Create Traditional Animation with 4 Principles | Silvia Mañes Velasco | Skillshare

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Create Traditional Animation with 4 Principles

teacher avatar Silvia Mañes Velasco, 2D Animator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (31m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Toon Boom Basics

    • 3. Squash & Stretch

    • 4. Anticipation

    • 5. Slow in & Slow out

    • 6. Arcs

    • 7. Final Project

    • 8. Conclusion

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About This Class

A basic introductory lesson to the animation world through the 12 principles, the essentials of animation. 

This course is for anyone who has a little curiosity about 2D traditional animation. This technique is about 2D traditional animation but using a digital program on the computer, which is faster. If you always wanted to learn to animate your characters, see them moving and making things, welcome to this lesson!

This class will teach you 4 of the principles of animation: 

-Squash & stretch


-Slow in & slow out


Also, you will learn a brief introduction to the Toon Boom software, one of the most useful animation programs. I will animate and teach you with this software, but this technique and the principles are not limited by the software. So, if you have experience with another animation program, you can use it and apply the rules I'm going to show you.

During the course, I won't be alone as a little friend will accompany me: Buddy, the hamster. 


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Silvia Mañes Velasco

2D Animator


Hi! My name is Silvia Mañes and I'm a 2D animator. I studied Fine Arts and Master on Animation in the Universidad Politécnica of Valencia where I managed to expand my knowledge about the complete process of an animation project, focusing mainly on traditional animation and the artistic concept.

Through this postgraduated studies, I wrote, directed and animated the short film "Cazando Gamusinos", which tell a story about the importance of the imagination and the strenght of the family. This short film is an expression of my personal thoughts and motivations done by the technique I love: Animation.

I think animation is the most magical and imaginative way to demonstrate our thoughts and feelings and that's what I want to show everyone.


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1. Introduction: Hi, everyone. I'm Sylvia Mummies to the any major from Spain. I'm waiting. Finance any mustard of animation through this master I directed on any maybe a sharp in that brings to life a Spanish mythology creator on also tell a story in which imagination is the focus on restaurant Every time passing themselves any make sure is giving life histories and character. We can do anything. We're marching into reality. We give personality even without dialogue, only with the movement on justice we can tell what character are thinking. I'm holding here. We can information in our stories don't have animation is like alchemy. With the current ingredients, we can create life. And in this class is I want to give you some of these ingredients the principle of animation that I'm going to be alone. I'll be teaching my little friend body say hello Together we're going to show you for ritual principles. This question its jets anticipation Slowly, no snow out on Fox, an idea we will be able to any make body in a creative, unfunny project. Also, you will never accept in room one of the most useful animation programs. But you can apply the principles in worker technical support you want to use. If you're curious, Person is really to bring. Tell your character this is the pleasure you don't need a your experience, but only a computer after yourself. Work a pen table on your solution to create much. He said it right, buddy. 2. Toon Boom Basics: welcome to the first class. We're going to run a bit of time. Boom, so we can animate it in the welcome screen we create. Understand? We can change the name of the field, the location where we want to say feet on this tender solution. We can change it to that. This at the pressure solution for animation. Once we have created this, then we find this screen. This is what we are going to animate all we want in a dog. There's the menu in faith. We can save the stand. But be careful with safe as new version because we do stay, overshoot, understand this, then setting. We can change that. A solution of this thing on the French old animation in the nets off the screen we have to . With the 1st 1 we can say that the lines of the drums wicked president bottom without the option off coated, which is for good lines that you don't want in the job. We cannot suppressed guarantee to the same school. If we breast Contour editor, we can select Emilio. This tour is so useful to the foreman. Change the lines with you to fix the safe sex we want. We have to choose for brash on vincey. The brush is using forbidden because it makes lines with textures. But if you want to modify the land within below, then I perform hundreds quality from the other side. Benson makes victor lands, which we can inform without changed equality. That's why you should use the fancy in this intel. A space is where we're going to paint our campus. We have two bottles on the right and and see. They're very important with romance in the line of lawyer on paint in the cholera lawyer never confused them. Make sure you're in the run lawyer before a start, we can rotate the compass to make you see in Windows. We used constant blues in black. We used control, lose command when we breast. These bottles were rotated comebacks, and if we want to relocate it, we go to be reset. Invitation. The better. One is forced to multi campus, but in two piece for assuming you can also do it in view or with your mouth. If we pressed right border on the campus, we sell it with a big life table, he said. Useful because we can see all the lands in the foreign lawyers below everything. There is the most important part of animation timeline we have full earlier on the first option is the ice that make Lawyers, NBC one part B. C. One When we have some drawings that we want to see the previous four for a win friends, we use the only an escape. It is super. You're screwed because we can see the number after a before and after to make the in betweens. The previous drove in separate on the followin spattering. We can extend or reduce the number of join in the superior bottoms. The in betweens at the Tobins between friends made animation fluid. The look broke the law you so you can touch for select anything. We can create all the values we want. He's bottom without saying we created Italy. Another drawing lawyer changed any much of one selected victor options on at Anglos. Everything we do in the campus create a friend in the timeline, and when we have more than $1 a year, the second I can make the civil lawyer on BBC one, all the others, even when the others have activated, but without the table activated, we can see the province in the other lawyers. That's usefully. We want to copy lines, Do the clean up. We can violate the lawyer brushing Diminish bottom! We can move to the following frames with the bottle. We can go to the previous train with the F bottom t. But if we want to move drawing but growing, we used to put a stop to go to the following drawings. Goma to move people. It may seem the same body. When we went to extend a frame, we walked to the number of friends we want on breast on all the friends with the field with the singer with you can see if we want to mark a key. We used F six are in the frame appears a square that markets are keeping to the lady is so easy we breast f seven. Also, we want to add on your friend between some of them. For example, here we can create an anti your wind. With this, especially on that thing, will be empty to draw on a little win. When the other frames will change, we can reduce your extended aeration of animation with his red line, What we need through the time line, or even writing the number of frame we want to a stop the beauty Now at the right of the screen, we have the truth properties for the Senate Cottam that are so usually properties perception. Permanent selection. Select all the lines in this election through the video, but you can move. They wanted, which you are the others, not changed. I'd like to work friends Paris name say, makes the same as the previous two, but what you do will be affected all the legs with these two properties. Selective. Select all the animation, compressive or create color. Heart this way that Joe was in line at lawyer are duplicated in Colorado lawyer so you can paint it without change the origin alone. So now it's time to explain the pain, too. We can see more yellow points. That means they're open legs. But not all the points are truly open. As you can see, you can paint the Joey even with these points because they are very, very small. But when we don't close it properly, we can have problems. As I'm going to show Richard toe the line. Our lawyer we drove on open cycle we selected are Send it to the corner out lawyer us I teach you before in the cholera lawyer. We can say that the circle cross to yellow points at extremes, and if we try to paint it, it doesn't work. That's but we can close it on. Then send it to the corner. Our lawyer. That way we can paint it. However, there's a trick for this problem in the properties. We press this magic close with her past. Pretty small gaps we can see. For example, I have been a year, and if we're close to it, we can paint it even with the close up. When we come out, we can. It's very usual, but make sure to gross all the lines so the same mistakes doesn't happen. As you can see, the security on good clothes line on the properties. We can find the pallets on the colors off it. As in the timeline, we always have the full lawyer. We can create new one so we don't confuse with the four colors. We press please bottom on defending to this body. Bit of deception we create more colors doing the same as in the palate, which is the name with a click on. Change their color with a click, we consider the color or put the exact numbers to sacred colors. We are ready to close the screen, but be more careful because if you have a painting within on, then you change it. The color in the drop change, too. I'm going to show you are very cool. We can create a line and then make it invisible is so useful. Make sure you pick a color that you are going to use later. Send the job to the cooler lawyer are painted they would line still appears ongoing. So we go to the what color on decrease the Alfa number 20 as you can see that I disappeared , but there still exist so we can select on movie. But we have two colors without a line. Well, for finish this crash, I'm going to do a little animation or our leader front so you can see a copy on practice yourself. Our homes there is going to say goodbye. So we three frames in one way or another. Three. Ski the other. We can create a look. We duplicate the first the media on the last frame to keep it on, make more fluid movement. We can select the friend impressive place. Bottom corner. What keyboard? To extend the frame on that. So for now, see unionist glass. 3. Squash & Stretch: welcome to the first principle we're going to hear about this. Squash understands that means a way of the formula. Protect our body to show its flexibility with on volume having life on energy. So the left hamster is reaching without flexibility on so much bury his body. One things, the shape without changed. Meanwhile, there were comes there is flexible. Later, as you can see, his shapes varies. According his quays. Militant every object. Somebody have flexibility in order to make it more believable. We can trust me the type of character with the elasticity. For example, this comes there is a strong and hard. He only squashes a little, but the other is weak and stopped on the way. This masking an animation, you can exact a only one. But we need to remember keys. We must respect the original shape on object or body. Always retained their total body. They think to change the shape to a degree that depends on the inertia, an elasticity off, the different parts off the moving up. So when we're watching a body, we compress hay and expand the shots to this to book their original value like this. When we have stretch it out. Their sites have to compress to compensate. There were only about these sites. Goes to the door everything tennis, squash, understate the ability. There are some parts as they face the years they are elected. This part's respect the same route as invaluable when we export them. We have to wish must respond, decides when we stretch the spots we've spent. Devoted uncle versus eyes on this road is an important one because we have to apply purpose . It's what street are used in every little movement. Not only Jackie. Well, we use these principles to make a correction more realistic on life. Now we're going to show you how to animate the basic Sandberg off this principle about single. First of all, we create expert on market a sake friend with F six. Then when select the board, copy fresh cheese to move to the next friend based on most people, as you can appreciate extreme balls, I mean, they're running contact with the ground on the wall in the dark will have more balls close to them. With these reality on everything, we get a slow on rabbit weapons that we will learn later Now we're going to do the same. But the other way down the last friend will be the same as the first. So we created. We have already on boring jump animation, but we are here sooner how to do a great on flexible animation. So the attention we're going to apply the principle, this question the ground give a speech on energy to the balls because he's followed by stretch. The stretch is in the middle of the park have to be more compressed. And when the ball reaches, extreme recovered its original shape at the top. When the boat force again, Peter stretches second, since it touches the ground where we're reconnect with the first plane. So as you can see, our regular uniformed ball is now alive and it has a specific mass. 4. Anticipation: in this class, we're going to talk about anticipation that makes movement more visible to the eye inner than to understand it. There are three things in animation, then the patient with the preparation of the action, the action they made movement on the reaction, the restaurant of the action that finishes it with these three concepts. We have a complete movement that works by itself, because if we don't prepare the I for the next action, it wouldn't be able to fall open understanding as you can see the actual because any preparation is a strange on. We don't really appreciate what is happening back or so fast that we can see the action properly. But when we anticipated, we can see the movement perfectly, anticipation is the first off making an action. We communicate what is going to happen. We emphasize it so the audience can predict what will happen after energy needs to come from some work on any sort of wasting the opposite direction to where the main action is going to go. I mean, if we want that the character through something to the right, we need to anticipate their body to the left before he does the action. And then he threw the sheet fast, moving on his body in the direction he wants to. At the end, he recovers its original post a slowly because he loses the strange. We usually use more frames in anticipation in order to leave to the action. We get important on a strange the longer than dissipation, stronger reaction. Meanwhile, with this animation we can see how much Wascana straight a very related to this principle. This question normally acts as the anticipation to keep the action more. This unity can be followed by your stretch to compensate the squad Very emotional, always necessary. As I say in the previous video, you can exactly all you want to get the vessel you are looking for. We also can tell the stories with anticipation There hamster notice something that attracts his attention. And so the audience go with the great expectation to the side of the screen. Oh, we discovered a she Hey, buddy, do you want to shed? Yes, I think so. Here. This is for you also we can attract attention to one side on then Oh, surprise the audience on the other side of the screen. Bad a. Everybody's happy anyway 5. Slow in & Slow out: hi again. Almost the reactions that started finishes is slowly in order to make it more realistic. This low in and it's lower, refers to our movement, begins slowly to create unity most past and finishes to slowly again. Here you can see the same animation, but the left one has a mechanical unit for I'm boring movement. Meanwhile, the writer animation has a freedom, beautiful movement. The difference is very physical. If we don't use this principle, then movements look mechanical. Only much intent robots move their parts at a constant speed. As you see the distance between difference, it's always the same. The rest of the living beings have organic movement with arts velocity strange affected. We had the friends at a different distance. Extremes need to have more inclusive friends lose this creativity. So the action between extremes is passed with the word drones. In this way, we have more life to the animation, making them look a life Andrea. It's unrealistic for a character to stake a steal on next second most very fast. They need an anticipation on recovery to make under stable the movement. The drones, using into inaction and it's seen out, create an animation. We have to analyze the space between the Germans to find how many between we're going to need. We always have more drawings at the beginning that create the energy like I spring that cards up before releasing. The energy needs to come from some work on. It's always in the opposite direction. The middle of the animation. The action has less on more separate joins to make faster two things. Animation. We do the same us. In the beginning, we had more drawings to come down. The energy are ready, reacted too slowly to a comfortable final post. The number of thing between depend of the effect on them ask. You want to toast meat for your character? If we draw more closer friends, we give it more time under for more ways. So at the beginning, guardian have more weight because he needs to create energy for the jump to defeat gravity . Now I'm going to show you how to streaming the dumpster to make it look. We're starting the media, the action. But since we know how it's going on us, know what words we know that we have to make the in between savory As we approach the end, we're started. Closure, closure the Romans until we reach the extreme. To make it clear, we mark this friend a sake with six. Now that a stream moves like a pendulum, we return the movement. But one, Yes, that it's lovely because he radiates energy in the other way. Those first at the media. I'm just lonely again. When the comes that gets to the other extreme. We mark this friend like the other so we can control the number of symmetries on that seat . We always use this principle in an animation, but we can find a few moments that don't need it. For example, when a character crashes with a world, we wanted the action inseparably, but we need to start currently I need with an anticipation that people and create energy. And then I'm few friends for the action that we didn't even more fast. So not to make it too long. I'm going to show you on the extremes of the three parts dissipation within like this. In between, Slater Action will have two friends to make it faster on. The reaction would have two more, but very, very close because the energy is certainly those under come to be recovered. All that reminds peace to our the in between At the anticipation, remember that the action goes in one direction. Anticipation goes in the other side on these example serves to advance than expensive. All the arcs, the action in the reaction have only two frames to give velocity. So this is their wrestle big bomb. 6. Arcs: again. This last is about arcs, which are living amid trajectory. Everybody does. They must not. Election stands to follow one or cool back off action. They are reversed, the direction off. Or maybe even if you don't leave most one with this example, you can see the difference. The left comes their terms with an arc in all his movement. But while the right one most following a straight lines, the art makes that the character things for work are recovered. If dynamic. Andrea, where the other terms a straight Without life, like a machine, access everyone. Any finger movement follows a path that make the animation looks fluid. Unbelievable. Even if you don't notice it, you always have to move the parts for with organic ox. Outside users work in anticipation on recovery off a body. During the anticipation, it will be moved in an opposite. The main 108 stealing. They have some startling slowly in a victor squash to gain energy on time to start. The jump is enough, with all the body India in the first movement, Maybe the drawing is the dollars. Maybe drinks have to be consecutively lower at the end of the action comes to continue. The direction of the principal are leaving in this way, but it's literally he turned in the opposite direction, recovered in a comfortable he's losing the energy on the court. Have to reflect it. So the final dress with a moment to look like this, there's any second country we can use to help Ask. With the direction of the movement, we can draw a complete cycle to see the path and make Friends were correspond to make sure afraid flow. This is the first example, but look that I tried to respect the other principles. For example, at the moment the dumpster starts to go up will stretch call his body. We need to compress this I as a cave increases the Syverson. Also, we're starting with a slowing to create the energy that comes that you need to make this cycle way. He rose up fast. The couple were again at the toe goes down fast, and there's no work with the first thing. Uh, we have a really free movement. Make sure to do the part of the character. Following this trajectory, we can see the trajectory of fun. Our thanks to the trees I got after that moves out off. Exact for no reason. What's happening with his right are looks strange. Gonorrhea. We start to fix this part by making enough. The first frames are the anticipation, so they have to go backwards. The action follows the art because of that, the house restrict to reach the red trajectory. So don't be afraid of Saturday if it's necessary. Finally, the end of the action recover its original shape in the path of the court. So we have fixed heretic animation 201 as you keep seeing through the world media. In complex actions, there are multiple acts being dressed. The anchor is the all Valley direction, but every part off another tip or character, most photo in its path. The white court is the introductory, So the rest of the members moved with it, even if they are exactly the same as the next On business, we say good back to these lessons 7. Final Project: Well, we'll hear. Yah! I didn't use ups. Then where our little friend is going to get his foot body is here in this platform on the food is here. He's going to jump from the platform to the boat. You can make the action as you want. Like these these let these or even let these. The final goal is to be creative. I'm putting to practice what you have, so I'm going to be more practical. And did you honestly jump on a stick? You can. You see that reference could be to understand it. But you can also use your own character. So now the first step are the keys. I mean, we drove the main forces he's going to do through all animation we started. Remember what we have learned in order to put a case in the correct place, anticipate the actions and with in the opposite direction to the main one you're squashing a state to emphasize the flexibility of the character, respect the acts to make the movement organic and dynamic is the wind can is know what the action to give Barry life immunity to get his foot and you can watch again the classes. If you want to refresh your memory, the ref animation is dumb with them. Between between the case, we can give time to the animation, but extended difference. As you see to make the action is lonely like at the beginning and at the end of the action to make body thing we cannot. Friends, as we animate on it, looked like this. Remember the Four principles? Anticipation in the opposite direction followed an actor backward with squash on a lot of slowing to hold energy for the job. In the gym, we use every district on off course, the ark. It's important to make a perfect path off the action. He learns the ground with the biggest low out with a narc on a British squash to lose the energy. He returns to an original post on extend the strain to take a pose. Body thinks that off the sheets and PC page, with only one friend on a slowing. But we thought it's no what he just attacked the ball about getting inside. Then we live some difference on He appears on the other side, so happy as the rough watch right Eastern from the cleaner. You can see the restaurant this loaning so you can understand and see the frames. We use the left able to see the under job so we can grow very with perfect lines honoring his body parts. Remember that these parts have to respect on the principles as the body before painful the animation. I want to explain again the importance of the Colorado. This part of the body has no lying on. This is a problem when we will paint it. So we create a new color and make lines using the length of the bullets reference. When we finished to close off the lines, we send it to the correct line. Decrease the health of the line dumping body. We paint all body. Now we're going to give life to this boat by moving some safe. When he gets into the boat, we create a lawyer on top off the Clean Dahlia on. It starts to drop some seeds. Keep in mind that these sheets will be ahead of the character, and it would remove when he interacts with them. Then, in a skill with her past two seats in the correct way, real second copy, remove them when it doesn't affect the character, and the last thing it left is create a lawyer invented in white color. We expand the frames and in the end, by placing ourselves in the last frame on click five, we made the things from the stand on the new sheets. The seats reanimate half a lighter color than the other, so they will look better when they move. We go to file and leaking export movie in rows. We can change the name and select the place where we want to. Safety select all on old animation will be exported within eight money mission. 8. Conclusion: with his next zones. You have brownies for principles, so you can start to make your own shops. But there's a still a core principles rumored to have fun, even at your own characters. I don't forget to show your brain it's I can't wait to see your bride's Thank you so much.