay, let's get started on the city project. So before I start any project, I like to go on Google Images and just find some inspiration for my project, inspiration and reference images for this project, I would recommend choosing buildings that are pretty straightforward and pretty simple in their geometry. So something like this, this would be a good example because it's pretty easy to build. Here's another one of a square building. Doesn't have too many details that would be pretty easy to build. I would recommend and just finding really simple images that you can use. So I went through and I picked a few images that I can use as reference. You know, some, some square buildings, few octagonal buildings, and some round buildings. So as you can see, I'm, I'm picking pretty simple structures in their form. And this is what I'm going to use, is kind of a very loose guideline or inspiration for some of the buildings that I'm going to model and cinema 4D. Additionally, I went through and I picked out some images that show foliage, landscaping, barriers between the two lanes, showing shrubs and trees and that kinda stuff. And then a few additional images that just show some streetscapes. And lastly, another few images that I came up with were just details of crosswalks just so we can get that right when we're texturing the streets. So if that helps you to find some inspiration images before you start a project, I encourage you to do that. I always find it's very helpful to have real-world reference before you jump in no any 3D program and start modeling. So another thing that I'm going to include in this class are just some inspiration websites that you can check out. And I've included everything, everything from fine artists to architecture, Illustrators, 3D studios that are doing a lot of architectural work. So if you click on some of these links, you can go and check out some of these websites and some of their work to get inspiration. Additionally, at the bottom of this PDF that I'll include, there's additional learning resources. If you've never checked out some of these websites, they're definitely good resources for learning additional techniques. So I'll just go through some of these websites and show you guys some of this work. First of all, for one person that I recommend checking out is Thomas Schaller. He's a traditional fine artist and watercolor painter. And he does a lot of work that's, that's architecturally based. And some of his lighting and some of the depth of field that he achieves just through watercolor are pretty spectacular. Again, this is way different from probably the final result that we're going to get out of this course. But just understanding where some of these artists came from, some of their compositional techniques, you know, that kind of stuff might help you gain some sort of like inspiration for your project. If you check out some of this work, He's just got impeccable use of depth of field contrast and his lightened darks. It's compositions are really strong. So there's a lot that you can gain just from checking out some of this work. And another website is this Illustrator Dennis a lane. And this work is absolutely phenomenal. For my understanding. He starts his work off with a 3D app and I believe it's Cinema 4D. And then from there he, he paints alive is details inside of Photoshop. And some of these works are absolutely detailed and very, you know, very visually appealing. They have a lot going on. And it's just really nice work that check out before you start your project just to gain some inspiration. Another website is arginine. And I believe these guys use a lot of like photo montage and just mixed media as far as incorporating 3D and incorporating photography, all kinds of different things. So check out this work. This is so detailed and a beautiful rendering. So that's another website to check out. And then one last one is spine 3D.com. These guys have photorealistic renderings of all kinds of architectural work. So you're probably gain some inspiration viewing some of these images as well. So check out some of those links that I included and we'll get started on the 3D modeling in the next lesson. 3. 3D Modeling: Before we get started on modeling the city, first thing we're gonna do is create a project folder for ourselves. So choose a location, new folder, and we'll just call this city. And within this folder, what we want to have our three folders. So first and foremost, our scenes folder that's going to contain our Cinema 4D files. Next folder is renders, where we will render out the final images. And the last folder is our texture folder, where we'll create and save our street texture and cinema 4D you one of the first things I'm going to do is just create a figure. And this figure comes in at five foot nine, nine. And we could leave that at the default. And this is just going to be for reference. Next thing we're gonna do is go to our parametric primitives. Create a cube, and this is going to be our floor. So we'll just call that floor. So right now, if you're not seeing feets in these x, y, and z sizes, you can go and change your preferences. So if you go to Edit Preferences and you go to units, you could change this unit display to whatever you want to work with. I find feet is probably the most logical for architecture. But if you want to work in inches, you can or anything else. But you could change this to feet if your default is not there yet, there on that setting. So now with this with this floor selected, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go ahead and make the heights. Let's say 14 feet. And I'll make is other sizes, let's say 120 for this building. And 120. That'll give me a nice big cube. So right now, we're not seeing any of these edges. So if I go to Display garage shading lines, now I can see my lines and my geometry. And what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come in here and where it says segments, why? I'm just going to increase that number. So now you could see we'll get these additional segments. So right now there's work plane is a little distracting. So I'll just go into my filter and turn the work plane off. Then it's going to give me a nice clean view of my viewport. And if I go back into the floor, now I can start creating some additional segments for our windows. So let's just say for this, I don't know, 12 is fine. And I'll, I'll input 12 on the Z as well. So now we have this big cube that we could start modeling. Adding additional detail too. So right now, this is still a parametric primitive, meaning, meaning we have these parameters that we can still play with here in the attributes manager. But what we're gonna wanna do is make this editable. So with this selected, I'm gonna go down here to this Make editable function. And I will depress that. Now all of our attributes disappear and we have access to our points, lines, and polygons. All right, so let's go into point mode. And now we can go to our live select a rectangular selection. So the keyboard shortcuts for live selection are nine. And if we want a rectangular selection, we just hit 0 on the keyboard or we could choose it up here. Alright, so we'll go to our rectangular selection and we want to make sure that this visible only is unchecked. And now we're gonna go through and we're going to scale these points a little bit. So I'll just take these by an appoints. I'll hit T on the keyboard that brings up my Scale Tool. And I'll grab this y-axis. And I'll just bring that up a little bit. Okay, so that's going to be the size of our windows right there. So now what I'm going to do is go into my polygon mode and I'll go into my live Select. And now I want to make sure that it's visible only is unchecked as well. And now I'm going to select these two windows here, Shift select these windows. And then I'll go into my side view. I'll do the same thing to center Windows. And Windows. I'm going into this perspective view. Here's what I have so far. So right now, I'm gonna go ahead and extrude these n. So we can right-click and click Extrude or right here we can click this extrude button on the left-hand side. So if I click this extrude button, the way this works is you don't really want to grab these polygons and pull him. He just want to click and drag in an empty area and watch your extrusion. So right now it's extruding out. We want to extrude it in something like this. That looks pretty good. And then the second thing we wanna do is we want to create that frame for each window. So if I right-click, I could do inset here. Or I could choose it from this left-hand column right here. All right, We wanna make sure that this preserved groups is checked. And now when we click and drag in an empty area, we could just create that little frame for our Windows. And I'm gonna do one more extrusion on this. So I'm going to go right, I'm going to right-click, choose, Extrude, click and drag in an empty area until I get a little bit more geometry into there. So now with our Windows still selected, I want to store this selection so I can apply different materials to these windows and so the rest of those building. All right, so with these polygons still selected, I'll go up to Select and store selection. And you'll notice this little triangles created right on our floor geometry. What I'm gonna do is I'm just going to rename this class. The next thing I'm gonna do is select my frames as well. I want these frames, they have a separate material as well. So I can go into my side views. And with my rectangular selection, I'll just go through and select those frames. Shift, select, Shift, select this frame. And I'll have to do the same thing in the side view. So I'll shift select these, this one and this one. Okay, So now you'll notice that I have the frame selected as well as the glass. So I'm going to have to de-select that class. So let's just go through live selected, live selection, rectangular and I'm gonna say visible only checked. So right now I'm going to deselect these polygons that are the glass. So I'll hold down command and just click these to get rid of that selection on these windows command, command. And go through. You could do this in the side views as well, with that visible, only unchecked, whatever you prefer. And I'll do this last side over here. There we go. Now we have our window frame selected. We're going to store this selection as well. But one of the things that I wanted to point out is right now we have this selection highlighted. So if we have the selection highlighted, it's going to overwrite this selection. If I do this select store selection. So I'm going to click off of this, click this floor again. Now you'll notice that this little tag is not highlighted anymore. So I'll go to Select store selection. Now that creates a second one. And I'll just name this window frames. All right, so now we can start texturing this. So what we're gonna do is we're going to go into the asset browser and find some brick. So our asset browser is located right here. So if I click this, it opens up all these objects and materials I can use. So if we go to materials, there's this brick wall. And right away we can just double-click this and import it into our scene. And it'll open up within this material browser. So what we can do is click and drag right onto this floor. And you'll notice our brick looks somewhat distorted. So let's go ahead and fix that. If we have this highlighted over here in the object manager, all we need to do is come down here to projection and choose cubic. So right now it looks like it's in scale and it's not distorted anymore. All right, so we're going to create some materials for the glass and for these frames. So if I come into my object manager and that's this button here, I can double-click to create a new material. And I'll just call this frame. And in color, I'll just choose something kinda dark, not all the way black, but pretty close. And then I'll add a little bit of reflection. So one of the things I like to do is take this default specular and just delete it by hitting or move. Then to add a reflection on top of this, I'll just go add a reflection legacy, and I'll come down to this brightness slider and just bring this pretty far down. I just want a little bit of reflection on these flight, on these frames. And then I'm going to take this material and drop it right onto my floor. And now you'll see it covers everything out with black. So to get that to only affect the frame part that we had at that we stored the selection. Let's click this material and down here in the selection field, I'll take this selection we created and drop it right in there and look at that. Now our frames are dark and we have two separate materials on here. All right, so now we need a glass material. If I come back to my asset browser, there is a glass folder. And let's choose something like a simple glass I think would work. It's going to download that asset and that material is now in here. So if I drag and drop this on here, I'll need to have this material selected. And then I can take this first selection and put it in a nice selection field. And it doesn't really look like much is happening, so I'll take a quick render. And now you can see that we have this glass on a window area. We can go through and tweak some of this glass. So if I double-click this material, I could go to transparency. And instead of having the completely a 100 percent transparent, I could bring this transparency slider down and that's going to make it less transparent. Okay? We could add some more reflection to this. So if I add that reflection legacy one more time, we get way more reflection. Now just bring that down just a little bit. Maybe this roughness slider we can bring down as well. And now if I take a render, we can compare that to last one. It's not as transparent as the first one, and we can continue tweaking that if we wanted. All right. 4. Modeling Continued: All right, Let's go ahead and save our project File. Save Project. Locate our folder. And in scenes, I'll just title this 01 city. All right, so continuing on with this, the next thing that we wanna do is go into our model mode. Remove two old model mode, and right now we have this floor created. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to create a cloner. So with this cloner created, I'm just going to take this floor and I'm going to click and drag until I see that down arrow, let go. And what that's gonna do is it's going to start creating duplicates or our floor. So let's go into this cloner and the first thing we're gonna do is in the Object tab, we're going to change this from grid to linear. And I just want to duplicate this vertically. So right now where it says px, it's only on one foot. And if you remember, we had 14 feet as our heights. So I'm going to input 14. And now that starts to duplicate this building. If you wanted more, more duplicates, just take this number where it says counts and just lift that up or input the number here. And now the last thing I'm gonna do is I'm just going to hit this render instances button and this will save on a little bit at render time. Alright, and so that's the duplicated building. Next four. Next thing that we're gonna do is we're just going to create a first floor for this. So right now it's looking a little bit boring, but we're going to, we're going to modify this in subsequent videos. So if I take this first floor, I'm just going to duplicate it Command C, command V. And I'll call this first floor. And I'll just put this down here to keep everything nice and organized. And in one of my side views, what I could do is just take this and just move it down. And the next thing I'm gonna do here is just make this a little bit smaller. So I'll just take it, I'll hit T on the keyboard for scale. And I'll just scale this uniformly, something like this. And then I'm just going to scale it this way. And I could take all of this. Hit E on the keyboard for our Move tool and just make sure the bottom of that first floor lines up with this red line. And now we can see that it's kinda sit in on this floor. Okay. So let's take this first floor and right now we would just want to make some really quick doors, entry doors for this building. So what I'm gonna do is go into the side view or the front view, either or. And I'll go into my point mode and I'll use my rectangular selection. And all I'm gonna do is I'm going to take these bottom points and I'm just going to move these down slightly. So it looks like this is some sort of door now. Okay. And I'll do the same thing on the other side. So let's go into the side view. And again, I'll just click these to bring those down. And now it looks like we have some sort of entry doors into our building and actually kinda mess this up right here. I think we pushed it a little bit further. See what happens when I push it down too far, I get these weird polygons. So I'm just gonna make sure that's above the floor line. There we go. And now what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to create a top for this building. All right, and here what I'm gonna do is just grab another cube. And let's just say this is 120. That was our dimension initially. And I can take this and just put it on top of the building just to kinda give it some sort of cap on top. All right? And now I'm just gonna go ahead and model this so I could turn everything else off. So these two little buttons next to each, each object in the object manager, if I double-click those, that turns them off. So here, I'm just going to increase these segments, increase it this way as well. Now make this editable. And in my top view, I'll go into my points mode, 0 on the keyboard for my rectangular selection. Select these, hit T for your scale. Bring those out like this. Select these two points in the center. Hit T for scale, scale these out this way. And I'm just kinda eyeballing this. And now I'm just going to make a big hole inside of here. So I'll go to my polygon mode, my Live select, and I'll make sure visible only is unchecked. Select this polygon, hit Delete on the keyboard, and there we go. So now I'm just going to bridge these two together. So if I go to my line mode, I can right-click. And choose bridge. So what we're gonna do is we're going to close this whole, this gap. So I'll click from 11 of the top lines down to the bottom line. And let's see what's happening here. Top line to the bottom line, top line and bottom line. I'm just bridging that real quick. And I'll do the last thing over here. And then I'm going to go ahead and select these polygons on top. So now I'm going to go into my top view. I click this cube and go into my live selection tool. Select all these top polygons. Shift Select. And then I'll go into here. Right-click, Extrude click and drag in an empty area. And then 0 on the keyboard, grab all of these and extrude them out one more time. And maybe that's too big of a cap. So I can go back to my points mode. Grab this little cap on top, and just kinda bring that down. So that's gonna give me some sort of parapet on the top of my building. And I could turn everything else on and go ahead and texture this. So I can just reuse this brick texture if I hit hold down command on a Mac, click and drag until it's on top of there. Alright, so there's our first building. Next thing I'm gonna do is I'm going to create a canopy on the bottom here. And then some my columns. Let's go ahead and rename this. Again. I'll start with a cube and I'll call this canopy. That can just start at those dimensions, again, 120, 120. And go into my move tool and just scale this up. And there we go. And I'll go down to this front view. I'll move this up. I'll just scale this down a little bit. And there we go. So now we have this little canopy and we'll create some columns that are holding that up. So to create a column, I just create a cube. Call this column and take this. And instead of six feet, Let's do something like, I don't know, 1.51.5. And then we'll take this and we'll scale that up by just clicking and dragging these little nodes. Make sure it's lining up on the floor. And we'll take that right over here. And now we can use another cloner object for this. With this column selected, I'm holding down option and clicking this cloner, what that does is it automatically creates this column as a child of this cloner. All right, so what I could do in this cloner is just use this linear field and that will 0 this out in my x. I can create a few copies of this. Maybe just move this to this corner or maybe right where this building starts. That's pretty good. And just increase this number. And there we go. Maybe we need to tweak this a little bit. 29.5. Let's see how that looks. That's pretty good. There we go. And now we'll just duplicate this on both sides. You're probably texture this before we do that. Let's go into our asset browser. Let's just search for some sort of concrete. And I'll just do the smooth concrete. It'll download that file. And in my materials manager, you could just put that in here. There we go. Not just take this cloner. And again, I'll do render instances. If I hold down Command on the keyboard, I can just duplicate this up. Take the same cloner, duplicate that again. And I can rotate this up. Just push this over in a duplicated this one more time by holding down command. And really simply we have these columns created. Maybe that canopy is looking a little bit thin. I could probably just take this and just increase this number here. Two feet. That's pretty good. And again, maybe I can just reuse something like this frame material and put that on my canopy. And there's our first building done. We might even want to change this, this material for these columns. Maybe it's this brick instead. I think that works a little bit better. So let's go ahead and do that for all of these. And command click on this column command click to duplicate it. And now we have this building that's created. So the next thing we're gonna do is organize our object manager. I'll just take all of these Option G on the keyboard, or I can right-click, say group objects. I'll call this canopy and columns. All right, so there's our first building. Now let's organize the object manager warmer time. Let's go ahead and name this cloner, and we'll call this floor cloner. And I'll take all of these objects. And I'll group these together again, right-click group objects. And I'll call this building one. 5. Building Variations: Let's go ahead and create a few variations on this design. So take my building. I'll hit Command C, Command V on the keyboard. I'll rename this building O2. And I'll go ahead and turn off this first building by holding down option and clicking these two dots twice. Okay, so now I'll go through here. And let's just go ahead and turn off our first floor will turn off the top and we'll turn off the canopy in columns so that I'll just leave us with this floor cloner. And what we can do to disable this for cloner real quick so we can just work out in the design is right where you see this check, check mark, just click that and that all deactivate that cloner for the time being. And now let's click on this floor. And let's come up with a few variations of this. Alright? So what I'm gonna do is go into my polygon mode. And I'm going to select these polygons that are in-between these windows. So I'll go into this, this view here. I go to my live Select tool, visible only unchecked. So now I'll click this shifts like this. And you want to make sure that you're not clicking through to the bottom, okay? You don't want to click in and select these on the bottom, just the side ones for now. All right, so I'll go through here, Shift select. And the way that you would select one of these on the top is if you shift select and you select all the way through to the top, you'll notice now I selected that whole row of polygons, which I'm going to undo. All right? So we'll just be real careful shifts select in the center of these. And now I'm going to go to my side view. And I'll do the same thing over here. Shifts. Shifts, add to that selection. Not add to this selection. And last one here. But what I'm going to do here is I'm just going to extrude these out. So they're almost like almost columns or something. And then I'm going to apply different materials to this. So I will go Extrude, click and drag in an empty area. Bring that out a little bit. And now what I'm going to do is I want to grow this selection so it includes the sides. Okay? So the way that I could do that is go select. And I will grow selection and hit Okay. And now what you'll see is I selected the sides of these as well. Alright, so now with those selected, I'll go up to Select and store selection again. And I'll just name this selection columns. All right, and now for these, what I wanna do is just apply a different material to this. So let's say for instance, we want to reuse this brick, but we want to change the color. So I'll take this brick, hit Command C, Command V on the keyboard. Now open this up, and I'll just call this brick whites. And now in this color channel, you'll notice we have this texture in here. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to go back to the color channel where it says texture. I click this little drop-down arrow. And I'll choose Layer. Now I can click this and I go to, go to Effects hue saturation. I could take the saturation down. So it becomes more like a white brick. I can take this lightness up slightly. And I can also go to brightness contrast and gamma. And I could take this contrast up just a little bit. And that's just going to increase my contrast for those. You can play around with this until you get the desired effect of this white brick. And I, once I have that complete, I'll take this and drop this on my floor. And again, it's going to look a little distorted and it's going to cover up all the other materials. So what I need to do with the selected is right where it has a selection field, I click and drag a selection. And then I'll take this and where it says projection, I'll change it to cubic. Alright, so now we have one variation on this. I can click my cloner to activate it again. And now we have this building That's just a slightly different from the first one. I'll turn on this top again and its bottom. And the first floor. We can leave that as it is. Maybe the only other thing I'm gonna do here is I'm going to take this top and I'll texture that with maybe this white brick. So go to Select, store selection. And I'll just name this top. I'll drop this white break out into here. And with that material selected. I'll just take the selection, drop it into there, and just change his projection method to cubic. So there's our our top. We can even adjust this a little bit if I wanted or if you want, if it makes sense for your project. All we need to do is go into our point mode. Select some of these points, and I can push these outs maybe to about right here. So it's sort of covering up those columns a little bit. And there we go. Last side over here. Okay, So with that created, we can go ahead and create an additional concept of our building. So let's take this number to building Command C, Command V. I'll turn off that original one, and I'll go ahead and rename this building O3. In for this one, we can keep things simple again. So I'll turn off the top. My canopy is I'll turn off the first floor and I'll turn off this floor cloner. Okay, so for this one, what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna make these columns a little bit thinner. So let's go into one of our side views. I'll select these points. And I'm including these, these frames as well. And I'll just hit T on the keyboard and just make that column a little bit smaller. All right, and as you can see here, a thinned out my column a little bit. I'm going to do the same thing over here. So go through here. And I'll change this size. And I'll do this one as well. T on the keyboard. Bring that down. And I'll go into my side view and do the exact same thing. T on the keyboard. Bring that down. Scale these points. And these points. I'm just clicking and dragging that blue axi on this to scale it down only in one dimension. Okay, so now we have a variation 2. So now I can turn on my cloner. I could turn on my top and you can go through it. You could change some of this stuff down here, like these columns are the first Florida kinda reflects some of these changes on top. So right now what we have are three buildings. So I'll just move some of these over that all have different appearances slightly. And we get we can continue tweaking some of these. So what if I went in my second building and what if I wanted more floors than this one? I can just go into this counts, bring this up a little bit, and I can take the top and just push that to the top of this building. And I can do the same thing on this third floor or third building rather. I could take this. What if I wanted additional copies? There we go. And I'll take this top again and just push this till it rests on that building. Spend some time, go through and create some variations on your square building. And then we'll move on the next video to a round building. 6. Round Building Modeling: So now that we have some square buildings created, let's go ahead and see if we can create some circular buildings based on some of these images that we found earlier. Alright, so let's go into Cinema 4D. Okay, so in cinema 4D, Let's just take these buildings and we'll just group these together and call this square buildings. And I'll just turn these off. And now I'm going to start creating a round building. So I'll go into my parametric primitives and I'll start with a cylinder. Okay? And maybe for this one, we can just increase this radius here. And let's just say, I don't know, it's something like 140. Make that a little bit bigger. And the previous one. And for the height, and we'll do something similar to the previous one as well, like a like a 14. And now for this height segments, I think we're only going to need three. And then I'll increase the rotation segments. So it's a little smoother. I don't know, let's say something like 50. Think that's going to work. And now we're gonna make this editable again. So we'll go down here to this, make it editable function, click that. And we can just rename this ground floor or whatever you want to name it. Okay. So going into our front view or side view, we can go into our points mode. Rectangular selection, that 0 on the keyboard. Or it can also find that up here, the rectangular selection. And I'm just going to hit T or select the scale tool right here. And I'll just grab this green handle and just push this up slightly. All right, so the same thing as last time we're gonna, we're gonna go into our polygon mode. Go in my life, select and I'll uncheck visible only. And I'll start with the center one. Do every other window to select that glass. And I'll do the same thing on this side. Let's see What ended up over here. We could select these two and the center. And now we have our windows. So same process as last time as we did for the square building. I'm just going to right-click and I'll hit Extrude, click and drag in an empty area. And dragging to the left and just creating that little indent. And again, I'm going to, I'm going to go right-click and inset or you can find that tool right here. And I'm just going to offset this to create some sort of frame for these windows. And then I'm going to right-click warmer time and extrude these n for the glass. Okay, with these still selected, I'm gonna go ahead and store that selection. So select store selection. That'll give me this little tag. And I can go ahead and rename this glass. And I'll go through and select those window frames. So I'll say, so with these windows still selected, let's just go up to select and let's say grow selection it okay, that grew it out a little bit, and that's good. And let's do that one more time. Grow Selection, hit, Okay, and now our frames are selected. That's nice. So now I'll go through and de-select our windows. So we could do this in one of these views. So I'll hold down command and just click the center polygon. And each one of these command, command, command, command. And then I'll come over here to the opposite side command. All I'm doing is de-selecting these polygons in the center. And then I'll do the same thing over here. The select this one, de-select that one. So now all my frames have selections around those polygons. All right, I'll come up to select. And for this one, again, I want to point out we have this tag highlighted our previous store selection. So what we're going to want to do is not overwrite that. And the way that we're gonna do that is click somewhere in an empty area to unselect that. And then we'll select this round floor again. And still our polygon selection is activated, but this previous store selection tag is not highlighted. So we don't want to overwrite that. That's why we did that. And let's go select store selection. That's going to give us a second one, and I'll call this frames. All right, so now we can texture this. So if I go into my materials, Let's say we want to reuse this white brick. I can go ahead and duplicate this again. Command C Command V. Command C command V. Open this up and I'll call this whites to. We can go back into this color. And let's say we wanted less saturation, so no red. What about if we brought this brightness up and the contrasts? And that's. Even white, whiter of a brick. So I'll take this, put that on my round building. And again, we have a lot of distortion on this. So with this material selected, I'll go to projection cubic. And there we go. Now for these frames, I can reuse this frame or created this frame material and create something new. I'll just go ahead and reuse this. I'll put this on my round floor that covers everything up. So with this selected, I'll take this store selection that we created and put that inside a here. Okay, so now let's go to our asset browser and try a different type of glass. Maybe we can do a glass red, and then we'll change that color. So I'll take that material, drop that onto my floor and take this glass selection, put it down in here. Let's see what that looks like. It's hard to see what this is looking like. I'm just going to create a really quick light. That light will help us see this a little bit clearer when we take a render. Okay? Maybe not. This one will just go into this glass material. And let's just change this color right here to something a little bit lighter. And we can play around with some of these settings as well. If we wanted. I'll leave that up to you and now get rid of this light. And I'm going to place this inside of a cloner. So again, I'm gonna hold down option on the keyboard, click this cloner, and that'll put it as a child. So in this cloner, I'll just go linear and I'll input 14 feet here. Take this Cloner, just bump this up a little bit. There we go. About 18. And I'll hit this render instances button. Call this floor cloner. And I'll just take this first floor. And again, I'll duplicate this. And I'll call this first floor. And I'll make sure that I'm in the model mode. And I'll bring this down a little bit. And I'll scale that in a little bit. Tea, maybe like that. And make this first floor a little bit taller. And just kinda line that up down here. And I'll take both of these objects and just bring it up so it lines up with that red line. So it's on the floor. And now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to tweak these little these windows to make it look like it's more of a more of a door. And I think these windows are too high based on our human figure down here. So I'll just first and foremost go into my point mode. And I'll grab some of these points right here and bring those down just a little bit. And I can take this center one, bring that down here. Almost like we're making a door of some sort. Pretty straightforward. And maybe I'll do that on the other side as well. Here we go. Doors right there. Okay. So from here, we could do the same thing that we did last time. We can create a canopy. We can create a top for this variations. So spend some time, go through, make some variations on this building. Maybe you can create some columns over here. I'll go ahead and do that right now just to demonstrate that. So let's say we want some columns. I was building. Create a cube. And I'll take this cube in model mode. And let's just increase the size. Let's say it's something like this. And now what I wanna do is I want to make sure that that's cloned around my building. So I could do that out multiple ways. I can either use a cloner again and put that on a, on a radial blend mode, a radial mode. Or I can use one of these array objects. So, uh, my array can be found right here. And I'll drop this cube into this array. And it's snap back to the 0 position. So we'll have to lift that back up a little bit. So take that, push that up and I'll just take this radius and push this out. So what that's doing is it's making multiple copies of this column. So let's bring that back in. I just want this to hit the outside of the building. And now it's going through some of these windows. So I can just increase these copies until I get it looking exactly like I want it. And I can take this and rotate it into place. And maybe I have to play around with this array a little bit more. All right, so there we go. Now we have some columns around this building. And we can texture these as well by just command clicking on this Whites brick. Something like that. Maybe we can change this material as well. So maybe I could just take this red brick and replace that. Now I have some variations of this as well. All right, so there's my second building. You would take all of these, group these together and call this round one or whatever you wanna call it. Now it takes this, duplicate this several times and create some variations of this round building as well. 7. Deformers: As I mentioned in previous videos, you should take some time, go through and create a few variations of each type of building. So I'm just going to walk you through some of these variations that I did for these. So here's a second version of my square building. Here's the original one. There's another variation. And one more. Alright, so they're all just slightly different. And I want to show you these variations that I came up with for these round buildings. So here's my initial round building. Here's another one. This is more of an octagon. There's one more. One more. All right, so what I'm gonna do here is I'm gonna take these square buildings and I'm going to start modifying these even further. So I'll leave the original square buildings and I'll just hold down Command, click and drag until I get these building is duplicated and I'll just call this modified buildings. And I'll turn these on. And I'll start with the first building. So one of the things that we could do to modify the shapes of these is use something called the formers. Deformers are found right here. So if you click and hold this, if you click the top, top little textured part, you can undock this. Then what I like to do is click and drag this top little textured part, drag it over until you see that white line and dock those right there. Then I can right-click here and go icon, rows, columns, do one. And then I could change the size of these so they're easier to see. Alright, so now we could use some of these in here to modify some of this building shape. So let's just start with this building one. And if I take, let's say a Bulge deformer and I put it inside of this null we're building one is I want to make sure that that Bulge deformer is pretty similar in shape and scale to this building. So I'll take those bones, the former fit to parent that really didn't do anything. What I could do is hit T on the keyboard, click and drag in an empty area, and then just scale this up a little bit. And I can also move this up, so it just sort of encompasses this building. I can go into this wide-scale. Push this up a little bit. And now, if we go into this perspective view, if I hit bulge, there's this strength slider. So if I click this and drag it, you'll notice that it's deforming each one of these little clones that we have from our cloner and affecting this building, maybe not how we want it to be affected. So one of the reasons for that is in this floor cloner, I have this render instance button checked. If I just click instance, now the deformer performs like it should, like I. So I can go back to this bulge. I can affect the curvature. If I wanted to make this, this kind of shape, I could change the size of this is Bulge deformer and now it only affects the center portion of this. Okay? So the curvature is going to make it a little bit round. Okay? So that's one deformation that we could do. So I'll just go ahead and turn off this building. Let's turn on the second building. So again, I'm going to try a different type of deformer. So let's try this taper to former. Let's see what this does. Again, I'm going to put it inside of this null where it says Building 2. I'll go into one of the front views. It fit to parent. And then I'll just hit T on the keyboard to scale this up a little bit. And then I can take this taper to former and the y. I'll just make that bigger. Push this up just a little bit. And now with this taper to former selected, I can again go into this strength slider and start playing with this. Again, it's not really affecting these cones like I wanted to. The reason for that is this floor cloner is put on render instance instead of instance. So now when I change that back to instance, now this taper deformer acts like I want it to. So we can go ahead and taper this even more. We can even change where this taper to former effects as building by just repositioning this tapered a former. See what's happening here. The more I push it down. It only affects certain areas of this building. Okay, we can make this we can start playing around with some of these. So I didn't want any curvature. Here's what's going to happen to this building. Now it's going to look almost like a pyramid type of shape. I can increase this size. There's another concept that we can use right there. Alright, let's go to the next building. And what I encourage you to do is just go through some of these deformers and figure out how it can affect your building and find shapes that you really like. So if I go to this next one, let's try something different on this. What if I take this? And let's try a twist to former. Again, I'm going to put it inside this null and I'll hit this fit to parent. I'll scale it up by hitting T, clicking and dragging in an empty area and just making sure it's kinda the same size as this building. So I'll go into this twist or modify the heights. And now what I can do. Let's just increase this angle and now it starts twisting my building. So if I didn't want this first florida be affected, all I need to do is take this twist and drag it up a little bit. And there we go. Now this twist starts right at that second floor. And that's looking category. You know, maybe it's a little bit too much. Maybe we only want this twist to happen a little bit. At this point, you're going to figure out whether you want your, your renders to be realistic. So you wouldn't do too many deformations like this. Or if you wanted to just push this into kind of like a different type of look. So if you wanted to make it look a little bit cartoony, you could do that. If you wanted to, make it look sci-fi, you could do that. It all depends on how many deformations that you want to put inside these buildings. Alright? So I'll just go back, turn that one off and there's other deformers that we can play with. There's like an explosion to formers, explosion effects. And these are going to make this building look like it's exploding and falling apart. So let's try some of these. Let's try the shattered the former. So if I put that in there, I'll make this. And so I make that as a child. And I can just take the strength and look what happens. My building starts to, starts to come apart a little bit. And by clicking and dragging this deformer, you can affect where this building is starting to come apart. We can also try melt the former. Let's see what happens if we try that. If we put that in here, look at that. Now this melt deformer is like melting are building. Maybe we don't want that thing to melt. But we can use that very subtly like at 2% to really change the look of this geometry here. Alright? So you can get some unexpected random results sometimes. And you can also get all these like little angles that look pretty cool. Just using these melt the former, we could take this vertical randomness down if we wanted. Let's go to this four corner again. I'll hit instance. We'll look at that. That's looking pretty crazy. Okay? So we can take this vertical randomness play with that. If we wanted to get back some of that geometry, we can hit this render instance again. And I think that's looking pretty nice. So I can take this top. That's looking a little bit weird. And maybe we can just put that up and look at that. Now we have some crazy shapes to this building. Right? Now again, let's go ahead and try, try another one. The bend deformer. We can put that in here, fit to parent. We can make this bend deformer bigger by hitting T on the keyboard, scaling that up again. And we can take this y, make that bigger. Okay, Now all this is going to do when we hit the strength slider. Is it going to bet it's supposed to bend this. But again, we're getting these weird results. So I'll go to this floor cloner and hit instance and look at that. Now it's bending in my building. Maybe that's, that's totally not realistic, but maybe you can use this bend deformer in a little bit more subtle way to make it look a little bit interesting. You know, would you want this on a building? Probably not, but it looks kinda cool. So I'll just undo that and I want to show you one other technique with these. You can actually layer these up. So if you had a taper to form around this, you can fit this to parent. Size this up, so it's a little bit bigger. Can move this up a little bits. And let's increase the strength. Just make it bulge at the top a little bit, maybe a little bit further. And now we can, like I said, we can use multiple cloners at the same time. So what if I use the twist to former as well on here? I fit this to the parent or brought this up a little bit and scale. And now I can twist and taper this at the same time. So like that. So obviously this is only affecting the center of that. What if I bring this up and scale? I just go into this size. Why? Now it starts affecting our entire building. That can move this up. So it only affects certain portions. You know, again, maybe that's a little bit too much. Maybe you just use this a little bit more subtly. But you can get some pretty interesting shapes to your buildings. And again, this doesn't have to be realistic unless you want it to. And which case you might not want to use some of these deformers. Alright, so I'll go to these round buildings. And what I could do here is, let's go into this round. Actually. Let's use a different one. Now we can start experimenting with some of these. Alright, so what if I had, let's say, a twist to former or a taper to form around this one. And again, I'm going to fit to my parents. I'll scale this up, move this up a little bit. So I'll scale that up. And then I'll take this taper to former. And again, it's not affecting my building like I want it to. And the reason for that, this is floor cloner and needs to be on an instance. And look what else is happening. These columns aren't really bending with that deformer. And the reason is if I go into this cube, I'm going to need to increase the segments on this, why we don't have enough segments to make that column curved. So now when I increase those segments, now those columns go with it. Alright? So let's try this. Let's take some of this curvature outs. And another thing that we could do is possibly use some sort of shear deformer. We haven't tried that one yet. So if I take this, fit that, fit that to the parent, scale it up. Let's see what happens with this. So really, this is, this whole section is really about just playing around with somebody, playing around with some of these deformers and getting some interesting shapes. So now on the shear, I can take the strength. And now this is going to share this building back a little bit. And we can play with this curvature. If we wanted this a little bit more curved. That's kind of an interesting look. Not very realistic, but at the same time it's looking kinda cool. So I could take the shear, I can bring it up so it only affects from the start of the second floor. And you can start playing around with some of these sliders and see what they do and how they affect your building. 8. MoGraph: One other technique that I wanted to show you for changing the shape of your buildings is using these cloners that you already have for this floor. Okay, so if we go into this floor cloner on any one of these buildings, what I could do is I can go to this rotation, okay? If I take this rotation, check out what happens if I start rotating this. Now we get this rotation on all these all these floors above the first floor. And that's pretty cool. Then what we'd have to do is just take this top and then just rotate that into place so it doesn't, doesn't look awkward. So I'll take that and I'll just rotate this. So it's resting on that first floor. There we go. So now I have a variation of that building. All right. If we try to do that in the second one, we could do the same thing, go to this floor cloner. So now if I start rotating this, again, we can go as far as we want with this. You know, that's actually looking pretty cool right there. The other thing you could do is you can start playing around with this rotation P and B. So if you wanted to still look, you know, otherworldly kind of sci-fi, what you can do is you could start twisting these, these buildings and these floors a different way. And we do that. Let's look and crazy. But it's looking kinda cool. So maybe that's the look that you want. I'm not sure. That's really up to you how you want these buildings and look if you're going for realistic, again, this is not the way to go, but at the same time you can get some really interesting looks and shapes out of this. So I'm just going to 0 this out. This way. I'll take this top, I'll just rotate, rotate that into place. So now I can go to my next building. Soon. I can use something called an effector. So the effectors for the MoGraph cloners can be found right here. And again, I can undock this. I can put this over here so I can view it a little bit easier. Do one row and make these a little bit bigger. Size medium. So now if I have my floor cloner selected, check out what I can do here. I can use some of these to affect the shape of this. So if I go into, let's say, random effector, look at that. All of a sudden. That's affecting each one of my clones just a little bit differently to get an interesting shape. So I can go to this random and the parameter that's being affected right now is the position. Okay? So I could take this and I can offset this a little bit. I can offset some of these numbers a little bit, offset some of these numbers. And all of a sudden I have this really interesting shape happened in for my building. Okay? I can also do a random rotation. So instead of uniformly doing this H rotation, it's going to do it randomly. Now let's look in kinda cool. All right, so what I typically do is if I create these effectors, I typically just put it inside of this null. Okay? So let's try a different one. Okay, so now let's try our building for with this cloner selected, let's try a push apart effector. So if I take this push apart effector, what that starts doing is pushing this thing apart. Ok? And now we can control how this affects this clone by going into our fields and we can add, let's say, a box field. So now when I take that box field, I can just kind of move this up and I can go into this push apart effector, increase that size. So now this box, if I move this, it's going to move the clones in a different way. So let's say if I just wanted the top of this to kind of be offset, maybe there's some terrorists is up here or something like that. And you would build some extra columns in here. I can take that. And there's another variation, so I'll just put this in here. I'll take this top, just put it back on the top of this building. 9. City Blocks: Now we're going to create our first city block. All right, so let's take this first building that's in a good spot. I can take the second building, push that over a little bit. Take the third one, push that over. This last one. Push that over slightly. Now we can go to the top view and just kinda organize these and arrange them. So they're a little bit more logical. There we go. This one can be brought down a little bit. Bringing that back just a little bits, bring this down a little bit. There we go. Alright, so now we're going to create a sidewalk. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to click this parametric primitive, this cube. I'll rename it sidewalk. And I'll just place this right in the center of these buildings. And I can hit T on the keyboard for scale. Scale this way up till it encompasses all of these buildings. Maybe about this big, let's look in pretty good. And then obviously this is way too tall. So I'll go into the sidewalk and there's y. Maybe we can do 0.5 feet, so it's about six inches high. And then I can just bring this down till it hits the bottom of those buildings. And there's our sidewalk. It's looking good. And now what we can do is we can go into the content browser and we can search for materials. And one of this concrete, this concrete block is probably pretty good to use. So I use that. And then I'll just drop that right on my sidewalk. If I could spell this correctly, was sidewalk. So I'll drop that on the sidewalk. And I'll change this projection method to cubic. If I zoom in, those are very small tiles. So what I could do is go into this length. And I could do one hundred, ten hundred. And now there are blocks get a little bit bigger. It's a little bit pixelated here. So if I take a render, Let's see what that looks like. It's looking all right. I'm just going to leave that. So now we can go ahead and start creating additional blocks. All right. I'll put the sidewalk in here. And I'll group these together. I call this block one. And I can take this out of the square building null. And now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to create a second block with more buildings. All right? But before we do that, I'm going to go ahead and just kinda measure two lanes with two different vehicles. And then I'll put some sort of divider and put two more lanes. Alright, so if we go into the asset browser, I can just go into objects where I can search for car. Here's a here's a little midsize SUV. That's fine. I'll just download this asset. And we're just going to use this just for a sense of scale. So let's just say we're going to have two lanes divider, then two more lanes. I'll take this SUV and make a copy of it by going here and just hitting instance. And I can push this over, something like this. And then I can create a piece of geometry that's going to be my center dividers. Something like this. And we'll go ahead and refine this later on. Here's my center. Something like that. We can tweak these little cars a little bit, give it a little bit more space in between each of whom. There we go. And I'll take this SUV hold on command, hold down command, duplicate that. And now what I can do is I can come into here and I'll duplicate the sidewalk Command C, command V. And I'll bring that over to about right here. Something like that. Now we have our sidewalk to for our second block. That's looking pretty good. And I can just turn on some of these buildings. So let's say we haven't used as building five. I'll take that and I'll push that over into the next block. Maybe I could bring that over here. And I can incorporate some of these modified square buildings. So let's turn these on. And we can do this in the top view. It probably makes more sense. So I'll just push this over here. Take this next building, put that down here. Take this next building, put that over here. And now I'm starting to get some interesting looking cityscape. All right, so that's going to be my block 2. So what I could do is I could take this one I haven't used yet. I'll use that one yet either. So I could take these three. Put it in here, take the sidewalk, put that in here. And I can call this block 2. All right, so now we have two blocks created. Let's go ahead and create a third block. So I'll take the sidewalk. And again, I can measure using these SUVs. So I just take this all of these. And I can just duplicate these by holding down Command, clicking and dragging, rotating this in place. And we'll get rid of most of this stuff. But I just want to get a sense of scale for how far away these blocks each need to be. Alright. Take the second sidewalk Command C command V, and I'll push this over here. We can rotate around here and start building this other block right in here. So what are we going to do here? I could take these two buildings, put those on this block, and then I can start turning on these round buildings. So maybe this round building going to come over here. And that's looking like it's pretty big. If these deformers are getting in your way and making it hard to see your viewport and your, your geometry. You can come over to this filter and you can turn off deformers in the viewport. All right, so this building is looking pretty big. We can always scale this down. So if I just hit T on the keyboard, I could scale this guy down and just make sure that it's touching the ground over here. Hit E on the keyboard, bring that down. So it's touching that ground right there. There we go. I can scale that down again. Right? We can push this over, something like that. And I can take this round building to put that right here. That's looking a little big as well. I might have to scale that one down and then make sure that it's going and hitting the ground. All right, so there's my third block. So I'll take all these buildings, put it inside this null. And as you can see, the pivot point for this null is all the way over here. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna go to this move pivot tool and make sure that pivot is right in the center of that. Get out of this pivot. And now we have our block three. And we're going to create one last one. Let's duplicate the sidewalk Command C command V. Push that over to here. And now we're going to read, now we can use the rest of these buildings. So there's one, here's another one. This needs to be scaled down a little bit. And I'll push this down here. Make sure it's hitting the ground. Which that over. And maybe I'll just duplicate both of these buildings and just kinda tweak them. This one needs to be scaled down as well. Percent went over. And I'll just take this one, duplicate it one more time. Take that, pushes it over here. And I could tweak this just a little bit. What I'm gonna do here is pi, just rotate all these clones. So if I go into this cloner and you just go into here, make that look a little bit different. So all these aren't lining up exactly. I could take the amount of clones, go to render instance, pushed that up, make this part a little bit bigger, and take the top of that building and just push that up. Okay, we're gonna do the same thing with this building. Just duplicate that. And I'll take this and I'll push that over to here. And again, I'm going to modify this one by going into this cloner and just adding a few more instances of this, taking the top percent over here. And now we have a little city that we created. So at this point we're not going to need any of these cars. I'm just going to go ahead and delete these and we're going to we're going to put him back in later on when we populate this. 10. Optimization Tip: Depending on the specs of your computer, you might be noticing a little lag and performance because of all this geometry in your scene. So what I wanted to do is just share a little tip with you right here. So instead of duplicating all of these buildings, what I would suggest if you're experiencing a lot of like a lag in your scene right now because of all this geometry is instead of, instead of duplicating all the buildings like we did in the previous video. Maybe what you could do is select a block and put for your most interesting buildings and there. And then what you could do is that here I'll duplicate this Command C Command V. I'll turn all these other blocks off. So we'll have this original black. And now instead of duplicating this original block, what I'll do is I'll go into here and I'll make an instance of this. Okay? So now when I make an instance is just making a copy of this and I'll push that over. And what I can do here is I can maybe just rotate this, so it's slightly different from that previous block. Okay? And then I can take this instance Command C, command V. And I can push this over again and maybe rotate this another way. And just kinda put this in place over here. And then I can duplicate this one more time. And just push this back over here. And let's see where this one is. Let's rotate this one slightly differently. Maybe we could just rotate this one, kinda like this. So now we're getting a little bit of variation, but our scenes going to be way more optimized because we're not actually duplicating this geometry. We're just creating instances, okay? And that will render faster and optimize your scene. So I just wanted to share that little tip in case you're experiencing lag within your scene currently. 11. Street Texture: Now that we have our city blacks created, let's go ahead and create a Streets. So what we're gonna do is go into our parametric primitives, create a cube. We'll rename this Streets, and then we'll go into the top view. Let's push this over to the center of our scene. And now I can just scale this up, something like this. And now, well, you just have to scale this why down? So we can just go to this Y parameter and just type in one foot. And now all we need to do is push this down. So it's below the sidewalk. Something like this. Okay, so now we have a street created. What we're gonna do here is we're going to take a screenshot of this top view. Makes sure that you include the entire street in the screenshot. So on a Mac, I'm holding down Command Shift 4. And I'm taking this screenshot here. You'll see I have these cross hairs and I'll just click and drag and let go. Now this image winds up on the desktop. I'll just right-click and open with Adobe Photoshop. Okay, So in Adobe Photoshop, the first thing that we're going to do with the street texture is crop it down. So I'll hit C on the keyboard. And then what I wanna do is just grab these little nodes and merge, makes sure that it lines up with that street. Okay. So I'll just grab this, scale it down to, crop it down to here. Grab this one and crop that this way. And I'm just kinda going into the center of that line. And I'll grab that one and go there. Okay, so now let's go to image size. Right now it's pretty small. 5000 by 5000. I'm just going to change this resolution is 72, and I'll increase this width something to like 4 thousand because we want to get enough detail on the street. At this point, what we could do is we could just flatten this image. So go flatten. Now we're going to create a new layer by clicking this little plus sign. And all those. I'll just call this texture. And what we could do here is with our black selected in the foreground, we can just hit G on the keyboard. That's gonna give us our paint bucket. And I'm just going to fill this whole layer with black. And now let's go up to Filter Noise, Add Noise. And that's going to give us a little bit of noise. I want, I'm going to have Gausian and monochromatic and monochromatic selected. And now we'll just play with this noise until I like effect of that and I'll hit Okay. Maybe we can take this opacity down a little bit. Maybe we can create a new layer under here just to kind of cover up some of this background. So maybe it's just a gray. Fill this with gray. There we go. That's pretty decent. So before we start creating our cross-walk details, Let's just reference this. Let's just reference these images that we created in the beginning of this project. So as you can see, there's a lot of little cracks and smudges and a lot of these are not perfect. So we're going to try to replicate some of that in Photoshop. Okay? So going into Photoshop, I created a new layer. And I'm going to choose this Rectangular Marquee Tool. Create a little rectangle here. And then I'm just going to fill it. If I hit G on the keyboard, that'll bring up my paint bucket, fill it with white. The select by hitting Command D. And now I can duplicate this by holding down Option, clicking and dragging. And I'm holding down Shift as well so that I can grab both of these Option click and drag to duplicate them. Option click and drag. And just keep doing that until you have multiple copies. So now we can just grab all of these. And we can come up to here and just say merge layers. And I'll call this cross-walk. I'm just going to start duplicating these. So if I hold down option, duplicate it down here. Hold down option, click and drag a duplicate, duplicate this all the way down here. And now, then I'll do the same thing for these up here. So here's a cross-walk this way. So I might have to tweak this just a little bit, something like that. Let's make it centered. Take that, push that up over here. And I'll take this, duplicate it this way. I'll show transform controls. And rotate this up this way. So as you can see, we don't have enough over here. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to duplicate this up until it fills that little space. So on this one, I can create a layer mask. And then I can hit B on the keyboard. Choose a really simple brush. And then I can go ahead and mass this out by painting with black on this, by painting with black on this mask. And I can take both of these and merge these together. Hitting V on the keyboard, That's my select tool, option drag. And I'll take both of these, duplicate these as well over to here. All right, let's see which one this is. Push that one over slightly. Now we have our crosswalks created. Let's go ahead and group all these together. And we'll call these crosswalks. And now we can create some sort of double line for these for these lanes. So that I can choose some sort of like yellow color. And I can hit B on the keyboard and just kinda paint a yellow line in here. And then I can just duplicate that this way. Maybe that's a little bit too thick and it's okay. And I'll just push that up. So it's sort of centered. And then I'm just going to merge these together. And again, I'm going to create a layer mask. And I'm going to mask out by painting with black, maybe this edge over here, something like that. And then I'm going to mask this out this way and mass this side a little bit as well. And I can just duplicate this by holding down option. Duplicate this to the other side of the street. And I can merge these together again. Merge, duplicate these. And I can rotate these like this. Bring those up. And I'm just using my arrow keys to position these. So now this one needs to be moved down a little bit. So I'm just going to choose this tool, rectangular marquee tool. Select around this, hit V on the keyboard. And I'm just using my arrows to just bring that down a little bit. And then I can hit Command D to de-select that. Now I have my crosswalks and my lanes. So now I can create some extra lanes over here on this side. So let's take this one. Pushes that one over. Another cross-walk. I just put this at the top so I know it's at the perimeter. And I could do the same thing on this side. Same thing over here. One more down here. So I can take these last four. Duplicate these over to the other side. I can take this guy, rotate this down a little bit. Duplicate that over. Take both of these, push these up here. And now I'm just going to reuse these lines. So I'll take this duplicated up over here. It's kinda makes sure that's somewhat centered. I'll select this one and hold on, Option, hold down option. Click and drag to make a duplicate. Or I can just click and drag and make a duplicate of that. And then just push this over. I'll do the same thing on the other side. All right, Let's go ahead and organize this. So I'll just put this in a folder and I'll call this street lines. Okay, so let's organize the rest of this as well. So here's our basic texture. We can fill this in with another cross-walk on this side. Take this, duplicate this. Over. There we go. Alright, so there's our basic street texture. And I'll save this to my city folder texture. And I'll call this street. And hit Save. 12. Street Texture Continued: So now that we have the street texture created, let's go ahead and add a little bit of grunge and L and a little bit of realism to this. So if we hit B on the keyboard, that'll bring up our brushes. And right here, we can click this little round icon and go Get More Brushes. That's gonna take us to Adobe's website. And you'll probably have to login here. And there's a whole bunch of brushes down here that we can use. I'm going to go ahead and download the splatter brushes. Wait for that to download. And another good place to find Photoshop brushes. If you just do a online search for Photoshop brushes, you'll find plenty of websites where you can get free brushes from. So here's a good one called brushed, easy. I'm going to search for cracks. And it'll bring up all these different different things here. So here's a crack brush and includes six high resolution brushes. I go ahead and go ahead and download that as well. And those brushes will download to the downloads folder. So one of these is a zip file, unzip this. And that's what we have here, a BR. And the previews. Now going to open up my applications, I'll go into Adobe Photoshop, presets to my brushes. And then I'm just going to drag the splatter brushes in here. I'll take this crack brushes and I'll take the ABR file and just drag it into here. So now we want to import these brushes into Photoshop. So if we go back to our brush tool, go here, import brushes. I can locate my brushes in that folder that I put them in the brushes. And let's just say splatter brushes will import those in my splatter brushes end up down here. And then I'm also going to import my crack brushes that I downloaded. So here's some crack brushes. And those will be right here. First and foremost, I'm going to take both of these crosswalks and street lines, and I will put them in a new group. And I'll just call this details. So now I can create a layer mask. And on this layer mask, I can paint with black with some of these brushes to add a little bit of grunge this. So I'll go back to my brushes, go all the way down to my splatter brushes. And let's just try some of these out and see how much detail we can get in here. So I'll just go through here, paint some grunge textures on these. And you can play around with this opacity. So if you don't want it to totally cover it up, you can just kind of turned down that opacity and just paint away some of these details. So take some time, go through and create a whole bunch of grunge and some and some dirt on these on these lines and on your across walks. Okay. So once you've spent some time texturing your crosswalks and your street lines. Let's go ahead and use those crack brushes to create some cracks and some of this street, I'll just create a new layer. And I'll call this cracks. And now I can come in here and just choose some of these crack brushes. Paint. If I hit D on the keyboard, that'll give me black as my foreground color. And what we could do because we could probably turn off these two layers just so we could see where we're painting over here. So we can just go in here and just add a few cracks into our street. Okay, maybe we can go here. Try a few other ones out. And let's see what this one does. That's a lot of cracks are there. That's looking pretty good. And I'll get turn these back on. I think that's looking pretty good. And now we can just turn this to a multiply blend mode. And we can paint a wet and pain in some more of these if we wanted. This is just going to add a little bit of realism to our scene. So the last thing that we're gonna do is add a few arrows in here for the turning lanes. So we could turn this off, we could turn this stuff off just so it's easier to see. And I'll create a new layer. So if I go to this custom, so if I go to this custom shape tool right here, you'll notice there's a lot of arrows and all kinds of stuff we can use. If I just select one of these, I'll hit X on the keyboard. So I'm painting with white. And I'm just gonna make a little arrow for turning lane. And I'm going to want to make this line goes straight as well. So I'll just take this arrow, I'll duplicate it, and then I'll rotate this this way. So this is a lane where you can go straight and turn. And then I'll just take both of these. And I will merge these together. Hold on Option to duplicate that and then transform flip horizontal. So I'll just put this over here. There's another turning lane and a straight lane. At this point, I can just start duplicating all of these. You push these down, put them into place. Maybe this one needs to be pushed over a little bit. And then I'll just take this, merge this together. And I'll just start populating my texture with these turning icons. Once I get all that together, I'll just put it all in a group. I'll just call this arrows. Put this down here. So we get some of that grunge over top of that. And they just keep duplicating this for how many I need to turn the rest of this stuff back on. And then instead of using this high-quality PSD, what I'm gonna do is I'm going to duplicate this. So image duplicate. And I'm going to flatten this image, so flatten. And then I'll save this again to my textures folder, but this time I'm going to save it as a JPEG. 13. Dividers: Back inside Cinema 4D, we're going to want to apply that street texture to our street geometry. All right, so let's go into material manager and then we have a lot of extra materials from that previous video that we did with importing those cars. So let's just go into Edit, delete unused materials, and that's going to clean up our material manager. So at this point, we can just double-click to create a new material. And I'll just call this street. And now in the color channel where it says texture, I'm just going to click these three little dots. And I'll locate my texture. And then hit Open. And now we can just change this to, let's say, a plane, just so we can see that Let's go into reflection, reflectance channel rather. And in the Layers, I'll right-click the default specular and hit Remove. Now if I wanted a little bit of reflection to this, I can go add a reflection legacy and just take this brightness way down. Just so we have a little bit of reflection in our street. And at this point I'm just gonna take the street texture and just drop it right on my street geometry. And now you'll notice that this lines up perfectly. Alright, it looks a little bit, a little bit pixelated that this point, That's okay. When we take a render of this, it'll show up nice and clean. Okay, So now what you'll notice is these dividers in between the lanes are overlapping our cross-walk. So we're going to work on those dividers real quick. And I'll close this out. Alright, so let's go into our dividers and I can just delete most of these. I'm just going to leave this one. And I'll just start working on this. So let's go into our top view. And I can make this a little bit smaller. We could probably do this in the perspective view. It's probably better. So I'll make this a little bit smaller. So it's not intersecting my cross-walk. And I think that's looking pretty good. The only thing we're gonna do here, Let's see how big this is. So it's six feet high. I think that's pretty high. I can use this figure is kind of a reference to how big I want these. If I take this, I can bring this down to, let's say, four feet. Maybe I could push this down a little bit. I think that works right there. So now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to take this cube and I'm just going to increase the segments and increase the segments this way. And now I'm going to make it editable. Then I'll go in my point mode and grab these points in the center. Hit T for scale, and just drag this out a little bit. Now, select these other points this way. And I'll hit T for scale and drag these out this way. So here all I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take this middle polygon. Going my polygon mode selection tool, make sure visible only as checked. Select this middle polygon. And I'm just going to extrude this down, extrude, bring that down a little bit. And I'll just take the top of this extruded up. So I'll grab all of those polygons on the top. So let's grab this. Come in here, Extrude. Extrude these up just to kind of create a little cap. And I can go on one of these views here. Like this side view. Select that top cap, all the polygons and just do another extrusion, something like this. Go to my points mode and just make this a little bit smaller. There we go. I'll go back to my polygon mode. Live Select, select this, and then go store selection. Okay? And with that selected, I'll call this center. And I can drop a material onto here. Let's go ahead and rename this divider. And this material can be a cubic. And I just searched for some sort of grass material. Hopefully we can find something in here. There we go. Go to objects tab. And I'll just choose this glass, choose this grass material. Drop that onto here, and just drop this into, drop the selection into the selection field. With this grass selected. I'll just changes the cubic. And now we can just go ahead and duplicate these dividers for the rest of our scene. Instead of duplicating them, what I'm gonna do is I'll use instances again. So instance, I'll take this divider, push this back, and I could probably do this in perspective. So it's not overlapping. This cross-walk. There we go. And I'll just create two more. I'll take this divider hold down Command on the keyboard. Bring that up and hit R, rotate it back in place this way. And then push this over on this side of the street. Can hit S on the keyboard to zoom into that one. And again, I just don't want this going over that cross-walk. So there we go, there. It's looking good. And I can hold down command, duplicate this one more time for this side. And then just bring that over. 14. Cameras: At this point, it's probably a good idea to set up our camera views. So that's going to inform the rest of the project for how much entourage and how populated we ought to city where we want to put a lot of the details and that kind of stuff. So to create a camera, what we're gonna do is we're going to come down here and we'll create a camera, and I'll just call this camera view one. And then to look through the camera, all you need to do is hit this icon right here, and now we're looking through the camera. All right, so one of the things I wanna do is just pick a building that I think I want to focus on, on this first view. So this building right here, I think it looks pretty cool. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to set up some sort of composition at eye level. Let's kind of focusing on that building. All right, and to get something i levels, what I'm gonna do is I'm going to reuse this figure right here. So if you notice in the distance we have this dotted line right here. What that is the horizon line. So if we line up this person, this little figure with that, his eyeballs with that line, That's going to be close to eye level. So one of the things that I'm looking for here is, are there any buildings in here that are sort of creating a nice frame for this, in this view right here, approximately from this, this angle is pretty nice because we have this, these angles coming off this building which is kinda leading the eye directly to the building that we want to show and focus on. And then additional WE, and additionally we have all these buildings to the right that are also creating a nice frame. So I'm going to use this view and kinda frame it up, something like this. I'll make sure that that person's eyes are kind of right along this horizon line. Maybe I can rotate this a little bit more, kind of frame this view a little bit. So I like the fact that we have this framing the right, and then we have these buildings over here kind of framing this. Another thing that we can do is we can go to this camera and we can pick this composition tab and then enable this grid. So what that's gonna do is it's going to just block out the rule of thirds. So basically what we want is we want to have where these lines intersect or this line to be our primary focus of this image. So if I could rotate this a little bit this way, and maybe something like this, maybe move that over. I think that's looking pretty decent. And there we go. And then I'll just move this figure over just so I can reference him again. So I want to be at eye level for this. And then I'll just push this up. And now we have this nice little composition. Maybe I'll pull this back. Rotate that camera a little bit, and then push this up. Okay, that's looking pretty decent. Let's see if I can include some of this other building over here on the left. Think that might frame it up a little bit nicer. Zooming in a little bit, rotating around. So you have to kinda mess with this a little bit until you get the composition that you want. So I definitely want this building in there a little bit. This is an exactly the rule of thirds following the rule of thirds. But nonetheless, I think of this as making for a nice composition here. So I'm gonna go ahead and save this by right-clicking this camera. And then go into rigging tags and selecting protection. So now when I try to move around, I can't move this camera anymore. All right. So what I'll have to do is I'll have to get out of this camera view in order to move throughout my scene. So this camera view is protected right now from this protection tag. All right, so I'm going to leave that as it is, and I'm going to turn this camera off. Get out of this camera view. And I want to find a few other compositions that you like. Maybe there's another composition from down here at eye level view. Something like this. That could be kind of cool. Maybe you want to do an aerial shot where you're looking down. So you want to go through that process, create another camera, maybe another two cameras, and figure out a few other compositions. Maybe there's a composition where you're standing on a balcony over here or something. You know, looking at looking at this building from ten floors up, that's going to be completely up to you how you come up with your other compositions. All right, so spend some time figuring out which building that you want to be the focus. And come up with a few different views that you want to render out. 15. Landscapes: In this video, Let's go ahead and add some landscapes to our background. So if I look through camera one, we're probably going to want to fill in some of this over here with some landscapes. So we can cover up this horizon line over here and view two. We'll definitely want some more at landscapes back here as well. So getting out of these views, we're going to want landscapes over here and maybe on this side as well. So I'll go up to my parametric primitives and I'll choose landscape. And then I'll take this landscape, put it over here. Go to my top view port. Just scale this up. And I'll just grab some of these nodes. Push these over. Push that over this way. Now I can go in my camera view and maybe I can just scale that up a little bit. Something like that. Let's see what it looks like in view too. I think you get probably be a little bit higher, something like this. Let's kinda cool. We can also play with some of the seed. So if we play with the seed, it's going to give us different types of formations on this landscape. That's looking pretty nice. So what I can do is I can duplicate this, push this back, offset one over here. Let's look through our camera view again. Not really see in that one. What if I just increase the size? Okay, now I'm seeing some of that. I can even lift this up a little bit. Play with the seed. That's pretty nice. So I'll leave that one like that. Okay, That's looking pretty good. Maybe I'll create one more. Let's go into our top view port. Maybe I'll just create another one back here, something like this. And I can push this back. There we go. Now we're kind of framing that. Looks like pretty good given it, giving us a little bit of depth back there as well. So that's pretty good. If you have some other views, like say for instance, if you had some views over here, you'll notice one thing over here that this, when I zoom out too much, some of my buildings kinda disappear. We could change that setting if we go to Edit Project Settings. And that has to do with near and far clipping. So right here where it says View Clipping, it'll say near clipping and far clipping. We can just add a few extra zeros to this. And now you'll see that it's not going to clip. So I can just take these landscapes and maybe I need a few more over here. I'll just duplicate these by holding down Command, rotating these 90 degrees. Putting these over here underneath the streets. And you might not need these if your views not showing it. But if it is, if you have another view from, let's say down here, you'll probably want some landscapes and that background. All right, so just push this over here. And I can play with some of these settings, like the seed for some of these landscapes back here. Play around with it to get it looking like you want it. So at this point I'm just going to go ahead and group all of these. You can right-click group objects called this Landscapes. And then I can texture these. So if I go to my material manager, I already have this grass. I can just drop this grass right on that folder. And I could change this projection to cubic. Alright. So now I can go back to my camera views. Let's look in pretty decent camera view to that looks pretty nice. And that really sure if I like this, this one here, I can even push this down a little bit. I can maybe stretch it out, push it over. So you might have to just kinda mess with some of this stuff until you get it looking like you want it. 16. Entourage: So at this point we can go ahead and start populating our scene with people, cars, trees, streetlights, bus stops, all kinds of other stuff. So to prevent you from having to model all that stuff from scratch, you can if you, if you want to. But there's a lot of pre-built models that are available within Cinema 4D. So if you go to this asset browser right here, you'll notice in this objects tab, there's a ton of stuff that we can use to populate our scene. All right, so down here there's outdoor objects. Feel free to go through a lot of this stuff and figure out what works with your scene. There's antennas, there's barriers. You could use a lot of this kind of stuff. There's buildings. If you need some background buildings beyond these landscapes, you can use these textures from that kind of thing. There's all kinds of stuff in here, fire escape infrastructure manholes. So just look through these, figuring out what you want and start populating your scene. And one of the things that I wanted to mention is if we get out of this camera view, actually, I'll turn this camera on for a second. You'll see our cameras here. So the stuff that we could see in this view, That's really what we want to populate. So outside of this camera view, like this street over here, we probably don't want to be putting too many people or bus stops or street lights on this side because we won't see him in the final view. Same thing for four over here, like behind these buildings, we probably just want to leave this alone. So we're going to optimize our scene and have it render faster. The last things that we have in it. The other thing that I wanted to mention when you're importing trees, there's a variety of trees in here that treason here that you can use. So if you go into this plants folder, there are these cutouts. So let me just demonstrate the difference between a real tree and a cutout. So I'll just go ahead and download the silver birch. And that's in my scene. Now go to the one of these cutouts. And let's just incorporate one of these. So double-click and download. So I'll take both of these and just kinda bring it closer to the camera just so I could demonstrate what these are. So I'll turn off this one. Maybe I'll just make this a little bit smaller by hitting T, scaling this down this camera view. So you'll notice if I zoom in on this tree right here, what it is, it's actually a 3D tree, right? So there's a lot of polygons in here. If you incorporate a lot of these 3D trees, it's really going to start bugging down your scene. Okay? So what I would recommend is within your camera view, if you wanted to have these 3D trees in here, put these close to your camera view. So you really get some mileage out of them, right? So the things that are close to the camera will render really nice and nice and high resolution. And the things that are farther away from the camera, obviously, we're going to need some sort of plants are right here. It's not going to grow right out of the concrete just to point that out. And the things that are farther away from the camera, like this tree contrasts thing. One that I showed you, this cutout tree. All it is is a plane. So this literally has one polygon and it has an image of a tree that you could see through. So if you contrast this one polygon with probably hundreds of thousands of polygons with this real tree, 3D tree. Rather. If you use these cutouts, it's going to optimize your scene and render a lot faster. So things that are farther away from the camera. Like let's say this cutout tree we could place back here and these little dividers. And since it's not close to the camera, I don't think it's going to be that big of a deal and still render really nicely. So in the foreground, when I'm adding trees to this divider here, I can go ahead and add these 3D trees because they're close to the camera. The render real nice. But as I farther, but as I get farther back from the camera, feel free to use these cutout trees instead because again, they're going to optimize your scene. The other thing that you wanna do is you want to go in here, you know, find vehicles. In Cinema 4D. This asset browser has a limited amount of vehicles in here. So I just wanted to point out a few websites that you can go on to get additional free content. There's this website called the pixel lab at dotnet. And there's this little tab here called freebies. So if you go through here, there's a ton of stuff that you could download, incorporate into your scene. And there's motorcycles, other city type of elements, you know, billboards, other buildings that you can use, buses, that kind of thing. So you'll have to register for this website and then you can download all these free cinema 4D models. The other website that you can use is turbo squid. So if you're looking for additional cars, you could just type in free car. And there's going to be all kinds of things that pop up. So here's a free car comes Cinema 4D, OBJ, and FBX formats. You'll have to register in and you can download that. And here's another free car, another free one. Some of these are low poly, like here's a super low polygon. But at the same time, if this is way far off in the distance far from your camera, you can also use these as well. Okay. I would probably go with something that's a little bit higher resolution, like something like this. But that's going to be completely up to you. Alright? So spend some time, go through, populate your scene with all kinds of different things with trees, with flowers, cars, people, street signs, street lamps, bus stops, all that other kind of stuff. One little tip that I wanted to show you with populating your scene is you don't have to duplicate all of your geometry individually. What you can use as a MoGraph Cloner. So let's say for instance, you have this tree and you created a little planter around this. And now you want to duplicate this down the street. And easy way to do that is with this selected hold down option, create a MoGraph Cloner that's going to add that tree to this cloner. Okay, so now I can just change this mode to Linear. And let's say I get 0 this out. And in my z, I can just duplicate this all the way down the street. Okay, add a few more duplicates. I could do render instance that's going to save on render time. And really quickly, I have this whole side of the street with this tree in it. Okay. So that's a little tip. That'll come in handy, especially with street lights coming down the streets, trash cans, maybe some benches down here, that kind of thing. You know, you can even drop, let's say five or six different people inside of a cloner and clone them all the way down the street. At this point, you can pause the video and spend some time populating your scene. Alright, so back in our scene, I just want to show you all the things that I did to populate this. So I added some trees with some planners all the way down the street and the center dividers. I added some street lights and some traffic lights and bus stops, trash cans by your hydrogens, park benches, people and cars. All right. And then I have my view two as well. So from looking up here, we can see some people down here, trees over this way and are seen as nice and populated at this point. 17. Lighting Option 01: HDRI: Now that we have our scene populated, Let's go ahead and add some lighting and shadows to the scene. So in the end, this video on the next subsequent two videos, I'll be showing you guys three different methods for how to light your scene. This first one's going to deal with HDRI images. Then we'll cover physical skies and a nighttime scene. So in this one, and let's go ahead and start creating an HDRI image. So first and foremost, I'm going to turn off this entourage. This is just going to make the test renders go a little bit quicker. And then, and then we're going to create a sky. And on that sky we're going to drop an HDRI image. So if we come into the asset browser and under Materials just type in HDRI, that's going to bring up a whole whole list of HDRI images that we can use in the background. So just double-click one of these 10 to import it into your scene and then go into the material library. And it will just click this and drop that onto our sky. So to take a test renders of this first we're gonna go to our render settings. I'm an output and then film aspect ratio. I'll leave it on this 16 by 9 setting for the test renders, we could just put this at 500 and make sure to lock your aspect ratio as well. That's going to lock it to the 16 by 9. So we just wanted to take really small test renders until we get the lighting correct. Alright, so let's go ahead and render this and see what it's looking like. Let's look in pretty good. One of the things I want to try to do is rotate this sky and the background. And let's see if we could find a nicer composition for these trees back here. So I'll just close this out, go to my sky, and then I'll just rotate this. I'm looking at that background. Let's see here. Keep rotating. Maybe we could, maybe we could find a nicer composition. So one of the things we could do is use the interactive render region. And that could be found right here, interactive render region. And they can resize this per the area that you want to see rendered. Okay, so I'll just let that render real quick. So we can see with that background looks like. So I kinda like that because this tree in the background is kind of framing and leading our eye right towards this building, which is the main building that we want to show off. And this is kind of framing it up here as well. So I think that's pretty good. And I'm going to leave that as it is out of this interactive render region. And the next thing that we're going to do is create an infinite light. So if I go down to my lighting and I'll just create an infinite light. And this snaps right to the center of the 3D environment. So what I'm gonna do is just move this so I could see it in my camera view. All right. We've got a little closer to my camera. It doesn't really matter where you place this infinite light. I just want to be able to adjust this thing within my camera view. So let's say lift this up a little bit and then I'll rotate this. So it's kinda aiming towards that building. And then I want it to kinda aimed down that way. It's going to be casting some shadows in the scene. All right, I'll take another quick render. Okay, so there's a few things that we can adjust about this light. Let's go ahead and go back to this light, will go to the light settings. And a few rules that I use is the color of the light is never pure white. You always want to push this more to it, especially for a daytime scene, it's going to be like an orangey yellow kinda color. So I'm going to choose a color that's not why not pure white. And then we're going to add some shadows to the scene. So if I go to my shadow tab, I can go ahead and enable area shadows. So Aereo shadows are going to take the longest to render, but they look at the most realistic. So we'll start here. If it starts taken too long, we can always change it to a different setting. And also the other rule that I use is the color of the shadows is never pure black. One of the things I like to do with my shadows is just kinda push this up to more of like a dark blue. And then I'll take the density of the shadows and I'll push this down to, let's say 85 percent, 85, 90 percent or something like that. And then we could take another test render to see what it's looking like. If we compare the last render to this latest render, you'll notice we're getting a lot more yellow and warm light in the scene now. It's a daytime scene and now we're getting shadows under this area. The problem that I see right now is this area right here is looking a little bit too dark. So what we're going to have to do is add a little bit of fill light that fills this in a little bit on the right-hand side. The other thing I like about this light, it's, it's kinda reinforcing our composition. So it's sort of pushing the shadows this way, kinda aiming the eye towards this building again, which is pretty nice. So I'm gonna go ahead and leave that just like that. And now I'm going to create a fill light that I want to fill in this area of this building. All right, so the way that we're gonna do that is create another light. And I'll just go ahead and rename this fill light. The light. And then I'll take that light and I'll move it over. Just filling in some of this shadow area over here. So maybe this is going to be too intense. And again, for this light, what we're gonna do is we're going to change this color and make it a little bit more yellow. And we probably don't want the intensity of this to be a 100, so let's bring that down to about 50. All right. Any other areas that you've seen your scene that are getting too dark, you can just add fill lights just to kind of lighten them back up just a little bit. So let's take one more render. So again, if we compare that to the previous render, you'll notice this right area was really dark and now we're getting a little bit of fill. The only thing I don't like about this is now we're getting this awkward reflection in our street. So I'm just going to move this fill light closer to the camera again and try to get rid of that reflection. Maybe bring that down a little bit, and do one more test render. Okay, so that's looking pretty decent now if we compare that to the last one, now we're getting rid of this specular highlight that was on the ground. And this area is filled in a little bit more and it's pretty good at this point. So let's go ahead and just take all three of these, group these together. And we'll just, we'll just call this lights one HDRI. And again, it's going to be up to you which lighting scenario you want to use from the next couple of videos, you'll have to do all of them. Just go through, learn how to do different ways of lighting and decide for yourself how you want your scene to look. 18. Lighting Option 02: Physical Sky: The next lighting technique that I want to show you is using a physical sky. So if we come into our asset browser and in all, there's this little folder called presets. We can go to sky presets. Let's go into skies. Let me just expand this so you can see this. So there's all kinds of different types of skies that you could pick in here, go through here, experiment, and see what works best with your scene. Okay, so I'm going to use this cirrus. So I'll just double-click. And that will create a new sky material in my object, but my object manager. So the very first thing I'm gonna do is just take a quick test render just to see what this looks like. So overall, this scene is looking very blue and the light seems to becoming from over here in the top right-hand side. And you can tell by this little light that's hitting this building and the shadows are being cast towards the camera. What I wanna do is kinda flip that. So our light is hitting this building right here. So what I could do is go into our options and turn on shadows. And that's going to enable shadows in the viewport. So we'll be able to see some of the shadows in here. All right, I'll take a minute to update. As we, as we change some of the sky settings, we're going to see the shadows a little bit clearer. So within the sky setting, you can change all kinds of different things in here. So there's a time and location. So the default is June 8 o'clock. So what if we push this up? So it's more of like a sunset time. Okay, So we could play with this, see where our shadows are falling. Let's keep playing with that. So as you're playing with this, you probably want to take some test renders as well just to see how everything is looking. So I'll take another test render. So right now it's looking like our light sources coming from somewhere on the left-hand side of the scene. As you can see, this little building right here is highlighted on the side. We're getting some light up here, and this is completely enlight. So few ways that we can adjust that if we go into the sky, we can go into our time and location tab and we can continue playing around with this time. Or we could take the sky and we could just simply rotate it until we get. So what I'm looking for here is I'm looking for these shadows, how they're falling within the scene. So you can see here we're getting a little shadow here. This building is casting a shadow here. I can rotate that over a little bit more. Right now, these shadows are almost kind of framing this main building that we want to show off. So let's go ahead and take another quick test render. So now if we compare the last render, which was looking very dark, just by rotating that sky, we get our lighting hitting our buildings over here and kind of creating a little frame over here with putting everything in shadow on this side. So I think that's looking pretty good and I'm going to leave it like that. One of the things you'll notice is the shadows are very blue. One of the things that I like to do is I'll just take care of that saturation of the shadows in post-production once we render these out. So at this point, I would just leave it like it is. 19. Lighting Option 03: Nighttime : In this video, you'll learn how to create a nighttime scene. So first thing we're gonna do is we're going to duplicate our first light setup with this HDRI. Let's go ahead and rename this. We're going to have to replace our HDRI image on the sky. So I'll go into my asset browser. Materials type in HDRI, and I'll use this sky six double-click to import it into my scene. Going my material manager, I'll just take the sky 6 and replace this HDRI on my existing sky. So right now I can go ahead and delete my light and my fill light. I'm not going to need those. And let's take a quick render. Currently, this is still looking like a daytime scene. So there's a few things that we could do to adjust the HDRI image. Let's go into our materials. Let's double-click this sunset. And let's go into luminance. And we'll creates a layer. Now we'll double-click this or just click that effect. Let's go brightness contrast. Bring that brightness down just a little bit. And I can go to Effect hue saturation lightness that could take that saturation down just a little bit as well. And maybe that lightness. There we go. So now I can take this, the sky right here, and I can rotate it until I get the effect that I want. Maybe something like this. We're gonna get some light over here and these buildings. Let's take another quick test render. So now we're getting a little bit darker sky from our previous render. But it's still not looking like a nighttime scene. The reason for that is we don't have any lighting in the scene currently are. So now what we're gonna do is we're going to add some light sources in our scene. So I have all these streetlights that I created. So what I'll do is I'll go ahead and I'll turn those on and I'll show you what I did to modify the street lights. Okay, so turn off most of my cloners and I'll just focus on one of these streetlights. So as you can see, I created two spotlights on both sides of the street light. Okay. So I created the spotlights and I increase the intensity to a 100 percent. Okay, so now I can take another quick render. So if we compare this with the previous render, now you'll see it's looking a lot more like a nighttime scene. All right. So I went through and I created the lights for each one of these streetlights and then I dropped it into a cloner. And I'll just turn on the rest of these. And then I'll take another quick render. So this lighting is starting to look pretty nice. We're getting some reflections from the sky and these windows. We have these streetlights with the lights turned on and it's starting to look like a nighttime render. So here's the first one. Here's one. Here's another one. So this is looking pretty good. Another thing that we could do to add some atmosphere to this particular render, we can use something called an environments. So if we go to here, choose environment, there's a, there's a nice little option in here called enable fog. So if I enable f Fog, what's going to happen is we just get a whole lot of fog in the scene. So I'll take another renders so you can see what it looks like. So that fog basically blows out my entire scene. So what we're gonna do is we're going to change the color of the fog and we're going to just have it so it's kind of in the background of our scene. All right, so I'll go into my environment and where it says Color, enable fog, color right underneath there. I'll just choose some sort of like darker blue color for this fog. And then I can come to here where it says distance, and this is the distance from the camera. So if I start increasing this, you'll notice that fog we'll start receding in the background. And I'll be LSC, some of those buildings in the background as well. All right. So we want to just have this in the background. So let's go ahead and take one more render. So if we compare this to last render, now our fog is kinda pushed them the distance and it's creating this really nice hazy effect within our scene. So at this point, what I'd like to do is I'd like to add a little bit of glow to some of these windows, almost like the lights are turned on in this building. So what I'll do is I'll locate this building. I'll create a new texture. So create new default material. Like to work where this isn't the not in the list view, but in the material view. So I'll take this and I'll turn on luminance. And for this luminance, I'll choose some sort of like yellowy orange color. And then I can turn on transparency so I can get some sort of glass. And then for this luminance brightness, I could just increase this. I don't know. We'll try 131 and 132. So I'll take this material and replace the previous glass. So you'll notice these windows look like the interior lights are turned on. So now if I take a render, so this is looking pretty good so far, one of the things that I would recommend is maybe you don't want to have every single one of these windows turned on. So what you could do or every one of the lights turned on and all the rooms. So what you could do is you can go back through this round floor cloner and you can create different selections. The lights that you want on and the lights that you want to off. And just kinda randomize this a little bit to make it look a little bit more natural, I'm going to turn on the rest of my entourage and then take another render so we can see what this is looking like. Here's our render with our entourage turned on with cars, people, trees, and it's looking really nice. The one thing that I would do here is this whole foreground area is looking very dark. So what we could do is just add a little fill light into here to fill in some of these areas and I think we should be good to go. So if I go down to my lights, I'll rename this fill light. So then I'll take this fill light and I'll just bring it forward to kinda where the camera is. And I'll look this up a little bit. And let's bring it closer into the scene, something like this. And for this fill light, we don't want this to be too intense. And I'm going to change the color of this to some sort of dark blue, something like that, just to kind of fill it in. And then this intensity, I'll just bring that down to, let's say 40 percent. If we compare this render the previous one, you'll notice we're getting a little bit more lights in this foreground. I might actually increase that intensity of this fill light. Let's try, let's say 60%. And again I'll take a render. So now let's compare this to the previous render. And again, we're getting a little bit more lightness in here. So go ahead and play around until you get the desired effect that you want, and now fill light in this foreground. And this is looking pretty decent so far. 20. Render Optimization: So if you're noticing that you're seen as taking a long time to render. There are a few things that we could do to optimize our scene to make the rendering go quicker. Alright, so I'm gonna take a render. With this render complete. I just want to note this time that it's taking. So right now it's taking one minute and three seconds for this render at 500 pixel width. So if you'll remember for this infinite light, for the shadow, what we did was we enable the area shadows. Okay, let's go ahead and turn that to soft shadows. And we'll take another render. Okay, so by changing the area shadow to soft shadow, we saved ourselves about 14 seconds on that last render. It might not seem like a lot, but once we increase this number for the render output, you might, you might save yourself hours of time by optimizing your, your scene prior to rendering. Okay, So the second thing that we could do to optimize this scene is we could change any blurriness on the materials or roughness on the materials and bring that down a little bit. So you'll notice like on the street we have a lot of roughness for this reflection. We have a lot of roughness for this brick. So let's go through our materials and we'll just that. So let's go into streets and where we have reflection right here where it says roughness. I'm just going to take that all the way down. Get out of that. Let's go into our concrete reflection. There's a lot of roughness on that as well. Maybe we could bring that down. I don't know, 10, 12 percent, something like that. We'll go to our next material. Roughness on this frame as well. Remember we have a lot of window frames in here, so that's increasing our render time. Let's go to this brick. Roughness is set to 65 percent. If we bring that way down, we want to bring it too much down. We can also bring the roughness of this. We can also bring the brightness down as well. That way we don't have a very clean reflection on this brick. Roughness on this next brick will bring down, say 20 percent will bring this brightness slider down a little bit as well. Go to the next brick. So just continue going through here and turning down your settings. All right, so for this brick wall shader, we actually have displacement on this. So I'm just gonna go ahead and disable displacement. Let's continue gone through here. Roughness on here is looking okay. All right, let's take another render and see what that did for our render time. So from the previous render, we saved ourselves in additional nine seconds just by changing those roughness settings. And maybe some of this stuff is not quite what you want. Maybe this street is looking a little bit too glossy. You can turn off reflectance altogether if you wanted on that particular material. Another thing that you could do to optimize the scene as if you go into your render settings right here where it says anti-aliasing, right now I have it set to best. We could change that to geometry. Let's take another render. And that was a pretty big one. We saved ourselves 27 seconds by changing anti-aliasing from best to geometry. Obviously it's getting a little bit more pixelated here, but it's termed in terms of render time. That was a really big little change that we did to optimize our scene. Okay. Another another few notes. Right now we don't have ambient occlusion or global illumination turned on. So if you have any of those FX effects on, you can go ahead and turn those off or turn the intensity of those down. Then I'll also help to, to optimize your renders. 21. Rendering: The last thing we're gonna do is set up our render settings. So let's go into our render settings. And for the output, you can put in whatever number you want here. I would recommend probably 1280 or 1920, something like that. I usually do mine a little bit bigger. I do mine at about 2500 pixel width. And it usually comes in at 14 06, and that's at 16 by 9 aspect ratio. Okay, so frame range, we want to leave at current frame. And then we're going to enable this multi-pass. And we'll go to multi-pass, add image layers. And the next thing we're gonna do from here is we're going to add object buffers to all the main geometry in our scene. So I'm going to go to this buildings, I'll right-click and add a compositing tag. So within this compositing tag where it says Object Buffer, I'll enable Object Buffer one. And then I'll duplicate this compositing tag by holding down command. And now here I'm going to change this to Object Buffer 2. For my landscapes, I'll change it to Object Buffer 3 in for my entourage. Change that to Object Buffer for. So this is just going to give me, this will give us an alpha channel within Photoshop. When we open up our document to do post-production, it'll allow us to easily select around certain parts of our certain parts of our render. So let's go back into render settings, and now we're going to need to add object buffers to this. So I'll just add it one object buffer, 2, 3, and 4. Now I need to make sure that this group ID of this object buffer corresponds with these numbers here. Okay, so we have Object Buffer one, we have a number 2, we have number three in number four. Okay, so now we'll go back up to safe. And we don't need regular image and we'll save a multi-pass image PSD format. So now we'll locate our project folder, city renders. And then you can name this and we'll hit Save. And now when we hit this render button here, it's going to actually save our file. Once that's done, we can change our camera view, go into our view to and then save this as City View 2 for the second render. I'll just cancel that out. But that's the way that you render these out. 22. Post Production Daytime: With the renderings complete, let's go ahead and open these up in Photoshop. So here's my first view. Here's my second view. And one thing that I like to do when I'm working on multiple images with the same type of lighting is I'll work on in both the images at the same time. So whatever changes that I make to one image, I'll jump over to the next and make the exact same changes and adjustments. That way the lighting and the overall look and feel of both images look consistent. So if you want to work on both images at the same time, that's completely up to you. If not, and again, it's going to be your call. Okay, So the first thing that we're gonna do is just examined this image. What do we have here? We have all of our multi-pass layers here. And then the Channels tab, we have all these channels that we can use to activate different selections around our geometry. If we need to activate a selection around these buildings, I'll just hold down Command on the keyboard and click. So let's go through these multi-pass layers and see what they're doing. So here's our diffuse, and then here's our specular. Here's our shadows, ambiances the sky. So cost sticks global illumination and ambient occlusion. We didn't turn those on and the render settings, so I'll just go ahead and delete those. And then we have our reflection layer, refraction layer. And both of our atmospheres for this particular render don't contain any information so we can delete those as well. So one of the nice things about working with multi-pass images is the fact that now we have more control over our image. So let's say for instance, if I feel like the sky is a little bit too light and blown out, what I could do is I can adjust that. So if I duplicate this ambiance layer, it's just going to make that brighter. But what I could do is I could change this blend mode to multiply. So if I toggle that on and off, you'll notice my skies way darker now. Okay. So obviously I'm going to need to mask out all of this in the foreground. So the way that I could do that is just create a layer mask on this layer masking and want to paint with black. Before I do that, I'll just go through and command click our first channel. Command Shift, click the next one, command shift, click the next one, command shift click the next one. So what that's doing is just adding to our selection. All right, and then I could just paint with black on this, on this particular layer. And I'm getting rid of all this black area. And then I'll just deselect that. I can toggle that on and off. And now you'll notice my sky is just a little bit darker and not as blown out as the previous one. If yours doesn't need, need a little bit of darkening to the sky, then don't worry about that stuff, but I just wanted to show you that. So reflection, what if I duplicate this reflection layer? Look what happens. My overall scene brightens up a little bit, right? So if I toggle that on and off, now we have a little bit more reflection in some of these windows. Now it looks really nice. We have more reflection in this ground. It's looking really good. And then the refraction layer. So again, I can go through and I can duplicate this as well. And if I toggle that on and off, you'll notice I just get a little bit crisper reflections and refractions in some of these windows. And I think that's looking really nice. So the next step is just a Shift-click all of these multi-pass layers and I put them in a group and I'll typically call them something just like MP for multi-pass. Examining this image a little bit further, I think we went a little bit overboard with some of this some of this masking on this cross-walk. It's a little bit too broken up so we can we can go ahead and fix that if we need to. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm just going to select one of these colors in here. And I'll pick my Polygon Lasso Tool. And then I'm just going to redraw these. Okay? So something like this. There we go. And then I'm going to hold down, Shift. Select this one around here. And I'll select the next one. And if yours doesn't need any adjustments, then don't worry about this step, but I just feel like it, this one kinda does. So I'm going to create a new layer and I'm going to go to my paint bucket tool and just fill it with that color. So right now it's a little bit too much. What I could do is just reduce the opacity of this. Just a little bit. Maybe a lot of it. There we go. And I'm going to mask that out a little bit more. So I'm going to call this cross-walk. And then I'll put a layer mask on this. And I'm just going to hit these edges again with some of those, some of those brushes that we downloaded previously, some of these splatter brushes. And I can just bring the opacity down just a little bit. And you go ahead and hit some of these edges to make them look like they're a little bit worn. I think the previous one that we created in our street texture is just too big. With some of those, some of the masking that we did. I think this is going to look a little bit better just doing this. And again, if yours doesn't need this, then you can just skip this step. And I just kinda feel like this looks a little bit better. And I could probably turn on the opacity of this a little bit more. There we go. So another thing that we could do here is maybe add a little bit more grits to some of this concrete and some of the side. So I have this concrete texture in my library. You can find concrete textures online all over the place. So if you do a search, you could find some nice concrete textures. I'm just going to take this, drop it onto my scene. And the first thing I'm gonna do is resize this. First, I'll rotate it and then just resize it. I'm holding down Shift, bringing that down. There we go, put it at something like this. And I can play with these blend modes to get the look that I want. And so if I toggle this on and off, it's just adding a little bit more grits to some of the sidewalk and street area. And then we can create another layer mask. And I can go into my trees. And maybe I can just mask some of this out of paint with black in this area just to kinda get rid of some of this stuff. There we go. These people don't need it. This car doesn't need it. All right. These people they can all be masked out. And I can even just leave a little bit more grit on this bus stop. So if this is too much, I'll just toggle this on and off. We can reduce the opacity or continue masking whatever you want to do. One of the things I forgot to do is adjust. These are just the shadows, if you recall, in one of the previous videos, I mentioned how the shadows are looking super blue. So if, so, if here's are looking to blue, what you can do is come up to image adjustments, hue saturation. And you can take the saturation down. That's probably way too much. I'm just taking it down a little bit. So if I toggle this preview, you'll notice that they're getting a little bit desaturated. Think that's looking pretty good. So I'll leave that. So now let's go ahead and add some light effects. So I'll just call this glow. So what if we wanted this building to kinda stand out a little bit and have some glow to it. Let's go ahead and add that layer. And then we'll paint with like a yellowish color to kinda accent this building. So I'll just paint this glow right on here. And then what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna change that to an overlay blend mode. And now if I toggle that on and off, you'll notice that building is just a little bit brighter than the rest of them and it's adding a little bit of focus to that building. All right. And I can mask that out if I needed to. Just by painting with black. Maybe the bottoms get masked out. And the other thing I could do is add some sort of like red. I can add like a red glow or an orangey glow to the scene. So I'll just grab my brush tool again. I want that a little bit more saturated brush tool again. And what if I put that on an overlay blend mode? I could bring that down and opacity. So what that's doing is just adding a little bit of warmth to our scene. All right? And now, now what I'm gonna do is add a little bit of sharpening and a little bit of depth of field. Let's select all by Command a. And then we can go Command Shift C. And now we can duplicate everything to a new layer. So Command V, Command V twice. So now it's turned off the top layer and I'll call this bottom one sharp. And what we'll do is we'll go up to Filter other high-pass. And I'm just going to leave this radius at 1, kid. Okay? And I just noticed that it kinda outlined our edges a little bit. And what we could do with this layer is just turn it on and turn it on an overlay blend mode. And now if we zoom in, this is a pretty subtle effect. You just look at one of these edges. And then if I toggle this on and off, you'll notice this is a little bit crisper. Okay, so it's just adding a little bit of sharpness. And now we're going to add some depth of field. So if this is our focus, this building, when everything around it a little bit blurry, Okay, so I'll just call this depth of field. And then I'm going to come up to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur. And 2.5 seems to work for this scene. So now I want to mask this out. So I'll add a layer mask. And I want this building to be in focus. Right here. I want some of this foreground to be in focus as well. Okay, the sides of this image a little bit blurry. Get rid of some of this blur here by painting with black. And the sides of this image can be a little bit blurry. So now our focus is like right in the center of the image. All right, and one of the last things I'm going to do is create a new layer. I'll call this vignette. And then I'll pick a dark color from in here. Maybe something like that. Fill this layer with dark, put it on the multiply blend mode. And bringing this down and opacity, create a new layer mask. And then I'll select this Elliptical Marquee Tool and drag around like this. I'll go to the selection and off feather the selection of a 150 pixels. And I'll paint with black on here. I could take this opacity up. And now what that's doing is just creating a little bit of a vignette on the edges of this image. You can continue playing around with some of these post-production effects until you can, until you get the effect that you want. Another thing that you can play around with is curves adjustments. So if I take this curves, I can increase the contrast of this by pushing down right here. And then maybe pushing up on this side. Maybe that's a little bit too much. So if I toggle this on and off, you'll notice now I have a lot more contrast. We can also go into like our red channel. What if we wanted a little bit more warmth to this? I can push up on this, read. What if I wanted the blues to be a little bit more pronounced? I can take the shadows and push up on this blue. So now if I toggle that on and off, that gives me a slightly different kind of look for my render. All right. So once you're done with with all your post-production, one of the things that I always do is go image duplicates. And then I flatten this out. Flattened image, go to channels. And I can just shift, select all of these channels, right-click Delete channels. And then Image Mode. Instead of 16 bits, I'll change this to eight bits. And you don't, you'll notice right down here it says linear color space. We'll want to convert this color space. So let's go convert to profile. And it will just using a working SRGB. And there we go. There's our final image that we'll save out. 23. 22 Post Production Nighttime: Okay. Let's go ahead and adjust this nighttime render that we did. If you didn't do a nighttime render, you can go ahead and just skip over this video. But we're going to use a similar process that we did to the last one. So we'll turn off all of our multi-pass layers. So we'll need the specular, the shadow. We don't have any shadows in here. I don't need this ambiance. Cost x global illumination, ambient occlusion. We can delete reflection, we can leave refraction, this atmosphere, we can leave, and this atmosphere. All right, so the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm going to come into this ambient layer and I'm just going to turn, I'm just going to mask out some of these lights just so it doesn't look like every one of these lights is turned on in every one of the rooms in this, in this high-rise. So just go through and just delete that, delete the mask out. Some of these, alright. So spend some time going through, just make this look a little bit more natural. There we go. That's looking pretty good. Turn these off over here. Let me turn these off. Something like this. Right? And maybe I can get a few more in here, something like that. Like that. Okay, good. So now I'm going to duplicate this layer and I'm going to add a little bit of blur to this. So if I go to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur, and add blur to it. So it looks like there's a little bit of glow coming out of these windows, right? Something like that. And then I'll just turn this down and opacity. We just want a little bit of that happening. All right, so now let's just take all of our multi-pass layers, put them inside a folder. Just name this. I'll just name that Np. Alright? And so at this point, I could probably add a little bit of glow on top of this building. So I'll pick some sort of like yellowy orange color. And then I'll choose a soft brush and just add glow to this. Put this on overlay blend mode. So if I toggle that on and off, you'll see that it has a pretty big impact on the overall lightness of that building. And maybe I can add another glow and maybe add a little bit more orange maybe to the bottom right here. And then I can put that on an overlay blend mode. So again, that gives it a little bit more contrast. And it's nice that we have this yellowy orange against this mostly blue image. It creates a really nice complimentary color scheme. At the other thing that I'm going to do is I'm going to go in here and maybe I'll paint this, stop, this traffic light with a little bit of red. So just pick a red color. I'll choose a new layer. Grab a hard brush, and just paint this in. And then I'm going to duplicate this. And I want this to have a little bit of glow. So I'll go Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur. And you'll notice that gives it a little bit of glow. I just increase that. That's pretty nice. So it's a nice little detail right there that we can include in this image. The other thing I could do is I could turn on some of these lights in these cars. So I'll put this create a new layer, put it on overlay blend mode. I'm just kind of maybe, okay, maybe overlays not going to work for that one. Let's play with these blend modes. Let's see here. Any one of these is going to work. Let's just do Color Dodge. And I'll turn the opacity of this way down. Something like this. And I can paint a little bit more in here. Hit a few of these. Let's look in pretty decent. Again. I think I'm going to go through here and use some sharpening and some blurs for this image. So now I'm going to hit Command a to select all. Then Command Shift C, command V twice. And then I'll name this first one sharp. I'll come up to filter high-pass. Just leave this at the default of one. And I'll change this to aid an overlay blend mode. And again, you'll notice this just kinda outlines are edges just a little bit. So it's a very subtle effect, but it just kind of sharpens everything up. And I'm going to add a little bit of depth of field and blur out some of the sides of my image. So I'll go Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur. And obviously this is way too much. So I could take this down. I don't know, maybe something like 3.73.6 create a layer mask. And I'm just going to mask out most of this stuff in the center. So this stuff is in focus. Some of my foreground can be in focus and the rest can be kind of blurred and faded away. And the last thing I'm gonna do is create another layer. Call this vignettes. Choose a dark color from somewhere in our image. Fill that layer, put it on a multiply blend mode, bring down the opacity. And this is really dark already, so I'm not really sure how much of a vignette will need and just add it to it and we'll see where we end up. And then I'll just mask out the center of this image. Something like that. We can toggle this on and off. I think it helps a little bit, kinda helps focus this image a little bit. And now we can play around with those adjustment layers again, if we go to curves, what if I go to my reds? If I increase these reds, what does that do? Kinda gives me a nice like purpley kind of look to this image, which is pretty cool if we toggle this on and off. It definitely gives it a nice little change in a feel for this image. And what if I go to my blues, I can maybe even lift this up a little bit in that. And the dark areas. It's pretty subtle here. That's the real nice. We can go back to RGB. What if I add some contrast to this? It's way too much. And I don't think it needs all that much. You might even lightened this image up overall just a little bit. And let's see what that looks like. And I think that's looking kinda cool. So if we compare all of our adjustments, Here's where we started, here's where we ended up. I think that's looking really nice. The last step is going to be to go Image duplicates. Now we're just going to flatten this image. We go to channels, select all of our channels, delete those. We'll go to image, go to Image Mode 8-bit, and I will go to Edit, convert to profile. And I'll just use this SRGB. And there's our final image.